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Sample records for ability logical thinking

  1. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  2. Logical Thinking Abilities among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The science curriculum in Malaysia emphasizes the acquisition of scientific skills, thinking skills, and the inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. Besides that, the acquisition of scientific and technological knowledge and its application to the natural phenomena and students' daily experiences are also equally emphasized. The…

  3. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  4. Logical Thinking in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C.

    1973-01-01

    College students' responses to conditional syllogisms are used to analyze the students' interpretations of implication. Child's Logic'' was used much more frequently than Math Logic'' even after a one-semester course in logic. (JP)

  5. A study of the effects that grouping laboratory partners based on logical thinking abilities have on their problem solving strategies in a general chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammouz, Minory Suhil

    2005-07-01

    performances. Furthermore, this research shows that the group make-up has an effect on the adopted strategies. In addition this study revealed that logical thinking ability can predict students' success, therefore, it could be used as a warning device for the instructors on the need for interventions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Development of a Notebook to Improve Logical Thinking Power of Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Satoshi

    It is often pointed out that Japanese language skills of students are poor. The problem is related to logical thinking. The author manufactured a notebook by way of trial in order to improve abilities of thinking logically of students and made approximately 100 students use trial products in an omnibus lecture. In addition, the author had each instructor compile one page of contents of a lecture and tried to evaluate logical thinking power of students by comparing their notebooks with ones of instructors. This new evaluation method can be applied to various lectures, because the evaluation result has not depended on departments and grades of students.

  7. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  8. Teaching Logic and Teaching Critical Thinking: Revisiting McPeck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Susan Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper reappraises the view of John McPeck that critical thinking can only be taught within rather than across the disciplines. In particular the paper explores one aspect of McPeck's position: his resistance to teaching informal logic as a means of teaching critical thinking. The paper draws upon the author's experience of teaching critical…

  9. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  10. An Analysis of Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Their Logical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…

  11. Strategies to Develop Logical Thinking Through Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villavicencio, Rosalina R.; Tayko, Perla Rizalina M.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated relationship of teachers' cognitive levels and cognitive level demand of textbooks in relation to students capability to learn biology. Based on findings, teaching units were designed to help science teachers acquire skills, use innovative formats of instruction for abstract topics, and develop logical thinking skills through biology…

  12. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  13. Comparative Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of Three Tests of Logical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlawat, Kapur S.; Billeh, Victor Y.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of the psychometric properties of three group tests of logical thinking used in science education research. Findings dealing with Longeot's Test of Logical Thinking, Lawson's Test of Formal Reasoning, and Tobin and Capie's Test of Logical Thinking demonstrate a lack of concurrent validity. Includes recommendations.…

  14. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    PubMed

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  15. Carpenter, Tractors and Microbes for the Development of Logical-Mathematical Thinking--The Way 10th Graders and Pre-Service Teachers Solve Thinking Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th…

  16. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed.

  17. Critical Thinking Ability and Disposition as Factors of Performance on a Written Critical Thinking Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube, Kurt T.

    Critical thinking has been conceptualized as a two-factor system in which critical thinking ability and critical thinking disposition combine to determine actual thinking performance. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate such a two-factor model empirically. One hundred ninety-eight Purdue University undergraduates…

  18. The Relation between Critical Thinking Abilities and Student Study Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year engineering students at an Australian university investigated their critical thinking skills as related to 3 kinds of study strategy: surface strategy; deep strategy; and achieving strategy. Results indicated a negative correlation between critical thinking ability and the achieving study strategy. Implications for…

  19. A Novel Instrument for Assessing Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Brian; Stains, Marilyne; Escriu-Sune, Marta; Medaglia, Eden; Rostamnjad, Leila; Chinn, Clark; Sevian, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Science literacy involves knowledge of both science content and science process skills. In this study, we describe the Assessment of Critical Thinking Ability survey and its preliminary application to assess the critical thinking skills of undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows. This survey is based on a complex and…

  20. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed…

  1. On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Stanovich, Keith E; West, Richard F

    2008-04-01

    In 7 different studies, the authors observed that a large number of thinking biases are uncorrelated with cognitive ability. These thinking biases include some of the most classic and well-studied biases in the heuristics and biases literature, including the conjunction effect, framing effects, anchoring effects, outcome bias, base-rate neglect, "less is more" effects, affect biases, omission bias, myside bias, sunk-cost effect, and certainty effects that violate the axioms of expected utility theory. In a further experiment, the authors nonetheless showed that cognitive ability does correlate with the tendency to avoid some rational thinking biases, specifically the tendency to display denominator neglect, probability matching rather than maximizing, belief bias, and matching bias on the 4-card selection task. The authors present a framework for predicting when cognitive ability will and will not correlate with a rational thinking tendency.

  2. Carpenter, tractors and microbes for the development of logical-mathematical thinking - the way 10th graders and pre-service teachers solve thinking challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th graders was higher than that of the pre-service teachers. Unlike the 10th graders, some of whom used various strategies for representing the problem, most of the pre-service teachers' answers were based on a technical algorithm, without using control processes. The obvious conclusion drawn from the findings supports and recommends expanding and enhancing the development of logical-mathematical thinking, both in specific lessons and as an integral part of other lessons in pre-service frameworks.

  3. The Investigation on Critical Thinking Ability in EFL Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jie; Jiang, Yuhong; Yao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The present mixed-method study aims to find out the status quo of critical thinking ability of university non-English majors by investigating 224 non-English majors from a university in China (105 male and 119 female students, 114 art and 110 science majors, 109 freshmen and 115 sophomores were included respectively) through questionnaires and…

  4. Promoting Students' Ability to Think Conceptually in Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerr, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of three conceptual lessons that can be incorporated into any first-semester calculus class. These lessons were developed to help promote calculus students' ability to think conceptually, in particular with regard to the role that infinity plays in the subject. A theoretical basis for the value of these lessons is provided,…

  5. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  6. Think outside the Box: A Logic-Defying "Impossible" Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raje, Sonali

    2012-01-01

    "Think outside the box" is a very common phrase, routinely used to convey the idea of finding creative and unconventional solutions to problems. Although widely used as a cliche in the business world, this phrase is significantly applicable to people who do science for a living, because scientists are constantly developing and testing new ideas.…

  7. Medication, Logic, and Schizophrenic Thinking: A Reply to Marini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, D. Y. F.

    1976-01-01

    In answer to a critique, the author argues that although most of the schizophrenic subjects in the original research were receiving medication, this does not negate the conclusion that the thinking pathology found in schizophrenics cannot be accounted for by positing a basic defect in their deductive reasoning processes. (MS)

  8. Checkmate: Capturing Gifted Students' Logical Thinking Using Chess.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifner, Philip J.; Feldhusen, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of chess instruction to develop abstract thinking skills and problem solving among gifted students. Offers suggestions for starting school chess programs, teaching and evaluating chess skills, and measuring the success of both student-players and the program in general. (PB)

  9. Conceptualizing Magnification and Scale: The Roles of Spatial Visualization and Logical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant; Taylor, Amy R.; Wiebe, Eric; Forrester, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study explored factors that contribute to students' concepts of magnification and scale. Spatial visualization, logical thinking, and concepts of magnification and scale were measured for 46 middle school students. Scores on the "Zoom Assessment" (an assessment of knowledge of magnification and scale) were correlated with the "Test of Logical…

  10. Student Levels of Cognitive Development: Establishing Links between Logical Thinking Skills and Success in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

    2003-12-01

    Students in inquiry-based, general education Earth Science courses were found to display a wide range of logical thinking skills that are known indicators of success in science courses. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking instrument that tests six logical operations was administered on the first day of class and near the end of the course. Such tests can be used to assess a student's overall level of cognitive development (concrete, transitional or formal) and specific logical thinking strengths or weaknesses. Results from paired pre- and post-course logical thinking tests of 393 students indicated that 25% of the incoming students were concrete, 30% were transitional and 45% were formal thinkers. Concrete and transitional thinkers were far more likely to withdraw from or fail the course when compared to their formal thinking peers (35%, 25% and 10% respectively). Differences in scores between genders were significant with 210 females testing at 30% concrete, 35% transitional and 35% formal on the pretest compared to 183 males who tested 15% concrete, 25% transitional and 60% formal. Overall logical thinking scores of students increased significantly in every inquiry-based class with lecture-based classes showing overall lower increases. Post-test data indicated that there were fewer concrete thinkers (16% female, 7% male), little change in the number of transitional thinkers (30% female, 23% male) and more formal thinkers (54% female, 70% male) toward the end of the inquiry-based course. Scores on two of the logical operations, conservation and probability, were sufficient to separate those who received a high grade (A or B in course) from those were unsuccessful (D, F or withdrew). Students who score low in conservation operations (n=46) tend to rely on intuition rather than logic when trying to understand typical Earth System concepts such as plate tectonics, atmospheric processes and climate change. Students who score low in probability skills (n=46) have

  11. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  12. Sex differences in factorial dimension of verbal, logical, mathematical and visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Wormack, L

    1980-04-01

    The factor structure of verbal, logical, visuospatial, and mathematical ability was compared for responses from 52 male and 54 female college students. Separate verbal, quantitative, and visuospatial factors were isolated among males while compound verbal-mathematical-visuospatial and verbal-logical-field dependence factors were isolated among females. The data supported the hypothesis of sex-related differences in the factorial organization of verbal, mathematical, reading, writing, and visuospatial ability.

  13. How reflective practice improves nurses' critical thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Cirocco, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purposeful reflection is consistent with adult learning theory. It is known to lead to a deeper understanding of issues and to develop judgment and skill. Required by law to ensure members' competence in their professional practice, the College of Nurses of Ontario recommends and has developed a tool for evaluating reflective practice. The tool focuses on key attributes said to be demonstrated by competent practitioners, including critical thinking (CT) and job knowledge. This study aimed to determine whether nurses engage in reflective practice and whether they perceive that it enhances their CT ability. Surveys were sent to 60 gastroenterology nurses at a large teaching hospital; 34 surveys were anonymously returned. All respondents engaged in reflective practice, and 24 reported using the college's tool. Nineteen respondents strongly agreed that their nursing practice had improved as a result. Critical thinking is difficult to assess because of a lack of clear-cut performance criteria. Improvement of CT was difficult to evaluate from the responses, even though all respondents participated in reflective practice. Both CT and reflective practice need to be better defined in order to examine and explain their relationship. PMID:18156956

  14. Spatial Organization of Alpha Range Potentials on EEG and Logical Thinking Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeinikova, I I; Dudnik, E N; Karatygin, N A

    2015-06-01

    We studied spatial organization of EEG alpha range potentials in volunteers with different results of tasks requiring logical thinking. The examinees with higher cognitive test performance have more labile coherent associations of EEG alpha range potentials, which manifested in changes in the level and structure of these associations at different stages of the test. In individuals with poor results, the number of significant coherent associations and their structure do not change during the problem solving process.

  15. The impact of introductory science and English courses on the level of logical thinking of community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Richard M.

    In fall semester 1996, the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking Skills (GALT short form) was administered to 216 men and 244 women enrolled in entry-level physics, chemistry, biology, or English courses from 6 public community colleges representing differing geographical regions of Texas. This study examined the combined predictive effects of gender, age, ethnicity, and standardized test results on the level of logical thinking of selected community college students. Data and hypotheses were analyzed by the use of multiple-regression and stepwise-multiple-regression calculations, ANOVA, and a simple t test. Independent variables were comprised of gender; age groups; ethnicity; pretest scores from the GALT test; and combined scores from the Texas Academic Skills Program test (TASP). Significant differences were observed in the level of logical thinking for various independent variables in each subject. However, no significant difference in the level of logical thinking was found based on gender. The GALT pretest was a significant predictor of logical-thinking skills in each of the entry-level courses studies. Additionally, ethnicity was a significant predictor for physics group as was the TASP score for the biology and English group. No significant difference in the level of logical-thinking was indicated when community college students who completed a high school science course were compared with students who did not complete a high school science course. Investigation revealed that the 19-20 year-old age group had a significant difference between their GALT pretest and posttest means. Various demographic data and TASP scores may be useful in predicting logical-thinking skills for students in entry-level community college science and English courses. In contrast with students enrolled in an entry-level chemistry, biology, or English course, students completing an entry-level physics course may expect an increase in the level of logical-thinking.

  16. Logical Framework of Forensic Identification: Ability to Resist Fabricated DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Hu, Zhen; Zhu, Ruxin; Lu, Daru; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science and has become the most useful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Today, DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat markers is widely employed and accepted in the courts due to its high discriminating power and reliability. However, an artificial bloodstain purposefully created using molecular biology techniques succeeded in tricking a leading forensic DNA laboratory. The disturbing possibility that a forensic DNA profile can be faked shocked the general public and the mass media, and generated serious discussion about the credibility of DNA evidence. Herein, we present two exemplary assays based on tissue-specific methylation patterns and cell-specific mRNA expression, respectively. These two assays can be integrated into the DNA analysis pipelines without consumption of additional samples. We show that the two assays can not only distinguish between artificial and genuine samples, but also provide information on tissue origin. The two assays were tested on natural and artificial bloodstains (generated by polymerase chain reaction and whole genome amplification technique) and the results illustrated that the logical framework of forensic identification is still useful for forensic identification with the high credibility.

  17. A framework for characterizing students' thinking about logical statements and truth tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Casey; Rasmussen, Chris

    2015-04-01

    While a significant amount of research has been devoted to exploring why university students struggle applying logic, limited work can be found on how students actually make sense of the notational and structural components used in association with logic. We adapt the theoretical framework of unitizing and reification, which have been effectively used to explain the types of integrated understanding required to make sense of symbols involved in numerical computation and algebraic manipulation, to investigate students' conceptualizations of truth tables and implication statements. We put forth a two-dimensional space consisting of two continua as a framework to analyse the degree to which students' thinking is compartmentalized or unified. Results indicate that students tend to treat the constituent pieces that make up these mechanisms independently without an understanding of each as a whole or an integrated view of the two together. This fragmented treatment is contrasted with the instructor's unified view of both truth tables and implication statements.

  18. From Ability to Action: Designing Instruction for Critical Thinking Dispositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, Lars F.; Middleton, James A.

    This paper explains the importance of disposition as an essential aspect of critical thinking and suggests how instruction can be designed to promote learners' development of the dispositional side of critical thinking. Topics addressed include: (1) the dispositional bottleneck between opportunity and action, i.e., sensitivity to occasion; (2)…

  19. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  20. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers' Critical Thinking Ability and Their Professional Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birjandi, Parviz; Bagherkazemi, Marzieh

    2010-01-01

    In the face of too much incoming information and too many people trying to convince us in today's world, the ability to think critically gains an ever greater saliency as a prime goal of student and teacher education. The present study aimed at substantiating the relationship between EFL teachers' critical thinking ability and their…

  1. In search of tools to aid logical thinking and communicating about medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Hunink, M G

    2001-01-01

    To have real-time impact on medical decision making, decision analysts need a wide variety of tools to aid logical thinking and communication. Decision models provide a formal framework to integrate evidence and values, but they are commonly perceived as complex and difficult to understand by those unfamiliar with the methods, especially in the context of clinical decision making. The theory of constraints, introduced by Eliyahu Goldratt in the business world, provides a set of tools for logical thinking and communication that could potentially be useful in medical decision making. The author used the concept of a conflict resolution diagram to analyze the decision to perform carotid endarterectomy prior to coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with both symptomatic coronary and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. The method enabled clinicians to visualize and analyze the issues, identify and discuss the underlying assumptions, search for the best available evidence, and use the evidence to make a well-founded decision. The method also facilitated communication among those involved in the care of the patient. Techniques from fields other than decision analysis can potentially expand the repertoire of tools available to support medical decision making and to facilitate communication in decision consults.

  2. The Language of Critical Thinking: Logical Exercises and Legal Cases for Use in the Speech Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Thomas F.; Mader, Diane C.

    Addressing two recurrent concerns in educational debate--how a discipline can contribute to students' analytical and critical thinking, and how to improve students' ability to express themselves orally and in writing--the Language of Critical Thinking course is designed to strengthen critical thinking skills by using a legal case study approach.…

  3. Contributions of thinking styles to vocational purpose beyond self-rated abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2004-04-01

    The present study predicted vocational purpose from thinking styles, a construct at the interface of intelligence and personality. 233 students majoring in history and computer science from a large research-oriented university in the People's Republic of China completed the Thinking Styles Inventory and the Iowa Vocational Purpose Inventory. The participants also rated their own analytical, creative, and practical abilities. In general, results indicated that thinking styles contributed to vocational purpose beyond self-rated abilities. Specifically, the more creativity-generating and complex thinking styles tended to contribute positively to vocational purpose, whereas the more conforming and simplistic thinking styles tended to contribute negatively to vocational purpose. This article points to the need theoretically for integrating the construct of thinking style into the definition of differential psychology. Practical data argue for a collaborative working relationship between teachers and vocational counselors in institutions of higher education.

