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Sample records for ability logical thinking

  1. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  2. Logical Thinking Abilities among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The science curriculum in Malaysia emphasizes the acquisition of scientific skills, thinking skills, and the inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. Besides that, the acquisition of scientific and technological knowledge and its application to the natural phenomena and students' daily experiences are also equally emphasized. The…

  3. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  4. A study of the effects that grouping laboratory partners based on logical thinking abilities have on their problem solving strategies in a general chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammouz, Minory Suhil

    2005-07-01

    performances. Furthermore, this research shows that the group make-up has an effect on the adopted strategies. In addition this study revealed that logical thinking ability can predict students' success, therefore, it could be used as a warning device for the instructors on the need for interventions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Think About Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eric F.; Vuk, Jasna; Stowe, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate students’ metacognitive skills to distinguish what they know from what they do not know, to assess students’ prediction of performance on a summative examination, and to compare student-identified incorrect questions with actual examination performance in order to improve exam quality. Methods. Students completed a test-taking questionnaire identifying items perceived to be incorrect and rating their test-taking ability. Results. Higher performing students evidenced better metacognitive skills by more accurately identifying incorrect items on the exam. Most students (86%) underpredicted their performance on the summative examination (actual=73.6 ± 7.1 versus predicted=63.7 ± 10.5, p<0.05). Student responses helped refine items and resulted in examination changes. Conclusion. Metacognition is important to the development of life-long learning in pharmacy students. Students able to monitor what they know and what they do not know can improve their performance. PMID:25386013

  6. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  7. Critical Thinking: Teaching Students the Logic of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Provides the example of writing as a subject in which an educator might design instruction so that students think their way through the logic of the subject rather than memorize bits and pieces of someone else's thought (never grasping its logic). Presents four instructional steps: prethinking the course, student orientation, initial practice, and…

  8. Teaching Logic and Teaching Critical Thinking: Revisiting McPeck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Susan Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper reappraises the view of John McPeck that critical thinking can only be taught within rather than across the disciplines. In particular the paper explores one aspect of McPeck's position: his resistance to teaching informal logic as a means of teaching critical thinking. The paper draws upon the author's experience of teaching critical…

  9. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  10. On Ho's "Modern Logic and Schizophrenic Thinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, James L.

    1976-01-01

    Points out that conclusions drawn in the title paper about the role of logic in the schizophrenic thought process are not reliable since they are based on patients medicated with antipsychotic drugs. (MS)

  11. An Analysis of Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Their Logical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…

  12. Sleep loss and "divergent" thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Horne, J A

    1988-12-01

    Although much is known about the impact of sleep loss on many aspects of psychological performance, the effects on divergent ("creative") thinking has received little attention. Twelve subjects went 32 h without sleep, and 12 others acted as normally sleeping controls. All subjects were assessed on the figural and verbal versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As compared with the control condition, sleep loss impaired performance on all test scales (e.g., "flexibility," the ability to change strategy, and "originality," generation of unusual ideas) for both versions, even on an initial 5-min test component. In an attempt at further understanding of whether these findings might be explained solely by a loss of motivation, two additional short and stimulating tests were also used--a word fluency task incorporating high incentive to do well and a challenging nonverbal planning test. Performance at these tasks was still significantly impaired by sleep loss. Increased perseveration was clearly apparent. Apparently, 1 night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking. This contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss. PMID:3238256

  13. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  14. Comparative Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of Three Tests of Logical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlawat, Kapur S.; Billeh, Victor Y.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of the psychometric properties of three group tests of logical thinking used in science education research. Findings dealing with Longeot's Test of Logical Thinking, Lawson's Test of Formal Reasoning, and Tobin and Capie's Test of Logical Thinking demonstrate a lack of concurrent validity. Includes recommendations.…

  15. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students’ cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed. PMID:21373364

  16. An Investigation of the Relationships Between Formal Thinking and Teaching Ability. Research Bulletin Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Miles A.; Ankney, Paul H.

    It is hypothesized that certain mental structures are related to certain teaching skills. These structures are identified as combinatorial logic, essential to planning lessons, and hypothetical reasoning, an important aid in analyzing lessons. These formal thinking abilities should result in greater improvement during practice and later teaching.…

  17. Critical Thinking: Teaching Students To Seek the Logic of Things, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Advocates teaching critical thinking through showing students the logic of a subject. Uses one example of instruction in history that allows students to think their way through the logic of the subject rather than memorize bits and pieces of someone else's thought (never grasping its logic). (VWC)

  18. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed. PMID:24188038

  19. Carpenter, Tractors and Microbes for the Development of Logical-Mathematical Thinking--The Way 10th Graders and Pre-Service Teachers Solve Thinking Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th…

  20. Medication, logic, and schizophernic thinking: a reply to Marini.

    PubMed

    Ho, D Y

    1976-09-01

    This article attempts to answer Marini's critique of my paper and to clarify the issue of medication in the study of the role of logic in the production of schizophrenic thought. It is argued that clinical observations do not lead one to believe that either the form or the content of schizophrenic thought disorder changes in any fundamental way as a result of medication. Consequently, the fact that most of the schizophrenic Ss were medicated at the time of the original research does not negate the conclusion that the thinking pathology found in schizophrenics cannot be accounted for by positing a basic defect in their deductive reasoning process. PMID:9471

  1. A Novel Instrument for Assessing Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Brian; Stains, Marilyne; Escriu-Sune, Marta; Medaglia, Eden; Rostamnjad, Leila; Chinn, Clark; Sevian, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Science literacy involves knowledge of both science content and science process skills. In this study, we describe the Assessment of Critical Thinking Ability survey and its preliminary application to assess the critical thinking skills of undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows. This survey is based on a complex and…

  2. Creative Thinking Abilities of Mexican Youth: The Relationship of Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carringer, Dennis C.

    1974-01-01

    To examine the relationship of bilingualism to the creative thinking abilities of Mexican youth, four subtests from the "Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking" were administered to Spanish-English coordinate bilingual and Spanish monolingual subjects from two private high schools in Mexico. The bilinguals scored significantly higher on the dependent…

  3. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed…

  4. Comparing Creative Thinking Abilities and Reasoning Ability of Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Fawzy

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on comparing the creative thinking and reasoning abilities of deaf and hearing children. Two groups of deaf (N = 210) and hearing children (N = 200) were chosen based on specific criteria. Two instruments were used in the study: the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural, Form A and Matrix Analogies Test. Canonical…

  5. Critical Thinking: Teaching Students To Seek the Logic of Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that becoming adept at understanding the logic of subjects, issues, and questions is a competency that, once learned, becomes a foundation for highly skilled and practical teaching and learning. Promotes the model of teaching students to seek the logic of things through the logic of science. (VWC)

  6. The Investigation on Critical Thinking Ability in EFL Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jie; Jiang, Yuhong; Yao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The present mixed-method study aims to find out the status quo of critical thinking ability of university non-English majors by investigating 224 non-English majors from a university in China (105 male and 119 female students, 114 art and 110 science majors, 109 freshmen and 115 sophomores were included respectively) through questionnaires and…

  7. Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurniati; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Herman, Tatang

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL) approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA) of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS). This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university…

  8. Heuristics and Biases as Measures of Critical Thinking: Associations with Cognitive Ability and Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that there are a range of effects usually studied within cognitive psychology that are legitimately thought of as aspects of critical thinking: the cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature. In a study of 793 student participants, the authors found that the ability to avoid these biases was…

  9. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  10. Think outside the Box: A Logic-Defying "Impossible" Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raje, Sonali

    2012-01-01

    "Think outside the box" is a very common phrase, routinely used to convey the idea of finding creative and unconventional solutions to problems. Although widely used as a cliche in the business world, this phrase is significantly applicable to people who do science for a living, because scientists are constantly developing and testing new ideas.…

  11. Medication, Logic, and Schizophrenic Thinking: A Reply to Marini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, D. Y. F.

    1976-01-01

    In answer to a critique, the author argues that although most of the schizophrenic subjects in the original research were receiving medication, this does not negate the conclusion that the thinking pathology found in schizophrenics cannot be accounted for by positing a basic defect in their deductive reasoning processes. (MS)

  12. Checkmate: Capturing Gifted Students' Logical Thinking Using Chess.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifner, Philip J.; Feldhusen, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of chess instruction to develop abstract thinking skills and problem solving among gifted students. Offers suggestions for starting school chess programs, teaching and evaluating chess skills, and measuring the success of both student-players and the program in general. (PB)

  13. A Study on the Relationship between Logical Thinking Level and the Achievement in Enrichment Physics of School Science High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yi

    2001-01-01

    Investigates science high achievers' achievement in enrichment physics and logical thinking levels, and analyzes the relationship between logical thinking level and achievement in enrichment physics of high achievers in science. Involves (n=35) 7th and 8th grade junior high school students in the study. Uses the Group Assessment of Logical…

  14. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  15. Conceptualizing Magnification and Scale: The Roles of Spatial Visualization and Logical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant; Taylor, Amy R.; Wiebe, Eric; Forrester, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study explored factors that contribute to students' concepts of magnification and scale. Spatial visualization, logical thinking, and concepts of magnification and scale were measured for 46 middle school students. Scores on the "Zoom Assessment" (an assessment of knowledge of magnification and scale) were correlated with the "Test of Logical…

  16. How reflective practice improves nurses' critical thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Cirocco, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purposeful reflection is consistent with adult learning theory. It is known to lead to a deeper understanding of issues and to develop judgment and skill. Required by law to ensure members' competence in their professional practice, the College of Nurses of Ontario recommends and has developed a tool for evaluating reflective practice. The tool focuses on key attributes said to be demonstrated by competent practitioners, including critical thinking (CT) and job knowledge. This study aimed to determine whether nurses engage in reflective practice and whether they perceive that it enhances their CT ability. Surveys were sent to 60 gastroenterology nurses at a large teaching hospital; 34 surveys were anonymously returned. All respondents engaged in reflective practice, and 24 reported using the college's tool. Nineteen respondents strongly agreed that their nursing practice had improved as a result. Critical thinking is difficult to assess because of a lack of clear-cut performance criteria. Improvement of CT was difficult to evaluate from the responses, even though all respondents participated in reflective practice. Both CT and reflective practice need to be better defined in order to examine and explain their relationship. PMID:18156956

  17. Current trends in developing medical students' critical thinking abilities.

    PubMed

    Harasym, Peter H; Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Hemmati, Payman

    2008-07-01

    Health care is fallible and prone to diagnostic and management errors. The major categories of diagnostic errors include: (1) no-fault errors--the disease is present but not detected; (2) system errors--a diagnosis is delayed or missed because of the imperfection in the health care system; and (3) cognitive errors--a misdiagnosis from faulty data collection or interpretation, flawed reasoning, or incomplete knowledge. Approximately one third of patient problems are mismanaged because of diagnostic errors. Part of the solution lies in improving the diagnostic skills and critical thinking abilities of physicians as they progress through medical school and residency training. However, this task is challenging since both medical problem-solving and the learning environments are complex and not easily understood. There are many interacting variables including the motivation of the medical student (e.g. deep versus surface learning), the acquisition and evolution of declarative and conditional knowledge (e.g. reduced, dispersed, elaborated, scheme, and scripted), problem-solving strategies (e.g. procedural knowledge-guessing, hypothetical deductive, scheme inductive, and pattern recognition), curricular models (e.g. apprenticeship, discipline-based, body system-based, case-based, clinical presentation-based), teaching strategies (e.g. teaching general to specific or specific to general), the presented learning opportunities (PBL versus scheme inductive PBL), and the nature of the learning environment (e.g. modeling critical thinking and expert problem-solving). This paper elaborates on how novices differ from experts and how novices can be educated in a manner that enhances their level of expertise and diagnostic abilities as they progress through several years of medical training. PMID:18805749

  18. The impact of introductory science and English courses on the level of logical thinking of community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Richard M.

    In fall semester 1996, the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking Skills (GALT short form) was administered to 216 men and 244 women enrolled in entry-level physics, chemistry, biology, or English courses from 6 public community colleges representing differing geographical regions of Texas. This study examined the combined predictive effects of gender, age, ethnicity, and standardized test results on the level of logical thinking of selected community college students. Data and hypotheses were analyzed by the use of multiple-regression and stepwise-multiple-regression calculations, ANOVA, and a simple t test. Independent variables were comprised of gender; age groups; ethnicity; pretest scores from the GALT test; and combined scores from the Texas Academic Skills Program test (TASP). Significant differences were observed in the level of logical thinking for various independent variables in each subject. However, no significant difference in the level of logical thinking was found based on gender. The GALT pretest was a significant predictor of logical-thinking skills in each of the entry-level courses studies. Additionally, ethnicity was a significant predictor for physics group as was the TASP score for the biology and English group. No significant difference in the level of logical-thinking was indicated when community college students who completed a high school science course were compared with students who did not complete a high school science course. Investigation revealed that the 19-20 year-old age group had a significant difference between their GALT pretest and posttest means. Various demographic data and TASP scores may be useful in predicting logical-thinking skills for students in entry-level community college science and English courses. In contrast with students enrolled in an entry-level chemistry, biology, or English course, students completing an entry-level physics course may expect an increase in the level of logical-thinking.

  19. Logical Framework of Forensic Identification: Ability to Resist Fabricated DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Hu, Zhen; Zhu, Ruxin; Lu, Daru; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science and has become the most useful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Today, DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat markers is widely employed and accepted in the courts due to its high discriminating power and reliability. However, an artificial bloodstain purposefully created using molecular biology techniques succeeded in tricking a leading forensic DNA laboratory. The disturbing possibility that a forensic DNA profile can be faked shocked the general public and the mass media, and generated serious discussion about the credibility of DNA evidence. Herein, we present two exemplary assays based on tissue-specific methylation patterns and cell-specific mRNA expression, respectively. These two assays can be integrated into the DNA analysis pipelines without consumption of additional samples. We show that the two assays can not only distinguish between artificial and genuine samples, but also provide information on tissue origin. The two assays were tested on natural and artificial bloodstains (generated by polymerase chain reaction and whole genome amplification technique) and the results illustrated that the logical framework of forensic identification is still useful for forensic identification with the high credibility. PMID:26392194

  20. Assessment of Critical Thinking Ability in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Karen; Owen, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    In this study conducted with 80 first-year students in a graduate medical course at the Australian National University, Canberra, students' critical thinking skills were assessed using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (Forms A and B) in a test-retest design. Results suggested that overall subjects retained consistent patterns of…

  1. From Ability to Action: Designing Instruction for Critical Thinking Dispositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, Lars F.; Middleton, James A.

    This paper explains the importance of disposition as an essential aspect of critical thinking and suggests how instruction can be designed to promote learners' development of the dispositional side of critical thinking. Topics addressed include: (1) the dispositional bottleneck between opportunity and action, i.e., sensitivity to occasion; (2)…

  2. The Relationship between Creative Thinking Ability and Creative Personality of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between creative thinking ability and creative personality of preschoolers. Prior research showed that the correlation coefficient between creative thinking ability and creative personality of teenagers was very low (Hah, 1999), so this research was undertaken to validate the test and to examine how…

  3. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  4. Rational Thinking and Cognitive Sophistication: Development, Cognitive Abilities, and Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference…

  5. The Enhancement of Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability of Aliyah Madrasas Student Model Using Gorontalo by Interactive Learning Setting Cooperative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husnaeni

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking ability of students' mathematical is a component that must be mastered by the student. Learn to think critically means using mental processes, such as attention, categorize, selection, and rate/decide. Critical thinking ability in giving proper guidance in thinking and working, and assist in determining the relationship between…

  6. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  7. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  8. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  9. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  10. Theory of Mind Development in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Growing Complexity of Recursive Thinking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20). The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character’s behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study) have been used. The relationship among working memory, executive functions, and linguistic skills are also analysed. Results show that subjects exhibit less understanding of elevated recursive thinking levels (third, fourth, and fifth) compared to the first and second levels. Working memory is correlated with total recursive thinking, whereas performance on the linguistic comprehension task is related to third level recursive thinking in both theory of mind tasks. An effect of age on third-order false-belief task performance was also found. A key finding of the present study is that the third-order false-belief task shows significant age differences in the application of recursive thinking that involves the prediction of others’ behaviour. In contrast, such an age effect is not observed in the Imposing Memory Task. These results may support the extension of the investigation of the third order false belief after childhood. PMID:27247645

  11. Thinking About Thinking About Leadership: Metacognitive Ability and Leader Developmental Readiness.

    PubMed

    Black, Hunter; Soto, Lisa; Spurlin, Sam

    2016-03-01

    This chapter describes the role of metacognitive ability in leadership development while providing practical ideas and tools for the development of metacognitive abilities for current and future leaders. PMID:26895266

  12. Do thinking styles contribute to academic achievement beyond self-rated abilities?

    PubMed

    Zhang, L F

    2001-11-01

    This research identifies individual differences in academic achievement attributable to thinking styles over and above what can be explained by self-rated abilities. Participants were 209 university students from Hong Kong and 215 university students from mainland China. Participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (Chinese version) that is based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government (R. J. Sternberg, 1988). They also rated their own analytical, creative, and practical abilities on a 10-point scale based on R. J. Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence. Participants' academic achievement scores were also used. The prediction that thinking styles statistically predict academic achievement was supported by data from both Hong Kong and mainland China. Academic achievement and thinking styles are related differently in the two groups. Implications of these findings for both teaching and research are discussed. PMID:11931003

  13. Formal operational reasoning modes: Predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics for students in grades nine through twelve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner, Betty L.