  4. The Enhancement of Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability of Aliyah Madrasas Student Model Using Gorontalo by Interactive Learning Setting Cooperative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husnaeni

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking ability of students' mathematical is a component that must be mastered by the student. Learn to think critically means using mental processes, such as attention, categorize, selection, and rate/decide. Critical thinking ability in giving proper guidance in thinking and working, and assist in determining the relationship between…

  5. Rational Thinking and Cognitive Sophistication: Development, Cognitive Abilities, and Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference…

  6. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  7. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  8. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  9. Parental Separation Effects on Children's Divergent Thinking Abilities and Creativity Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the effect of parental separation on the divergent thinking abilities and creativity potential of 116 single- and two-parent family children in grades three through five. Findings indicate a comparable level of divergent thinking between both groups; single-parent children scored significantly higher on creativity potential.…

  10. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  11. Thinking around the Corner: The Development of Planning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaller, Cristopher P.; Rahm, Benjamin; Spreer, Joachim; Mader, Irina; Unterrainer, Josef M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to plan and search ahead is essential for problem solving in most situations in everyday life. To investigate the development of planning and related processes, a sample of four- and five-year-old children was examined in a variant of the Tower of London, a frequently used neuropsychological assessment tool of planning abilities. The…

  12. Theory of Mind Development in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Growing Complexity of Recursive Thinking Ability.

    PubMed

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20). The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character's behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study) have been used. The relationship among working memory, executive functions, and linguistic skills are also analysed. Results show that subjects exhibit less understanding of elevated recursive thinking levels (third, fourth, and fifth) compared to the first and second levels. Working memory is correlated with total recursive thinking, whereas performance on the linguistic comprehension task is related to third level recursive thinking in both theory of mind tasks. An effect of age on third-order false-belief task performance was also found. A key finding of the present study is that the third-order false-belief task shows significant age differences in the application of recursive thinking that involves the prediction of others' behaviour. In contrast, such an age effect is not observed in the Imposing Memory Task. These results may support the extension of the investigation of the third order false belief after childhood. PMID:27247645

  13. Theory of Mind Development in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Growing Complexity of Recursive Thinking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20). The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character’s behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study) have been used. The relationship among working memory, executive functions, and linguistic skills are also analysed. Results show that subjects exhibit less understanding of elevated recursive thinking levels (third, fourth, and fifth) compared to the first and second levels. Working memory is correlated with total recursive thinking, whereas performance on the linguistic comprehension task is related to third level recursive thinking in both theory of mind tasks. An effect of age on third-order false-belief task performance was also found. A key finding of the present study is that the third-order false-belief task shows significant age differences in the application of recursive thinking that involves the prediction of others’ behaviour. In contrast, such an age effect is not observed in the Imposing Memory Task. These results may support the extension of the investigation of the third order false belief after childhood. PMID:27247645

  14. Teaching Thinking Skills: Social Studies. Building Students' Thinking Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum-Cale, Karen

    Critical or creative thinking is simply thinking of a higher order by persons informed by fact and logic, insight and empathy. It is necessary for problem solving, invention, and achievement. Every child has the ability to be a thinker. Thinking is an act and, as such, improves with practice. The curriculum and the teacher can help student…

  15. Thinking around the corner: the development of planning abilities.

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Rahm, Benjamin; Spreer, Joachim; Mader, Irina; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2008-08-01

    The ability to plan and search ahead is essential for problem solving in most situations in everyday life. To investigate the development of planning and related processes, a sample of four- and five-year-old children was examined in a variant of the Tower of London, a frequently used neuropsychological assessment tool of planning abilities. The applied problems either required searching ahead for optimal solution or were solvable by pure step-by-step forward processing. Furthermore, the ambiguity of subgoal ordering was varied. Results revealed an age-related effect of search depth: the four-year olds' planning accuracy was particularly decreased in problems demanding search ahead, while five-year olds mastered both problem types equally well. Interestingly, this interaction between age and search depth could not be accounted for by measures of working memory and inhibition. Differential effects of age were also found for subgoal ordering with respect to initial planning and movement execution times. In sum, planning abilities showed considerable development during late kindergarten age that appeared to be specifically associated with the integration and back-validation of the anticipated consequences of internally modeled actions. The present study demonstrates that a careful consideration of problem structure may greatly enhance the insights gained from the application of a routinely used assessment tool, the Tower of London. This may be especially advantageous when addressing specific subpopulations such as children or clinical samples. PMID:18440114

  16. Critical thinking ability of new graduate and experienced nurses

    PubMed Central

    Fero, Laura J.; Witsberger, Catherine M.; Wesmiller, Susan W.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a study to identify critical thinking learning needs of new and experienced nurses. Background Concern for patient safety has grown worldwide as high rates of error and injury continue to be reported. In order to improve patient safety, nurses must be able to recognize changes in patient condition, perform independent nursing interventions, anticipate orders and prioritize. Methods In 2004–2006, a consecutive sample of 2144 newly hired nurses in a university-affiliated healthcare system completed the Performance Based Development System Assessment consisting of 10 videotaped vignettes depicting change in patient status. Results were reported as meeting or not meeting expectations. For nurses not meeting expectations, learning needs were identified in one of six sub-categories. Results Overall, 74.9% met assessment expectations. Learning needs identified for nurses not meeting expectations included initiating independent nursing interventions (97.2%), differentiation of urgency (67%), reporting essential clinical data (65.4%), anticipating relevant medical orders (62.8%), providing relevant rationale to support decisions (62.6%) and problem recognition (57.1%). Controlling for level of preparation, associate (P = 0.007) and baccalaureate (P < 0.0001) nurses were more likely to meet expectations as years of experience increased; a similar trend was not seen for diploma nurses (P = 0.10). Controlling for years of experience, new graduates were less likely to meet expectations compared with nurses with ≥10 years experience (P = 0.046). Conclusion Patient safety may be compromised if a nurse cannot provide clinically competent care. Assessments such as the Performance Based Development System can provide information about learning needs and facilitate individualized orientation targeted to increase performance level. PMID:19032517

  17. Do thinking styles contribute to academic achievement beyond self-rated abilities?

    PubMed

    Zhang, L F

    2001-11-01

    This research identifies individual differences in academic achievement attributable to thinking styles over and above what can be explained by self-rated abilities. Participants were 209 university students from Hong Kong and 215 university students from mainland China. Participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (Chinese version) that is based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government (R. J. Sternberg, 1988). They also rated their own analytical, creative, and practical abilities on a 10-point scale based on R. J. Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence. Participants' academic achievement scores were also used. The prediction that thinking styles statistically predict academic achievement was supported by data from both Hong Kong and mainland China. Academic achievement and thinking styles are related differently in the two groups. Implications of these findings for both teaching and research are discussed. PMID:11931003

  18. Customizing orientation to improve the critical thinking ability of newly hired pediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christina; Tatum, Kathy

    2013-04-01

    A descriptive, correlational study design was used to determine if a customized clinical education for orientation based on knowledge weaknesses identified from a prehire screening examination would reduce the length of orientation and improve the critical thinking ability of newly hired nurses. Results of the study demonstrated significant evidence that customized education based on this prehire assessment has a positive effect on both the length of orientation and critical thinking. PMID:23528686

  19. Customizing orientation to improve the critical thinking ability of newly hired pediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christina; Tatum, Kathy

    2013-04-01

    A descriptive, correlational study design was used to determine if a customized clinical education for orientation based on knowledge weaknesses identified from a prehire screening examination would reduce the length of orientation and improve the critical thinking ability of newly hired nurses. Results of the study demonstrated significant evidence that customized education based on this prehire assessment has a positive effect on both the length of orientation and critical thinking.

  20. Formal operational reasoning modes: Predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics for students in grades nine through twelve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner, Betty L.

    To test the hypothesis that formal operational reasoning modes are predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics, in September 1986 the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) and in December 1986 the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) were administered to 101 rural students in Grades 9 through 12. The grades assigned by teachers were collected in May 1987. Construct and criterion-related validities and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha method were established on the GALT. On the WGCTA, content and construct validities and internal consistency reliability using the split-half procedure, coefficient of stability, and coefficient of equivalence were established. The five formal operational reasoning modes in the GALT were found to be significant predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics. The variance in the five critical thinking abilities attributable to the five formal operational reasoning modes ranged between 28% and 70%. The five formal operational reasoning modes explained 29% of the variance in mathematics achievement and 62% of the variance in science achievement.

  1. Effects of Virtual Reality Integrated Creative Thinking Instruction on Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ridong; Wu, Yi-Yong; Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Since the popular applications of information technology, digitalized materials, media, and equipment have become the essential abilities and instruments for teachers in modern education. In addition to some curricula requiring computing & reasoning and operation & demonstration, the situations of teachers utilizing transparencies, films,…

  2. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the…

  3. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  4. Do Thinking Styles Contribute to Metacognition beyond Self-Rated Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to explore the predictive power of thinking styles for metacognition when self-rated abilities were taken into account. As a preliminary step, the study examined the psychometric properties of the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). Four hundred and twenty-four university students from mainland China…

  5. Teaching Thinking to Culturally Diverse, High Ability, High School Students: A Triarchic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Deborah L.; Perkins, Tiffany; Vietze, Peter; Cruz, Mariolga Reyes; Park, Sin-Jae

    2003-01-01

    This final research monograph describes intervention research to improve thinking skills in high ability, high school students attending an urban magnet school for primarily low-income ethnic minority students who come from families that have historically experienced social inequality and various forms of discrimination in the United States. The…

  6. Media Literacy, Popular Culture, and the Transfer of Higher Order Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Heron, Alison H.; Wood, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Contends that by acknowledging the influence of media literacy on adolescents' lives outside the classroom, teachers have a potential source for motivating student interest and eliciting their higher order thinking abilities within the classroom. Specifically addresses merging popular culture with classroom culture and provides a paradigm for…

  7. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability and Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Esmaeel Nour; Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Niry, Nasrin Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    The current empirical study aimed to identify those categories of reading strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and compensation) that are mostly used by Iranian EFL learners, and investigate if there is any significant relationship between critical thinking ability and reading strategies used by these learners. It also pursued if there is any…

  8. Using the Think-Pair-Share Strategy to Improve Students' Speaking Ability at STAIN Ternate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Abdurrahman Hi

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to improve students' English speaking ability by using the think-pair-share strategy designed in CAR. The findings in Cycle 1 was unsuccessful because the students' average scores was 74.18 and classroom atmospheres were "mid" that did not meet the criteria of success. Therefore, the implementation of the…

  9. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  10. Supporting Preservice Science Teachers' Ability to Attend and Respond to Student Thinking by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's ability to attend and respond to student thinking is a key instructional capacity for promoting complex and deeper learning in science classrooms. This qualitative multiple case study examines 14 preservice science teachers' (PSTs) responses to learning opportunities created to develop this capacity, as provided by a teacher…

  11. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  12. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities.

  13. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  14. Critical Thinking and the Psycho-logic of Race Prejudice. Resource Publication Series 3, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Mark

    For those who espouse critical thinking as an educational ideal, the issue of race prejudice should be addressed as an obvious and pernicious example of uncritical thinking because to hold racially prejudiced beliefs is to believe without being appropriately moved by reason. This paper attempts to ascertain how and where critical thinking can come…

  15. The Effect of Logical Thinking and Two Cognitive Styles on Understanding the Structure of Matter: An Analysis with the Random Walk Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsitsipis, Georgios; Papageorgiou, George

    2010-01-01

    This work uses the concepts and tools of complexity theory to examine the effect of logical thinking and two cognitive styles, such as, the degree of field dependence/independence and the convergent/divergent thinking on students' understanding of the structure of matter. Students were categorized according to the model they adopted for the…

  16. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  17. A Framework for Characterizing Students' Thinking about Logical Statements and Truth Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Casey; Rasmussen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While a significant amount of research has been devoted to exploring why university students struggle applying logic, limited work can be found on how students actually make sense of the notational and structural components used in association with logic. We adapt the theoretical framework of unitizing and reification, which have been effectively…

  18. Conditional Logic and Children. (Cornell Critical Thinking Readiness Project, Phase IIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.; And Others

    From 180 primary children of varied backgrounds half were selected for instruction in conditional logic by means of an audio-tutorial method. At the termination of 15 weekly lessons the experimental students did no better than the control students on our individually-administered conditional logic test ("Smith-Sturgeon Conditional Reasoning…

  19. Beyond Logic and Argument Analysis: Critical Thinking, Everyday Problems and Democratic Deliberation in Cambridge International Examinations' Thinking Skills Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel

    2011-01-01

    It is widely held that, by teaching individuals how to reason through and analyse everyday problems, the teaching of critical thinking develops the deliberative capacities essential to the healthy functioning of democracy. Implicit in this view is the assumption that a certain commensurability exists between the problems presented in such…

  20. Creative Thinking Ability to Increase Student Mathematical of Junior High School by Applying Models Numbered Heads Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lince, Ranak

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…

  1. Students' Perception of the Logical Structure of Curricular as Compared with Everyday Contexts--Study of Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, A.; Jungwirth, E.

    1980-01-01

    Compares critical thinking ability of pupils in scientific situations and in real-life situations by administering multiple choice tests to Israeli ninth graders (N=344). Results confirm that students do not react similarly when confronted with equivalent situations presented in different contexts. (CS)

  2. Mechanics as the Logical Point of Entry for the Enculturation into Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert; Rowlands, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Force in modern classical mechanics is unique, both in terms of its logical character and the conceptual difficulties it causes. Force is well defined by a set of axioms that not only structures mechanics but science in general. Force is also the dominant theme in the "misconceptions" literature and many philosophers and physicists alike have…

  3. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities, Dispositional Traits, and the Career States of Part-Time Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Jean Ann

    2000-01-01

    Continuing education students (n=73) identified their career state and completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Most were at career plateau or indecision stages. The ability to recognize assumptions, appraise situations, and make judgments was related to career state. (SK)

  4. Student Strategies Suggesting Emergence of Mental Structures Supporting Logical and Abstract Thinking: Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Jim

    2014-01-01

    For many students, developing mathematical reasoning can prove to be challenging. Such difficulty may be explained by a deficit in the core understanding of many arithmetical concepts taught in early school years. Multiplicative reasoning is one such concept that produces an essential foundation upon which higher-level mathematical thinking skills…

  5. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  6. Online Collaboration for Programming: Assessing Students' Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Mahfudzah; Muhd Zain, Nurzaid

    2015-01-01

    This study is primarily focused on assessing the students' logical thinking and cognitive levels in an online collaborative environment. The aim is to investigate whether the online collaboration has significant impact to the students' cognitive abilities. The assessment of the logical thinking involved the use of the online Group Assessment…

  7. ENIGMA, CAI-CMI for Introductory Logic: Some of Its Abilities with English Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laymon, Ronald

    The philosophy department of the Ohio State University began development of a computer-tutorial program, called ENIGMA, in 1972. The aim of the course was to help students to use various logical tools in the analysis of everyday arguments by giving drill-and-practice sessions, testing, and grading examinations. Part of ENIGMA is the propositional…

  8. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  9. Mechanics as the Logical Point of Entry for the Enculturation into Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Robert; Rowlands, Stuart

    Force in modern classical mechanics is unique, both in terms of its logical character and the conceptual difficulties it causes. Force is well defined by a set of axioms that not only structures mechanics but science in general. Force is also the dominant theme in the "misconceptions" literature and many philosophers and physicists alike have expressed puzzlement as to its nature. The central point of this article is that if we taught mechanics as the forum to discuss the nature of mechanics itself, then we would serve to better secure a learner's understanding and appreciation of both science and mathematics. We will attempt to show that mechanics can provide the opportunity for students to enter this meta-discourse by engaging in Socratic discussion, entertaining thought experiments, comparisons made between force as defined within mechanics as a modern axiomatic system with Newton's quantitative definition of force, how the concepts of force prior to Galileo and Newton can be used as a teaching aid with respect to student intuitive ideas and how mathematics was brought to bear on what is given empirically. Mechanics provides this opportunity and pedagogically may require it due to its axiomatic nature.

  10. Cognitive phylogenies, the Darwinian logic of descent, and the inadequacy of cladistic thinking.

    PubMed

    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    There has been a reappraisal of phylogenetic issues in cognitive science, as reconstructing cognitive phylogenies has been considered a key for unveiling the cognitive novelties that set the stage for what makes humans special. In our opinion, the studies made until now have approached cognitive phylogenies in a non-optimal way, and we wish to both highlight their problems, drawing on recent considerations in philosophy of biology. The inadequacy of current visions on cognitive phylogenies stems from the influence of the traditional "linear cladograms," according to which every seemingly new or more sophisticated feature of a cognitive mechanism, viewed as a novelty, is represented as a node on top of the old and shared elements. We claim that this kind of cladograms does not succeed in depicting the complexity with which traits are distributed across species and, furthermore, that the labels of the nodes of these traditional representational systems fail to capture the "tinkering" nature of evolution. We argue that if we are to conceive of cognitive mechanisms in a multi-dimensional, bottom-up perspective, in accordance with the Darwinian logic of descent, we should rather focus on decomposing these mechanisms into lower-level, generic functions, which have the additional advantage of being implementable in neural matter, which ultimately produces cognition. Doing so renders current constructions of cognitive phylogenies otiose.

  11. Cognitive phylogenies, the Darwinian logic of descent, and the inadequacy of cladistic thinking

    PubMed Central

    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    There has been a reappraisal of phylogenetic issues in cognitive science, as reconstructing cognitive phylogenies has been considered a key for unveiling the cognitive novelties that set the stage for what makes humans special. In our opinion, the studies made until now have approached cognitive phylogenies in a non-optimal way, and we wish to both highlight their problems, drawing on recent considerations in philosophy of biology. The inadequacy of current visions on cognitive phylogenies stems from the influence of the traditional “linear cladograms,” according to which every seemingly new or more sophisticated feature of a cognitive mechanism, viewed as a novelty, is represented as a node on top of the old and shared elements. We claim that this kind of cladograms does not succeed in depicting the complexity with which traits are distributed across species and, furthermore, that the labels of the nodes of these traditional representational systems fail to capture the “tinkering” nature of evolution. We argue that if we are to conceive of cognitive mechanisms in a multi-dimensional, bottom-up perspective, in accordance with the Darwinian logic of descent, we should rather focus on decomposing these mechanisms into lower-level, generic functions, which have the additional advantage of being implementable in neural matter, which ultimately produces cognition. Doing so renders current constructions of cognitive phylogenies otiose. PMID:26528479

  12. Executive Functions and the Improvement of Thinking Abilities: The Intervention in Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    García-Madruga, Juan A; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, José Ó

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a preliminary theory of executive functions that address in a specific way their relationship with working memory (WM) and higher-level cognition. It includes: (a) four core on-line WM executive functions that are involved in every novel and complex cognitive task; (b) two higher order off-line executive functions, planning and revision, that are required to resolving the most complex intellectual abilities; and (c) emotional control that is involved in any complex, novel and difficult task. The main assumption is that efficiency on thinking abilities may be improved by specific instruction or training on the executive functions necessary to solving novel and complex tasks involved in these abilities. Evidence for the impact of our training proposal on WM's executive functions involved in higher-level cognitive abilities comes from three studies applying an adaptive program designed to improve reading comprehension in primary school students by boosting the core WM's executive functions involved in it: focusing on relevant information, switching (or shifting) between representations or tasks, connecting incoming information from text with long-term representations, updating of the semantic representation of the text in WM, and inhibition of irrelevant information. The results are consistent with the assumption that cognitive enhancements from the training intervention may have affected not only a specific but also a more domain-general mechanism involved in various executive functions. We discuss some methodological issues in the studies of effects of WM training on reading comprehension. The perspectives and limitations of our approach are finally discussed.

  13. Executive Functions and the Improvement of Thinking Abilities: The Intervention in Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    García-Madruga, Juan A; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, José Ó

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a preliminary theory of executive functions that address in a specific way their relationship with working memory (WM) and higher-level cognition. It includes: (a) four core on-line WM executive functions that are involved in every novel and complex cognitive task; (b) two higher order off-line executive functions, planning and revision, that are required to resolving the most complex intellectual abilities; and (c) emotional control that is involved in any complex, novel and difficult task. The main assumption is that efficiency on thinking abilities may be improved by specific instruction or training on the executive functions necessary to solving novel and complex tasks involved in these abilities. Evidence for the impact of our training proposal on WM's executive functions involved in higher-level cognitive abilities comes from three studies applying an adaptive program designed to improve reading comprehension in primary school students by boosting the core WM's executive functions involved in it: focusing on relevant information, switching (or shifting) between representations or tasks, connecting incoming information from text with long-term representations, updating of the semantic representation of the text in WM, and inhibition of irrelevant information. The results are consistent with the assumption that cognitive enhancements from the training intervention may have affected not only a specific but also a more domain-general mechanism involved in various executive functions. We discuss some methodological issues in the studies of effects of WM training on reading comprehension. The perspectives and limitations of our approach are finally discussed. PMID:26869961

  14. Executive Functions and the Improvement of Thinking Abilities: The Intervention in Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    García-Madruga, Juan A.; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, José Ó.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a preliminary theory of executive functions that address in a specific way their relationship with working memory (WM) and higher-level cognition. It includes: (a) four core on-line WM executive functions that are involved in every novel and complex cognitive task; (b) two higher order off-line executive functions, planning and revision, that are required to resolving the most complex intellectual abilities; and (c) emotional control that is involved in any complex, novel and difficult task. The main assumption is that efficiency on thinking abilities may be improved by specific instruction or training on the executive functions necessary to solving novel and complex tasks involved in these abilities. Evidence for the impact of our training proposal on WM's executive functions involved in higher-level cognitive abilities comes from three studies applying an adaptive program designed to improve reading comprehension in primary school students by boosting the core WM's executive functions involved in it: focusing on relevant information, switching (or shifting) between representations or tasks, connecting incoming information from text with long-term representations, updating of the semantic representation of the text in WM, and inhibition of irrelevant information. The results are consistent with the assumption that cognitive enhancements from the training intervention may have affected not only a specific but also a more domain-general mechanism involved in various executive functions. We discuss some methodological issues in the studies of effects of WM training on reading comprehension. The perspectives and limitations of our approach are finally discussed. PMID:26869961

  15. Morphosyntax and Logical Abilities in Italian Poor Readers: The Problem of SLI Under-Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Pagliarini, Elena; Perugini, Maria; Barbieri, Lina; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated morphosyntactic abilities and semantic-pragmatic competence in 24 children with developmental dyslexia aged 7-12 years. Morphosyntactic abilities were investgated in a direct object clitic production task, semantic-pragmatic competence in a quantifier comprehension task. Children with dyslexia produced fewer clitics than…

  16. Mathematical Teaching Strategies: Pathways to Critical Thinking and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Ricci, Frederick A.; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon

    2016-01-01

    A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible…

  17. Open-Ended Approach: An Effort in Cultivating Students' Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability and Self-Esteem in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatah, Abdul; Suryadi, Didi; Sabandar, Jozua; Turmudi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at examining the use of open-ended approach in cultivating senior high school students' mathematical creative thinking ability (MCTA) and self-esteem (SE) in mathematics viewed from school category. The subjects of this research were the students grade XI at three schools; high, middle and low category in Kota Serang, Banten…

  18. The Use of Cross-Cultural Studies as a Way of Developing Critical Thinking Skills among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakai, Hisako

    This paper examines the value of using cross-cultural studies for teaching critical thinking skills to college students. Critical thinking has been narrowly defined as an ability to think logically, abstractly, and objectively. Recently, however, a new model of critical thinking suggests the importance of adding multiple perspectives as a crucial…

  19. Content Analysis of the Studies in Turkey on the Ability of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Seyat

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking, along with other skills, is included as a basic skill in the constructive education program that has been in use in Turkey since 2005. Therefore, a large increase has been observed in studies on critical thinking skills since 2005. In this frame, the present study was conducted in order to systematically examine research papers…

  20. The Development of Learning Devices Based Guided Discovery Model to Improve Understanding Concept and Critical Thinking Mathematically Ability of Students at Islamic Junior High School of Medan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuliani, Kiki; Saragih, Sahat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to: 1) development of learning devices based guided discovery model in improving of understanding concept and critical thinking mathematically ability of students at Islamic Junior High School; 2) describe improvement understanding concept and critical thinking mathematically ability of students at MTs by using…

  1. A Development of a Collaborative Blended Learning Model to Enhance Learning Achievement and Thinking Ability of Undergraduate Students at the Institute of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingpum, Peerasak; Ruangsuwan, Chaiyot; Chaicharoen, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of a collaborative blended learning (CoBl) to develop learning achievement and thinking ability of undergraduate students in the Institute of Physical Education. The research is divided into three phases using the blended learning model via collaborative learning with thinking abilities approach as follows:…

  2. Calendars and Thinking Logically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fred C.; Abrahamson, Brant

    This teaching guide consists of two short lessons: (1)"Centuries and Millennia"; and (2) "Days, Weeks, Months and Years." The first lesson shows major religious and secular concerns that, in various ages, combined to produce the calendar that now indicates the beginning of "a new millennium." It is specifically designed to combat "calendar…

  3. Workplace skills and the skills gaps related to employee critical thinking ability and science education curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, William A.

    In recent years, business and industry have been vocal critics of education. Critics complain the American workforce, particularly young people, are deficient in workplace skills. A survey of 500 randomly selected Ohio businesses was used to determine opinions of respondents related to workplace skills gaps, rising skill levels, and level and type of critical thinking used on the job by all employees and entry-level employees. Four of 18 science outcomes promoted by the Ohio Department of Education had an application in business and these required critical-thinking skills to complete. These four formed the foundation in the survey because they provided a connection between thinking skills required on the Ohio 12 th Grade Proficiency Test and those required on the job. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to identify correlation between responses. The alpha level was p ≤ .05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify significant (p ≤ .05) relationships between variables as represented by responses. In addition, one version of the Science Section of the Ohio 12th Grade Proficiency Test was analyzed for use of critical thinking using the SCAN's critical-thinking attributes as a standard. There were several findings related to workplace skills and critical thinking. Only 17.1% of respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the basic academic skill level of their employees. A majority (71.1%) of responding businesses perceived a lack of work ethic as more important than deficient academic skills. Only 17.1% of respondents reported the skill level of their entry-level employees was rising. Approximately 1/3 of responding businesses required no critical thinking at all from their entry-level employees. Small businesses were significantly more likely to require higher levels of critical thinking from their entry level employees than larger businesses. Employers who reported rising skill levels in entry-level employees required all of

  4. Concept mapping. Does it improve critical thinking ability in practical nursing students?

    PubMed

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Filburn, Monica J; Deringer, Susan O; Lum, Glen D

    2011-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential skill taught at all levels of nursing education. This article reports on a study designed to determine if concept mapping is superior to traditional care planning as a teaching method for practical nursing students. Specifically, the study evaluated the effects of concept mapping as a teaching methodology on the development of critical thinking skills. A control group consisting of students taught through the traditional methodology was compared to two groups of students taught with concept mapping. Data were collected using the National League for Nursing Critical Thinking in Clinical Nursing Practice/PN Examination. Results indicated that students who were taught the nursing process using the traditional care planning method scored statistically significantly better on the examination than students taught with the concept mapping method.

  5. Effects of Creativity Training Programs and Teacher Influence on Pupil's Creative Thinking Abilities and Related Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.; And Others

    This study is concerned with the effects of creativity training programs and teacher influence on the development of creativity. An attempt was made to answer the following questions: (1) are two programs equally effective in developing divergent thinking and in fostering positive attitudes about creativity and a self-concept as a creative…

  6. Developing Creative and Critical Thinking Abilities in Business Graduates: The Value of Experiential Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Stephen; McBride, Hugh; Burns, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Educational programmes should promote an ethos of lifelong learning and develop in graduates the capacity for long-term personal and professional development through self-learning and reflection. A business degree programme should seek to produce graduates who are confident, creative thinkers with the capacity to solve problems, think creatively,…

  7. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  8. I Am a Better Driver Than You Think: Examining Self-Enhancement for Driving Ability

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael M.; Liersch, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether people recognized that others might disagree with their high self-assessments of driving ability, and, if so, why. Participants in four experiments expressed a belief that others would assess them as worse drivers than they assessed themselves. This difference appears to be caused by participants’ use of their own, idiosyncratic definition of driving ability. In Experiments 2 and 3 participants reported that others would supply similar assessments of their ability when the skill was less ambiguous. Results of Experiment 4 indicate that participants recognize that there may be more than one way to view driving performance. Participants appear aware that others likely disagree with their self-assessment of driving ability due to differences in how others define driving ability. PMID:24273339

  9. Do domestic animals have minds and the ability to think? A provisional sample of opinions on the question.

    PubMed

    Davis, S L; Cheeke, P R

    1998-08-01

    Faculty, staff, and graduate students in a number of departments, students in an undergraduate course, and some groups outside the university were polled to obtain their perceptions about whether domestic animals have minds, the ability to think, and differing degrees of intelligence (the surveys focused only on horses, cows, sheep, dogs, chickens, pigs, cats, and turkeys). A clear majority of all groups surveyed (except the Department of Zoology) said yes, they believe animals have minds, but a substantial number of those in animal sciences and zoology (17 to 25%) said no. A number of others in animal sciences, zoology, and philosophy (11 to 37%) refused to answer the question because the concept of mind was not defined. From 80 to 100% of respondents in other groups said yes to the question of minds. From 67 to 100% of all participants said yes, they perceive that animals have the ability to think, but a substantial number of animal scientists, zoologists, veterinarians, and English faculty said no, animals don't think (6 to 33%). On the question Do domestic animals differ in relative intelligence?, the responses varied from 88% in animal sciences to 100%. Surprisingly, when asked to rank different animal species by intelligence, there was a remarkable degree of similarity across all groups regardless of background; the overall ranking from highest intelligence to lowest was dog, cat, pig, horse, cow, sheep, chicken, and turkey. Most of the respondents believed that the possession of minds, thought, and intelligence were relevant factors in how animals should be treated and the prevalent concept was that we should not be cruel to animals, but should treat them humanely.

  10. Valuing Choice as an Alternative to Fixed-Ability Thinking and Teaching in Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milik, Amy; Boylan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a personal account of a primary mathematics teacher's current practice and how it developed through participation in a professional development programme. This alternative to fixed-ability teaching is based on creating opportunities for learners to exercise choice and on an understanding of mathematics as connected. Key…

  11. "The Goal" Project: A Group Assignment to Encourage Creative Thinking, Leadership Abilities and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Patricia Lee

    2014-01-01

    The classroom assignment described in this paper, "The Goal" Project, gives students an opportunity to develop four of the skills and abilities required to be a successful accountant. In 1990, the Accounting Education Change Commission issued Position Statement Number One, Objectives of Education for Accountants. Appendix B of that…

  12. Project ALPHA (Advanced Learning Program in the Humanities and Arts): Logic. Study and Practice in Critical Thinking. A Study Unit Designed for Education of the Gifted in the Humanities and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Storti, Anthony J.; And Others

    The set of three units, designed for middle and junior high school gifted students, includes 30 lessons on logic and critical thinking. Each lesson includes information on objectives, materials, and teaching presentation suggestions. Ten deductive reasoning lessons focus on such topics as fact and opinion, tests for validity of deductive…

  13. Why This Teacher Says, "To Hell with Logics!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Ronald V.

    1975-01-01

    The Training situation must allow for student self-effort, creativity in analysis with a latitude for increasing the student's thinking ability. The author offers five steps to take in this approach to equipment maintenance training, which utilizes a block diagram in place of logics. (Author/AJ)

  14. Logic via Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieschenberg, Agnes A.

    This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…

  15. Tackling Problems through Lateral Thinking. An Interview with Edward de Bono.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1985-01-01

    In this interview, Edward de Bono says critical or logical thinking in lockstep fashion is necessary but not sufficient because we need not only the ability to critique ideas, but to create them. Creative or lateral thinking arrives at solutions by attacking problems "laterally" or "sideways." (DCS)

  16. Extending the Reading Abilities of the Average and Above-Average Student: Critical Reading/Thinking for Gifted (and Not-So-Gifted) High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickerson, Benny

    Critical reading and thinking abilities can be encouraged among average and above-average secondary school students through the study of literature. One approach is to give students a study sheet on the elements of the short story. The students should be led through the elements listed and given an opportunity to express their opinions about the…

  17. Development of Analytical Thinking Ability and Attitudes towards Science Learning of Grade-11 Students through Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM Education) in the Study of Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chonkaew, Patcharee; Sukhummek, Boonnak; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical thinking abilities and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education integrated with a problem-based learning in the study of stoichiometry. The research tools consisted of a pre- and post-analytical…

  18. How logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge interact in the process of solving problems about light and vision among Taiwanese secondary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Chieh

    Piagetian scholars argue that the effect of problem content, e.g., empirical knowledge, should decrease with age. Indeed, they believe that the empirical knowledge cannot affect human problem-solving after individuals approach the formal operation stage. In arguing this point, this study uses an A-AR model to address how empirical knowledge affects the problem-solving process among Taiwanese secondary students. The A-AR model is borrowed from mathematics and the symbols, A, A, and R, represent Assumption, Answering, and Reasoning, respectively. Similar to solving mathematics problems, the A-AR model problems require participants to use the given assumptions by logical reasoning in order to respond to the problems. In this situation, the effect of empirical knowledge on problem-solving is easy to detect. There are three results about human problem-solving found in this study. First, the empirical knowledge still affects human problem-solving at the formal operation stage. Not like the Piagetian scholars' assumption: the effect of empirical knowledge is decreasing with age, this study finds that the effect of empirical knowledge is S-shape. The S-shape is a result of academic training. Second, the academic training, major, shapes human problem-solving strategies. For instance, the 12th grade science students' problem-solving strategy is based on logical reasoning ability by the given assumptions and the same grade social science students' strategy is according of their empirical knowledge. Third, the interference of logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge is a predictor of the empirical knowledge effect on human problem-solving. The relation between the empirical knowledge and interference can be characterized as: the more negative interference the participants have, the more of the empirical knowledge effect they will have in the next year. This study does not agree with the Piagetian theory about human problem-solving: the effect of empirical knowledge

  19. Improved Creative Thinkers in a Class: A Model of Activity Based Tasks for Improving University Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Elif Celebi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was improving university students' from different faculties creativity thinking through a creativity education process. The education process took twelve weeks' time. As pretest, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) figural form was used. Participants were 24 university students from different faculties who…

  20. Developmental and individual differences in conditional reasoning: effects of logic instructions and alternative antecedents.

    PubMed

    Daniel, David B; Klaczynski, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    In Study 1, 10-, 13-, and 16-year-olds were assigned to conditions in which they were instructed to think logically and provided alternative antecedents to the consequents of conditional statements. Providing alternatives improved reasoning on two uncertain logical forms, but decreased logical responding on two certain forms; logic instructions improved reasoning among adolescents. Correlations among inferences and verbal ability were found primarily when task conditions created conflict between automatic and controlled inferences. In Study 2, when the cognitive demands of the logic instructions were reduced, 10-year-olds made more logically correct inferences, but only when a conditional's consequents were strongly associated with alternative antecedents. Discussion focuses on the ability to inhibit invited inferences and the role of automatically activated memories.