    To test the hypothesis that formal operational reasoning modes are predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics, in September 1986 the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) and in December 1986 the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) were administered to 101 rural students in Grades 9 through 12. The grades assigned by teachers were collected in May 1987. Construct and criterion-related validities and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha method were established on the GALT. On the WGCTA, content and construct validities and internal consistency reliability using the split-half procedure, coefficient of stability, and coefficient of equivalence were established. The five formal operational reasoning modes in the GALT were found to be significant predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics. The variance in the five critical thinking abilities attributable to the five formal operational reasoning modes ranged between 28% and 70%. The five formal operational reasoning modes explained 29% of the variance in mathematics achievement and 62% of the variance in science achievement.

  14. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-08-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the learners were solving problems associated with spatial information. To serve this purpose, we conducted case studies on nine students who were sampled from high-scoring, moderate-scoring, and low-scoring students. Our findings point to five characteristics of mental modeling ability that distinguish students in the high-, moderate-, and low-ability groups from one another. Although the levels of mental modeling abilities have been described in categories (high, moderate, and low), they can be thought of as a continuum with the low-ability group reflecting students who have very limited ability to generate and use mental models whereas students in the high-ability group not only construct and use mental models as a thinking tool, but also analyze the problems to be solved, evaluate their mental models, and oversee entire mental modeling processes. Cross-case comparisons for students with different levels of mental modeling ability indicate that experiences of generating and manipulating a mental model based on imposed propositions are crucial for a learner's efforts to incorporate content knowledge with visual-spatial thinking skills. This paper summarizes potential factors that undermine learners' comprehension of molecular geometry and polarity and that influence mastery of this mental modeling ability.

  15. Effects of Virtual Reality Integrated Creative Thinking Instruction on Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ridong; Wu, Yi-Yong; Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Since the popular applications of information technology, digitalized materials, media, and equipment have become the essential abilities and instruments for teachers in modern education. In addition to some curricula requiring computing & reasoning and operation & demonstration, the situations of teachers utilizing transparencies, films,…

  16. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  17. Do Thinking Styles Contribute to Metacognition beyond Self-Rated Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to explore the predictive power of thinking styles for metacognition when self-rated abilities were taken into account. As a preliminary step, the study examined the psychometric properties of the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). Four hundred and twenty-four university students from mainland China…

  18. Teaching Thinking to Culturally Diverse, High Ability, High School Students: A Triarchic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Deborah L.; Perkins, Tiffany; Vietze, Peter; Cruz, Mariolga Reyes; Park, Sin-Jae

    2003-01-01

    This final research monograph describes intervention research to improve thinking skills in high ability, high school students attending an urban magnet school for primarily low-income ethnic minority students who come from families that have historically experienced social inequality and various forms of discrimination in the United States. The…

  19. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  20. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the…

  1. Using the Think-Pair-Share Strategy to Improve Students' Speaking Ability at STAIN Ternate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Abdurrahman Hi

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to improve students' English speaking ability by using the think-pair-share strategy designed in CAR. The findings in Cycle 1 was unsuccessful because the students' average scores was 74.18 and classroom atmospheres were "mid" that did not meet the criteria of success. Therefore, the implementation of the…

  2. Model for the Identification of: Creative-Thinking Ability. Research & Demonstration Series in Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Special Education.

    This report describes a model demonstration project in Upper Arlington, Ohio, schools which developed a multifactored approach to the identification of creative thinking ability. The project focused on determining the characteristics and needs of creatively gifted children in a process which included research-based activities, standardized and…

  3. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  4. Supporting Preservice Science Teachers' Ability to Attend and Respond to Student Thinking by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's ability to attend and respond to student thinking is a key instructional capacity for promoting complex and deeper learning in science classrooms. This qualitative multiple case study examines 14 preservice science teachers' (PSTs) responses to learning opportunities created to develop this capacity, as provided by a teacher…

  5. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability and Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Esmaeel Nour; Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Niry, Nasrin Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    The current empirical study aimed to identify those categories of reading strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and compensation) that are mostly used by Iranian EFL learners, and investigate if there is any significant relationship between critical thinking ability and reading strategies used by these learners. It also pursued if there is any…

  6. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  7. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  8. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  9. Critical Thinking and the Psycho-logic of Race Prejudice. Resource Publication Series 3, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Mark

    For those who espouse critical thinking as an educational ideal, the issue of race prejudice should be addressed as an obvious and pernicious example of uncritical thinking because to hold racially prejudiced beliefs is to believe without being appropriately moved by reason. This paper attempts to ascertain how and where critical thinking can come…

  10. Creative Thinking Ability to Increase Student Mathematical of Junior High School by Applying Models Numbered Heads Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lince, Ranak

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…

  11. The Effect of Logical Thinking and Two Cognitive Styles on Understanding the Structure of Matter: An Analysis with the Random Walk Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsitsipis, Georgios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-01-01

    This work uses the concepts and tools of complexity theory to examine the effect of logical thinking and two cognitive styles, such as, the degree of field dependence/independence and the convergent/divergent thinking on students' understanding of the structure of matter. Students were categorized according to the model they adopted for the…

  12. Conditional Logic and Children. (Cornell Critical Thinking Readiness Project, Phase IIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.; And Others

    From 180 primary children of varied backgrounds half were selected for instruction in conditional logic by means of an audio-tutorial method. At the termination of 15 weekly lessons the experimental students did no better than the control students on our individually-administered conditional logic test ("Smith-Sturgeon Conditional Reasoning…

  13. Mechanics as the Logical Point of Entry for the Enculturation into Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert; Rowlands, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Force in modern classical mechanics is unique, both in terms of its logical character and the conceptual difficulties it causes. Force is well defined by a set of axioms that not only structures mechanics but science in general. Force is also the dominant theme in the "misconceptions" literature and many philosophers and physicists alike have…

  14. Student Strategies Suggesting Emergence of Mental Structures Supporting Logical and Abstract Thinking: Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Jim

    2014-01-01

    For many students, developing mathematical reasoning can prove to be challenging. Such difficulty may be explained by a deficit in the core understanding of many arithmetical concepts taught in early school years. Multiplicative reasoning is one such concept that produces an essential foundation upon which higher-level mathematical thinking skills…

  15. Online Collaboration for Programming: Assessing Students' Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Mahfudzah; Muhd Zain, Nurzaid

    2015-01-01

    This study is primarily focused on assessing the students' logical thinking and cognitive levels in an online collaborative environment. The aim is to investigate whether the online collaboration has significant impact to the students' cognitive abilities. The assessment of the logical thinking involved the use of the online Group Assessment…

  16. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  17. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  18. ENIGMA, CAI-CMI for Introductory Logic: Some of Its Abilities with English Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laymon, Ronald

    The philosophy department of the Ohio State University began development of a computer-tutorial program, called ENIGMA, in 1972. The aim of the course was to help students to use various logical tools in the analysis of everyday arguments by giving drill-and-practice sessions, testing, and grading examinations. Part of ENIGMA is the propositional…

  19. Combining Wikis and JiTT to enhance critical thinking abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohottala, Hashini

    2012-02-01

    I report the combine use of Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) and Wikispaces (Wikis) in introductory level, calculus based, physics classes. Over the years, JiTT had been effectively used in teaching physics and some uses on Wikis were also reported in the recent years.ootnotetextH. Mohottala The Physics Teacher -- September 2011 -- Vol. 49, Issue 6 Wiki helps students, instructors and technology to interact with one another and JiTT boosts the self-confidence of students to tackle physics problems. Thus, the combine use of Wiki-JiTT is going to be a new experience for both instructors and students. In this experiment, I used Wikis as a platform for JiTT, and conventional JiTT was slightly altered to best fit the combination and to focus on enhancing critical thinking abilities in my students.

  20. Executive Functions and the Improvement of Thinking Abilities: The Intervention in Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    García-Madruga, Juan A.; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, José Ó.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a preliminary theory of executive functions that address in a specific way their relationship with working memory (WM) and higher-level cognition. It includes: (a) four core on-line WM executive functions that are involved in every novel and complex cognitive task; (b) two higher order off-line executive functions, planning and revision, that are required to resolving the most complex intellectual abilities; and (c) emotional control that is involved in any complex, novel and difficult task. The main assumption is that efficiency on thinking abilities may be improved by specific instruction or training on the executive functions necessary to solving novel and complex tasks involved in these abilities. Evidence for the impact of our training proposal on WM's executive functions involved in higher-level cognitive abilities comes from three studies applying an adaptive program designed to improve reading comprehension in primary school students by boosting the core WM's executive functions involved in it: focusing on relevant information, switching (or shifting) between representations or tasks, connecting incoming information from text with long-term representations, updating of the semantic representation of the text in WM, and inhibition of irrelevant information. The results are consistent with the assumption that cognitive enhancements from the training intervention may have affected not only a specific but also a more domain-general mechanism involved in various executive functions. We discuss some methodological issues in the studies of effects of WM training on reading comprehension. The perspectives and limitations of our approach are finally discussed. PMID:26869961

  1. Executive Functions and the Improvement of Thinking Abilities: The Intervention in Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    García-Madruga, Juan A; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, José Ó

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a preliminary theory of executive functions that address in a specific way their relationship with working memory (WM) and higher-level cognition. It includes: (a) four core on-line WM executive functions that are involved in every novel and complex cognitive task; (b) two higher order off-line executive functions, planning and revision, that are required to resolving the most complex intellectual abilities; and (c) emotional control that is involved in any complex, novel and difficult task. The main assumption is that efficiency on thinking abilities may be improved by specific instruction or training on the executive functions necessary to solving novel and complex tasks involved in these abilities. Evidence for the impact of our training proposal on WM's executive functions involved in higher-level cognitive abilities comes from three studies applying an adaptive program designed to improve reading comprehension in primary school students by boosting the core WM's executive functions involved in it: focusing on relevant information, switching (or shifting) between representations or tasks, connecting incoming information from text with long-term representations, updating of the semantic representation of the text in WM, and inhibition of irrelevant information. The results are consistent with the assumption that cognitive enhancements from the training intervention may have affected not only a specific but also a more domain-general mechanism involved in various executive functions. We discuss some methodological issues in the studies of effects of WM training on reading comprehension. The perspectives and limitations of our approach are finally discussed. PMID:26869961

  2. Accelerated versus traditional nursing students: a comparison of stress, critical thinking ability and performance.

    PubMed

    Yousseff, F A; Goodrich, N

    1996-02-01

    A high demand for graduate nurses and a dwindling pool of nursing school applicants have led several collegiate nursing programs to adopt innovative programs to increase the number of eligible applicants. One option is the development of accelerated nursing program. Because of the relative newness of these programs, the need to ascertain data about accelerated students and their success in these programs is vital. This prospective study examines the differences in stress levels, critical thinking ability, and performance of traditional and accelerated nursing students. A voluntary convenient sample (n = 94) was used from nursing students enrolled in the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Scale of Judgmental Abilities were used to measure the two independent variables. The grade point average in nursing courses and the National Council Licensure Exam scores were employed to measure performance of students. Results revealed that accelerated students showed consistently higher stress levels than those of the traditional students. Moreover, the accelerated group had significantly higher grade averages in nursing courses than traditional students. Implications for nurse educators and recommendations for further studies were made. PMID:8655267

  3. Mechanics as the Logical Point of Entry for the Enculturation into Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Robert; Rowlands, Stuart

    Force in modern classical mechanics is unique, both in terms of its logical character and the conceptual difficulties it causes. Force is well defined by a set of axioms that not only structures mechanics but science in general. Force is also the dominant theme in the "misconceptions" literature and many philosophers and physicists alike have expressed puzzlement as to its nature. The central point of this article is that if we taught mechanics as the forum to discuss the nature of mechanics itself, then we would serve to better secure a learner's understanding and appreciation of both science and mathematics. We will attempt to show that mechanics can provide the opportunity for students to enter this meta-discourse by engaging in Socratic discussion, entertaining thought experiments, comparisons made between force as defined within mechanics as a modern axiomatic system with Newton's quantitative definition of force, how the concepts of force prior to Galileo and Newton can be used as a teaching aid with respect to student intuitive ideas and how mathematics was brought to bear on what is given empirically. Mechanics provides this opportunity and pedagogically may require it due to its axiomatic nature.

  4. Cognitive phylogenies, the Darwinian logic of descent, and the inadequacy of cladistic thinking

    PubMed Central

    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    There has been a reappraisal of phylogenetic issues in cognitive science, as reconstructing cognitive phylogenies has been considered a key for unveiling the cognitive novelties that set the stage for what makes humans special. In our opinion, the studies made until now have approached cognitive phylogenies in a non-optimal way, and we wish to both highlight their problems, drawing on recent considerations in philosophy of biology. The inadequacy of current visions on cognitive phylogenies stems from the influence of the traditional “linear cladograms,” according to which every seemingly new or more sophisticated feature of a cognitive mechanism, viewed as a novelty, is represented as a node on top of the old and shared elements. We claim that this kind of cladograms does not succeed in depicting the complexity with which traits are distributed across species and, furthermore, that the labels of the nodes of these traditional representational systems fail to capture the “tinkering” nature of evolution. We argue that if we are to conceive of cognitive mechanisms in a multi-dimensional, bottom-up perspective, in accordance with the Darwinian logic of descent, we should rather focus on decomposing these mechanisms into lower-level, generic functions, which have the additional advantage of being implementable in neural matter, which ultimately produces cognition. Doing so renders current constructions of cognitive phylogenies otiose. PMID:26528479

  5. Morphosyntax and Logical Abilities in Italian Poor Readers: The Problem of SLI Under-Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Pagliarini, Elena; Perugini, Maria; Barbieri, Lina; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated morphosyntactic abilities and semantic-pragmatic competence in 24 children with developmental dyslexia aged 7-12 years. Morphosyntactic abilities were investgated in a direct object clitic production task, semantic-pragmatic competence in a quantifier comprehension task. Children with dyslexia produced fewer clitics than…

  6. Open-Ended Approach: An Effort in Cultivating Students' Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability and Self-Esteem in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatah, Abdul; Suryadi, Didi; Sabandar, Jozua; Turmudi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at examining the use of open-ended approach in cultivating senior high school students' mathematical creative thinking ability (MCTA) and self-esteem (SE) in mathematics viewed from school category. The subjects of this research were the students grade XI at three schools; high, middle and low category in Kota Serang, Banten…

  7. The Constructivist Classroom Learning Environment and Its Associations with Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students in Liberal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…

  8. Mathematical Teaching Strategies: Pathways to Critical Thinking and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Ricci, Frederick A.; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon

    2016-01-01

    A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible…

  9. The Use of Cross-Cultural Studies as a Way of Developing Critical Thinking Skills among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakai, Hisako

    This paper examines the value of using cross-cultural studies for teaching critical thinking skills to college students. Critical thinking has been narrowly defined as an ability to think logically, abstractly, and objectively. Recently, however, a new model of critical thinking suggests the importance of adding multiple perspectives as a crucial…

  10. Content Analysis of the Studies in Turkey on the Ability of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Seyat

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking, along with other skills, is included as a basic skill in the constructive education program that has been in use in Turkey since 2005. Therefore, a large increase has been observed in studies on critical thinking skills since 2005. In this frame, the present study was conducted in order to systematically examine research papers…

  11. The Development of Learning Devices Based Guided Discovery Model to Improve Understanding Concept and Critical Thinking Mathematically Ability of Students at Islamic Junior High School of Medan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuliani, Kiki; Saragih, Sahat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to: 1) development of learning devices based guided discovery model in improving of understanding concept and critical thinking mathematically ability of students at Islamic Junior High School; 2) describe improvement understanding concept and critical thinking mathematically ability of students at MTs by using…

  12. A Development of a Collaborative Blended Learning Model to Enhance Learning Achievement and Thinking Ability of Undergraduate Students at the Institute of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingpum, Peerasak; Ruangsuwan, Chaiyot; Chaicharoen, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of a collaborative blended learning (CoBl) to develop learning achievement and thinking ability of undergraduate students in the Institute of Physical Education. The research is divided into three phases using the blended learning model via collaborative learning with thinking abilities approach as follows:…

  13. Creating the Thinking Practitioner: Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaslip, Penny

    This essay looks at training nurses in British Columbia (Canada) to be critical thinkers through the use of nurses' narrative notes of patient care. The paper argues that the registered nurse can use the Nursing Process, a nursing problem solving framework that relies on the nurse's ability to think logically, to critically reflect on care…

  14. Workplace skills and the skills gaps related to employee critical thinking ability and science education curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, William A.