  1. A high-enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sara E; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F; Eddy, Sarah L; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students' conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  2. A high-enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Sara E; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F; Eddy, Sarah L; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students' conceptions and practice of scientific thinking.

  3. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  4. The Impact of Chess Instruction on the Critical Thinking Ability and Mathematical Achievement of Developmental Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, Darrin K.

    2012-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study determined whether the game of chess can be used as an educational tool to improve critical thinking skills of developmental mathematics students and improve mathematics achievement for these students. Five research questions were investigated. These questions were as follows: (a) Is there a…

  5. Using an Analogical Thinking Model as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Cognitive Ability in Architecture Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…

  6. The Bright and Dark Side Correlates of Creativity: Demographic, Ability, Personality Traits and Personality Disorders Associated with Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the personality trait and personality disorder correlates of creative potential, as assessed by a divergent thinking (DT) test. Over 4,000 adult managers attending an assessment center completed a battery of tests including a "bright side," normal personality trait measures (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, or…

  7. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  8. Identifying Logical Necessity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David

    2010-01-01

    Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…

  9. Logic Programming: PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)

  10. Honors and High-Ability Students: Factors That Predict Academic Efficacy, Critical Thinking Skills, and Academic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Jessica Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative study was threefold: (a) to examine high-ability students in and outside an honors program at a midwestern comprehensive university to determine differences in background and demographic characteristics between honors participants and nonparticipants of similar ability; (b) to determine differences in academic…

  11. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  12. Developing Critical Thinking through Leadership Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Daniel M.; Andenoro, Anthony C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides the critical leadership logic model as a tool to help educators develop leadership-learning opportunities. This proactive logic model includes curricular and co-curricular educational experiences to ensure critical thinking through leadership education.

  13. Critical Thinking: Rationality, and the Vulcanization of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kerry S.

    1990-01-01

    Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…

  14. Thinking is believing.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures.

  15. The Effect of Half-year Education to Cultivate Dialogical Thinking Ability for Students in the Electrical Engineering Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Mika; Takahara, Kenji; Kajiwara, Toshinori

    This paper describes the effect of curriculum for communication ability, “Communication Theory I”, newly started in Fukuoka Institute of Technology in 2007. The purpose of this half-year course was to develop self-awareness and to improve interpersonal relationship through dialog. The program was designed, based on the Process of attitude change of students through dialogue. In the class, students were encouraged to take active role in discussion, constructing one's own argument and refuting others'. Emphasis was also placed on giving the students the opportunity to evaluate other students' discussion. Results showed differences in pre-test-post-test comparisons, confirming that learning environment for discussion could result in conceptual change for students. Further interview analyses and analyses of speech data helped to clarify what was learned through debate.

  16. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  17. The Effects of Problem Solving Applications on the Development of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Skills and Perception on Problem Solving Ability in the Science Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyhan, Hatice Güngör

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…

  18. Dispositional logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  19. Dispositional logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  20. Logic: A Unit for 4-8 Graders, Especially Gifted and Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Susan; Tansey, Pam

    The unit on logic is intended to teach critical thinking for gifted and talented students in grades 4-8. Sections are presented separately for students in grades 4-5 and 6-8. The younger students are instructed in such areas as scientific logic, math logic, spatial reasoning, deductive logic, inductive logic, and reasoning with analogies. The…

  1. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  2. Strategy: The logic of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Luttwak, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book expounds a new way of thinking about the conduct of war and the diplomacy of peace, a theory Luttwak calls ''paradoxical logic,'' and illustrates, through abundant historical examples, the failure of commonsense logic in matters of military strategy and international politics. Topics considered include nuclear weapons, military strategy, decision making, historical aspects, political aspects, global aspects, and warfare.

  3. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  4. Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…

  5. Fuzzy Thinking in Non-Fuzzy Situations: Understanding Students' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    1995-01-01

    In mathematics a true statement is always true, but some false statements are more false than others. Fuzzy logic provides a way of handling degrees of set membership and has implications for helping students appreciate logical thinking. (MKR)

  6. A Comparison of the "Prompting Effect" of Out-of-School with that of In-School Contexts on Certain Aspects of Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, A.; Jungwirth, E.

    1980-01-01

    Explores linking the teaching of science to everday situations, with the idea that science education is particularly suited for the development of critical thinking habits. Conclusions are made regarding the "prompting effect" of everyday topics in the ability of ninth-grade biology students to recognize logical fallacies. (CS)

  7. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  8. The ability to solve elementary logic tasks in mice with the knockout of sodium-calcium exchanger gene 2 (NCX2).

    PubMed

    Poletaeva, I I; Perepelkina, O V; Boyarshinova, O S; Golibrodo, V A; Lilp, I G; Lipp, H-P; Shin, Hee Sup

    2016-07-01

    Mice with a knockout of the sodium-calcium exchanger 2 (NCX2) gene were statistically significantly more successful than wild-type controls in the solution of two cognitive tasks, the test for the capacity to extrapolate the direction of the stimulus movement and the "puzzle-box" test for the capacity to find a hidden route to safe environment, which were based on food and aversive motivations, respectively. In both tests, the success of task solution was based on the animal's ability to use the object's "permanence" rule (according to J. Piaget). The data confirm that the knockout of this gene, which is accompanied by modulation of the temporal pattern of calcium membrane flux, also induces changes in mouse CNS plasticity. PMID:27595821

  9. Relationships among Measures of Learning Orientation, Reasoning Ability, and Conceptual Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants for Grade 8 Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekkaya, Ceren; Yenilmez, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of students' reasoning ability and meaningful learning orientation to their understanding of the photosynthesis and respiration in plants concepts. Data were gathered through the use of the Test of Logical Thinking (Tobin & Capie, 1981), the Learning Approach Questionnaire (Cavallo, 1996), and the Two-Tier…

  10. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  11. Using Graded Peer Evaluation to Improve Students' Writing Skills, Critical Thinking Ability, and Comprehension of Material in a Principles of Public Relations Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Vicki; Hudson, Jerry C.

    2007-01-01

    This peer-evaluation assignment encouraged students to think critically, synthesize information and write about public relations course material rather than incorporate surface information into written assignments. Because peer reviewers can improve the grades on their final papers by offering concrete suggestions to the original authors, students…

  12. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  13. Effects of using logic and spatial cybergames to improve student success rates in lower-division chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Carissa Janice

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationships between cybergaming treatment groups and the control group (N = 99: ncontrol = 8; nlogic = 29; nspatial = 30; ncombination = 32) with success in the organic chemistry I course as measured by achievement over a 10-week period. The treatment groups included logic training, spatial training, and combination logic-spatial training. Students' ability was measured by pre/post exams using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) to measure logic ability, Purdue Visualizations of Rotations (ROT) test to measure spatial skills, and the General-Organic-Biochemistry (GOB) Exam to measure content attainment. Finally, students' responses about participation in this experience were evaluated using open- and closed-ended questions on a self-developed survey. A second study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the cybergaming treatment and control groups (N = 88: nexperimental = 27; ncontrol = 61) with success in the general chemistry I course as measured by achievement and final course averages and grades. The cybergaming treatment group underwent intensive combination logic-spatial training for 10 weeks. Students' progress was measured using three pre/post instruments: Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) measured logic ability, Purdue Visualizations of Rotations (ROT) Test measured spatial skills, and the California Chemistry Diagnostic Exam measured content attainment. Finally, students' responses about their participation in this experience were evaluated using open- and closed-ended questions on a self-developed survey. Analyses of the data were performed to determine the relationships between cybergaming treatments and control groups in organic chemistry I and general chemistry I courses. In organic chemistry I results showed no statistical or practical significance as to students' success. In general chemistry I results indicated statistical significance and medium practicality for students

  14. [Continuity and transformation of body logic].

    PubMed

    Bolens, Guillemette

    2003-01-01

    This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.

  15. How Smart Do You Think You Are? A Meta-Analysis on the Validity of Self-Estimates of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Kasten, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of their own level of cognitive ability are expressed through self-estimates. They play an important role in a person's self-concept because they facilitate an understanding of how one's own abilities relate to those of others. People evaluate their own and other persons' abilities all the time, but self-estimates are also…

  16. Critical assumptions: thinking critically about critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Thelma

    2007-03-01

    The concept of critical thinking has been featured in nursing literature for the past 20 years. It has been described but not defined by both the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the National League for Nursing, although their corresponding accreditation bodies require that critical thinking be included in nursing curricula. In addition, there is no reliable or valid measurement tool for critical thinking ability in nursing. As a result, there is a lack of research support for the assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking ability improves clinical competence. Brookfield suggested that commitments should be made only after a period of critically reflective analysis, during which the congruence between perceptions and reality are examined. In an evidence-based practice profession, we, as nurse educators, need to ask ourselves how we can defend our assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking improves the quality of nursing practice, especially when there is virtually no consensus on a definition.

  17. Temporal logics meet telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.

  18. Milestones of critical thinking: a developmental model for medicine and nursing.

    PubMed

    Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen

    2014-05-01

    Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency.

  19. "The Blue Table Means You Don't Have a Clue": The Persistence of Fixed-Ability Thinking and Practices in Primary Mathematics in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The use of structured ability grouping is increasing in English primary schools and is regularly seen in primary mathematics classrooms. Ability is a normalised discourse with beliefs that some individuals are "born to do maths" permeating society and infiltrating school practices. In this article, observation and interview data…

  20. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…

  1. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  2. Creating Science Simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    2012-01-01

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction.…

  3. Nanomagnetic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, David Bryan

    The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly

  4. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  5. Supporting Right-Brained Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mescolotto, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…

  6. Giving Programming Students a Logical Step Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a method to enhance the teaching of computer programing to secondary students that establishes a connection between logic, truth tables, switching circuits, gating symbols, flow charts, and pseudocode. The author asserts that the method prepares students for thinking processes related to programing. (MDH)

  7. Does Theory of Mind in Pre-Kindergarten Predict the Ability to Think about a Reader's Mind in Elementary School Compositions? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…

  8. Embedding Critical Thinking in IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda; Davis, Tim; Kazlauskas, Alanah

    2007-01-01

    It is important for students to develop critical thinking and other higher-order thinking skills during their tertiary studies. Along with the ability to think critically comes the need to develop students' meta-cognitive skills. These abilities work together to enable students to control, monitor, and regulate their own cognitive processes and…

  9. Sharpening your critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S P

    1996-01-01

    In the current environment of constant and rapid change in health care, critical thinking is essential. Both personal ability to think critically and a willingness to do so are involved and are related to the individual and to the organization in which the individual works. Knowledge, experience, attitudes, thinking strategies, skills, and an organizational culture that values critical thinking are essential factors in the development and practice of those skills. There is no magic solution. There must be a commitment by all levels of the organization to develop and use the principles and skills of critical thinking. PMID:9110811

  10. Sharpening your critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S P

    1996-01-01

    In the current environment of constant and rapid change in health care, critical thinking is essential. Both personal ability to think critically and a willingness to do so are involved and are related to the individual and to the organization in which the individual works. Knowledge, experience, attitudes, thinking strategies, skills, and an organizational culture that values critical thinking are essential factors in the development and practice of those skills. There is no magic solution. There must be a commitment by all levels of the organization to develop and use the principles and skills of critical thinking.

  11. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  12. Logical Reasoning and Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce

    1993-01-01

    A study of logical reasoning ability of endusers searching a CD-ROM index and its correlation to searching performance was conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Findings showed a correlation between cognitive skills and citation selection and indicated that computer system design can be improved using a cognitive engineering…

  13. Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Licata, G

    2007-06-01

    In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.

  14. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  15. [Follow-up study in traditional Chinese medicine of reinforcing kidney and resolving stasis and thinking of improving women's ability of high-quality fertility and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    High quality of fertility and pregancy is a specific presentation of family planning in this new historic environment. Our country adopted two-child policy from November, 2013. This symbolized an adjustive stage of reproduction policy in 21st century. It is a major adjustment in the development of national population. As a contry of tremendous population, it is very important to have a high- quality fertility and pregancy for the future of the whole nation, which would improve population quality and restrict development of population. The morbidity of infertility has increased significantly, which brings a huge crisis for national population. Under the guidance of high-quality fertility and pregancy in Chinese medicine theory, improving fertile women's ability of high-quality fertility and pregancy, and follow-up studying is of vital importance for evaluating the treatment of abortion prevention by traditional Chinese medicine and human health of high-quality fertility and pregancy.

  16. Does a Business Curriculum Develop or Filter Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, B. Jay; Mason, Paul; Steagall, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a business curriculum develops critical thinking ability or at least serves as a filter for critical thinking (i.e., students who cannot think critically tend not to progress toward graduation). We measure critical thinking by performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Short Form which was administered to a…

  17. Thinking Is Literacy, Literacy Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the profound relationship between thinking and language, the authors have developed the traditional Paideia seminar into a literacy cycle of instruction that involves students in reading, speaking, listening, writing, and thinking. As staff members of the National Paideia Center, they have observed that learning to think requires…

  18. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  19. Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

  20. Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhor, Charles

    One of a series dealing with current issues affecting language arts instruction, this paper focuses on thinking skills. The paper begins by raising two issues: whether thinking skills should be taught as part of each subject area, as a separate skill, or both, and whether English and language arts teachers have a special role in the teaching of…

  1. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    DOEpatents

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  2. How We Think We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…

  3. Fuzzy branching temporal logic.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2004-04-01

    Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example. PMID:15376850

  4. Increasing Logico-Mathematical Thinking in Low SES Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Lynn D.; Manning, Maryann; Osaki, Kyoko; Hicks, Delyne

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, children in low socioeconomic status (SES) inner-city areas in the United States lack experiences that prepare them for academic success, especially in math and science. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent to which a constructivist curriculum emphasizing logical thinking produces higher level thinking in low-SES…

  5. An Education Track for Creativity and Other Quality Thinking Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleedorn, Berenice

    2003-01-01

    The need for new thinking in the world, both official leadership and for all participating members of society has been a glaring reality in recent times. To Berenice Bleedorn, the idea of teaching students how to use the full potential of their thinking apparatus is not absurd--simply logical and timely. Creative expression is central to the…

  6. Critical Thinking Dispositions of the Turkish Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubukcu, Zuhal

    2006-01-01

    Critical thinking can be explained as an effective, organized and functional cognitive process to understand our own thoughts and other people's opinions and to improve our dispositions to express ourselves. Critical thinking is a process and also dispositions about deciding what to do or believe logically. In addition it provides the possibility…

  7. Learning with Touchscreen Devices: Game Strategies to Improve Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The…

  8. Developing a (Non-Linear) Practice of Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Randall

    2010-01-01

    Design thinking can be a powerful way to engage the world, allowing interactive understandings that are both analytic and experiential. When fully functioning, design thinking necessarily calls upon faculties often considered a-rational, a-causal and a-logical. Unfortunately, such faculties often give rise to academic suspicion. That is to say,…

  9. French Fries, Lateral Thinking and the Education of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1976-01-01

    Notes that lateral thinking is represented by the person who is able to exhibit exploratory behavior, while vertical thinkers take the most reasonable view of a situation and then proceed logically and carefully to work it out. Much of education and teacher education in particular reflects vertical thinking. (Author/AM)

  10. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  11. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities.

  12. Digital Holographic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.

  13. Foundations of logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first book to give an account of the mathematical foundations of Logic Programming. Its purpose is to collect the basic theoretical results of Logic Programming, which have previously only been available in widely scattered research papers. In addition to presenting the technical results, the book also contains many illustrative examples. Many of the examples and problems are part of the folklore of Logic Programming and are not easily obtainable elsewhere.

  14. Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

    2012-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

  15. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  16. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  17. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  18. Fundamentals of Digital Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, Monica L.

    This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

  19. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  20. Developmental Patterns in Logical Reasoning of Students in Grades Six through Ten: Increments and Plateaus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitner, Betty L.

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the developmental patterns in logical reasoning of students in grades 6-10 over a span of 20 months. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) was administered to the sample (N=84) during the fall of 1986, the fall of 1987, and the spring of 1988. The GALT measures six reasoning modes:…

  1. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  2. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  3. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  4. Thinking big

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Harry

    2008-02-01

    Physicists are often quick to discount social research based on qualitative techniques such as ethnography and "deep case studies" - where a researcher draws conclusions about a community based on immersion in the field - thinking that only quantitative research backed up by statistical analysis is sound. The balance is not so clear, however.

  5. Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  6. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  7. Optical logic: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-05-01

    Progress of optical logic has been anything but uniform or even monotonic. The hope for "all optical computers" was largely abandoned after devastating critiques by Keyes. Over time, optical logic transformed into a very viable niche activity by the needs of optical communication for "all optical" logic and the advent of a critical component: the SOA or Semiconductor Optical Amplifier. I argue that a new phase in this uneven history can be defined - linear (single photon, not multiple entangled photon) quantum optical logic. These can perform conservative, reversible logic operations without energy or time penalties, but cascading requires the irreversible act of measurement, so only single devices or single layers can deliver those advantages.

  8. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    PubMed Central

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  9. Fuzziness in abacus logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhas, Othman Qasim

    1993-10-01

    The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.