    In recent years, business and industry have been vocal critics of education. Critics complain the American workforce, particularly young people, are deficient in workplace skills. A survey of 500 randomly selected Ohio businesses was used to determine opinions of respondents related to workplace skills gaps, rising skill levels, and level and type of critical thinking used on the job by all employees and entry-level employees. Four of 18 science outcomes promoted by the Ohio Department of Education had an application in business and these required critical-thinking skills to complete. These four formed the foundation in the survey because they provided a connection between thinking skills required on the Ohio 12 th Grade Proficiency Test and those required on the job. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to identify correlation between responses. The alpha level was p ≤ .05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify significant (p ≤ .05) relationships between variables as represented by responses. In addition, one version of the Science Section of the Ohio 12th Grade Proficiency Test was analyzed for use of critical thinking using the SCAN's critical-thinking attributes as a standard. There were several findings related to workplace skills and critical thinking. Only 17.1% of respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the basic academic skill level of their employees. A majority (71.1%) of responding businesses perceived a lack of work ethic as more important than deficient academic skills. Only 17.1% of respondents reported the skill level of their entry-level employees was rising. Approximately 1/3 of responding businesses required no critical thinking at all from their entry-level employees. Small businesses were significantly more likely to require higher levels of critical thinking from their entry level employees than larger businesses. Employers who reported rising skill levels in entry-level employees required all of

  15. Calendars and Thinking Logically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fred C.; Abrahamson, Brant

    This teaching guide consists of two short lessons: (1)"Centuries and Millennia"; and (2) "Days, Weeks, Months and Years." The first lesson shows major religious and secular concerns that, in various ages, combined to produce the calendar that now indicates the beginning of "a new millennium." It is specifically designed to combat "calendar…

  16. Developing Creative and Critical Thinking Abilities in Business Graduates: The Value of Experiential Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Stephen; McBride, Hugh; Burns, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Educational programmes should promote an ethos of lifelong learning and develop in graduates the capacity for long-term personal and professional development through self-learning and reflection. A business degree programme should seek to produce graduates who are confident, creative thinkers with the capacity to solve problems, think creatively,…

  17. Improving 8th Grades Spatial Thinking Abilities through a 3D Modeling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toptas, Veli; Celik, Serkan; Karaca, E. Tugce

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of emerging technology in sub disciplines of mathematics education provides a potential for educators to elaborate the capacity of digitized learning for human being. Spatial thinking is considered as a factor of scientific deduction from a multi disciplinary point of view. This paper reports a study aimed at exploring the effect of…

  18. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  19. Rorschach interpretation with high-ability adolescent females: psychopathology or creative thinking?

    PubMed

    Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G

    1997-02-01

    Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style. PMID:9018850

  20. Re-Thinking Disability in Public: The Making of the "UTS AccessAbility" Website Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Moves are afoot at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) to acknowledge disability within the overall experience of student life. Scheduled to launch in time for UTS Orientation 2010, "UTS AccessAbility" is a student-generated web presence addressing the significant additional layer that experiences of disability add to study experiences.…

  1. Valuing Choice as an Alternative to Fixed-Ability Thinking and Teaching in Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milik, Amy; Boylan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a personal account of a primary mathematics teacher's current practice and how it developed through participation in a professional development programme. This alternative to fixed-ability teaching is based on creating opportunities for learners to exercise choice and on an understanding of mathematics as connected. Key…

  2. "The Goal" Project: A Group Assignment to Encourage Creative Thinking, Leadership Abilities and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Patricia Lee

    2014-01-01

    The classroom assignment described in this paper, "The Goal" Project, gives students an opportunity to develop four of the skills and abilities required to be a successful accountant. In 1990, the Accounting Education Change Commission issued Position Statement Number One, Objectives of Education for Accountants. Appendix B of that…

  3. Food for Thought: Reading and Thinking Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fossard, Esta

    This book presents a course whose aim is to strengthen students' ability to understand and recall what was read and to introduce the student to and give the student practice in some of the elements of clear and logical thinking. The course presented in the book can be done with or without the assistance of an instructor and in a long or a short…

  4. Episodic Future Thinking in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: The Ability to Think of What Will Be Needed from a Different Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format ([Clayton and Russell, 2009]…

  5. Why This Teacher Says, "To Hell with Logics!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Ronald V.

    1975-01-01

    The Training situation must allow for student self-effort, creativity in analysis with a latitude for increasing the student's thinking ability. The author offers five steps to take in this approach to equipment maintenance training, which utilizes a block diagram in place of logics. (Author/AJ)

  6. Tackling Problems through Lateral Thinking. An Interview with Edward de Bono.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1985-01-01

    In this interview, Edward de Bono says critical or logical thinking in lockstep fashion is necessary but not sufficient because we need not only the ability to critique ideas, but to create them. Creative or lateral thinking arrives at solutions by attacking problems "laterally" or "sideways." (DCS)

  7. Teacher and Student Perceptions of Critical and Creative Thinking within a Science Programme for High Ability Females in Singapore: Implications for Classroom Practice and Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slatter, Christopher John

    2009-01-01

    It can be rationalised that the education of high ability students is of immense importance to society, based on the principle that many of tomorrow's pioneers within the field of science will originate from this group of individuals. Consequently, these students must be equipped with critical and creative thinking skills to fulfil their…

  8. Logic via Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieschenberg, Agnes A.

    This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…

  9. Improved Creative Thinkers in a Class: A Model of Activity Based Tasks for Improving University Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Elif Celebi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was improving university students' from different faculties creativity thinking through a creativity education process. The education process took twelve weeks' time. As pretest, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) figural form was used. Participants were 24 university students from different faculties who…

  10. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  11. How logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge interact in the process of solving problems about light and vision among Taiwanese secondary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Chieh

    Piagetian scholars argue that the effect of problem content, e.g., empirical knowledge, should decrease with age. Indeed, they believe that the empirical knowledge cannot affect human problem-solving after individuals approach the formal operation stage. In arguing this point, this study uses an A-AR model to address how empirical knowledge affects the problem-solving process among Taiwanese secondary students. The A-AR model is borrowed from mathematics and the symbols, A, A, and R, represent Assumption, Answering, and Reasoning, respectively. Similar to solving mathematics problems, the A-AR model problems require participants to use the given assumptions by logical reasoning in order to respond to the problems. In this situation, the effect of empirical knowledge on problem-solving is easy to detect. There are three results about human problem-solving found in this study. First, the empirical knowledge still affects human problem-solving at the formal operation stage. Not like the Piagetian scholars' assumption: the effect of empirical knowledge is decreasing with age, this study finds that the effect of empirical knowledge is S-shape. The S-shape is a result of academic training. Second, the academic training, major, shapes human problem-solving strategies. For instance, the 12th grade science students' problem-solving strategy is based on logical reasoning ability by the given assumptions and the same grade social science students' strategy is according of their empirical knowledge. Third, the interference of logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge is a predictor of the empirical knowledge effect on human problem-solving. The relation between the empirical knowledge and interference can be characterized as: the more negative interference the participants have, the more of the empirical knowledge effect they will have in the next year. This study does not agree with the Piagetian theory about human problem-solving: the effect of empirical knowledge

  12. Critical Thinking in the Chemistry Classroom and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Claus

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility and practical use of teaching philosophy-based critical thinking to undergraduate chemistry students are investigated. The successful outcome of teaching basic logical concepts in chemistry, as measured by students' ability to assess the validity of chemical reasoning on one hand and student satisfaction on the other, is reported.

  13. Teacher Questioning Behavior and Pupil Critical Thinking Ability: A Study of the Effects of Teacher-Questioning Behavior on Pupil Critical Thinking Ability in Three Academic Subjects Offered in a Suburban High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin Abraham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom questions of teachers of science, English and social studies and to determine whether the frequency and types of questions were related to changes in pupil critical thinking. The author hypothesized science teachers would ask more questions and higher level questions than teachers of English…

  14. Teaching Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul

    1986-01-01

    As the world moves from the industrial age into the information age people become less dependent on basic facts and skills and more dependent on the ability to manipulate information. The higher level thinking skills that are needed in this new age must be taught in the schools. When selecting programs for teaching thinking, educators should…

  15. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  16. Using an Analogical Thinking Model as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Cognitive Ability in Architecture Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…

  17. The Bright and Dark Side Correlates of Creativity: Demographic, Ability, Personality Traits and Personality Disorders Associated with Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the personality trait and personality disorder correlates of creative potential, as assessed by a divergent thinking (DT) test. Over 4,000 adult managers attending an assessment center completed a battery of tests including a "bright side," normal personality trait measures (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, or…

  18. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  19. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  20. Identifying Logical Necessity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David

    2010-01-01

    Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…

  1. Assessing and Teaching What We Value: The Relationship between College-Level Writing and Critical Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, William; Kelly-Riley, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Washington State University (WSU), has developed two large-scale assessment programs to evaluate student learning outcomes. The largest, the Writing Assessment Program, diagnoses student writing abilities at entry and mid-career to determine the type of support needed to navigate the expectations of our writing-rich curriculum. The second, the…

  2. Neural logic molecular, counter-intuitive.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Igor K

    2007-09-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that multiple "LOGIC" genes control Boolean logic in a neuron. Each hypothetical LOGIC gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates another LOGIC gene(s). Through transcription regulation, LOGIC genes connect into a complex circuit, such as a XOR logic gate or a two-input flip-flop logic circuit capable of retaining information. LOGIC gene duplication, mutation and recombination may result in the diversification of Boolean logic gates. Creative thinking may sometimes require counter-intuitive reasoning, rather than common sense. Such reasoning is likely to engage novel logic circuits produced by LOGIC somatic mutations. An individual's logic maturates by a mechanism of somatic hypermutation, gene conversion and recombination of LOGIC genes in precursor cells followed by selection of neurons in the brain for functional competence. In this model, a single neuron among billions in the brain may contain a unique logic circuit being the key to a hard intellectual problem. The output of a logic neuron is likely to be a neurotransmitter. This neuron is connected to other neurons in the spiking neural network. The LOGIC gene hypothesis is testable by molecular techniques. Understanding mechanisms of authentic human ingenuity may help to invent digital systems capable of creative thinking. PMID:17509937

  3. Developing Critical Thinking through Leadership Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Daniel M.; Andenoro, Anthony C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides the critical leadership logic model as a tool to help educators develop leadership-learning opportunities. This proactive logic model includes curricular and co-curricular educational experiences to ensure critical thinking through leadership education.

  4. Critical Thinking: Rationality, and the Vulcanization of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kerry S.

    1990-01-01

    Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…

  5. The Effect of Half-year Education to Cultivate Dialogical Thinking Ability for Students in the Electrical Engineering Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Mika; Takahara, Kenji; Kajiwara, Toshinori

    This paper describes the effect of curriculum for communication ability, “Communication Theory I”, newly started in Fukuoka Institute of Technology in 2007. The purpose of this half-year course was to develop self-awareness and to improve interpersonal relationship through dialog. The program was designed, based on the Process of attitude change of students through dialogue. In the class, students were encouraged to take active role in discussion, constructing one's own argument and refuting others'. Emphasis was also placed on giving the students the opportunity to evaluate other students' discussion. Results showed differences in pre-test-post-test comparisons, confirming that learning environment for discussion could result in conceptual change for students. Further interview analyses and analyses of speech data helped to clarify what was learned through debate.

  6. Thinking is believing.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures. PMID:18166389

  7. The Effects of Problem Solving Applications on the Development of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Skills and Perception on Problem Solving Ability in the Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyhan, Hatice Güngör

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…

  8. Learning to Think/Thinking to Learn: A Bibliographic Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witucke, Virginia

    1980-01-01

    Describes 18 books on thinking and learning for elementary school-aged children. Each book is critically discussed and evaluated in an appropriate category--problem solving, the scientific method, observation, or logic. (BK)

  9. Introducing Exclusion Logic as a Deontic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Richard

    This paper introduces Exclusion Logic - a simple modal logic without negation or disjunction. We show that this logic has an efficient decision procedure. We describe how Exclusion Logic can be used as a deontic logic. We compare this deontic logic with Standard Deontic Logic and with more syntactically restricted logics.

  10. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  11. The Relationship between Students' Approaches to Studying, Formal Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge, and Gender and Their Achievement in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Giuliano, Frank J.

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among approaches to studying, prior knowledge, logical thinking ability, attitude, and performance in college freshman chemistry and to explore the effect of gender on the same variables. Subjects were 199 students (114 females, 85 males) enrolled in the second semester of a…

  12. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  13. Dispositional logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  14. Dispositional logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  15. Strategy: The logic of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Luttwak, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book expounds a new way of thinking about the conduct of war and the diplomacy of peace, a theory Luttwak calls ''paradoxical logic,'' and illustrates, through abundant historical examples, the failure of commonsense logic in matters of military strategy and international politics. Topics considered include nuclear weapons, military strategy, decision making, historical aspects, political aspects, global aspects, and warfare.

  16. Teaching Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    To make introducing logic to college students in speech and expository writing classes more interesting, letters to the editor can be used to teach logical fallacies. Letters to the editor are particularly useful because they give students a sense of the community they live in (issues, concerns, and the spectrum of opinion), they are easily…

  17. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  18. Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

  19. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  20. Fuzzy Thinking in Non-Fuzzy Situations: Understanding Students' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    1995-01-01

    In mathematics a true statement is always true, but some false statements are more false than others. Fuzzy logic provides a way of handling degrees of set membership and has implications for helping students appreciate logical thinking. (MKR)

  1. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sarah J.

    The teaching of decision-making, problem-solving, and higher-order thinking skills is necessary to ensure adaptability to our world of accelerated change. Living skills in the technology and information age will include the understanding and application of higher level thinking skills, which will be the educational "basics" of tomorrow. Although…

  2. Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…

  3. Description Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, Franz

    Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.

  4. Using Graded Peer Evaluation to Improve Students' Writing Skills, Critical Thinking Ability, and Comprehension of Material in a Principles of Public Relations Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Vicki; Hudson, Jerry C.

    2007-01-01

    This peer-evaluation assignment encouraged students to think critically, synthesize information and write about public relations course material rather than incorporate surface information into written assignments. Because peer reviewers can improve the grades on their final papers by offering concrete suggestions to the original authors, students…

  5. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  6. Relationships among Measures of Learning Orientation, Reasoning Ability, and Conceptual Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants for Grade 8 Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekkaya, Ceren; Yenilmez, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of students' reasoning ability and meaningful learning orientation to their understanding of the photosynthesis and respiration in plants concepts. Data were gathered through the use of the Test of Logical Thinking (Tobin & Capie, 1981), the Learning Approach Questionnaire (Cavallo, 1996), and the Two-Tier…

  7. The ability to solve elementary logic tasks in mice with the knockout of sodium-calcium exchanger gene 2 (NCX2).

    PubMed

    Poletaeva, I I; Perepelkina, O V; Boyarshinova, O S; Golibrodo, V A; Lilp, I G; Lipp, H-P; Shin, Hee Sup

    2016-07-01

    Mice with a knockout of the sodium-calcium exchanger 2 (NCX2) gene were statistically significantly more successful than wild-type controls in the solution of two cognitive tasks, the test for the capacity to extrapolate the direction of the stimulus movement and the "puzzle-box" test for the capacity to find a hidden route to safe environment, which were based on food and aversive motivations, respectively. In both tests, the success of task solution was based on the animal's ability to use the object's "permanence" rule (according to J. Piaget). The data confirm that the knockout of this gene, which is accompanied by modulation of the temporal pattern of calcium membrane flux, also induces changes in mouse CNS plasticity. PMID:27595821

  8. How Smart Do You Think You Are? A Meta-Analysis on the Validity of Self-Estimates of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Kasten, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of their own level of cognitive ability are expressed through self-estimates. They play an important role in a person's self-concept because they facilitate an understanding of how one's own abilities relate to those of others. People evaluate their own and other persons' abilities all the time, but self-estimates are also…

  9. Effects of using logic and spatial cybergames to improve student success rates in lower-division chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Carissa Janice

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationships between cybergaming treatment groups and the control group (N = 99: ncontrol = 8; nlogic = 29; nspatial = 30; ncombination = 32) with success in the organic chemistry I course as measured by achievement over a 10-week period. The treatment groups included logic training, spatial training, and combination logic-spatial training. Students' ability was measured by pre/post exams using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) to measure logic ability, Purdue Visualizations of Rotations (ROT) test to measure spatial skills, and the General-Organic-Biochemistry (GOB) Exam to measure content attainment. Finally, students' responses about participation in this experience were evaluated using open- and closed-ended questions on a self-developed survey. A second study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the cybergaming treatment and control groups (N = 88: nexperimental = 27; ncontrol = 61) with success in the general chemistry I course as measured by achievement and final course averages and grades. The cybergaming treatment group underwent intensive combination logic-spatial training for 10 weeks. Students' progress was measured using three pre/post instruments: Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) measured logic ability, Purdue Visualizations of Rotations (ROT) Test measured spatial skills, and the California Chemistry Diagnostic Exam measured content attainment. Finally, students' responses about their participation in this experience were evaluated using open- and closed-ended questions on a self-developed survey. Analyses of the data were performed to determine the relationships between cybergaming treatments and control groups in organic chemistry I and general chemistry I courses. In organic chemistry I results showed no statistical or practical significance as to students' success. In general chemistry I results indicated statistical significance and medium practicality for students

  10. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  11. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…

  12. Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…

  13. Thinking with a Futures Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the theory and practice of developing futures study for high ability students. It provides a brief history of the development of futures study, examines why futuristic thinking is particularly applicable to high ability students, and discusses specific strategies for developing futuristic thinking. (Contains references.)…

  14. Temporal logics meet telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.

  15. Helical logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Ralph C.; Drexler, K. Eric

    1996-12-01

    Helical logic is a theoretical proposal for a future computing technology using the presence or absence of individual electrons (or holes) to encode 1s and 0s. The electrons are constrained to move along helical paths, driven by a rotating electric field in which the entire circuit is immersed. The electric field remains roughly orthogonal to the major axis of the helix and confines each charge carrier to a fraction of a turn of a single helical loop, moving it like water in an Archimedean screw. Each loop could in principle hold an independent carrier, permitting high information density. One computationally universal logic operation involves two helices, one of which splits into two `descendant' helices. At the point of divergence, differences in the electrostatic potential resulting from the presence or absence of a carrier in the adjacent helix controls the direction taken by a carrier in the splitting helix. The reverse of this sequence can be used to merge two initially distinct helical paths into a single outgoing helical path without forcing a dissipative transition. Because these operations are both logically and thermodynamically reversible, energy dissipation can be reduced to extremely low levels. This is the first proposal known to the authors that combines thermodynamic reversibility with the use of single charge carriers. It is important to note that this proposal permits a single electron to switch another single electron, and does not require that many electrons be used to switch one electron. The energy dissipated per logic operation can very likely be reduced to less than 0957-4484/7/4/004/img5 at a temperature of 1 K and a speed of 10 GHz, though further analysis is required to confirm this. Irreversible operations, when required, can be easily implemented and should have a dissipation approaching the fundamental limit of 0957-4484/7/4/004/img6.

  16. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  17. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  18. Creating Science Simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    2012-01-01

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction.…

  19. Does Theory of Mind in Pre-Kindergarten Predict the Ability to Think about a Reader's Mind in Elementary School Compositions? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…

  20. Supporting Right-Brained Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mescolotto, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…

  1. Embedding Critical Thinking in IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda; Davis, Tim; Kazlauskas, Alanah

    2007-01-01

    It is important for students to develop critical thinking and other higher-order thinking skills during their tertiary studies. Along with the ability to think critically comes the need to develop students' meta-cognitive skills. These abilities work together to enable students to control, monitor, and regulate their own cognitive processes and…

  2. Critical thinking: a foundation for consumer-focused care.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M

    1993-01-01

    Both providers and recipients of health care services are now focusing attention on not only what is provided but also how services are provided. The goal is consumer satisfaction, with pressure on the provider of services to meet customer demands. This shift in focus challenges the knowledge and skills of nurses, and their ability to solve problems in collaboration with their customers. To provide consumer-focused care, nurses will need to develop critical thinking skills that utilize logical/analytical and intuitive/creative approaches to solving problems. Critical thinking skills that integrate these two approaches will provide practitioners expertise in flexible, individualized, and situation-specific problem solving. Nursing staff who are able to focus on the consumer will be better prepared to meet the demands of today's competitive health care market. The challenge facing educators is to prepare nurses with a foundation from which to provide this care. PMID:7646589

  3. Leveling Students' Creative Thinking in Solving and Posing Mathematical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree of creativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has been discussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is based on intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking…

  4. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  5. Level of Student's Creative Thinking in Classroom Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2011-01-01

    It is reasonable to assume that people are creative, but the degree of creativity is different. The Idea of the level of student's creative thinking has been expressed by experts, such as Gotoh (2004), and Krulik and Rudnick (1999). The perspective of the mathematics creative thinking refers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which…

  6. Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Examines creative thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy and compares creative and critical thinking. Discusses teaching for thinking, techniques for sparking creativity, activities for creating a mental museum, synectics (a group creative process to create new insights), and creating meaning through story…

  7. Giving Programming Students a Logical Step Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a method to enhance the teaching of computer programing to secondary students that establishes a connection between logic, truth tables, switching circuits, gating symbols, flow charts, and pseudocode. The author asserts that the method prepares students for thinking processes related to programing. (MDH)

  8. A molecular logic gate

    PubMed Central

    Kompa, K. L.; Levine, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a scheme for molecule-based information processing by combining well-studied spectroscopic techniques and recent results from chemical dynamics. Specifically it is discussed how optical transitions in single molecules can be used to rapidly perform classical (Boolean) logical operations. In the proposed way, a restricted number of states in a single molecule can act as a logical gate equivalent to at least two switches. It is argued that the four-level scheme can also be used to produce gain, because it allows an inversion, and not only a switching ability. The proposed scheme is quantum mechanical in that it takes advantage of the discrete nature of the energy levels but, we here discuss the temporal evolution, with the use of the populations only. On a longer time range we suggest that the same scheme could be extended to perform quantum logic, and a tentative suggestion, based on an available experiment, is discussed. We believe that the pumping can provide a partial proof of principle, although this and similar experiments were not interpreted thus far in our terms. PMID:11209046

  9. [Follow-up study in traditional Chinese medicine of reinforcing kidney and resolving stasis and thinking of improving women's ability of high-quality fertility and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    High quality of fertility and pregancy is a specific presentation of family planning in this new historic environment. Our country adopted two-child policy from November, 2013. This symbolized an adjustive stage of reproduction policy in 21st century. It is a major adjustment in the development of national population. As a contry of tremendous population, it is very important to have a high- quality fertility and pregancy for the future of the whole nation, which would improve population quality and restrict development of population. The morbidity of infertility has increased significantly, which brings a huge crisis for national population. Under the guidance of high-quality fertility and pregancy in Chinese medicine theory, improving fertile women's ability of high-quality fertility and pregancy, and follow-up studying is of vital importance for evaluating the treatment of abortion prevention by traditional Chinese medicine and human health of high-quality fertility and pregancy. PMID:27062799

  10. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  11. Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This book presents a reconceptualization of critical thinking theory. Drawing on pragmatic, feminist, and postmodern philosophies, the book offers an overview of the history of critical thinking and identifies its major theorists. It critiques how critical thinking is conceptualized and applied in classrooms and offers a newly delineated platform…

  12. Does a Business Curriculum Develop or Filter Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, B. Jay; Mason, Paul; Steagall, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a business curriculum develops critical thinking ability or at least serves as a filter for critical thinking (i.e., students who cannot think critically tend not to progress toward graduation). We measure critical thinking by performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Short Form which was administered to a…

  13. Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

  14. Thinking about Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Robert J. Sternberg's theory of "successful intelligence," which theorizes that intelligence consists of three parts: analytic, creative and practical abilities. Sternberg argues that intelligence can be fostered in the right educational environment by encouraging students to develop and exercise their…

  15. On Teachers' Practical Reasoning and Professional Knowledge: Considering Conceptions of Context in Teachers' Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Lindblad, Sverker

    1991-01-01

    Research on teacher thinking often isolates teachers from their social and historical context. The paper discusses teacher thinking and action based on concepts of practical reason and logic. It examines ways to connect teacher thinking with the context of the thinking and notes the connection between action and context. (SM)

  16. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  17. An Argumentation Framework based on Paraconsistent Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Takehisa; Sawamura, Hajime

    Argumentation is the most representative of intelligent activities of humans. Therefore, it is natural to think that it could have many implications for artificial intelligence and computer science as well. Specifically, argumentation may be considered a most primitive capability for interaction among computational agents. In this paper we present an argumentation framework based on the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Tolerance and acceptance of inconsistency that this logic has as its logical feature allow for arguments on inconsistent knowledge bases with which we are often confronted. We introduce various concepts for argumentation, such as arguments, attack relations, argument justification, preferential criteria of arguments based on social norms, and so on, in a way proper to the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Then, we provide the fixpoint semantics and dialectical proof theory for our argumentation framework. We also give the proofs of the soundness and completeness.

  18. Thinking creatively is thinking critically.

    PubMed

    Gruenfeld, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The Cartoneras projects aim to promote the celebration of language, culture, and creativity through a collaboration between top literary minds and cardboard collectors in Buenos Aires and Lima. They produce and publish beautiful books with hand-painted cardboard covers that speak of the wonderful literature inside. Inspired by those projects, the Paper Picker Press (PPP) program in Boston aims to engage higher-order thinking through an arts-based approach to rediscovering literature through play. PPP starts with the premise that a student who is thinking creatively is also thinking critically. Creative play is critical thinking. PMID:20391619

  19. Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…

  20. How We Think We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…

  1. Critical Thinking: Thinking with Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Urges education to help students learn through conceptual thinking. States that the first step must be to teach the subtleties of words--without a command of the language, important discriminations can be confused. Asserts that if students are to think well conceptually, surface language must dissolve, and alternative ways to communicate must be…

  2. Designing a Software Tool for Fuzzy Logic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abietar, José M.; Morcillo, Pedro J.; Moreno, Ginés

    2007-12-01

    Fuzzy Logic Programming is an interesting and still growing research area that agglutinates the efforts for introducing fuzzy logic into logic programming (LP), in order to incorporate more expressive resources on such languages for dealing with uncertainty and approximated reasoning. The multi-adjoint logic programming approach is a recent and extremely flexible fuzzy logic paradigm for which, unfortunately, we have not found practical tools implemented so far. In this work, we describe a prototype system which is able to directly translate fuzzy logic programs into Prolog code in order to safely execute these residual programs inside any standard Prolog interpreter in a completely transparent way for the final user. We think that the development of such fuzzy languages and programing tools might play an important role in the design of advanced software applications for computational physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, industrial control and so on.

  3. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    DOEpatents

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  4. Paraconsistent quantum logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto

    1989-07-01

    Paraconsistent quantum logics are weak forms of quantum logic, where the noncontradiction and the excluded-middle laws are violated. These logics find interesting applications in the operational approach to quantum mechanics. In this paper, we present an axiomatization, a Kripke-style, and an algebraic semantical characterization for two forms of paraconsistent quantum logic. Further developments are contained in Giuntini and Greuling's paper in this issue.

  5. OncoLogicTM

    EPA Science Inventory

    OncoLogicTM - A Computer System to Evaluate the Carcinogenic Potential of Chemicals
    OncoLogicTM is a software program that evaluates the likelihood that a chemical may cause cancer. OncoLogicTM has been peer reviewed and is being rele...

  6. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626

  7. Learning with Touchscreen Devices: Game Strategies to Improve Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The…

  8. Developing a (Non-Linear) Practice of Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Randall

    2010-01-01

    Design thinking can be a powerful way to engage the world, allowing interactive understandings that are both analytic and experiential. When fully functioning, design thinking necessarily calls upon faculties often considered a-rational, a-causal and a-logical. Unfortunately, such faculties often give rise to academic suspicion. That is to say,…

  9. Increasing Logico-Mathematical Thinking in Low SES Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Lynn D.; Manning, Maryann; Osaki, Kyoko; Hicks, Delyne

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, children in low socioeconomic status (SES) inner-city areas in the United States lack experiences that prepare them for academic success, especially in math and science. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent to which a constructivist curriculum emphasizing logical thinking produces higher level thinking in low-SES…

  10. An Education Track for Creativity and Other Quality Thinking Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleedorn, Berenice

    2003-01-01

    The need for new thinking in the world, both official leadership and for all participating members of society has been a glaring reality in recent times. To Berenice Bleedorn, the idea of teaching students how to use the full potential of their thinking apparatus is not absurd--simply logical and timely. Creative expression is central to the…

  11. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  12. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  13. Thinking Allowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2008-01-01

    Disability equality and improving life chances for disabled people are high on the U.K. Government's agenda at present. As someone who was once a practitioner and a manager in a busy further education environment, the author knows how difficult it is to find time to think about, and discuss with colleagues, the implications of policy. This article…

  14. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  15. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  16. Thinking Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stu; Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that engineering and mathematics go hand in hand. To many, being an engineer means manipulating equations and calculating measurements to design and build structures of all kinds. And they are right. Engineering does involve a great deal of mathematics. But, building structures to withstand certain environmental conditions or…

  17. Teaching Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Dwight

    2002-01-01

    If history teachers' aim is to teach students how to think, why not ask: What forms of thought do historians use, and what specific techniques will inculcate these forms? In this article, the author proposes a fundamental shift, from courses with a focus on the mastery of data to courses with a priority on learning the historian's craft. The…

  18. Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  19. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  20. The Controversy Goes On--"Can Computers Think?" Part II: What Is Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugel, Peter

    1985-01-01

    The nature of thinking is the subject of this second part in a series which is examining various topics and issues related to the controversy of whether or not computers can think. Suggests that intelligence is the ability to develop general ideas and not the ability to apply those ideas. (JN)

  1. Digital Holographic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.

  2. Foundations of logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first book to give an account of the mathematical foundations of Logic Programming. Its purpose is to collect the basic theoretical results of Logic Programming, which have previously only been available in widely scattered research papers. In addition to presenting the technical results, the book also contains many illustrative examples. Many of the examples and problems are part of the folklore of Logic Programming and are not easily obtainable elsewhere.

  3. Digital Microfluidic Logic Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Tao; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Microfluidic computing is an emerging application for microfluidics technology. We propose microfluidic logic gates based on digital microfluidics. Using the principle of electrowetting-on-dielectric, AND, OR, NOT and XOR gates are implemented through basic droplet-handling operations such as transporting, merging and splitting. The same input-output interpretation enables the cascading of gates to create nontrivial computing systems. We present a potential application for microfluidic logic gates by implementing microfluidic logic operations for on-chip HIV test.

  4. Electrically reconfigurable logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    To compose the complicated systems using algorithmically specialized logic circuits or processors, one solution is to perform relational computations such as union, division and intersection directly on hardware. These relations can be pipelined efficiently on a network of processors having an array configuration. These processors can be designed and implemented with a few simple cells. In order to determine the state-of-the-art in Electrically Reconfigurable Logic Array (ERLA), a survey of the available programmable logic array (PLA) and the logic circuit elements used in such arrays was conducted. Based on this survey some recommendations are made for ERLA devices.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  6. Ferrite logic reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)

  7. Predictive value of attitude, cognitive ability, and personality to science achievement in the middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale R.

    This article examines the factors of attitude toward science, spatial ability, mathematical ability, and the scientific personality, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, in a sample of middle school students. Males and females with science grades of A and B were found to have several characteristics of the scientific personality, good grades in mathematics, but negative attitudes toward science. Males and females with science grades of C and D had a more positive attitude toward science, but poor mathematical and spatial abilities and few characteristics of the scientific personality. There were no sex differences except on the Thinking/Feeling (TF) scale of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. As expected females portrayed themselves as preferring the (F) scale, the use of personal values when making decisions and males portrayed themselves as preferring the (T) scale, the use of logical analysis when making decisions.

  8. Group Solutions, Too! More Cooperative Logic Activities for Grades K-4. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jan M.; Kopp, Jaine

    There is evidence that structured cooperative logic is an effective way to introduce or reinforce mathematics concepts, explore thinking processes basic to both math and science, and develop the important social skills of cooperative problem-solving. This book contains a number of cooperative logic activities for grades K-4 in order to improve…

  9. Applying Toulmin: Teaching Logical Reasoning and Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rex, Lesley A.; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Engel, Steven

    2010-01-01

    To learn to write well-reasoned persuasive arguments, students need in situ help thinking through the complexity and complications of an issue, making inferences based on evidence, and hierarchically grouping and logically sequencing ideas. They rely on teachers to make this happen. In this article, the authors explain the framework they used and…

  10. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  11. AROUSAL AND LOGICAL INFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOEN, FRANK

    THE PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AS INDEXED BY THE GRASON STADLER TYPE OPERANT CONDITIONING APPARATUS (GSR), IS RELATED TO THE ACCURACY OF LOGICAL REASONING. THE STIMULI WERE 12 SYLLOGISMS, THREE OF EACH OF FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICAL FORMS. THE 14 SUBJECTS (SS) INDICATED THEIR AGREEMENT OR…

  12. Fundamentals of Digital Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, Monica L.

    This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

  13. Fuzziness in abacus logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhas, Othman Qasim

    1993-10-01

    The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.

  14. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    PubMed Central

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  15. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, M A A; Kosuru, L; Younis, M I

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  16. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  17. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…

  18. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  19. Computer Programming and Logical Reasoning: Unintended Cognitive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the use of computer programing languages to facilitate cognitive skill transfer focuses on logical reasoning. Conditional logic principles are examined, and a study is described that examined the effects of learning the LOGO Programing Language on fifth graders' conditional reasoning abilities. (35 references) (LRW)

  20. Teaching Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…

  1. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  2. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  3. A Think Tank Cultivates Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodt, Jean Sausele

    1997-01-01

    In a Virginia school grounded in Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory, K-12 students flock to the think tank, a hands-on discovery room, to explore their varied abilities. This well-equipped room synthesizes many ideas and theories, such as Socratic questioning and John Dewey's discovery-learning ideas. Because multiple ways of smartness are…

  4. Student Thinking Strategies in Reconstructing Theorems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2005-01-01

    A mathematics university student as a future mathematician should have the ability to find "new" mathematics structures or construct theorems based on particular axioms. That ability can be created by using problem posing tasks. To do the tasks, students with different abilities will use different thinking strategies. To understand them exactly,…

  5. On three forms of thinking: magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable. PMID:20496835

  6. Applications of fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zargham, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Recently, fuzzy logic has been applied to many areas, such as process control, image understanding, robots, expert systems, and decision support systems. This paper will explain the basic concepts of fuzzy logic and its application in different fields. The steps to design a control system will be explained in detail. Fuzzy control is the first successful industrial application of fuzzy logic. A fuzzy controller is able to control systems which previously could only be controlled by skilled operators. In recent years Japan has achieved significant progress in this area and has applied it to variety of products such as cruise control for cars, video cameras, rice cookers, washing machines, etc.