  10. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  11. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…

  12. Applying Toulmin: Teaching Logical Reasoning and Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rex, Lesley A.; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Engel, Steven

    2010-01-01

    To learn to write well-reasoned persuasive arguments, students need in situ help thinking through the complexity and complications of an issue, making inferences based on evidence, and hierarchically grouping and logically sequencing ideas. They rely on teachers to make this happen. In this article, the authors explain the framework they used and…

  13. Winnicott and Derrida: development of logic-of-play.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Shachaf

    2012-02-01

    In this essay I develop the logic of play from the writings of the British psychoanalyst Donald W. Winnicott and the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. The logic of play serves as both a conceptual framework for theoretical clinical thinking and a space of experiencing in which the therapeutic situation is located and to which it aspires. I argue that both Winnicott and Derrida proposed a playful turn in Western thinking by their attitude towards oppositions, viewing them not as complementary or contradictory, but as 'peacefully-coexisting'. Derrida criticizes the dichotomous structure of Western thought, proposing playful movement as an alternative that does not constitute itself as a mastering construction. I will show that Winnicott, too, proposes playful logic through which he thinks and acts in the therapeutic situation. The therapeutic encounter is understood as a playful space in which analyst and analysand continuously coexist, instead of facing each other as exclusionary oppositions. I therefore propose the logic of play as the basis for the therapeutic encounter. The playful turn, then, is crucial for the thought and praxis expressed by the concept of two-person psychology. I suggest the term playful psychoanalysis to characterize the present perspective of psychoanalysis in the light of the playful turn. I will first present Derrida's playful thought, go on to Winnicott's playful revolutionism, and conclude with an analysis of Winicott's clinical material in the light of the logic of play. PMID:22320134

  14. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  15. Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2016-07-15

    A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning.

  16. Predictive value of attitude, cognitive ability, and personality to science achievement in the middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale R.

    This article examines the factors of attitude toward science, spatial ability, mathematical ability, and the scientific personality, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, in a sample of middle school students. Males and females with science grades of A and B were found to have several characteristics of the scientific personality, good grades in mathematics, but negative attitudes toward science. Males and females with science grades of C and D had a more positive attitude toward science, but poor mathematical and spatial abilities and few characteristics of the scientific personality. There were no sex differences except on the Thinking/Feeling (TF) scale of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. As expected females portrayed themselves as preferring the (F) scale, the use of personal values when making decisions and males portrayed themselves as preferring the (T) scale, the use of logical analysis when making decisions.

  17. Holographic thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    2000-10-01

    Holographic thinking is everywhere although we do not realize it. Turn on your TV and you will see many representations of holographic images. It is in many science fiction movies, as well as in books and the news. Now, start your computer and search the Web. What do you see, a screen with plenty of little boxes or frames, each one containing information. You can choose to go deeper by clicking here and there, but ultimately all the little boxes are related to each other. What do you have? A holographic principle where each point stands by itself, containing the whole entity while composing part of it at the same time. The following paragraphs, discussing and evaluating the characteristics of holographic thinking can be read in any order you wish. Each paragraph contributes an understanding of just one aspect of all the ideas which cannot be limited to this paper alone.

  18. Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties in Boolean Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Loui, Michael C.; Kaczmarczyk, Lisa; Zilles, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reason with formal logic is a foundational skill for computer scientists and computer engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding of propositional logic and their ability to translate from English specifications to Boolean expressions, we characterized…

  19. Reasoning, logic, and psychology.

    PubMed

    Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Soap Bubbles and Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shellie-helane; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Introduces questions and activities involving soap bubbles which provide students with experiences in prediction and logic. Examines commonly held false conceptions related to the shapes that bubbles take and provides correct explanations for the phenomenon. (ML)

  1. Teaching Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…

  2. Facilitating Critical Thinking through Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunney, Margaret; Frederickson, Keville; Spark, Arlene; McDuffie, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    Development of critical thinking abilities is essential for students in clinical disciplines of the health sciences. Past research has shown that critical thinking is a learned skill that can be fostered through teaching strategies. Ten educational strategies that were developed and tested by the authors in online courses are presented to assist…

  3. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  4. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  5. The Contribution of Logical Reasoning to the Learning of Mathematics in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Bell, Daniel; Gardner, Selina; Gardner, Adelina; Carraher, Julia

    2007-01-01

    It has often been claimed that children's mathematical understanding is based on their ability to reason logically, but there is no good evidence for this causal link. We tested the causal hypothesis about logic and mathematical development in two related studies. In a longitudinal study, we showed that (a) 6-year-old children's logical abilities…

  6. Defect-sensitivity analysis of an SEU immune CMOS logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingermann, Erik H.; Frenzel, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Fault testing of resistive manufacturing defects is done on a recently developed single event upset immune logic family. Resistive ranges and delay times are compared with those of traditional CMOS logic. Reaction of the logic to these defects is observed for a NOR gate, and an evaluation of its ability to cope with them is determined.

  7. Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.

    PubMed

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713

  8. Robust Fuzzy Logic Stabilization with Disturbance Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713

  9. Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.

    PubMed

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.

  10. Critical Thinking in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures. The most prominent tests are the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, and the Cornell Critical Thinking Tests. Watson and Glaser's (1980) view of critical thinking is "a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and…

  11. Thinking through Writing. Lord Fairfax Community College, 1990-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord Fairfax Community Coll., Middletown, VA.

    In an attempt to improve its students' writing abilities, as well as their critical thinking skills, Lord Fairfax Community College, in Virginia, developed a program called "Thinking through Writing." The project designers believed that concept formation, classification, memory enhancement, and other learning/thinking skills could be enhanced by…

  12. Global Perspectives: Developing Media Literacy Skills to Advance Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radeloff, Cheryl L.; Bergman, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Women's studies and feminist curricula have been lauded for the development and application of critical thinking skills for social and political change in its students (Fisher; Kellner and Share; Mayberry). Critical thinking can be defined as the ability to identify and challenge assumptions, to search for alternative ways of thinking, and to…

  13. Epistemic Beliefs and Critical Thinking of Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ngai-Man; Ho, Irene T.; Ku, Kelly Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to examine the relationship between epistemic beliefs and critical thinking. In the first study, 138 Chinese undergraduates completed the adapted Epistemic Beliefs Inventory (EBI) and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations. Their cognitive ability and thinking dispositions were also…

  14. ThinkSpace: Spatial Thinking in Middle School Astronomy Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.

  15. A Tentative Description of Post-Formal Thinking: The Critical Confrontation with Cognitive Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe L.; Steinberg, Shirley R.

    1993-01-01

    Postformal thinking concerns questions of meaning and purpose, multiple perspectives, human dignity, freedom, and social responsibility. Curriculum and instruction based on postformalism involves detecting problems, uncovering hidden assumptions, seeing relationships, deconstructing, connecting logic and emotion, and attending to context. (SK)

  16. Diagnosable structured logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  17. Benchmarking emerging logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri

    2014-03-01

    As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS FET) are being scaled to ever smaller sizes by the semiconductor industry, the demand is growing for emerging logic devices to supplement CMOS in various special functions. Research directions and concepts of such devices are overviewed. They include tunneling, graphene based, spintronic devices etc. The methodology to estimate future performance of emerging (beyond CMOS) devices and simple logic circuits based on them is explained. Results of benchmarking are used to identify more promising concepts and to map pathways for improvement of beyond CMOS computing.

  18. Logical Thinking in Children; Research Based on Piaget's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigel, Irving E., Ed.; Hooper, Frank H., Ed.

    Theoretical and empirical research derived from Piagetian theory is collected on the intellectual development of the elementary school child and his acquisition and utilization of conservation concepts. The articles present diversity of method and motive in the results of replication (validation studies of the description of cognitive growth) and…

  19. A consensus statement on critical thinking in nursing.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, B K; Rubenfeld, M G

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to define critical thinking in nursing. A Delphi technique with 5 rounds of input was used to achieve this purpose. An international panel of expert nurses from nine countries: Brazil, Canada, England, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Thailand, and 23 states in the U.S. participated in this study between 1995 and 1998. A consensus definition (statement) of critical thinking in nursing was achieved. The panel also identified and defined 10 habits of the mind (affective components) and 7 skills (cognitive components) of critical thinking in nursing. The habits of the mind of critical thinking in nursing included: confidence, contextual perspective, creativity, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. Skills of critical thinking in nursing included: analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, information seeking, logical reasoning, predicting and transforming knowledge. These findings can be used by practitioners, educators and researchers to advance understanding of the essential role of critical thinking in nursing.

  20. The fundamental skills of higher order thinking.

    PubMed

    Grossen, B

    1991-01-01

    It may be possible to teach reasoning strategies to subjects with poor reasoning, including many subjects with learning disabilities (LD), using curriculum designed around a sameness analysis. The higher order thinking skills of analogical and logical reasoning are defined using the sameness analysis methodology. The sameness in the strategy for forming a generalization from experience is called "reasoning by analogy," while the sameness in the strategy for applying generalizations is described by the syllogism (logical reasoning). The research base for effective instruction in analogical and logical reasoning, particularly with subjects with LD, is summarized. The wide applicability of reasoning by analogy and by syllogism as complementary strategies is illustrated through their use in a critical review of the editorial page of a daily newspaper, and in linking content material in several domains.

  1. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial intelligence, and…

  2. Logic and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straumanis, Joan

    A major problem in teaching symbolic logic is that of providing individualized and early feedback to students who are learning to do proofs. To overcome this difficulty, a computer program was developed which functions as a line-by-line proof checker in Sentential Calculus. The program, DEMON, first evaluates any statement supplied by the student…

  3. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  4. Effective Methods for Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Goldstein, Laurence

    1984-01-01

    Describes computer assisted instruction programs for teaching logic during first year philosophy courses at the University of Hong Kong. These programs include JOHN, which introduces Venn-diagrams for evaluating syllogistic arguments; LUDWIG, which introduces techniques for evaluating arguments in propositional calculus; and TIARA, which provides…

  5. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  6. The Logic of Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, John; Yang, Taewon

    2015-12-01

    Since the work of Crown (J. Natur. Sci. Math. 15(1-2), 11-25 1975) in the 1970's, it has been known that the projections of a finite-dimensional vector bundle E form an orthomodular poset ( omp) {P}(E). This result lies in the intersection of a number of current topics, including the categorical quantum mechanics of Abramsky and Coecke (2004), and the approach via decompositions of Harding (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348(5), 1839-1862 1996). Moreover, it provides a source of omps for the quantum logic program close to the Hilbert space setting, and admitting a version of tensor products, yet having important differences from the standard logics of Hilbert spaces. It is our purpose here to initiate a basic investigation of the quantum logic program in the vector bundle setting. This includes observations on the structure of the omps obtained as {P}(E) for a vector bundle E, methods to obtain states on these omps, and automorphisms of these omps. Key theorems of quantum logic in the Hilbert setting, such as Gleason's theorem and Wigner's theorem, provide natural and quite challenging problems in the vector bundle setting.

  7. The Logic of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Gordon A.

    The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…

  8. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  9. Improving Student Critical Thinking and Perceptions of Critical Thinking through Direct Instruction in Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of direct instruction in rhetorical analysis on students' critical thinking abilities, including knowledge, skills, and dispositions. The researcher investigated student perceptions of the effectiveness of argument mapping; Thinker's Guides, based on Paul's model of critical thinking; and Socratic questioning.…

  10. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  11. The Effect of Teaching Certain Concepts of Logic on Verbalization of Discovered Mathematical Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth Albert

    Reported are the results of a study designed to test the effects of a programed unit in fundamentals of logic on the ability of college capable junior high school students to verbalize mathematical generalizations. The independent variables were the presence or absence of study of the logic unit, and ability level being college capable (I.Q.…

  12. Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2016-07-15

    A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning. PMID:27138210

  13. Conditional Logic and Primary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.

    Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a 15-week…

  14. The Nature and Development of Critical-Analytic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to provide an overview of the features of the abilities, aptitudes, and frames of minds that are attributed to critical thinking and provide the broad outlines of the development of critical-analytic thinking (CAT) abilities. In addition, we evaluate the potential viability of three main hypotheses regarding the reasons…

  15. No Child Left Thinking: Democracy at Risk in Canada's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The author titled this article "No Child Left Thinking" because for the past 10 years he has been studying the effects of education initiatives such as the U.S. "No Child Left Behind Act" or the various provincial testing and accountability policies in Canada and their impact on teachers' ability to teach critical thinking and students' ability to…

  16. Does Lego Training Stimulate Pupils' Ability to Solve Logical Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindh, Jorgen; Holgersson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-year regular robotic toys (lego) training on school pupils' performance. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the "constructionist theory," where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…

  17. Design thinking.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

  18. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  19. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  20. Critical thinking: concept analysis from the perspective of Rodger's evolutionary method of concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carbogim, Fábio da Costa; de Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini; Püschel, Vilanice Alves de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the concept of critical thinking (CT) in Rodger's evolutionary perspective. Method: documentary research undertaken in the Cinahl, Lilacs, Bdenf and Dedalus databases, using the keywords of 'critical thinking' and 'Nursing', without limitation based on year of publication. The data were analyzed in accordance with the stages of Rodger's conceptual model. The following were included: books and articles in full, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which addressed CT in the teaching and practice of Nursing; articles which did not address aspects related to the concept of CT were excluded. Results: the sample was made up of 42 works. As a substitute term, emphasis is placed on 'analytical thinking', and, as a related factor, decision-making. In order, the most frequent preceding and consequent attributes were: ability to analyze, training of the student nurse, and clinical decision-making. As the implications of CT, emphasis is placed on achieving effective results in care for the patient, family and community. Conclusion: CT is a cognitive skill which involves analysis, logical reasoning and clinical judgment, geared towards the resolution of problems, and standing out in the training and practice of the nurse with a view to accurate clinical decision-making and the achieving of effective results. PMID:27598376

  1. Individual Differences and Age-Related Changes in Divergent Thinking in Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with…

  2. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  3. Making the link between critical appraisal, thinking and analysis.

    PubMed

    Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Hasselder, Alison

    Nursing has become an all-graduate profession; as such, student nurses must develop their skills of critical analysis. The need to develop critical analytical thinking has been identified as the single most important skill in undergraduate education and reaching the academic requirements of level six study. In degree-level healthcare programmes, students are frequently asked to complete a structured critical appraisal of research. This paper examines how critical appraisal activities can be an opportunity for students to develop transferable critical thinking skills. Critical appraisal teaches objectivity, reflection, logic and discipline, which encourage students to think critically in both theory and practice.

  4. Teaching critical thinking in a developmental biology course at an American liberal arts college.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dany S

    2003-01-01

    We all expect our students to learn facts and concepts, but more importantly, we want them to learn how to evaluate new information from an educated and skeptical perspective; that is, we want them to become critical thinkers. For many of us who are scientists and teachers, critical thought is either intuitive or we learned it so long ago that it is not at all obvious how to pass on the skills to our students. Explicitly discussing the logic that underlies the experimental basis of developmental biology is an easy and very successful way to teach critical thinking skills. Here, I describe some simple changes to a lecture course that turn the practice of critical thinking into the centerpiece of the learning process. My starting point is the "Evidence and Antibodies" sidelight in Gilbert's Developmental Biology (2000), which I use as an introduction to the ideas of correlation, necessity and sufficiency, and to the kinds of experiments required to gather each type of evidence: observation ("show it"), loss of function ("block it") and gain of function ("move it"). Thereafter, every experiment can be understood quickly by the class and discussed intelligently with a common vocabulary. Both verbal and written reinforcement of these ideas dramatically improve the students' ability to evaluate new information. In particular, they are able to evaluate claims about cause and effect; they become experts at distinguishing between correlation and causation. Because the intellectual techniques are so powerful and the logic so satisfying, the students come to view the critical assessment of knowledge as a fun puzzle and the rigorous thinking behind formulating a question as an exciting challenge.

  5. Critical thinking in clinical nurse education: application of Paul's model of critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Andrea Sullivan, E

    2012-11-01

    Nurse educators recognize that many nursing students have difficulty in making decisions in clinical practice. The ability to make effective, informed decisions in clinical practice requires that nursing students know and apply the processes of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a skill that develops over time and requires the conscious application of this process. There are a number of models in the nursing literature to assist students in the critical thinking process; however, these models tend to focus solely on decision making in hospital settings and are often complex to actualize. In this paper, Paul's Model of Critical Thinking is examined for its application to nursing education. I will demonstrate how the model can be used by clinical nurse educators to assist students to develop critical thinking skills in all health care settings in a way that makes critical thinking skills accessible to students.

  6. Thinking Style Diversity and Collaborative Design Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper explores the impact of structured learning experiences that were designed to challenge students’ ways of thinking and promote creativity. The aim was to develop the ability of students, coming from different engineering disciplines and characterized by particular thinking style profiles, to collaboratively work on a project-based learning experience in an educational environment. Three project-based learning experiences were structured using critical thinking methods to stimulate creativity. Pre and post-survey data using a specially modified thinking style inventory for 202 design students indicated a thinking style profile of preferences with a focus on exploring and questioning. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and openness to multiple perspectives.

  7. Formal-Operational Thinking and the Role of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mollie L.

    Studies exploring the transition from early to middle adolescence have found a significant increase in formal-operational thinking, but it is questionable whether the typical adolescent is capable of consistently applying formal operational logic. To examine the relationship between Piagetian-based training techniques and formal-operational…

  8. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: The Evolution of a Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Harold E.; Monroe, Susan

    In an attempt to serve underprepared students--students who are beginners in writing, reading, and logical thinking skills--the English department at Keene State College in New Hampshire has been evolving a developmental English composition course designed to enable these students to participate effectively in their subsequent general education…

  9. Reasoning about logical propositions and success in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piburn, Michael D.