  7. Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties in Boolean Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Loui, Michael C.; Kaczmarczyk, Lisa; Zilles, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reason with formal logic is a foundational skill for computer scientists and computer engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding of propositional logic and their ability to translate from English specifications to Boolean expressions, we characterized…

  8. The Assessment of Mathematical Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Herbert H.

    1983-01-01

    A test was given to 322 secondary students to develop a profile of mathematical ability based on four components: computation, pattern recognition, logical reasoning, and symbolic manipulation. These profiles were compared to mathematics test scores; the results verified hypotheses about individual differences in mental processes and knowledge…

  9. ThinkSpace: Spatial Thinking in Middle School Astronomy Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.

  10. Optical logic array processor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanida, J.; Ichioka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A simple method for optically implementing digital logic gates in parallel has been developed. Parallel logic gates can be achieved by using a lensless shadow-casting system with a light emitting diode array as an incoherent light source. All the sixteen logic functions for two binary variables, which are the fundamental computations of Boolean algebra, can be simply realised in parallel with these gates by changing the switching modes of a led array. Parallel computation structures of the developed optical digital array processor are demonstrated by implementing pattern logics for two binary images with high space-bandwidth product. Applications of the proposed method to parallel shift operation of the image, differentiation, and processing of gray-level image are shown. 9 references.

  11. Thinking through Writing. Lord Fairfax Community College, 1990-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord Fairfax Community Coll., Middletown, VA.

    In an attempt to improve its students' writing abilities, as well as their critical thinking skills, Lord Fairfax Community College, in Virginia, developed a program called "Thinking through Writing." The project designers believed that concept formation, classification, memory enhancement, and other learning/thinking skills could be enhanced by…

  12. The Emergence of Episodic Future Thinking in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atance, C.M.; O'Neill, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the construct of episodic future thinking. We have previously defined episodic future thinking as the ability to project oneself into the future to pre-experience an event (Atance & O'Neill, 2001). We distinguish this type of thinking about the future from that which is largely based on a script of how an event routinely…

  13. Torrance Verbal and Figural Tests: Measuring General Creative Thinking Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Mary M.

    The work of E. P. Torrance concerning creative thinking abilities, creative learning and teaching, the creative learning environment, and the measurement of creative thinking is discussed. Torrance began his pioneering research on the nature of creative thinking in 1958 with pilot testing of his first batteries designed to assess creative thinking…

  14. Global Perspectives: Developing Media Literacy Skills to Advance Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radeloff, Cheryl L.; Bergman, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Women's studies and feminist curricula have been lauded for the development and application of critical thinking skills for social and political change in its students (Fisher; Kellner and Share; Mayberry). Critical thinking can be defined as the ability to identify and challenge assumptions, to search for alternative ways of thinking, and to…

  15. Epistemic Beliefs and Critical Thinking of Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ngai-Man; Ho, Irene T.; Ku, Kelly Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to examine the relationship between epistemic beliefs and critical thinking. In the first study, 138 Chinese undergraduates completed the adapted Epistemic Beliefs Inventory (EBI) and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations. Their cognitive ability and thinking dispositions were also…

  16. The Contribution of Logical Reasoning to the Learning of Mathematics in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Bell, Daniel; Gardner, Selina; Gardner, Adelina; Carraher, Julia

    2007-01-01

    It has often been claimed that children's mathematical understanding is based on their ability to reason logically, but there is no good evidence for this causal link. We tested the causal hypothesis about logic and mathematical development in two related studies. In a longitudinal study, we showed that (a) 6-year-old children's logical abilities…

  17. Defect-sensitivity analysis of an SEU immune CMOS logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingermann, Erik H.; Frenzel, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Fault testing of resistive manufacturing defects is done on a recently developed single event upset immune logic family. Resistive ranges and delay times are compared with those of traditional CMOS logic. Reaction of the logic to these defects is observed for a NOR gate, and an evaluation of its ability to cope with them is determined.

  18. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial intelligence, and…

  19. A consensus statement on critical thinking in nursing.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, B K; Rubenfeld, M G

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to define critical thinking in nursing. A Delphi technique with 5 rounds of input was used to achieve this purpose. An international panel of expert nurses from nine countries: Brazil, Canada, England, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Thailand, and 23 states in the U.S. participated in this study between 1995 and 1998. A consensus definition (statement) of critical thinking in nursing was achieved. The panel also identified and defined 10 habits of the mind (affective components) and 7 skills (cognitive components) of critical thinking in nursing. The habits of the mind of critical thinking in nursing included: confidence, contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. Skills of critical thinking in nursing included: analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. These findings can be used by practitioners, educators and researchers to advance understanding of the essential role of critical thinking in nursing. PMID:11103973

  20. Test of Logical Thinking in Science. Appendix B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.; Robinson, T. E.

    This 20-item science test (18 multiple choice and 2 essay) is hand scored and has a 30 minute time limit. Analysis of raw scores by "t" test is provided. There has been limited field testing. See TM 000 959. (DLG)

  1. Logical Thinking in Children; Research Based on Piaget's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigel, Irving E., Ed.; Hooper, Frank H., Ed.

    Theoretical and empirical research derived from Piagetian theory is collected on the intellectual development of the elementary school child and his acquisition and utilization of conservation concepts. The articles present diversity of method and motive in the results of replication (validation studies of the description of cognitive growth) and…

  2. Measurement and Analysis of Logical Thinking. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Frederick P.

    Four Piagetian tasks (bending rods, chemical combinations, balanced beams and lights/switches) were programmed on a microcomputer system to rectify perceived deficiencies in the tasks. These deficiencies included misleading perceptual clues, bias against females, familarity with content and task, and high cost of administration and data…

  3. Improving Student Critical Thinking and Perceptions of Critical Thinking through Direct Instruction in Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of direct instruction in rhetorical analysis on students' critical thinking abilities, including knowledge, skills, and dispositions. The researcher investigated student perceptions of the effectiveness of argument mapping; Thinker's Guides, based on Paul's model of critical thinking; and Socratic questioning.…

  4. Mechanical passive logic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Caulfield, H. John

    2015-02-01

    Nothing from nothing gives simple simile, but something from nothing is an interesting and challenging task. Adolf Lohmann once proposed 'do nothing machine' in optics, which only copies input to output. Passive logic module (PALM) is a special type of 'do nothing machine' which can converts inputs into one of 16 possible binary outputs. This logic module is not like the conventional irreversible one. It is a simple type of reversible Turing machine. In this manuscript we discussed and demonstrated PALM using mechanical movement of plane mirrors. Also we discussed the theoretical model of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) based PALM in this manuscript. It may have several valuable properties such as passive operation (no need for nonlinear elements as other logic device require) and modular logic (one device implementing any Boolean logic function with simple internal changes). The result is obtained from the demonstration by only looking up the output. No calculation is required to get the result. Not only that, PALM is a simple type of the famous 'billiard ball machine', which also discussed in this manuscript.

  5. Diagnosable structured logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  6. Thinking-in-Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  7. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

  8. Design thinking.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

  9. The Nature and Development of Critical-Analytic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to provide an overview of the features of the abilities, aptitudes, and frames of minds that are attributed to critical thinking and provide the broad outlines of the development of critical-analytic thinking (CAT) abilities. In addition, we evaluate the potential viability of three main hypotheses regarding the reasons…

  10. No Child Left Thinking: Democracy at Risk in Canada's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The author titled this article "No Child Left Thinking" because for the past 10 years he has been studying the effects of education initiatives such as the U.S. "No Child Left Behind Act" or the various provincial testing and accountability policies in Canada and their impact on teachers' ability to teach critical thinking and students' ability to…

  11. Advanced Mathematical Thinking and the Way to Enhance It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlina, Elda; Batusangkar, Stain

    2015-01-01

    This journal article discusses Advanced Mathematical Thinking (AMT) and how to enhance it. AMT is ability in representing, abstracting, creative thinking, and mathematical proving. The importance of AMT ability development in accord with government expectation who realize about the importance of mathematical competency mastery for student's life.…

  12. Critical Thinking: Teaching Students How To Study and Learn (Part III).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Third in a series of columns focusing on teaching students to think critically, this column provides three templates useful in helping students practice analyzing and assessing the logic of a text. Discusses how to analyze an article, essay, or chapter; comprehend the logic of a textbook; and evaluate an author's reasoning. (NB)

  13. Benchmarking emerging logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri

    2014-03-01

    As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS FET) are being scaled to ever smaller sizes by the semiconductor industry, the demand is growing for emerging logic devices to supplement CMOS in various special functions. Research directions and concepts of such devices are overviewed. They include tunneling, graphene based, spintronic devices etc. The methodology to estimate future performance of emerging (beyond CMOS) devices and simple logic circuits based on them is explained. Results of benchmarking are used to identify more promising concepts and to map pathways for improvement of beyond CMOS computing.

  14. Logic Simulator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The source code for the SPICE 2 program was deblocked in order to isolate and compile the subroutine in an effort to provide a software simulation of discrete and combinatorial electronic components. Incompatibilities between the UNIVAC 1180 FORTRAN and the Sigma V CP-V FORTRAN 4 were resolved. The SPICE 2 model is to be used to determine gate and fan-out delays, logic state conditions, and signal race conditions for transistor array elements and circuit logic to be patterned in the (SPI) 7101 CMOS silicon gate semicustom array. The simulator is to be operable from the CP-V time sharing terminals.

  15. Individual Differences and Age-Related Changes in Divergent Thinking in Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with…

  16. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  17. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  18. Logic and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straumanis, Joan

    A major problem in teaching symbolic logic is that of providing individualized and early feedback to students who are learning to do proofs. To overcome this difficulty, a computer program was developed which functions as a line-by-line proof checker in Sentential Calculus. The program, DEMON, first evaluates any statement supplied by the student…

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  20. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  1. Synthetic circuits integrating logic and memory in living cells.

    PubMed

    Siuti, Piro; Yazbek, John; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-05-01

    Logic and memory are essential functions of circuits that generate complex, state-dependent responses. Here we describe a strategy for efficiently assembling synthetic genetic circuits that use recombinases to implement Boolean logic functions with stable DNA-encoded memory of events. Application of this strategy allowed us to create all 16 two-input Boolean logic functions in living Escherichia coli cells without requiring cascades comprising multiple logic gates. We demonstrate long-term maintenance of memory for at least 90 cell generations and the ability to interrogate the states of these synthetic devices with fluorescent reporters and PCR. Using this approach we created two-bit digital-to-analog converters, which should be useful in biotechnology applications for encoding multiple stable gene expression outputs using transient inputs of inducers. We envision that this integrated logic and memory system will enable the implementation of complex cellular state machines, behaviors and pathways for therapeutic, diagnostic and basic science applications. PMID:23396014

  2. Thinking Style Diversity and Collaborative Design Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper explores the impact of structured learning experiences that were designed to challenge students’ ways of thinking and promote creativity. The aim was to develop the ability of students, coming from different engineering disciplines and characterized by particular thinking style profiles, to collaboratively work on a project-based learning experience in an educational environment. Three project-based learning experiences were structured using critical thinking methods to stimulate creativity. Pre and post-survey data using a specially modified thinking style inventory for 202 design students indicated a thinking style profile of preferences with a focus on exploring and questioning. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and openness to multiple perspectives.

  3. The Effect of Teaching Certain Concepts of Logic on Verbalization of Discovered Mathematical Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth Albert

    Reported are the results of a study designed to test the effects of a programed unit in fundamentals of logic on the ability of college capable junior high school students to verbalize mathematical generalizations. The independent variables were the presence or absence of study of the logic unit, and ability level being college capable (I.Q.…

  4. Does Lego Training Stimulate Pupils' Ability to Solve Logical Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindh, Jorgen; Holgersson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-year regular robotic toys (lego) training on school pupils' performance. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the "constructionist theory," where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…

  5. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  6. Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2016-07-15

    A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning. PMID:27138210

  7. Conditional Logic and Primary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.

    Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a 15-week…

  8. Experiential Collaborative Learning and Preferential Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper presents a Project-Based Learning (shortly, PBL) approach in a collaborative educational environment aimed to develop design ability and creativity of students coming from different engineering disciplines. Three collaborative learning experiences in product design were conducted in order to study their impact on preferred thinking styles of students. Using a thinking style inventory, pre- and post-survey data was collected and successively analyzed through ANOVA techniques. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and an openness to multiple perspectives. Furthermore, data analysis confirms that the proposed collaborative learning experience positively contributes to increase awareness in students' thinking styles.

  9. Games, Logic and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)

  10. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality. PMID:8168360

  11. A Comparative Study of Effect of New and Old Science Curriculum on Chinese Junior High School Students' Abstract Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Weiping; Chen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    "Teenagers' abstract thinking ability test" was designed in accordance with the structure and performance of teenagers' ability to think abstractly. 138 Chinese junior high school students who learned New curriculum and old curriculum separately were measured. A comparison between the two kinds of students shows that abstract thinking ability of…

  12. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  13. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  14. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  16. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  17. Infinitesimals without logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, P.

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a ring of the so-called Fermat reals, which is an extension of the real field containing nilpotent infinitesimals. The construction is inspired by Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis (SIA) and provides a powerful theory of actual infinitesimals without any background in mathematical logic. In particular, in contrast to SIA, which admits models in intuitionistic logic only, the theory of Fermat reals is consistent with the classical logic. We face the problem of deciding whether or not a product of powers of nilpotent infinitesimals vanishes, study the identity principle for polynomials, and discuss the definition and properties of the total order relation. The construction is highly constructive, and every Fermat real admits a clear and order-preserving geometrical representation. Using nilpotent infinitesimals, every smooth function becomes a polynomial because the remainder in Taylor’s formulas is now zero. Finally, we present several applications to informal classical calculations used in physics, and all these calculations now become rigorous, and at the same time, formally equal to the informal ones. In particular, an interesting rigorous deduction of the wave equation is given, which clarifies how to formalize the approximations tied with Hooke’s law using the language of nilpotent infinitesimals.

  18. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  19. Critical Thinking and Constructivism: Mambo Dog Fish to the Banana Patch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…

  20. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  1. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  2. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  3. Encouragement for Thinking Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…

  4. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  5. A Ladder of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovrich, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Scientists and students often believe that if they just think harder about a problem, a solution will follow. However, thinking about one's thinking, or using metacognition, can be a more productive expenditure of mental energy. Introducing students to metacognition allows them to discover the value of reflection. This article presents a lesson on…

  6. What Were They Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachael Adams

    2012-01-01

    Too often, teachers scratch their heads and ask, "What were my students thinking?" then answer, "I don't want to know." But teachers should want to know, and students should question their own thinking, as well. Critical thinking involves not just problem solving, creativity, analysis, and synthesis but also self-awareness of learning and learning…

  7. How successful leaders think.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  8. Reasoning about logical propositions and success in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piburn, Michael D.

    1990-12-01

    Students display a number of misconceptions when asked to reason about logical propositions. Rather than being random, these misconceptions are stereotypic, and relate to age, ability, and success in science. The grades in science achieved by tenth-grade general science students from two parochial single-sex schools in Australia correlated with their scores on the Propositional Logic Test. The students' ability level was consistently related to the pattern of errors they committed on that measure. Mean scores were lowest on a subtest of ability to use the biconditional and implication, higher on the disjunction, and highest on the conjunction. Success in science was predicted most strongly by the disjunction and biconditional subtests. Knowledge of the way in which a person reasons about logical propositions provides additional insights into the transformations information is subjected to as it is integrated into mental schemata.

  9. Predicting Student Performance in Sonographic Scanning Using Spatial Ability as an Ability Determinent of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and…

  10. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  11. Flexible programmable logic module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  12. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  13. Exploring the attributes of critical thinking: a conceptual basis.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Susan G

    2004-01-01

    Many teaching methods used in nursing education to enhance critical thinking focus on teaching students how to directly apply knowledge; a technically rational approach. While seemingly effective at enhancing students' critical thinking abilities in structured learning situations, these methods don't prepare students to operationalize critical thinking to manage the complexities that actually exist in practice. The work of contemporary educational theorists Paulo Freire, Donald Schon, Chris Argyris, Jack Mezirow, Stephen Brookfield, and Robert Tennyson all share similar perspectives on thinking in practice and the use of reflection to achieve a coherence of understanding. Their perspectives provide insight on how educators can shift from a means-end approach to operationalizing thinking in practice. The author identifies four attributes of critical thinking in practice evidenced in these views, followed by a discussion of specific educational strategies that reflect these attributes, and operationalize a critical thinking process in nursing practice to achieve a coherence of understanding. PMID:16646900

  14. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  15. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071

  16. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  17. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, T.R.; Vidal, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    This paper presents a novel class of special purpose processors referred to as ASOCS (adaptive self-organizing concurrent systems). Intended applications include adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, system malfunction management, and in general, applications of logic reasoning. ASOCS combines massive parallelism with self-organization to attain a distributed mechanism for adaptation. The ASOCS approach is based on an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements (nodes) which operate in a combinational and asynchronous fashion. Problem specification (programming) is obtained by presenting to the system if-then rules expressed as Boolean conjunctions. New rules are added incrementally. In the current model, when conflicts occur, precedence is given to the most recent inputs. With each rule, desired network response is simply presented to the system, following which the network adjusts itself to maintain consistency and parsimony of representation. Data processing and adaptation form two separate phases of operation. During processing, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit. Control of the adaptive process is distributed among the network nodes and efficiently exploits parallelism.

  18. An SEU immune logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canaris, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.

  19. Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian

    We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.

  20. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  1. Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Thinking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, W. Newton

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to enable students to think clearly and critically about the scientific process of research. The author emphasizes that the ability to think clearly about research methods, reason through complex problems, and evaluate published research are important in today's changing educational landscape. Students using this book will…

  2. Creative Thinking, Values and Design and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2005-01-01

    The development of Design and Technology curricula has always been premised on the importance of the act of designing and of the value of the contingent activity of creative thinking. Despite this, there has been a great deal of uncertainty about methods for developing creative thinking abilities in design and technology students. However, the…

  3. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  4. Using Critical Thinking Rubrics to Increase Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Julie W.; Grillo, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a way to measure students' abilities to think critically about concepts covered during academic support sessions. Tutors trained in a College Reading and Learning Association (CRLA)-certified program at the University of Louisville used a rubric based on the Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Model in order to…

  5. Using a Pseudoscience Activity to Teach Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Aimee; Manson, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we assessed the effectiveness of a classroom activity designed to increase students' ability to think critically. This activity involved watching and discussing an infomercial that contained pseudoscientific claims, thus incorporating course material on good research design and critical thinking. In Study 1, we used a…

  6. Promoting Reflective Thinking in Teachers. 44 Action Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Germaine L.; Wilson, Alfred P.

    This guide provides teacher educators and staff developers with strategies to enhance the reflective thinking abilities of preservice and inservice educators. Strategies for reflective thinking are approached at three levels: technical, contextual, and dialectical. Within each level, strategies have been field tested with populations of preservice…

  7. Increasing Students' Scientific Creativity: The "Learn to Think" Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Weiping; Wu, Baojun; Jia, Xiaojuan; Yi, Xinfa; Duan, Chunyan; Meyer, Winter; Kaufman, James C.

    2013-01-01

    The "Learn to Think" (LTT) Intervention Program was developed for raising thinking abilities of primary and secondary school students. It has been implemented in more than 300 schools, and more than 200,000 students took part in the experiment over a 10"year span. Several longitudinal intervention studies showed that LTT could promote the…

  8. Developing Minds: Programs for Teaching Thinking. Revised Edition, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L., Ed.

    This book contains 29 articles which address topics related to teaching thinking. The articles include: (1) "Balancing Process and Content" (Marilyn Jager Adams); (2) "Structure of Intellect (SOI)" (Mary N. Meeker); (3) "Instrumental Enrichment" (Francis R. Link); (4) "Thinking to Write: Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills and Abilities"…

  9. Instructional Strategies for the Development of Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grice, George L.

    Evidence suggests that instruction in thinking skills is neither widespread nor successful. Most students do not score well on tests that measure their ability to recognize assumptions, evaluate arguments, or appraise inferences. However, a number of educators believe that it is possible to teach thinking skills, and have suggested that the…

  10. Past and Future Episodic Thinking in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Capous, Diana; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Hou, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    The abilities of past and future episodic thinking develop hand in hand across the preschool years and are intimately connected in adults. Little is known, however, about the development of episodic thinking in middle childhood and how it is influenced by sociocultural factors. In the present study, one hundred sixty-seven 7- to 10-year-old…

  11. Creative and Critical Thinking, Teamwork, and Tomorrow's Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options. Business…

  12. Minesweeper and Hypothetical Thinking Action Research & Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research project and Pilot Study was designed and implemented to improve students' hypothetical thinking abilities by exploring the possibility that learning and playing the computer game Minesweeper may inherently help improve hypothetical thinking. One objective was to use educational tools to make it easier for students to learn the…

  13. Environmental Activities for Teaching Critical Thinking. [Environmental Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; Disinger, John F.

    The ability to think critically is essential if individuals are to live, work, and function effectively in our current and changing society. The activities included in this publication were selected to identify a variety of effective strategies for teaching critical thinking skills through environmental education. Activities include library…

  14. Fuzzy logic and coarse coding using programmable logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Geoffrey

    2009-05-01

    Naturally-occurring sensory signal processing algorithms, such as those that inspired fuzzy-logic control, can be integrated into non-naturally-occurring high-performance technology, such as programmable logic devices, to realize novel bio-inspired designs. Research is underway concerning an investigation into using field programmable logic devices (FPLD's) to implement fuzzy logic sensory processing. A discussion is provided concerning the commonality between bio-inspired fuzzy logic algorithms and coarse coding that is prevalent in naturally-occurring sensory systems. Undergraduate design projects using fuzzy logic for an obstacle-avoidance robot has been accomplished at our institution and other places; numerous other successful fuzzy logic applications can be found as well. The long-term goal is to leverage such biomimetic algorithms for future applications. This paper outlines a design approach for implementing fuzzy-logic algorithms into reconfigurable computing devices. This paper is presented in an effort to connect with others who may be interested in collaboration as well as to establish a starting point for future research.

  15. Human abilities.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J; Kaufman, J C

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments. PMID:9496630

  16. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  17. The geography of thinking.

    PubMed

    Mole, John

    2002-01-01

    People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863

  18. Proportional Reasoning in the Solution of Problems in High School Chemistry and Its Impact on Developing Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Janice M.

    The concept of the mole and its relationship to chemical algebra is difficult for many high school chemistry students to master. This paper describes a study of the use of proportional reasoning when teaching mole relationships and its effect on developing critical thinking skills. The Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT) was used as a pre- and…

  19. Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…

  20. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.

  1. A Logical Process Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  2. The logic of deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, A.

    1985-01-01

    In The Logic of Deterrence, Kenny presents a guide to the theory and ethics of the complicated subject of deterrence. Kenny begins by examining the necessary conditions for any war to be just and then applies these principles to the cases of limited and total nuclear war. He then critiques current deterrence policies of both East and West, concluding that they are based on a willingness to kill millions of innocent people and are morally wrong. In the final section of the book, Kenny offers proposals for nuclear disarmament. Charting a course ''between the illusory hopes of the multilateralists who seek disarmament by negotiating and the impractical idealism of those who call for immediate and total unilateral disarmament by the West,'' Kenny proposes a series of phased and partial unilateral steps by the West, coupled with pressure on the East to reciprocate.

  3. Oscillatory Threshold Logic

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034

  4. Partial quantum logics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetterlein, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras (PBAs) were introduced by Kochen and Specker as an algebraic model reflecting the mutual relationships among quantum-physical yes-no tests. The fact that not all pairs of tests are compatible was taken into special account. In this paper, we review PBAs from two sides. First, we generalise the concept, taking into account also those yes-no tests which are based on unsharp measurements. Namely, we introduce partial MV-algebras, and we define a corresponding logic. Second, we turn to the representation theory of PBAs. In analogy to the case of orthomodular lattices, we give conditions for a PBA to be isomorphic to the PBA of closed subspaces of a complex Hilbert space. Hereby, we do not restrict ourselves to purely algebraic statements; we rather give preference to conditions involving automorphisms of a PBA. We conclude by outlining a critical view on the logico-algebraic approach to the foundational problem of quantum physics.

  5. Quantificational logic of context

    SciTech Connect

    Buvac, Sasa

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.

  6. Ground State Spin Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James; Faccin, Mauro; Biamonte, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground-state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground-state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground-state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground-state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  7. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  8. Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Sacramento.

    A 1986 policy instituted by the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges calls for strengthening the rigor and academic standards of all college-level courses to be counted toward the associate degree. The policy calls for all courses to promote students' ability to think critically. One of the first difficulties encountered by…

  9. Do Tests Show More than "Test Think"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylone, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Achievement gaps in standardized tests consist of the differences between test scores of students of color and those of white students and between scores of poor children and those of their wealthier peers. Maylone determines student testing behaviors, herein referred to as TestThink, which reflect differences in students' abilities to behave in…

  10. Effect of GIS Learning on Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…

  11. Measurements of Divergent and Complex Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Dona M.

    1988-01-01

    The degree to which tests of divergent production may be confounded by verbal ability and loquacity; and relationships among divergent thinking, social competency, and the syntactic complexity of prose written by 61 fifth and sixth graders were assessed. Complex thinkers may appreciate the value of simplicity in facilitating communication. (TJH)

  12. Assessing Higher Thinking Skills through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braungart-Bloom, Diane S.

    This paper reports on the New Jersey State Department of Education's research process for developing a scoring rubric that assesses test objectives and higher order thinking skills through writing. New Jersey's statewide assessment program includes a written essay portion to test students' ability to write on a given topic and communicate an…

  13. An Evaluation of Critical Thinking Competencies in Business Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Boswell, Amy; Elliott, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Although critical thinking (CT) skills are usually considered as domain general (Gabbenesch, 2006; Halpern, 2003), CT ability may benefit from expertise knowledge and skill. The current study examined both general CT ability and CT ability related to business scenarios for individuals (a) expert in business, (b) novice in business, and (c) with no…

  14. Pathway to the Piezoelectronic Transduction Logic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, P. M.; Bryce, B. A.; Kuroda, M. A.; Keech, R.; Shetty, S.; Shaw, T. M.; Copel, M.; Hung, L.-W.; Schrott, A. G.; Armstrong, C.; Gordon, M. S.; Reuter, K. B.; Theis, T. N.; Haensch, W.; Rossnagel, S. M.; Miyazoe, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Liu, X.-H.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Martyna, G. J.; Newns, D. M.

    2015-04-01

    The information age challenges computer technology to process an exponentially increasing computational load on a limited energy budget - a requirement that demands an exponential reduction in energy per operation. In digital logic circuits, the switching energy of present FET devices is intimately connected with the switching voltage, and can no longer be lowered sufficiently, limiting the ability of current technology to address the challenge. Quantum computing offers a leap forward in capability, but a clear advantage requires algorithms presently developed for only a small set of applications. Therefore, a new, general purpose, classical technology based on a different paradigm is needed to meet the ever increasing demand for data processing.

  15. The Logical Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The same software controlling autonomous and crew-assisted operations for the International Space Station (ISS) is enabling commercial enterprises to integrate and automate manual operations, also known as decision logic, in real time across complex and disparate networked applications, databases, servers, and other devices, all with quantifiable business benefits. Auspice Corporation, of Framingham, Massachusetts, developed the Auspice TLX (The Logical Extension) software platform to effectively mimic the human decision-making process. Auspice TLX automates operations across extended enterprise systems, where any given infrastructure can include thousands of computers, servers, switches, and modems that are connected, and therefore, dependent upon each other. The concept behind the Auspice software spawned from a computer program originally developed in 1981 by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory for simulating tasks performed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Space Shuttle Program was dependent upon paper-based procedures for its manned space missions, which typically averaged 2 weeks in duration. As the Shuttle Program progressed, NASA began increasing the length of manned missions in preparation for a more permanent space habitat. Acknowledging the need to relinquish paper-based procedures in favor of an electronic processing format to properly monitor and manage the complexities of these longer missions, NASA realized that Draper's task simulation software could be applied to its vision of year-round space occupancy. In 1992, Draper was awarded a NASA contract to build User Interface Language software to enable autonomous operations of a multitude of functions on Space Station Freedom (the station was redesigned in 1993 and converted into the international venture known today as the ISS)

  16. Logic, Beliefs, and Instruction: A Test of the Default Interventionist Account of Belief Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Simon J.; Newstead, Stephen E.; Trippas, Dries

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the…

  17. Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

  18. Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Thomas G.

    Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…

  19. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  20. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  1. Power optimization in logic isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.

  2. Photonic encryption using all optical logic.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2003-12-01

    With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an

  3. The Effects of Learning a Computer Programming Language on the Logical Reasoning of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Robert H.

    The research reported in this paper explores the syntactical and semantic link between computer programming statements and logical principles, and addresses the effects of learning a programming language on logical reasoning ability. Fifth grade students in a public school in Syracuse, New York, were randomly selected as subjects, and then…

  4. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  5. Computerized logic design of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gussow, S.; Oglesby, R.

    1974-01-01

    Procedure performs all work required for logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and simplification of Boolean expressions. Program provides simple, accurate, and comprehensive logic design capability to users both experienced and totally inexperienced in logic design

  6. MLS, a magnetic logic simulator for magnetic bubble logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, Thomas B.; Cendes, Zoltan J.

    1987-04-01

    A computer program that simulates the logic functions of magnetic bubble devices has been developed. The program uses a color graphics screen to display the locations of bubbles on a chip during operation. It complements the simulator previously developed for modeling bubble devices on the gate level [Smith et al., IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 1835 (1983); Smith and Kryder, ibid. MAG-21, 1779 (1985)]. This new tool simplifies the design and testing of bubble logic devices, and facilitates the development of complicated LSI bubble circuits. The program operation is demonstrated with the design of an in-stream faulty loop compensator using bubble logic.

  7. An Hypothesis on Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclennan, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that there exists a "finite" number of elementary concepts and distinguishable modes of thinking, that all human beings tend to acquire the same set of elements of thinking and the same strategies with which to understand and control their physical environment, and that the method of analysis used here is a standard scientific method.…

  8. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of paper; (4) Mobile phones…

  9. Thinking in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Ruth A.

    It is proposed that a major obstacle for intermediate-level learners of English as a Second Language is the transition from thinking in the native language to thinking in English, that this transition must be made before proceeding from the intermediate level, and that it should begin as early as possible in language training. Early in-class…

  10. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

  11. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  12. The Global Thinking Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassard, Jack; Weisburg, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Global Thinking Project, a collaborative effort between Georgia State University and the Russian Academy of Pedagogical Sciences to develop strategies, methods, and teaching materials to help students think globally. Students are connected through the AppleLink network. Student and teacher attitudes toward the project are reported.…

  13. Critical Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the debates in the field of critical thinking by highlighting differences among thinkers such as Siegel, Ennis, Paul, McPeck, and Martin, and poses some questions that arise from these debates. Does rationality transcend particular cultures, or are there different kinds of thinking, different styles of reasoning? What…

  14. Thinking inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  15. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  16. Computational Thinking in Compulsory Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Fisser, Petra; Good, Jon; Mishra, Punya; Yadav, Aman

    2015-01-01

    Computational Thinking is considered a universal competence, which should be added to every child's analytical ability as a vital ingredient of their school learning. In this article we further elaborate on what Computational Thinking is and present examples of what needs to be taught and how. First we position Computational Thinking in Papert's…

  17. L.A.N.D. Critical Thinking Workshop with Applications for Developmental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John K.

    Guidelines are provided for the development of a community college course in critical thinking. The first sections offer an overview of the nature and basic concepts of critical thinking, indicating that: (1) the skills developed in critical thinking classes include the ability to formulate a clear statement of a thesis or problem, evaluate…

  18. WebQuests: Can They Be Used To Improve Critical Thinking Skills in Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Kimberly L.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses WebQuest, an inquiry-oriented Web-based classroom learning tool, in terms of its applicability to classroom learning situations, particularly its ability to inspire critical thinking. Compares WebQuest to a critical thinking framework to determine its effectiveness in inspiring critical thinking skills. (Author/LRW)

  19. Project ACT (A Project to Advance Critical Thinking). Project Termination Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Chang-Yil

    The goal of this project was to develop a sequential program for the development of critical thinking skills that could be extended to all the elementary schools in the school district. The major objectives were: (1) to enhance teachers' ability to think critically, practice in their classrooms teaching strategies to develop pupils' thinking, and…

  20. Contradicting logics in everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Margrethe; Obstfelder, Aud; Lotherington, Ann Therese

    2016-03-21

    Purpose - Performance management is criticised as a direct challenge to the dominant logic of professionalism in health care organisations. The purpose of this paper is to report an ethnographic study that investigates how performance management and professionalism as contradicting logics are interpreted and implemented by managers and nurses in everyday practice within Norwegian nursing homes. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents an analysis of 18 semistructured interviews and 100 hours of observation of managers and nurses from three nursing homes. The study draws on the institutional logic perspective as a theoretical framework. In the analysis, the authors searched for patterns of activities and interactions that reflected managers and nurses' coping strategies for handling contradicting logics. Qualitative content analysis was used to systematically code the data, supported by NVIVO software. Findings - The authors identified three forms of coping strategies: the adjustment of professionalism to standards, the reinforcement of professional flexibility and problem solving, and the strategic adoption of documentation. These patterns of activities and interactions reflect new organisational structures that allowed contradicting logics to co-exist. The study demonstrates that a new complex dimension of governing processes within nursing homes is the way in which managers and nurses handle the tension between contradicting logics in their daily work and clinicians' everyday practice. Originality/value - The study provides new insight into how managers and nurses reshape internal organisational structures to cope with contradicting logics in nursing homes. PMID:26964849

  1. Becoming Dishuman: Thinking about the Human through Dis/Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodley, Daniel; Runswick-Cole, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to develop an understanding of the human driven by a commitment to the politics of disability, especially those of people with intellectual disabilities. Our position as family members and allies to people associated with this phenomenon of intellectual disability influences our philosophical conceptions and political…

  2. Critical Thinking: Thinking to Some Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Argues that students should continuously question the purpose of their daily classroom activities and assignments. Explains that when students are required to consider purpose, they begin to develop important intellectual skills, and to bring relevance to their critical thinking and daily life. (NB)

  3. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen Chien

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.

  4. Suicide as social logic.

    PubMed

    Kral, M J

    1994-01-01

    Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide. PMID:7825197

  5. The Logic of Reachability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.

  6. Logic synthesis of cascade circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrevskii, A. D.

    The work reviews aspects of the logic design of cascade circuits, particularly programmable logic matrices. Effective methods for solving various problems of the analysis and synthesis of these devices are examined; these methods are based on a matrix representation of the structure of these devices, and a vector-matrix interpretation of certain aspects of Boolean algebra. Particular consideration is given to the theory of elementary matrix circuits, methods for the minimization of Boolean functions, the synthesis of programmable logic matrices, multilevel combinational networks, and the development of automata with memory.