    1990-12-01

    Students display a number of misconceptions when asked to reason about logical propositions. Rather than being random, these misconceptions are stereotypic, and relate to age, ability, and success in science. The grades in science achieved by tenth-grade general science students from two parochial single-sex schools in Australia correlated with their scores on the Propositional Logic Test. The students' ability level was consistently related to the pattern of errors they committed on that measure. Mean scores were lowest on a subtest of ability to use the biconditional and implication, higher on the disjunction, and highest on the conjunction. Success in science was predicted most strongly by the disjunction and biconditional subtests. Knowledge of the way in which a person reasons about logical propositions provides additional insights into the transformations information is subjected to as it is integrated into mental schemata.

  10. Experiential Collaborative Learning and Preferential Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper presents a Project-Based Learning (shortly, PBL) approach in a collaborative educational environment aimed to develop design ability and creativity of students coming from different engineering disciplines. Three collaborative learning experiences in product design were conducted in order to study their impact on preferred thinking styles of students. Using a thinking style inventory, pre- and post-survey data was collected and successively analyzed through ANOVA techniques. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and an openness to multiple perspectives. Furthermore, data analysis confirms that the proposed collaborative learning experience positively contributes to increase awareness in students' thinking styles.

  11. Managing Medical Logic Modules.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, A. R.; Roderer, N. K.

    1991-01-01

    A key element of IAIMS development at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) is the Medical Logic Module (MLM), designed to provide decision support to clinical users. A standard has been established for MLMs, and a number of institutions have agreed in principle to share them. At CPMC, MLMs are under development and MLMs from other institutions are being reviewed. The Columbia Health Sciences Library has developed a management system for MLMs which supports both internal development and sharing of MLMs among institutions. This paper describes the elements of the MLM management system. PMID:1807599

  12. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  13. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  14. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  15. A Comparative Study of Effect of New and Old Science Curriculum on Chinese Junior High School Students' Abstract Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Weiping; Chen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    "Teenagers' abstract thinking ability test" was designed in accordance with the structure and performance of teenagers' ability to think abstractly. 138 Chinese junior high school students who learned New curriculum and old curriculum separately were measured. A comparison between the two kinds of students shows that abstract thinking ability of…

  16. Computational thinking and thinking about computing.

    PubMed

    Wing, Jeannette M

    2008-10-28

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.

  17. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  18. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  19. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  20. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  1. Critical Thinking and Constructivism: Mambo Dog Fish to the Banana Patch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…

  2. An SEU immune logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canaris, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.

  3. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  4. Teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  5. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  6. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  7. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  8. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  9. Fuzzy logic and coarse coding using programmable logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Geoffrey

    2009-05-01

    Naturally-occurring sensory signal processing algorithms, such as those that inspired fuzzy-logic control, can be integrated into non-naturally-occurring high-performance technology, such as programmable logic devices, to realize novel bio-inspired designs. Research is underway concerning an investigation into using field programmable logic devices (FPLD's) to implement fuzzy logic sensory processing. A discussion is provided concerning the commonality between bio-inspired fuzzy logic algorithms and coarse coding that is prevalent in naturally-occurring sensory systems. Undergraduate design projects using fuzzy logic for an obstacle-avoidance robot has been accomplished at our institution and other places; numerous other successful fuzzy logic applications can be found as well. The long-term goal is to leverage such biomimetic algorithms for future applications. This paper outlines a design approach for implementing fuzzy-logic algorithms into reconfigurable computing devices. This paper is presented in an effort to connect with others who may be interested in collaboration as well as to establish a starting point for future research.

  10. Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.

  11. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  12. How successful leaders think.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  13. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.

  14. Quantificational logic of context

    SciTech Connect

    Buvac, Sasa

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.

  15. Molecular logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2003-01-13

    Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology.

  16. Contingencies, logic, and learning.

    PubMed

    Bower, T G

    1997-01-01

    A logical analysis of operant learning is presented. In total, the analysis makes a number of predictions that are different from the predictions of any other theory. Individual predictions can be explained by other theories, but the pattern of predictions is unique. Some tests of the predictions of the analysis with human newborns are described. The analysis predicts increased variance in sucking with the introduction of continuous reinforcement. This does occur. The analysis predicts a decreased rate of sucking with a shift from continuous to partial reinforcement. This does occur. The analysis predicts an increased rate of sucking with a shift from continuous reinforcement to continuous plus noncontingent reinforcement. Due to methodological deficiencies, we have been unable to test this prediction. However, it has been confirmed by others. The most exciting prediction of the analysis is a rapid way of producing extinction. That has not been tested with newborns; however, there is confirmatory evidence in the literature.

  17. A Logical Process Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  18. The New Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown how all the major conceptual difficulties of standard (textbook) quantum mechanics, including the two measurement problems and the (supposed) nonlocality that conflicts with special relativity, are resolved in the consistent or decoherent histories interpretation of quantum mechanics by using a modified form of quantum logic to discuss quantum properties (subspaces of the quantum Hilbert space), and treating quantum time development as a stochastic process. The histories approach in turn gives rise to some conceptual difficulties, in particular the correct choice of a framework (probabilistic sample space) or family of histories, and these are discussed. The central issue is that the principle of unicity, the idea that there is a unique single true description of the world, is incompatible with our current understanding of quantum mechanics.

  19. Molecular logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2003-01-13

    Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology. PMID:12596465

  20. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  1. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  2. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  3. Fuzzy logic for fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comly, James B.; Bonissone, Piero P.; Dausch, Mark E.

    1991-02-01

    Advanced real-time digital controls for complex plants or processes will use a model (an " Observer" ) which predicts the values for sensor readings expected from the actual plant these vote as alternate " sensors" if the real ones fail. We are exploring further use of the Observer for real-time embedded diagnostics based on high speed fuzzy logic chips just becoming available. We have established a Fuzzy Inferencing Test Bed for fuzzy logic applications. It uses a set of development tools which allow applications to be built and tested against simulated systems and then ported directly to a high speed fuzzy logic chip. With the Fuzzy Inferencing Test we investigate very high speed fuzzy logic to: isolate faults using static information and early fault information that evolves rapidly in time validate and smooth readings from redundant sensors and smoothly select alternate control modes in intelligent controllers. This paper reports our experience with fuzzy logic in these kinds of applications.

  4. Power optimization in logic isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.

  5. Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-11-10

    Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.

  6. Optical implementation of fuzzy-logic-based controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran

    2000-10-01

    State of the art fuzzy-logic based control is mainly implemented using electronic hardware or computer software. This requires interpretation of fuzzy logic concepts such as membership functions and fuzzy based rules, all of which have been thoroughly studied. However, the 2-D light-speed abilities of optical processing enables direct implementation of dual-input fuzzy logic inference engines. The optical equivalent of the membership function is generated in a straightforward manner and the same applies to rule tables and combination rules. Diffractive optical elements allow these optical inference engines to be compact in size and high on efficiency. This is done by binary optics and phase-only elements. Using the 2-D work-plane of optics, the ability of simple control over the wavelength and the polarization of light and the properties of diffractive elements, such an engine can deal with higher order data and lead the way to fast and dynamic fuzzy inferencing.

  7. Optical soliton-based logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Steven M.

    1998-09-01

    With the advent of high-bandwidth optical communications, the need for switching technologies capable of handling this information flow becomes imperative. Optical switches are the natural technology to investigate because they eliminate the optical/electronic conversion and their operation can scale with the data rate, unlike electronics. Additional capabilities can be provided through the development of optical logic gates, which have the further properties of data regeneration, gain, cascadability, and the ability to implement more complex operations than possible with a simple switch. The goal of this work is to study in-depth an implementation of optical logic gates based on spatial and spatio-temporal solitons. Optical solitons propagate long distances without change and have additional properties that are beneficial for the representation of binary data such as stability to perturbations and existence above a threshold power or energy. The non- diffracting nature of spatial optical solitons lends to their use in a class of angular deflection logic gates in which a weak signal can alter the propagation of a strong pump in order to change the device state from high to low, thereby implementing a controlled inverter which is cascadable to produce logically-complete, multi-input NOR. A significant portion of this work is devoted to developing a theoretical and numerical framework to describe general, multi-dimensional, nonlinear spatio- temporal wave phenomena. This is accomplished by starting directly from Maxwell's equations and deriving via the multiple-scales perturbation technique a first-order, fully-vectorial, nonlinear wave equation, that is valid beyond the standard slowly-varying amplitude, slowly- varying envelope, and paraxial approximations. In addition to coupling with the orthogonal transverse field, vector coupling with the weak longitudinally- projected field is also treated, along with the cascaded interaction with a weak third-harmonic wave

  8. Photonic encryption using all optical logic.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2003-12-01

    With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an

  9. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  10. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071

  11. Logic, Beliefs, and Instruction: A Test of the Default Interventionist Account of Belief Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Simon J.; Newstead, Stephen E.; Trippas, Dries

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the…

  12. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  13. [Critical thinking skills in the nursing diagnosis process].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the critical thinking skills utilized in the nursing diagnosis process. This was an exploratory descriptive study conducted with seven nursing students on the application of a clinical case to identify critical thinking skills, as well as their justifications in the nursing diagnosis process. Content analysis was performed to evaluate descriptive data. Six participants reported that analysis, scientific and technical knowledge and logical reasoning skills are important in identifying priority nursing diagnoses; clinical experience was cited by five participants, knowledge about the patient and application of standards were mentioned by three participants; Furthermore, discernment and contextual perspective were skills noted by two participants. Based on these results, the use of critical thinking skills related to the steps of the nursing diagnosis process was observed. Therefore, that the application of this process may constitute a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills.

  14. Critical Thinking and the Danger of Intellectual Conformity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Kerry S.

    1987-01-01

    Although the goals of critical thinking are to foster critical ability and broad-mindedness, it tends to encourage absolutism, promote passivity, and breed intolerance. The current concentration on critical thinking's reductionism should be balanced with the teaching of alternative approaches to understanding knowledge and reality. (Author/LB)

  15. Barrier to Success: Community College Students Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Charlene V.

    In 1991, a study was conducted using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (CTA) to determine how well students at Rancho Santiago College (RSC), a large, multicultural community institution in Santa Ana, California, demonstrated critical thinking abilities. Written at the ninth grade reading level, the CTA attempts to assess an…

  16. Instructional Strategies for the Development of Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grice, George L.

    Evidence suggests that instruction in thinking skills is neither widespread nor successful. Most students do not score well on tests that measure their ability to recognize assumptions, evaluate arguments, or appraise inferences. However, a number of educators believe that it is possible to teach thinking skills, and have suggested that the…

  17. Developing Minds: Programs for Teaching Thinking. Revised Edition, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L., Ed.

    This book contains 29 articles which address topics related to teaching thinking. The articles include: (1) "Balancing Process and Content" (Marilyn Jager Adams); (2) "Structure of Intellect (SOI)" (Mary N. Meeker); (3) "Instrumental Enrichment" (Francis R. Link); (4) "Thinking to Write: Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills and Abilities"…

  18. Promoting Reflective Thinking in Teachers. 44 Action Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Germaine L.; Wilson, Alfred P.

    This guide provides teacher educators and staff developers with strategies to enhance the reflective thinking abilities of preservice and inservice educators. Strategies for reflective thinking are approached at three levels: technical, contextual, and dialectical. Within each level, strategies have been field tested with populations of preservice…

  19. Using Critical Thinking Rubrics to Increase Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Julie W.; Grillo, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a way to measure students' abilities to think critically about concepts covered during academic support sessions. Tutors trained in a College Reading and Learning Association (CRLA)-certified program at the University of Louisville used a rubric based on the Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Model in order to…

  20. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  1. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  2. Past and Future Episodic Thinking in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Capous, Diana; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Hou, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    The abilities of past and future episodic thinking develop hand in hand across the preschool years and are intimately connected in adults. Little is known, however, about the development of episodic thinking in middle childhood and how it is influenced by sociocultural factors. In the present study, one hundred sixty-seven 7- to 10-year-old…

  3. Minesweeper and Hypothetical Thinking Action Research & Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research project and Pilot Study was designed and implemented to improve students' hypothetical thinking abilities by exploring the possibility that learning and playing the computer game Minesweeper may inherently help improve hypothetical thinking. One objective was to use educational tools to make it easier for students to learn the…

  4. Using a Pseudoscience Activity to Teach Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Aimee; Manson, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we assessed the effectiveness of a classroom activity designed to increase students' ability to think critically. This activity involved watching and discussing an infomercial that contained pseudoscientific claims, thus incorporating course material on good research design and critical thinking. In Study 1, we used a…

  5. Creative and Critical Thinking, Teamwork, and Tomorrow's Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options. Business…

  6. Environmental Activities for Teaching Critical Thinking. [Environmental Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; Disinger, John F.

    The ability to think critically is essential if individuals are to live, work, and function effectively in our current and changing society. The activities included in this publication were selected to identify a variety of effective strategies for teaching critical thinking skills through environmental education. Activities include library…

  7. Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Thinking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, W. Newton

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to enable students to think clearly and critically about the scientific process of research. The author emphasizes that the ability to think clearly about research methods, reason through complex problems, and evaluate published research are important in today's changing educational landscape. Students using this book will…

  8. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen Chien

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.

  9. The Logic of Reachability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.

  10. Suicide as social logic.

    PubMed

    Kral, M J

    1994-01-01

    Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.

  11. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  12. The geography of thinking.

    PubMed

    Mole, John

    2002-01-01

    People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863

  13. Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…

  14. Logic and human reasoning: an assessment of the deduction paradigm.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2002-11-01

    The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing the process of human reasoning, and many use the paradigm principally to study pragmatic and probabilistic processes. It is suggested that the methods used for studying reasoning be reviewed, especially the instructional context, which necessarily defines pragmatic influences as biases.

  15. Logic in the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jeremy; Liu, Fenrong; Girard, Patrick

    Communities consist of individuals bounds together by social relationships and roles. Within communities, individuals reason about each other's beliefs, knowledge and preferences. Knowledge, belief, preferences and even the social relationships are constantly changing, and yet our ability to keep track of these changes is an important part of what it means to belong to a community.

  16. Paths from Erich Fromm: Thinking Authority Pedagogically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    Drawing from psychologist Eric Fromm's work, this article confronts the relationship between individualism on one hand, and the ability for individuals to think collectively and transform social structures on the other. States that in this context, atomization becomes a dimension of both fascism and capitalism, one that positions freedom as the…

  17. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  18. Reading, Writing, and Thinking for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Schmoker asserts that the kinds of skills students need to succeed in college--skills like clear thinking, effective writing, and the ability to analyze international and policy issues--are equally needed for non-college-bound youth. He maintains it is possible--and necessary--to provide an intellectually challenging and culturally enriching…

  19. Effect of GIS Learning on Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…

  20. An Evaluation of Critical Thinking Competencies in Business Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Boswell, Amy; Elliott, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Although critical thinking (CT) skills are usually considered as domain general (Gabbenesch, 2006; Halpern, 2003), CT ability may benefit from expertise knowledge and skill. The current study examined both general CT ability and CT ability related to business scenarios for individuals (a) expert in business, (b) novice in business, and (c) with no…

  1. Episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2001-12-01

    Thinking about the future is an integral component of human cognition - one that has been claimed to distinguish us from other species. Building on the construct of episodic memory, we introduce the concept of 'episodic future thinking': a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event. We argue that episodic future thinking has explanatory value when considering recent work in many areas of psychology: cognitive, social and personality, developmental, clinical and neuropsychology. Episodic future thinking can serve as a unifying concept, connecting aspects of diverse research findings and identifying key questions requiring further reflection and study.

  2. Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

  3. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  4. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  5. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  6. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. Critical Thinking in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Carolee

    Critical thinking is currently a prominent issue in education. For business educators, four issues must be considered: the meaning of critical thinking, how critical thinking can be introduced into the curriculum, how critical thinking is developed in courses, and how critical thinking can be evaluated. The literature identifies three theoretical…

  9. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  10. Computational Thinking in Compulsory Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Fisser, Petra; Good, Jon; Mishra, Punya; Yadav, Aman

    2015-01-01

    Computational Thinking is considered a universal competence, which should be added to every child's analytical ability as a vital ingredient of their school learning. In this article we further elaborate on what Computational Thinking is and present examples of what needs to be taught and how. First we position Computational Thinking in Papert's…

  11. Application of linear logic to simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  12. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  13. Critical Thinking in Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronis, Diane

    This booklet includes a wheel of problem solving strategies and a seven-step process for approaching and solving complicated problems. The information provided gives students a variety of ways to approach, analyze, and think critically about mathematics problems. The chapters present guides to promoting critical thinking in cooperative groups…

  14. An Hypothesis on Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclennan, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that there exists a "finite" number of elementary concepts and distinguishable modes of thinking, that all human beings tend to acquire the same set of elements of thinking and the same strategies with which to understand and control their physical environment, and that the method of analysis used here is a standard scientific method.…

  15. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  16. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of paper; (4) Mobile phones…

  17. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  18. Thinking inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  19. Critical Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the debates in the field of critical thinking by highlighting differences among thinkers such as Siegel, Ennis, Paul, McPeck, and Martin, and poses some questions that arise from these debates. Does rationality transcend particular cultures, or are there different kinds of thinking, different styles of reasoning? What…

  20. Reading is Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohann, Rosemary

    1979-01-01

    The focus article in this newsletter contains a discussion of the theory of reading as a thinking process and offers practical suggestions for implementing instruction in teaching reading as a thinking process. The section on theory is based on observations of the reading process as perceived by psycholinguists such as Frank Smith and Kenneth…

  1. Becoming Dishuman: Thinking about the Human through Dis/Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodley, Daniel; Runswick-Cole, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to develop an understanding of the human driven by a commitment to the politics of disability, especially those of people with intellectual disabilities. Our position as family members and allies to people associated with this phenomenon of intellectual disability influences our philosophical conceptions and political…

  2. High Blood Pressure Might Affect Some Kids' Thinking Ability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Child Development High Blood Pressure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Development High Blood Pressure About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  3. Experiments on neural network architectures for fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of fuzzy logic to model and manage uncertainty in a rule-based system places high computational demands on an inference engine. In an earlier paper, the authors introduced a trainable neural network structure for fuzzy logic. These networks can learn and extrapolate complex relationships between possibility distributions for the antecedents and consequents in the rules. Here, the power of these networks is further explored. The insensitivity of the output to noisy input distributions (which are likely if the clauses are generated from real data) is demonstrated as well as the ability of the networks to internalize multiple conjunctive clause and disjunctive clause rules. Since different rules with the same variables can be encoded in a single network, this approach to fuzzy logic inference provides a natural mechanism for rule conflict resolution.

  4. Design and performance comparison of fuzzy logic based tracking controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    Several camera tracking controllers based on fuzzy logic principles have been designed and tested in software simulation in the software technology branch at the Johnson Space Center. The fuzzy logic based controllers utilize range measurement and pixel positions from the image as input parameters and provide pan and tilt gimble rate commands as output. Two designs of the rulebase and tuning process applied to the membership functions are discussed in light of optimizing performance. Seven test cases have been designed to test the performance of the controllers for proximity operations where approaches like v-bar, fly-around and station keeping are performed. The controllers are compared in terms of responsiveness, and ability to maintain the object in the field-of-view of the camera. Advantages of the fuzzy logic approach with respect to the conventional approach have been discussed in terms of simplicity and robustness.

  5. How mental health nurses improve their critical thinking through problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.

  6. Goods-thinking vs. tree-thinking: Finding a place for mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    McInerney, James; Cummins, Carla; Haggerty, Leanne

    2011-11-01

    While it has become increasingly clear that the Tree of Life hypothesis has limitations in its ability to describe the evolution of all evolving entities on the planet, there has been a marked reluctance to move away from the tree-based language. Ironically, while modifying the idea of the Tree of Life to the extent that it is only very distantly related to its original descriptions, there has been a very careful attempt to retain the language of tree-thinking. The recent movement away from a tree-thinking language toward a goods-thinking language and perspective is a significant improvement. In this commentary, we describe how goods-thinking can provide better descriptions of evolution, can integrate evolution with environment more closely and can offer an equal place for Mobile Genetic Elements and chromosomal elements in discussions of evolutionary history.

  7. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša

    2010-08-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  8. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  9. Learning with touchscreen devices: game strategies to improve geometric thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The theoretical background of our study lies in the works of J. Hintikka, a Finnish logician, who developed a new type of logic, based on game theory, called the logic of inquiry. In order to experiment with this new approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics, we have prepared five game-activities based on geometric theorems in which two players play against each other in a multi-touch dynamic geometric environment (DGE). In this paper, we present the design of the first game-activity and the relationship between it and the logic of inquiry. Then, adopting the theoretical framework of the instrumental genesis by Vérillon and Rabardel (EJPE 10: 77-101, 1995), we will present and analyse significant actions and dialogues developed by students while they are solving the game. We focus on the presence of a particular way of playing the game introduced by the students, the "reflected game", and highlight its functions for the development of the task.

  10. Optimization Approaches for Designing Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Reversible logic is emerging as a promising alternative for applications in low-power design and quantum computation in recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation, which is an important research area in low power VLSI and ULSI designs. Many important contributions have been made in the literatures towards the reversible implementations of arithmetic and logical structures; however, there have not been many efforts directed towards efficient approaches for designing reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this study, three efficient approaches are presented and their implementations in the design of reversible ALUs are demonstrated. Three new designs of reversible one-digit arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic has been presented in this article. This paper provides explicit construction of reversible ALU effecting basic arithmetic operations with respect to the minimization of cost metrics. The architectures of the designs have been proposed in which each block is realized using elementary quantum logic gates. Then, reversible implementations of the proposed designs are analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that the proposed designs are cost-effective compared with the existing counterparts. All the scales are in the NANO-metric area.

  11. N channel JFET based digital logic gate structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topography is presented which is used to create usable digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the direct current (DC) parametric distributions of those JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state of the art in high temperature, for example 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and higher, silicon carbide (SiC) device production. The ability to produce inverting and combinatorial logic enables the production of pulse and edge triggered latches. This scale of logic synthesis would bring digital logic and state machine capabilities to devices operating in extremely hot environments, such as the surface of Venus, near hydrothermal vents, within nuclear reactors (SiC is inherently radiation hardened), and within internal combustion engines. The basic logic gate can be configured as a driver for oscillator circuits allowing for time bases and simple digitizers for resistive or reactive sensors. The basic structure of this innovation, the inverter, can be reconfigured into various analog circuit topographies through the use of feedback structures.

  12. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  13. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  14. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue.

  15. Computational thinking in life science education.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-11-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.

  16. Computational Thinking in Life Science Education

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-01-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational “culture.” The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  17. Logic, probability, and human reasoning.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.

  18. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  19. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  20. The semantics of fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.

  1. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  2. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  3. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  4. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  5. Comparison of Diachronic Thinking and Event Ordering in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brandy D.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rabin, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Two main theoretical constructs seek to describe the elaborated sense of time that may be a uniquely human attribute: diachronic thinking (the ability to think about the past and use that information to predict future events) and event ordering (the ability to sequence events in temporal order). Researchers utilize various tasks to measure the…

  6. The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

  7. Seeing Thinking on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daisy; Wineburg, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Teaching a way of thinking requires making thinking visible. Educators need to pull back the curtains from historical cognition to show students not only what historians think, but "how" they think. Given that many students believe that history is a single story to be committed to memory and that texts speak for themselves, teaching historical…

  8. Language and the Ability to Evaluate Contradictions and Tautologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osherson, Daniel N.

    1974-01-01

    Results of two experiments support these hypotheses: 1) children tend to treat contradictions and tautologies as empirical statements, due to their nonempirical character, not merely to the logical words occurring in them; and 2) the ability to examine language objectively is necessary for the ability to correctly evaluate nonempirical statements.…

  9. Use of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal with BSN students.

    PubMed

    Frye, B; Alfred, N; Campbell, M

    1999-01-01

    The complexity and changing nature of nursing today requires proficiency in thinking skills to ensure knowledgeable, confident, creative, and sensitive decisions regarding client care. Nurse educators are faced with the task of promoting educational strategies to develop the abilities of nursing students to think critically in all health care settings (1). However, a lack of consensus on what characterizes critical thinking leads to difficulty in the development of instruments for adequate measurement. It is important to decide on a definition of critical thinking that faculty support and are willing to use in practice. The term is diversely defined in the literature. For example, Alfaro-LeFevre states that critical thinking in nursing "entails purposeful, goal directed thinking; aims to make judgments based on evidence (fact) rather than conjecture (guesswork); is based on principles of science and scientific method; requires strategies that maximize human potential and compensate for problems caused by human nature" (2). The authors of this study use a definition by Paul: "thinking about your thinking while you are thinking in order to make your thinking better, more clear, more accurate, more defensible" (3). The authors believe that the development and/or enhancement of critical thinking ability must be the result of conscious, deliberate activity throughout the nursing program. As the student matures, the ability to think critically will be manifested in decision making that reflects accurate assessment and resolution of problems. The nursing faculty selected an instrument to evaluate the critical thinking abilities of baccalaureate nursing students that had strong reliability and validity documented in the nursing literature: the total and subtest scores of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA), Form A (4). The instrument was deemed to be congruent with the definition of critical thinking supported by the faculty.

  10. Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school and high school students have a conception of what the basic demands of logic are, and they draw on this understanding in anticipating certain demands of parents and teachers when the adolescents have to defend positions. At the same time, many adolescents struggle to "write" highly elaborated arguments. Teaching students lessons in…

  11. The Logic of Research Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael; Coryn, Chris L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors offer suggestions about logical distinctions often overlooked in the evaluation of research, beginning with a strong plea not to treat technology as applied science, and especially not to treat research in technology as important only if it makes a contribution to scientific knowledge. They argue that the frameworks illustrated in this…

  12. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  13. Surface-emitting laser logic

    SciTech Connect

    Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. ); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. )

    1990-10-31

    We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. The Logic of Quantum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.

  15. Miniaturization of magnetic logic circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baba, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetic logic circuit design features two ferrite materials, with different formulation and magnetic characteristics, which are bonded into a continuous structure by preparing the materials as a slurry and using the doctor blade method to form flexible ferrite sheets. After firing, the sintering process was continuous across the bond.

  16. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  17. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  18. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  19. Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.

  20. Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…

  1. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  2. CPU and memory allocation optimization using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David

    2002-12-01

    The allocation of CPU time and memory resources, are well known problems in organizations with a large number of users, and a single mainframe. Usually the amount of resources given to a single user is based on its own statistics, not on the entire statistics of the organization therefore patterns are not well identified and the allocation system is prodigal. In this work the authors suggest a fuzzy logic based algorithm to optimize the CPU and memory distribution between the users based on the history of the users. The algorithm works separately on heavy users and light users since they have different patterns to be observed. The result is a set of rules, generated by the fuzzy logic inference engine that will allow the system to use its computing ability in an optimized manner. Test results on data taken from the Faculty of Engineering in Tel Aviv University, demonstrate the abilities of the new algorithm.

  3. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  4. Critical Thinking Disposition and Skills in Dental Students: Development and Relationship to Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N

    2016-08-01

    Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school.

  5. Critical Thinking Disposition and Skills in Dental Students: Development and Relationship to Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N

    2016-08-01

    Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school. PMID:27480706

  6. Do Active-Learning Strategies Improve Students' Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…

  7. Monitoring Reading Comprehension by Thinking Aloud. Instructional Resource No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; And Others

    A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…

  8. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  9. Set-Theory and Logic in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1976-01-01

    The author argues that the emphasis on logic and set theory in the school mathematics program is unnecessary and possibly harmful. He discusses briefly the relationships between semantics and logic. (SD)

  10. Computerized logic design of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussow, S.; Oglesby, R.

    1973-01-01

    This manual presents a computer program that performs all the work required for the logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and the simplification of Boolean logic expressions. The program provides both the experienced and inexperienced logic designer with a comprehensive logic design capability. The manual contains Boolean simplification and sequential design theory, detailed instructions for use of the program, a large number of illustrative design examples, and complete program documentation.

  11. Exceptional giftedness in early adolescence and intrafamilial divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Runco, M A; Albert, R S

    1986-08-01

    Two groups of boys and their parents (N=54) were given five divergent thinking tests as one part of a longitudinal investigation on exceptional giftedness in early adolescence. One groups of adolescents was selected because their IQs were above 150, and the other group, was selected because of their outstanding math-science abilities. Canonical and bivariate analyses indicated that there was a strong correlation between the adolescents' divergent thinking test scores and their parents' divergent thinking test scores (Rc=.55). Additionally, there was some indication that these correlations differed in the two exceptionally gifted groups, with the high-IQ group having divergent thinking test scores related to those of both parents, and the math-science group having divergent thinking test scores related only to those of their mothers. These findings are very consistent with earlier investigations on exceptionally gifted adolescents.

  12. [Effects of situational and individual variables on critical thinking expression].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Kusumi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined when people decide to choose an expression that is based on critical thinking, and how situational and individual variables affect such a decision process. Given a conversation scenario including overgeneralization with two friends, participants decided whether to follow the conversation by a critical-thinking expression or not. The authors controlled purpose and topic as situational variables, and measured critical-thinking ability, critical-thinking disposition, and self-monitoring as individual variables. We conducted an experiment in which the situational variables were counterbalanced in a within-subject design with 60 university students. The results of logistic regression analysis showed differences within individuals in the decision process whether to choose a critical-thinking expression, and that some situational factors and some subscales of the individual measurements were related to the differences.

  13. The Design of a Critical Thinking Test on Appraising Observations. Studies in Critical Thinking, Research Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; King, Ruth

    This report describes the design of a test of one aspect of critical thinking ability, the ability to correctly appraise observations. Intended for classroom use with senior high school students, the 50 item Test on Appraising Observations is based on a comprehensive set of principles modified from Robert Ennes' conception of good observation…

  14. Developing Thinking Skills within the Context of the Existing Secondary Curriculum: The Case of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul

    Topics and issues which are central features of current secondary school economics curricula can be used to develop two aspects of students' thinking skills: (1) the development of problem-solving skills, and (2) the recognition of logical fallacies. The efficacy of economics instruction as a vehicle for developing student problem-solving skills…

  15. Using Interactive Management to Facilitate a Student-Centred Conceptualisation of Critical Thinking: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Hogan, Michael J.; Harney, Owen M.; O'Reilly, John

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is a metacognitive process, consisting of a number of sub-skills and dispositions, that, when used appropriately, increases the chances of producing a logical solution to a problem or a valid conclusion to an argument. CT has been identified as a fundamental learning objective of third-level education; however, students…

  16. Thinking and Writing Mathematically: "Achilles and the Tortoise" as an Algebraic Word Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Joseph G. R.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces Hogben's adaptation of Zeno's paradox, "Achilles and the Tortoise", as a thinking and writing exercise. Emphasizes engaging students' imagination with creative, thought-provoking problems and involving students in evaluating their word problem-solving strategies. Describes the paradox, logical solutions, and students' mathematical…

  17. The Effects of a Structured Learning Sequence on Children's Correlative Thinking About Biological Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert; Raven, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of using a Piaget-based structured program to enhance correlative thinking of fifth, seventh, and ninth grade children. Concluded that ninth grade students profited from learning of logical operations although some had difficulty with the equivalence and reciprocal exclusion operations. (CC)

  18. Paper-and-Pencil Programming Strategy toward Computational Thinking for Non-Majors: Design Your Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byeongsu; Kim, Taehun; Kim, Jonghoon

    2013-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil programming strategy (PPS) is a way of representing an idea logically by any representation that can be created using paper and pencil. It was developed for non-computer majors to improve their understanding and use of computational thinking and increase interest in learning computer science. A total of 110 non-majors in their…

  19. Promoting Graphical Thinking: Using Temperature and a Graphing Calculator to Teach Kinetics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    A combination of graphical thinking with chemical and physical theories in the classroom is encouraged by using the Calculator-Based Laboratory System (CBL) with a temperature sensor and graphing calculator. The theory of first-order kinetics is logically explained with the aid of the cooling or heating of the metal bead of the CBL's temperature…

  20. Development of Critical Thinking Self-Assessment System Using Wearable Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    In this research the author defines critical thinking as skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of meta-cognitive activities on one's own problem-solving processes. The author focuses on providing meta-cognitive knowledge to help with self-assessment. To develop…

  1. A Role for Theatre in the Education, Training and Thinking Processes of Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Christos; Liotas, Naum

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for managers to possess hard-to-obtain skills in today's complex business environment. To achieve this, they need to expand their borders of knowledge beyond the barriers that logic imposes. This has to be reflected in managers' education, training and thinking processes. The first part of the paper examines how…

  2. A Systematic Approach to Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Electrical and Computer Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Karla Conn; Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James

    2015-01-01

    Coursework that instills patterns of rigorous logical thought has long been a hallmark of the engineering curriculum. However, today's engineering students are expected to exhibit a wider range of thinking capabilities both to satisfy ABET requirements and to prepare the students to become successful practitioners. This paper presents the initial…

  3. Fuzzy, crisp, and human logic in e-commerce marketing data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, Kelda L.; Zhang, Yanqing

    2001-03-01

    In today's business world there is an abundance of available data and a great need to make good use of it. Many businesses would benefit from examining customer habits and trends and making marketing and product decisions based on that analysis. However, the process of manually examining data and making sound decisions based on that data is time consuming and often impractical. Intelligent systems that can make judgments similar to human judgments are sorely needed. Thus, systems based on fuzzy logic present themselves as an option to be seriously considered. The work described in this paper attempts to make an initial comparison between fuzzy logic and more traditional hard or crisp logic to see which would make a better substitute for human intervention. In this particular case study, customers are classified into categories that indicate how desirable the customer would be as a prospect for marketing. This classification is based on a small set of customer data. The results from these investigations make it clear that fuzzy logic is more able to think for itself and make decisions that more closely match human decision and is therefore significantly closer to human logic than crisp logic.

  4. Logic, beliefs, and instruction: a test of the default interventionist account of belief bias.

    PubMed

    Handley, Simon J; Newstead, Stephen E; Trippas, Dries

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the conclusions of logical arguments on the basis of either their logical validity or their believability. Contrary to the predictions arising from these accounts, the logical status of the presented conclusion had a greater impact on judgments concerning its believability than did the believability of the conclusion on judgments about whether it followed logically. This finding was observed when instructional set was presented as a between-participants factor (Experiment 1), when instruction was indicated prior to problem presentation by a cue (Experiment 2), and when the cue appeared simultaneously with conclusion presentation (Experiments 3 and 4). The finding also extended to a range of simple and more complex argument forms (Experiment 5). In these latter experiments, belief-based judgments took significantly longer than those made under logical instructions. We discuss the implications of these findings for default interventionist accounts of belief bias.