  7. Developing strategic thinking in senior management.

    PubMed

    Zabriskie, N B; Huellmantel, A B

    1991-12-01

    Chief Executive Officers have recently stated that their greatest staffing challenge for the 1990s is the development of strategic leadership in their senior management. In order to do this, it is necessary to identify the substance of strategic thinking, and the capabilities that must be mastered. Writers on strategy have identified six major elements of strategic thinking and these have been organized to reveal the tasks, questions, decisions, and skills that senior executives must acquire in order to lead their organizations strategically. Finally, the article identifies training programme elements which are used by Directors of Manpower Development to develop strategic leadership ability. PMID:10118696

  8. Goods-thinking vs. tree-thinking: Finding a place for mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    McInerney, James; Cummins, Carla; Haggerty, Leanne

    2011-11-01

    While it has become increasingly clear that the Tree of Life hypothesis has limitations in its ability to describe the evolution of all evolving entities on the planet, there has been a marked reluctance to move away from the tree-based language. Ironically, while modifying the idea of the Tree of Life to the extent that it is only very distantly related to its original descriptions, there has been a very careful attempt to retain the language of tree-thinking. The recent movement away from a tree-thinking language toward a goods-thinking language and perspective is a significant improvement. In this commentary, we describe how goods-thinking can provide better descriptions of evolution, can integrate evolution with environment more closely and can offer an equal place for Mobile Genetic Elements and chromosomal elements in discussions of evolutionary history. PMID:22545244

  9. Thinking laterally about genomes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Mark A

    2009-10-01

    Perhaps the most-surprising discovery of the genome era has been the extent to which prokaryotic and many eukaryotic genomes incorporate genetic material from sources other than their parent(s). Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) among bacteria was first observed about 100 years ago, and is now accepted to underlie important phenomena including the spread of antibiotic resistance and ability to degrade xenobiotics. LGT is invoked, perhaps too readily, to explain a breadth of awkward data including compositional heterogeneity of genomes, disagreement among gene-sequence trees, and mismatch between physiology and systematics. At the same time many details of LGT remain unknown or controversial, and some key questions have scarcely been asked. Here I critically review what we think we know about the existence, extent, mechanism and impact of LGT; identify important open questions; and point to research directions that hold particular promise for elucidating the role of LGT in genome evolution. Evidence for LGT in nature is not only inferential but also direct, and potential vectors are ubiquitous. Genetic material can pass between diverse habitats and be significantly altered during residency in viruses, complicating the inference of donors, In prokaryotes about twice as many genes are interrupted by LGT as are transferred intact, and about 5Short protein domains can be privileged units of transfer. Unresolved phylogenetic issues include the correct null hypothesis, and genes as units of analysis. Themes are beginning to emerge regarding the effect of LGT on cellular networks, but I show why generalization is premature. LGT can associate with radical changes in physiology and ecological niche. Better quantitative models of genome evolution are needed, and theoretical frameworks remain to be developed for some observations including chromosome assembly by LGT. PMID:20180279

  10. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  11. How mental health nurses improve their critical thinking through problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking. PMID:25993456

  12. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  13. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  14. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša

    2010-08-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  15. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  16. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  17. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  18. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  19. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  20. What Hong Kong Teachers and Parents Think about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mei-Yung Lam; Lim, Swee Eng; Ma, Jung Chen; Adams, Leah D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong regarding what constitutes thinking skills, the importance of thinking skills in children's lives, strategies they use to foster thinking skills in young children, and their perceived roles in facilitating thinking skills. Responses revealed the need for more…

  1. Learning with touchscreen devices: game strategies to improve geometric thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The theoretical background of our study lies in the works of J. Hintikka, a Finnish logician, who developed a new type of logic, based on game theory, called the logic of inquiry. In order to experiment with this new approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics, we have prepared five game-activities based on geometric theorems in which two players play against each other in a multi-touch dynamic geometric environment (DGE). In this paper, we present the design of the first game-activity and the relationship between it and the logic of inquiry. Then, adopting the theoretical framework of the instrumental genesis by Vérillon and Rabardel (EJPE 10: 77-101, 1995), we will present and analyse significant actions and dialogues developed by students while they are solving the game. We focus on the presence of a particular way of playing the game introduced by the students, the "reflected game", and highlight its functions for the development of the task.

  2. Computational thinking in life science education.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-11-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  3. Computational Thinking in Life Science Education

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-01-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational “culture.” The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  4. Application of linear logic to simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  5. Pass transistor implementations of multivalued logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, G.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple straight-forward Karnaugh map logic design procedure for realization of multiple-valued logic circuits is presented in this paper. Pass transistor logic gates are used to realize multiple-valued networks. This work is an extension of pass transistor implementations for binary-valued logic.

  6. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  7. Do Babies Think? How Do Babies Think? Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    Prior to considering the ability of infants to think, this discussion attempts to dispel prevalent myths about babies' thought processes. The fact that infants do not intentionally manipulate their parents; are not identical; are not simply hedonistic seekers of bodily pleasures; and are not passive, disorganized beings needing training into…

  8. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  9. Seeing Thinking on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daisy; Wineburg, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Teaching a way of thinking requires making thinking visible. Educators need to pull back the curtains from historical cognition to show students not only what historians think, but "how" they think. Given that many students believe that history is a single story to be committed to memory and that texts speak for themselves, teaching historical…

  10. The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Pre-Service Middle School Teachers' Knowledge of Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiera, Marta T.; van den Kieboom, Leigh A.; Moyer, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Using algebraic habits of mind as a framework, and focusing on thinking about functions and how they work, we examined the relationship between 18 pre-service middle school teachers' ability to use the features of the algebraic thinking (AT) habit of mind "Building Rules to Represent Functions" and their ability to recognize and…

  12. Comparison of Diachronic Thinking and Event Ordering in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brandy D.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rabin, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Two main theoretical constructs seek to describe the elaborated sense of time that may be a uniquely human attribute: diachronic thinking (the ability to think about the past and use that information to predict future events) and event ordering (the ability to sequence events in temporal order). Researchers utilize various tasks to measure the…

  13. Design and performance comparison of fuzzy logic based tracking controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    Several camera tracking controllers based on fuzzy logic principles have been designed and tested in software simulation in the software technology branch at the Johnson Space Center. The fuzzy logic based controllers utilize range measurement and pixel positions from the image as input parameters and provide pan and tilt gimble rate commands as output. Two designs of the rulebase and tuning process applied to the membership functions are discussed in light of optimizing performance. Seven test cases have been designed to test the performance of the controllers for proximity operations where approaches like v-bar, fly-around and station keeping are performed. The controllers are compared in terms of responsiveness, and ability to maintain the object in the field-of-view of the camera. Advantages of the fuzzy logic approach with respect to the conventional approach have been discussed in terms of simplicity and robustness.

  14. Experiments on neural network architectures for fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of fuzzy logic to model and manage uncertainty in a rule-based system places high computational demands on an inference engine. In an earlier paper, the authors introduced a trainable neural network structure for fuzzy logic. These networks can learn and extrapolate complex relationships between possibility distributions for the antecedents and consequents in the rules. Here, the power of these networks is further explored. The insensitivity of the output to noisy input distributions (which are likely if the clauses are generated from real data) is demonstrated as well as the ability of the networks to internalize multiple conjunctive clause and disjunctive clause rules. Since different rules with the same variables can be encoded in a single network, this approach to fuzzy logic inference provides a natural mechanism for rule conflict resolution.

  15. Boolean and fuzzy logic implemented at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, Pier Luigi

    2007-07-01

    In this work, it is shown how to implement both hard and soft computing by means of two structurally related heterocyclic compounds: flindersine (FL) and 6(5H)-phenanthridinone (PH). Since FL and PH have a carbonyl group in their molecular skeletons, they exhibit Proximity Effects in their photophysics. In other words, they have an emission power that can be modulated through external inputs such as temperature ( T) and hydrogen-bonding donation (HBD) ability of solvents. This phenomenology can be exploited to implement both crisp and fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLSs) wherein the antecedents of the rules are connected through the AND operator, are built by both the Mamdani's and Sugeno's models. Finally, they are adopted as approximators of the proximity effect phenomenon and tested for their prediction capabilities. Moreover, FL as photochromic compound is also a multiply configurable crisp logic molecular element.

  16. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  17. Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms

    SciTech Connect

    Perlovsky, L.I.

    1996-12-31

    Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.

  18. Do Active-Learning Strategies Improve Students' Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…

  19. Monitoring Reading Comprehension by Thinking Aloud. Instructional Resource No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; And Others

    A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…

  20. N channel JFET based digital logic gate structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topography is presented which is used to create usable digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the direct current (DC) parametric distributions of those JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state of the art in high temperature, for example 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and higher, silicon carbide (SiC) device production. The ability to produce inverting and combinatorial logic enables the production of pulse and edge triggered latches. This scale of logic synthesis would bring digital logic and state machine capabilities to devices operating in extremely hot environments, such as the surface of Venus, near hydrothermal vents, within nuclear reactors (SiC is inherently radiation hardened), and within internal combustion engines. The basic logic gate can be configured as a driver for oscillator circuits allowing for time bases and simple digitizers for resistive or reactive sensors. The basic structure of this innovation, the inverter, can be reconfigured into various analog circuit topographies through the use of feedback structures.

  1. Optimization Approaches for Designing Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Reversible logic is emerging as a promising alternative for applications in low-power design and quantum computation in recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation, which is an important research area in low power VLSI and ULSI designs. Many important contributions have been made in the literatures towards the reversible implementations of arithmetic and logical structures; however, there have not been many efforts directed towards efficient approaches for designing reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this study, three efficient approaches are presented and their implementations in the design of reversible ALUs are demonstrated. Three new designs of reversible one-digit arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic has been presented in this article. This paper provides explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations with respect to the minimization of cost metrics. The architectures of the designs have been proposed in which each block is realized using elementary quantum logic gates. Then, reversible implementations of the proposed designs are analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that the proposed designs are cost-effective compared with the existing counterparts. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.

  2. Critical Thinking Disposition and Skills in Dental Students: Development and Relationship to Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N

    2016-08-01

    Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school. PMID:27480706

  3. Functional neuroimaging: technical, logical, and social perspectives.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists have long sought to study the dynamic activity of the human brain-what's happening in the brain, that is, while people are thinking, feeling, and acting. Ideally, an inside look at brain function would simultaneously and continuously measure the biochemical state of every cell in the central nervous system. While such a miraculous method is science fiction, a century of progress in neuroimaging technologies has made such simultaneous and continuous measurement a plausible fiction. Despite this progress, practitioners of modern neuroimaging struggle with two kinds of limitations: those that attend the particular neuroimaging methods we have today and those that would limit any method of imaging neural activity, no matter how powerful. In this essay, I consider the liabilities and potential of techniques that measure human brain activity. I am concerned here only with methods that measure relevant physiologic states of the central nervous system and relate those measures to particular mental states. I will consider in particular the preeminent method of functional neuroimaging: BOLD fMRI. While there are several practical limits on the biological information that current technologies can measure, these limits-as important as they are-are minor in comparison to the fundamental logical restraints on the conclusions that can be drawn from brain imaging studies. PMID:24634086

  4. Cognitive dynamic logic algorithms for situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, L. I.; Ilin, R.

    2010-04-01

    Autonomous situational awareness (SA) requires an ability to learn situations. It is mathematically difficult because in every situation there are many objects nonessential for this situation. Moreover, most objects around are random, unrelated to understanding contexts and situations. We learn in early childhood to ignore these irrelevant objects effortlessly, usually we do not even notice their existence. Here we consider an agent that can recognize a large number of objects in the world; in each situation it observes many objects, while only few of them are relevant to the situation. Most of situations are collections of random objects containing no relevant objects, only few situations "make sense," they contain few objects, which are always present in these situations. The training data contains sufficient information to identify these situations. However, to discover this information all objects in all situations should be sorted out to find regularities. This "sorting out" is computationally complex; its combinatorial complexity exceeds by far all events in the Universe. The talk relates this combinatorial complexity to Gödelian limitations of logic. We describe dynamic logic (DL) that quickly learns essential regularities-relevant, repeatable objects and situations. DL is related to mechanisms of the brain-mind and we describe brain-imaging experiments that have demonstrated these relations.

  5. Some logical functions of joint control.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenkron, B

    1998-01-01

    Constructing a behavioral account of the language-related performances that characterize responding to logical and symbolic relations between stimuli is commonly viewed as a problem for the area of stimulus control. In response to this problem, the notion of joint control is presented here, and its ability to provide an interpretative account of these kinds of performances is explored. Joint control occurs when the currently rehearsed topography of a verbal operant, as evoked by one stimulus, is simultaneously evoked by another stimulus. This event, the onset of joint stimulus control by two stimuli over a common response topography, then sets the occasion for a response appropriate to this special relation between the stimuli. Although the mechanism described is simple, it seems to have broad explanatory properties. In what follows, these properties are applied to provide a behavioral interpretation of two sorts of fundamental, putatively cognitive, performances: those based on logical relations and those based on semantic relations. The first includes responding to generalized conceptual relations such as identity, order, relative size, distance, and orientation. The second includes responding to relations usually ascribed to word meaning. These include relations between words and objects, the specification of objects by words, name-object bidirectionality, and the recognition of objects from their description. Finally, as a preview of some further possibilities, the role of joint control in goal-oriented behavior is considered briefly. PMID:9599452

  6. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  7. Intersecting Adjectives in Syllogistic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Lawrence S.

    The goal of natural logic is to present and study logical systems for reasoning with sentences of (or which are reasonably close to) ordinary language. This paper explores simple systems of natural logic which make use of intersecting adjectives; these are adjectives whose interpretation does not vary with the noun they modify. Our project in this paper is to take one of the simplest syllogistic fragments, that of all and some, and to add intersecting adjectives. There are two ways to do this, depending on whether one allows iteration or prefers a "flat" structure of at most one adjective. We present rules of inference for both types of syntax, and these differ. The main results are four completeness theorems: for each of the two types of syntax we have completeness for the all fragment and for the full language of this paper.

  8. [Effects of situational and individual variables on critical thinking expression].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Kusumi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined when people decide to choose an expression that is based on critical thinking, and how situational and individual variables affect such a decision process. Given a conversation scenario including overgeneralization with two friends, participants decided whether to follow the conversation by a critical-thinking expression or not. The authors controlled purpose and topic as situational variables, and measured critical-thinking ability, critical-thinking disposition, and self-monitoring as individual variables. We conducted an experiment in which the situational variables were counterbalanced in a within-subject design with 60 university students. The results of logistic regression analysis showed differences within individuals in the decision process whether to choose a critical-thinking expression, and that some situational factors and some subscales of the individual measurements were related to the differences. PMID:27180514

  9. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  10. Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage. PMID:25220698

  11. High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Lu, Y.C.; Cheng, J.; Hafich, M.J.; Klem, J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Programmable optical logic operations are demonstrated using arrays of nonlatching binary optical switches consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, p-i-n photodetectors and heterojunction bipolar transistors. Individual arrays can perform Boolean optical logic functions at 100 Mb/s using both optical and electrical logic inputs, while the routing and fan-out of the optical logic outputs can be controlled at the gate level. Cascaded optical logic operation is demonstrated using two programmable logic gate arrays.

  12. The semantics of fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.

  13. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  14. Quantum Decoherence: A Logical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Sebastian; Vanni, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The so-called classical limit of quantum mechanics is generally studied in terms of the decoherence of the state operator that characterizes a system. This is not the only possible approach to decoherence. In previous works we have presented the possibility of studying the classical limit in terms of the decoherence of relevant observables of the system. On the basis of this approach, in this paper we introduce the classical limit from a logical perspective, by studying the way in which the logical structure of quantum properties corresponding to relevant observables acquires Boolean characteristics.

  15. Mental Models of Invisible Logical Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Subjects were required to discover the structure of a logical network whose links were invisible. Network structure had to be inferred from the behavior of the components after a failure. It was hypothesized that since such failure diagnosis tasks often draw on spatial processes, a good deal of spatial complexity in the network should affect network discovery. Results show that the ability to discover the linkages in the network is directly related to the spatial complexity of the pathway described by the linkages. This effect was generally independent of the amount of evidence available to subjects about the existence of the link. These results raise the question of whether inferences about spatially complex pathways were simply not made, or whether they were made but not retained because of a high load on memory resources.

  16. Synthesis of logic circuits with evolutionary algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,JAKE S.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.

    2000-01-26

    In the last decade there has been interest and research in the area of designing circuits with genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, and genetic programming. However, the ability to design circuits of the size and complexity required by modern engineering design problems, simply by specifying required outputs for given inputs has as yet eluded researchers. This paper describes current research in the area of designing logic circuits using an evolutionary algorithm. The goal of the research is to improve the effectiveness of this method and make it a practical aid for design engineers. A novel method of implementing the algorithm is introduced, and results are presented for various multiprocessing systems. In addition to evolving standard arithmetic circuits, work in the area of evolving circuits that perform digital signal processing tasks is described.

  17. Thinking and Writing Mathematically: "Achilles and the Tortoise" as an Algebraic Word Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Joseph G. R.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces Hogben's adaptation of Zeno's paradox, "Achilles and the Tortoise", as a thinking and writing exercise. Emphasizes engaging students' imagination with creative, thought-provoking problems and involving students in evaluating their word problem-solving strategies. Describes the paradox, logical solutions, and students' mathematical…

  18. A Role for Theatre in the Education, Training and Thinking Processes of Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Christos; Liotas, Naum

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for managers to possess hard-to-obtain skills in today's complex business environment. To achieve this, they need to expand their borders of knowledge beyond the barriers that logic imposes. This has to be reflected in managers' education, training and thinking processes. The first part of the paper examines how…

  19. Using Interactive Management to Facilitate a Student-Centred Conceptualisation of Critical Thinking: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Hogan, Michael J.; Harney, Owen M.; O'Reilly, John

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is a metacognitive process, consisting of a number of sub-skills and dispositions, that, when used appropriately, increases the chances of producing a logical solution to a problem or a valid conclusion to an argument. CT has been identified as a fundamental learning objective of third-level education; however, students…

  20. Development of Critical Thinking Self-Assessment System Using Wearable Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    In this research the author defines critical thinking as skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of meta-cognitive activities on one's own problem-solving processes. The author focuses on providing meta-cognitive knowledge to help with self-assessment. To develop…

  1. Critical Thinking: Intellectual Standards Essential to Reasoning well within Every Domain of Human Thought, Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the last two columns in this critical thinking series we briefly introduced and discussed the concept of intellectual standards in connection with natural languages. We presented nine essential intellectual standards: clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, depth, breadth, logicalness, significance, and fairness. These nine intellectual…

  2. A Systematic Approach to Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Electrical and Computer Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Karla Conn; Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James

    2015-01-01

    Coursework that instills patterns of rigorous logical thought has long been a hallmark of the engineering curriculum. However, today's engineering students are expected to exhibit a wider range of thinking capabilities both to satisfy ABET requirements and to prepare the students to become successful practitioners. This paper presents the initial…

  3. Paper-and-Pencil Programming Strategy toward Computational Thinking for Non-Majors: Design Your Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byeongsu; Kim, Taehun; Kim, Jonghoon

    2013-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil programming strategy (PPS) is a way of representing an idea logically by any representation that can be created using paper and pencil. It was developed for non-computer majors to improve their understanding and use of computational thinking and increase interest in learning computer science. A total of 110 non-majors in their…

  4. Promoting Graphical Thinking: Using Temperature and a Graphing Calculator to Teach Kinetics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    A combination of graphical thinking with chemical and physical theories in the classroom is encouraged by using the Calculator-Based Laboratory System (CBL) with a temperature sensor and graphing calculator. The theory of first-order kinetics is logically explained with the aid of the cooling or heating of the metal bead of the CBL's temperature…

  5. Developing Thinking Skills within the Context of the Existing Secondary Curriculum: The Case of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul

    Topics and issues which are central features of current secondary school economics curricula can be used to develop two aspects of students' thinking skills: (1) the development of problem-solving skills, and (2) the recognition of logical fallacies. The efficacy of economics instruction as a vehicle for developing student problem-solving skills…

  6. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages. PMID:10174449

  7. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  8. Miniaturization of magnetic logic circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baba, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetic logic circuit design features two ferrite materials, with different formulation and magnetic characteristics, which are bonded into a continuous structure by preparing the materials as a slurry and using the doctor blade method to form flexible ferrite sheets. After firing, the sintering process was continuous across the bond.

  9. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  10. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  11. Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.

  12. Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…

  13. Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school and high school students have a conception of what the basic demands of logic are, and they draw on this understanding in anticipating certain demands of parents and teachers when the adolescents have to defend positions. At the same time, many adolescents struggle to "write" highly elaborated arguments. Teaching students lessons in…

  14. The Temporal Logic Model Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Molly

    2002-01-01

    Proposes an alternative program logic model based on the concepts of learning organizations and systems theory. By redefining time as an evolutionary process, the model provides a space for stakeholders to record changes in program context, interim assessments, and program modifications. (SLD)

  15. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  16. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  17. Implementing Exclusive-OR Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two integrated circuits, BCD-to-decimal decoder and four-input NAND gate, form basic four, input XOR circuit. Multiple-input exclusive-OR logic is implemented by combining several basic elements. 16-input XOR gate is assembled from five NAND gates and five decoders. Same principle extended to handle more inputs.

  18. Coreflections in Algebraic Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Bart; Mandemaker, Jorik

    2012-07-01

    Various generalizations of Boolean algebras are being studied in algebraic quantum logic, including orthomodular lattices, orthomodular po-sets, orthoalgebras and effect algebras. This paper contains a systematic study of the structure in and between categories of such algebras. It does so via a combination of totalization (of partially defined operations) and transfer of structure via coreflections.

  19. The Logic of Research Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael; Coryn, Chris L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors offer suggestions about logical distinctions often overlooked in the evaluation of research, beginning with a strong plea not to treat technology as applied science, and especially not to treat research in technology as important only if it makes a contribution to scientific knowledge. They argue that the frameworks illustrated in this…

  20. Soft computing and fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    Soft computing is a collection of methodologies that aim to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness, and low solution cost. Its principal constituents are fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, and probabilistic reasoning. Soft computing is likely to play an increasingly important role in many application areas, including software engineering. The role model for soft computing is the human mind.

  1. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  2. Thinking Like a Ssssscientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…

  3. Learning How to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, John C.; Cracolice, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching strategies are becoming increasingly oriented toward guiding students' knowledge construction through cooperative learning. Enhancing students' cognitive development is a priority; students must "learn how to think." Inquiry instruction provides students with tools to make decisions based upon available evidence and an opportunity to…

  4. Learning to Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Social Studies Project.

    Having a twofold purpose, this booklet serves as an instructional guide for teachers and as a text for junior high students. Emphasis is upon students learning to think reflectively about major issues facing a Democratic society and to analyze various claims that they read and hear everyday in the world around them. An objective of the study is to…

  5. [A seminar for thinking?].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care. PMID:25095584

  6. Enhancing Learning and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 16 papers on programs and approaches that have been developed around the world to enhance learning and thinking skills for children and adults. Papers are divided among three main sections focussing respectively on issues and applications, specific applications to school content, and assessment and evaluation. Papers have the…

  7. Thinking about Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Jere

    This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…

  8. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  9. Creativity as Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies four characteristics of the creative endeavor: (1) musical imagination; (2) model of the creative process; (3) measures of creative aptitude; and (4) the observation of creative behavior. Examines the role of technology in creativity, and contends that creative thinking can be measured. Includes suggested readings. (RW)

  10. Creative Thinking in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Maud; Webster, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of creativity, focusing on music education. Emphasizes the four "p's" while examining the meaning of creativity: (1) the creative person; (2) the creative process; (3) the creative product; and (4) the creative place. Addresses how creative thinking can be at the center of teaching. (CMK)

  11. Thinking Copernican Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    The governor of Colorado explores two views related to causes of energy shortage: inadequate supply and excessive demand. Supports both increased supply and decreased demand, but offers reasons for conservation and adjustment in habits and thinking. The synthetic fuels program of Colorado is mentioned as an example. (CS)

  12. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  13. Teaching Thinking Skills: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narode, Ronald; And Others

    This document addresses some of the factors involved in teaching critical thinking skills in the science classroom. It contains sections that deal with: (1) pair problem solving--creating a Socratic learning environment (emphasizes the role of the teacher); (2) writing to learn science (the thought-process protocol); (3) integrating science…

  14. Developing Thinking in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

  15. Thinking Like a Mathematician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael K.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to think like a mathematician? One of the great paradoxes of mathematics education is that, although mathematics teachers are immersed in mathematical work every day of their professional lives, most of them nevertheless have little experience with the kind of work that research mathematicians do. Their ideas of what doing…

  16. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  17. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  18. Thinking and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

  19. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  20. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition planning…

  1. Thinking and Believing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freie, John F.

    1987-01-01

    Critical thinking is seldom effective at encouraging students to challenge and examine preconceived positions. There is a tendency to use the rigorous questioning methods to defend preconceived positions and deflect the serious consideration of alternatives. An exercise that focused on the Cuban missile crisis is described. (MLW)

  2. Remember to Just Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    This article picks up on columnist Mike Barnicle's lazy style and "I was just thinking" format in his column for the "Boston Globe." Using that model, John Harney shares a few of his thoughts on various education topics such as co ops, "competency-based education," and making civics part of the curriculum at…

  3. Tools for Smarter Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    You read in the paper this morning that people who take multivitamins have fewer heart attacks and are less likely to get cancer than people who don't. Does this information make you more likely to want to take multivitamins? To truly prepare students for life, schools need to teach them the critical thinking skills they need to answer questions…

  4. Creative Thinking through Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolf, Jane W.

    Common questions that children ask can promote creative thinking. The question, "What will happen if...?" can set the stage for creative problem solving by encouraging the use of the scientific method. The scientific method involves learning how to hypothesize, recording procedures for experimentation, developing skills in observation and data…

  5. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  6. Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

  7. Thinking like an Ecologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  8. Writing, Thinking and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the potential of word processors for changing the ways in which students process written text and think about writing. Three levels of computer-aided writing are considered: simple word processors; computer-aided writing programs; and higher-level computer-aided processing; and improvements in writing quality. (41 references) (LRW)

  9. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  10. Creativity and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollen, Patsy Phillips

    How to deal with the absence of creativity and critical thinking in the educational setting is discussed. All efforts to improve education will be futile if we don't take into account the absence of relationship among the participants and between the participants and the content of education. Relationship--i.e., connecting with others and with…

  11. Knowing Is Not Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    What disturbs teachers most is not students' ignorance about our culture and history, but their unwillingness or inability to think critically about subjects that ostensibly interest them. Teachers often exacerbate this problem by oversimplifying complex issues, using "defensive" or controlling teaching strategies, and squelching debate. (MLH)

  12. Nurturing Creative, Thinking Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…

  13. SASIL. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD`s (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL`s (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  14. Quantum Logics of Idempotents of Unital Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikchentaev, Airat; Navara, Mirko; Yakushev, Rinat

    2015-06-01

    We introduce some new examples of quantum logics of idempotents in a ring. We continue the study of symmetric logics, i.e., collections of subsets generalizing Boolean algebras and closed under the symmetric difference.

  15. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  16. Making a Difference? Education and "Ability" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings a speculative, sociological perspective to the nature of "ability" in physical education (PE) and asks why this aspect of embodiment, with notable exceptions, has received so little critical attention in the professional discourse of PE and associated research in recent years. It is suggested that thinking about "ability" has…

  17. Fuzzy, crisp, and human logic in e-commerce marketing data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, Kelda L.; Zhang, Yanqing

    2001-03-01

    In today's business world there is an abundance of available data and a great need to make good use of it. Many businesses would benefit from examining customer habits and trends and making marketing and product decisions based on that analysis. However, the process of manually examining data and making sound decisions based on that data is time consuming and often impractical. Intelligent systems that can make judgments similar to human judgments are sorely needed. Thus, systems based on fuzzy logic present themselves as an option to be seriously considered. The work described in this paper attempts to make an initial comparison between fuzzy logic and more traditional hard or crisp logic to see which would make a better substitute for human intervention. In this particular case study, customers are classified into categories that indicate how desirable the customer would be as a prospect for marketing. This classification is based on a small set of customer data. The results from these investigations make it clear that fuzzy logic is more able to think for itself and make decisions that more closely match human decision and is therefore significantly closer to human logic than crisp logic.

  18. Computerized logic design of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussow, S.; Oglesby, R.

    1973-01-01

    This manual presents a computer program that performs all the work required for the logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and the simplification of Boolean logic expressions. The program provides both the experienced and inexperienced logic designer with a comprehensive logic design capability. The manual contains Boolean simplification and sequential design theory, detailed instructions for use of the program, a large number of illustrative design examples, and complete program documentation.

  19. Online course design for teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Patricia; Shanedling, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking (CT) skills, a goal in higher education, is seldom considered in the primary design of either classroom or online courses, and is even less frequently measured in student learning. In health professional education, CT along with clinical reasoning skills is essential for the development of clinical practitioners. This study, measuring CT skill development in an online theory course, supports using a cyclical course design to build higher level processes in student thinking. Eighty-six Masters of Occupational Therapy students in four sections of an occupation-based theory course were evaluated on elements in the Paul and Elder CT Model throughout the course and surveyed for their perceptions in their ability to think critically at course completion. Results of this study demonstrated that the online theory course design contributed to improving critical thinking skills and student's perceived CT skill development as applicable to their future professional practice. In a focus group, eight students identified four effective course design features that contributed to their CT skill development: highly structured learning, timely feedback from instructor, repetition of assignments, and active engagement with the material. PMID:22544412

  20. Circulating Packet Threshold Logic To Implement Msd Logic Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, David L.; Vail, L. Maugh; Gustafson, Steven C.

    1986-03-01

    Threshold logic element designs in circulating packet form are presented for the implementation of addition and subtraction using modified sign digit (MSD) arithmetic. This arithmetic is attractive for digital optical computing due to its inherent parallelism and pipelining characteristics, which capitalize on natural strengths of optics. To illustrate application of these concepts, a design for CORDIC rotation modules to accomplish the complex Givens rotations required for systolic array QU matrix factorization is presented. This design accomplishes QU factorization using only threshold logic elements and bit-shift operations in a systolic configuration. Although implementable in principle by either electronic or optical means, the design is amenable to optical implementation because it involves high levels of parallelism and interconnections.

  1. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE…

  2. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  3. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  4. The Importance of Undisciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This past year, Baylor University created a program to reward some of its best teachers and challenge them to do something truly daring: teach their students how to think--not just how to think "about" course material, but rather how to think "through" the material. The idea is to help students learn how teachers, as practitioners of their…

  5. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  6. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  7. Teaching Thinking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest across the world in ways of developing children's thinking and learning skills. This interest has been fed by new knowledge about how the brain works and how people learn, and evidence that specific interventions can improve children's thinking and intelligence. Thinking skills are important because…

  8. Young Children's Knowledge about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of 14 studies on children's knowledge about thinking. Suggests that preschoolers appear to know that thinking is an internal mental activity that can refer to real or imaginary objects or events. However, preschoolers are poor at determining when a person is and is not thinking. This shortcoming is considerably less evident in…

  9. Promoting Thinking Skills in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glevey, Kwame E.

    2006-01-01

    How children are guided in the development of their thinking is now crucial in the twenty-first century. Over the past decades special thinking skills programmes have been developed to enhance thinking but these programmes have so far been unable to produce clear evidence to support their effectiveness. This article argues that due to the complex…

  10. Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

  11. Developing Historical Thinking through Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham

    2012-01-01

    The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…

  12. Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Garrett K.

    2011-01-01

    Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…

  13. Think You Know How Smell Works? Sniff Again.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sandeepa; Stowers, Lisa

    2016-06-16

    The sense of smell is mediated by GPCRs in the odorant receptor (OR) family. Greer et al. report a new family of odor detectors, MS4As, that have similar cellular localization and chemodetection ability as ORs but are not GPCRs and follow a strikingly different logic of odor coding at the periphery. PMID:27315472

  14. Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.

    1998-01-01

    Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.

  15. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly. PMID:27427653

  16. The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Álvarez, Edgardo T.

    The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.

  17. Navigating a Mobile Robot Across Terrain Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Howard, Ayanna; Bon, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    A strategy for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across hazardous terrain involves the use of a measure of traversability of terrain within a fuzzy-logic conceptual framework. This navigation strategy requires no a priori information about the environment. Fuzzy logic was selected as a basic element of this strategy because it provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing a human driver s heuristic knowledge and operational experience. Within a fuzzy-logic framework, the attributes of human reasoning and decision- making can be formulated by simple IF (antecedent), THEN (consequent) rules coupled with easily understandable and natural linguistic representations. The linguistic values in the rule antecedents convey the imprecision associated with measurements taken by sensors onboard a mobile robot, while the linguistic values in the rule consequents represent the vagueness inherent in the reasoning processes to generate the control actions. The operational strategies of the human expert driver can be transferred, via fuzzy logic, to a robot-navigation strategy in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables. These linguistic variables are defined by fuzzy sets in accordance with user-defined membership functions. The main advantages of a fuzzy navigation strategy lie in the ability to extract heuristic rules from human experience and to obviate the need for an analytical model of the robot navigation process.

  18. Applications of fuzzy logic to control and decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    Long range space missions will require high operational efficiency as well as autonomy to enhance the effectivity of performance. Fuzzy logic technology has been shown to be powerful and robust in interpreting imprecise measurements and generating appropriate control decisions for many space operations. Several applications are underway, studying the fuzzy logic approach to solving control and decision making problems. Fuzzy logic algorithms for relative motion and attitude control have been developed and demonstrated for proximity operations. Based on this experience, motion control algorithms that include obstacle avoidance were developed for a Mars Rover prototype for maneuvering during the sample collection process. A concept of an intelligent sensor system that can identify objects and track them continuously and learn from its environment is under development to support traffic management and proximity operations around the Space Station Freedom. For safe and reliable operation of Lunar/Mars based crew quarters, high speed controllers with ability to combine imprecise measurements from several sensors is required. A fuzzy logic approach that uses high speed fuzzy hardware chips is being studied.

  19. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  20. Logic and structured design for computer programmers

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This text provides a language- and system-independent introduction to logical structures, and teaches logic plus the programming and data processing applications in which logic is used. The author has eliminated the need to cover basic program design at the beginning of every language course, and has used logic of sets, Boolean algebra, conditional statements, and truth tables to establish logic of structure flowchart, pseudocode, Warnier/Orr diagrams, and so on. After chapter three, the chapters are independent so that instructors can select the coverage of programming tools and techniques most relevant to their students.