  5. Dynamic Frames in Java Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattias; Weiß, Benjamin

    In this paper we present a realisation of the concept of dynamic frames in a dynamic logic for verifying Java programs. This is achieved by treating sets of heap locations as first class citizens in the logic. Syntax and formal semantics of the logic are presented, along with sound proof rules for modularly reasoning about method calls and heap dependent symbols using specification contracts.

  6. Logics of Business Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…

  7. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  8. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems.

  9. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  10. Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Garrett K.

    2011-01-01

    Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…

  11. Heuristic thinking and human intelligence: a commentary on Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Over, David E

    2010-05-01

    Marewski, Gaissmaier and Gigerenzer (2009) present a review of research on fast and frugal heuristics, arguing that complex problems are best solved by simple heuristics, rather than the application of knowledge and logical reasoning. We argue that the case for such heuristics is overrated. First, we point out that heuristics can often lead to biases as well as effective responding. Second, we show that the application of logical reasoning can be both necessary and relatively simple. Finally, we argue that the evidence for a logical reasoning system that co-exists with simpler heuristic forms of thinking is overwhelming. Not only is it implausible a priori that we would have evolved such a system that is of no use to us, but extensive evidence from the literature on dual processing in reasoning and judgement shows that many problems can only be solved when this form of reasoning is used to inhibit and override heuristic thinking.

  12. Direct teaching of thinking skills using clinical simulation.

    PubMed

    Su, Whei Ming; Juestel, Marne J

    2010-01-01

    Because of the nursing faculty shortage, many academic leaders hire clinicians who are not formally prepared for an academic role. Novice faculty face an immediate need to develop teaching skills. One of the most crucial areas is the ability to help students develop critical thinking. To address this need, the authors describe how they used clinical simulation to incorporate direct teaching of thinking skills into course content and how this resulted in a faculty mentoring experience.

  13. Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.

    1998-01-01

    Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.

  14. The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Álvarez, Edgardo T.

    The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.

  15. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly. PMID:27427653

  16. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  17. a Modal Logic of Indiscernibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker; Merlussi, Pedro

    This paper is a continuation of the authors' attempts to deal with the notion of indistinguishability (or indiscernibility) from a logical point of view. Now we introduce a two-sorted first-order modal logic to enable us to deal with objects of two different species. The intended interpretation is that objects of one of the species obey the rules of standard S5, while the objects of the other species obey only the rules of a weaker notion of indiscernibility. Quantum mechanics motivates the development. The basic idea is that in the `actual' world things may be indiscernible but in another accessible world they may be distinguished in some way. That is, indistinguishability needs not be seen as a necessary relation. Contrariwise, things might be distinguished in the `actual' world, but they may be indiscernible in another world. So, while two quantum systems may be entangled in the actual world, in some accessible world, due to a measurement, they can be discerned, and on the other hand, two initially separated quantum systems may enter in a state of superposition, losing their individualities. Two semantics are sketched for our system. The first is constructed within a standard set theory (the ZFC system is assumed at the metamathematics). The second one is constructed within the theory of quasi-sets, which we believe suits better the purposes of our logic and the mathematical treatment of certain situations in quantum mechanics. Some further philosophically related topics are considered.

  18. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.

  19. Applications of fuzzy logic to control and decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    Long range space missions will require high operational efficiency as well as autonomy to enhance the effectivity of performance. Fuzzy logic technology has been shown to be powerful and robust in interpreting imprecise measurements and generating appropriate control decisions for many space operations. Several applications are underway, studying the fuzzy logic approach to solving control and decision making problems. Fuzzy logic algorithms for relative motion and attitude control have been developed and demonstrated for proximity operations. Based on this experience, motion control algorithms that include obstacle avoidance were developed for a Mars Rover prototype for maneuvering during the sample collection process. A concept of an intelligent sensor system that can identify objects and track them continuously and learn from its environment is under development to support traffic management and proximity operations around the Space Station Freedom. For safe and reliable operation of Lunar/Mars based crew quarters, high speed controllers with ability to combine imprecise measurements from several sensors is required. A fuzzy logic approach that uses high speed fuzzy hardware chips is being studied.

  20. Navigating a Mobile Robot Across Terrain Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Howard, Ayanna; Bon, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    A strategy for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across hazardous terrain involves the use of a measure of traversability of terrain within a fuzzy-logic conceptual framework. This navigation strategy requires no a priori information about the environment. Fuzzy logic was selected as a basic element of this strategy because it provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing a human driver s heuristic knowledge and operational experience. Within a fuzzy-logic framework, the attributes of human reasoning and decision- making can be formulated by simple IF (antecedent), THEN (consequent) rules coupled with easily understandable and natural linguistic representations. The linguistic values in the rule antecedents convey the imprecision associated with measurements taken by sensors onboard a mobile robot, while the linguistic values in the rule consequents represent the vagueness inherent in the reasoning processes to generate the control actions. The operational strategies of the human expert driver can be transferred, via fuzzy logic, to a robot-navigation strategy in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables. These linguistic variables are defined by fuzzy sets in accordance with user-defined membership functions. The main advantages of a fuzzy navigation strategy lie in the ability to extract heuristic rules from human experience and to obviate the need for an analytical model of the robot navigation process.

  1. Facilitating the process of critical thinking for nursing.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, L

    1998-05-01

    An exploratory study was conducted during 1995 to examine the degree to which critical thinking was encouraged in nursing education throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The study identified whether a sample of graduate nurses and nurse educators at 12 faculties of nursing in NSW shared similar ideas about what critical thinking entails, the best ways in which to develop critical thinking processes and whether critical thinking is a reasonable way for nurses to achieve skilled and effective nursing interventions. The findings indicate that both nursing students and nurse educators favour the facilitation of critical thinking for nursing for very practical reasons. These refer to improving professional standards of practice, stimulating inquiry and promoting sound reasoning in practice, as well as contributing to personal and professional development. Study participants were found to favour a variety of teaching and learning strategies for critical thinking, and this finding is the focus for this discussion paper. The majority of participants stated that nurses would perhaps be better able to abstract principles of thinking from the specific contexts in which they are practised. Strategies found effective for nursing practice included a variety of approaches: direct learning of skills that contribute to critical thinking, such as analysis; infusion, or integration of critical thinking in all areas of learning; and learning to think critically within distinct disciplines of thought. Analysis of the findings, therefore, suggests that critical thinking is thought to be an important component of nursing practice and that in nursing it is a complex activity, requiring a combination of dispositions, abilities and approaches that can be developed by drawing on a range of learning strategies.

  2. Tree thinking cannot taken for granted: challenges for teaching phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tree thinking is an integral part of modern evolutionary biology, and a necessary precondition for phylogenetics and comparative analyses. Tree thinking has during the 20th century largely replaced group thinking, developmental thinking and anthropocentricism in biology. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that tree thinking can be taken for granted. The findings reported here indicate that tree thinking is very much an acquired ability which needs extensive training. I tested a sample of undergraduate and graduate students of biology by means of questionnaires. Not a single student was able to correctly interpret a simple tree drawing. Several other findings demonstrate that tree thinking is virtually absent in students unless they are explicitly taught how to read evolutionary trees. Possible causes and implications of this mental bias are discussed. It seems that biological textbooks can be an important source of confusion for students. While group and developmental thinking have disappeared from most textual representations of evolution, they have survived in the evolutionary tree drawings of many textbooks. It is quite common for students to encounter anthropocentric trees and even trees containing stem groups and paraphyla. While these biases originate from the unconscious philosophical assumptions made by authors, the findings suggest that presenting unbiased evolutionary trees in biological publications is not merely a philosophical virtue but has also clear practical implications. PMID:18247075

  3. Tree thinking cannot taken for granted: challenges for teaching phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Hanno

    2008-03-01

    Tree thinking is an integral part of modern evolutionary biology, and a necessary precondition for phylogenetics and comparative analyses. Tree thinking has during the 20th century largely replaced group thinking, developmental thinking and anthropocentrism in biology. Unfortunately, however, this does not imply that tree thinking can be taken for granted. The findings reported here indicate that tree thinking is very much an acquired ability which needs extensive training. I tested a sample of undergraduate and graduate students of biology by means of questionnaires. Not a single student was able to correctly interpret a simple tree drawing. Several other findings demonstrate that tree thinking is virtually absent in students unless they are explicitly taught how to read evolutionary trees. Possible causes and implications of this mental bias are discussed. It seems that biological textbooks can be an important source of confusion for students. While group and developmental thinking have disappeared from most textual representations of evolution, they have survived in the evolutionary tree drawings of many textbooks. It is quite common for students to encounter anthropocentric trees and even trees containing stem groups and paraphyla. While these biases originate from the unconscious philosophical assumptions made by authors, the findings suggest that presenting unbiased evolutionary trees in biological publications is not merely a philosophical virtue but has also clear practical implications.

  4. Teaching and evaluating critical thinking in respiratory care.

    PubMed

    Mishoe, Shelley C; Hernlen, Kitty

    2005-09-01

    The capacity to perform critical thinking in respiratory care may be enhanced through awareness and education to improve skills, abilities, and opportunities. The essential skills for critical thinking in respiratory care include prioritizing, anticipating, troubleshooting, communicating, negotiating, decision making, and reflecting. In addition to these skills, critical thinkers exhibit certain characteristics such as critical evaluation, judgment,insight, motivation, and lifelong learning. The teaching of critical thinking may be accomplished though problem-based learning using an evidenced-based approach to solve clinical problems similar to those encountered in professional practice. Other traditional strategies such as discussion, debate, case study, and case presentations can be used. Web-based curriculum and technologic advances have created opportunities such as bulletin boards, real-time chats, and interactive media tools that can incorporate critical thinking. Many concerns and controversies surround the assessment of critical thinking, and individuals who administer critical thinking tests must be aware of the strengths and limitations of these assessment tools, as well as their relevance to the workplace. The foundational works reported in this article summarize the current status of assessment of critical thinking and can stimulate further investigation and application of the skills, characteristics, educational strategies, and measurement of critical thinking in respiratory care. PMID:16168915

  5. Teaching and evaluating critical thinking in respiratory care.

    PubMed

    Mishoe, Shelley C; Hernlen, Kitty

    2005-09-01

    The capacity to perform critical thinking in respiratory care may be enhanced through awareness and education to improve skills, abilities, and opportunities. The essential skills for critical thinking in respiratory care include prioritizing, anticipating, troubleshooting, communicating, negotiating, decision making, and reflecting. In addition to these skills, critical thinkers exhibit certain characteristics such as critical evaluation, judgment,insight, motivation, and lifelong learning. The teaching of critical thinking may be accomplished though problem-based learning using an evidenced-based approach to solve clinical problems similar to those encountered in professional practice. Other traditional strategies such as discussion, debate, case study, and case presentations can be used. Web-based curriculum and technologic advances have created opportunities such as bulletin boards, real-time chats, and interactive media tools that can incorporate critical thinking. Many concerns and controversies surround the assessment of critical thinking, and individuals who administer critical thinking tests must be aware of the strengths and limitations of these assessment tools, as well as their relevance to the workplace. The foundational works reported in this article summarize the current status of assessment of critical thinking and can stimulate further investigation and application of the skills, characteristics, educational strategies, and measurement of critical thinking in respiratory care.

  6. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... anniversary throughout 2016... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 5 days ago AgrAbility's ...

  7. Re/Thinking Critical Thinking: The Seductions of Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Kal

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that both critical thinking and obstacles to successful critical thinking are most commonly found in the activities of everyday life. Argues for a connective criticism approach that does not assume critical means adversarial and acknowledges that critical thinking can be used as a means of opening worlds of meaning. (KS)

  8. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  9. Making a Difference? Education and "Ability" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings a speculative, sociological perspective to the nature of "ability" in physical education (PE) and asks why this aspect of embodiment, with notable exceptions, has received so little critical attention in the professional discourse of PE and associated research in recent years. It is suggested that thinking about "ability" has…

  10. Teaching for Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This volume represents a variety of current efforts to incorporate thought-provoking methods into teaching. There are three sections. "Curriculum Developments" defines key curricular terms and offers a framework and general examples of teaching tactics. In this section, Barbara Presseisen distinguishes thinking from other cognitive activities and…

  11. Thinking about Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Describes classroom word games and reading activities that encourage students to think for themselves. These include word substitution drills, reassembling sentences, and spelling-related words. Notes that encouraging students to analyze, synthesize, and apply their knowledge teaches them the skills needed to succeed as independent learners. (MDM)

  12. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  13. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  14. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  15. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults.

  16. Creativity and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollen, Patsy Phillips

    How to deal with the absence of creativity and critical thinking in the educational setting is discussed. All efforts to improve education will be futile if we don't take into account the absence of relationship among the participants and between the participants and the content of education. Relationship--i.e., connecting with others and with…

  17. Tools for Smarter Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    You read in the paper this morning that people who take multivitamins have fewer heart attacks and are less likely to get cancer than people who don't. Does this information make you more likely to want to take multivitamins? To truly prepare students for life, schools need to teach them the critical thinking skills they need to answer questions…

  18. Forward Thinking: Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In September 2007 the Colorado Department of Education and the Colorado State Board of Education jointly announced the launch of "Forward Thinking", an ambitious plan "to create a purpose-driven and dynamic system of educational leadership, service and support that relentlessly focuses on the learning of all students." The steps detailed in this…

  19. Writing, Thinking and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the potential of word processors for changing the ways in which students process written text and think about writing. Three levels of computer-aided writing are considered: simple word processors; computer-aided writing programs; and higher-level computer-aided processing; and improvements in writing quality. (41 references) (LRW)

  20. Teach Thinking through TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faggella, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    Offers eight projects and activities designed to make elementary students wiser television viewers and better thinkers. The activities help students get more out of television, determine what is questionable, and develop visual literacy and thinking skills. Children become active consumers of television and other visual media. (SM)

  1. Thinking Like a Ssssscientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…

  2. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition planning…

  3. Developing Thinking in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

  4. Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

  5. Learning How to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, John C.; Cracolice, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching strategies are becoming increasingly oriented toward guiding students' knowledge construction through cooperative learning. Enhancing students' cognitive development is a priority; students must "learn how to think." Inquiry instruction provides students with tools to make decisions based upon available evidence and an opportunity to…

  6. [A seminar for thinking?].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care.

  7. Thinking Like a Mathematician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael K.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to think like a mathematician? One of the great paradoxes of mathematics education is that, although mathematics teachers are immersed in mathematical work every day of their professional lives, most of them nevertheless have little experience with the kind of work that research mathematicians do. Their ideas of what doing…

  8. Learning to Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Social Studies Project.

    Having a twofold purpose, this booklet serves as an instructional guide for teachers and as a text for junior high students. Emphasis is upon students learning to think reflectively about major issues facing a Democratic society and to analyze various claims that they read and hear everyday in the world around them. An objective of the study is to…

  9. Nurturing Creative, Thinking Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…

  10. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  11. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  12. Thinking like an Ecologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  13. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  14. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  15. Remember to Just Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    This article picks up on columnist Mike Barnicle's lazy style and "I was just thinking" format in his column for the "Boston Globe." Using that model, John Harney shares a few of his thoughts on various education topics such as co ops, "competency-based education," and making civics part of the curriculum at…

  16. No Static in Your Attic: Tapping into Your Creative and Intuitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a process for increasing the quality of students' thinking through alternating from a quiet intuitive state to rational logical processing. The article provides specific teaching suggestions using guided imagery for students in grades K-2, grades 3-4, and grades 5 through college. (DB)

  17. Change Your Thinking in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Science, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Primary Science Editorial Board put their heads together and did some thinking about some of the activities they use to encourage children (and adults) to think. This article presents the outcome.

  18. Creative critical-thinking strategies.

    PubMed

    Chubinski, S

    1996-01-01

    Are you looking for strategies to teach critical thinking? The author presents a variety of quick, creative strategies to facilitate teaching critical-thinking skills. These strategies engage students in their learning and are adaptable to any nursing course.

  19. CREATE Cornerstone: Introduction to Scientific Thinking, a New Course for STEM-Interested Freshmen, Demystifies Scientific Thinking through Analysis of Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2013-01-01

    The Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment (CREATE) strategy for teaching and learning uses intensive analysis of primary literature to improve students' critical-thinking and content integration abilities, as well as their self-rated science attitudes, understanding, and confidence. CREATE…

  20. The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2015-05-01

    The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.

  1. Think You Know How Smell Works? Sniff Again.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sandeepa; Stowers, Lisa

    2016-06-16

    The sense of smell is mediated by GPCRs in the odorant receptor (OR) family. Greer et al. report a new family of odor detectors, MS4As, that have similar cellular localization and chemodetection ability as ORs but are not GPCRs and follow a strikingly different logic of odor coding at the periphery. PMID:27315472

  2. Think You Know How Smell Works? Sniff Again.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sandeepa; Stowers, Lisa

    2016-06-16

    The sense of smell is mediated by GPCRs in the odorant receptor (OR) family. Greer et al. report a new family of odor detectors, MS4As, that have similar cellular localization and chemodetection ability as ORs but are not GPCRs and follow a strikingly different logic of odor coding at the periphery.

  3. Teaching Thinking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest across the world in ways of developing children's thinking and learning skills. This interest has been fed by new knowledge about how the brain works and how people learn, and evidence that specific interventions can improve children's thinking and intelligence. Thinking skills are important because…

  4. Creative Thinking with Fairy Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how creative thinking can be encouraged in students through such classic tools as brainstorming and the productive thinking elements of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. It describes how fairy tales can be used to foster these thinking skills and suggests classroom activities. (Contains two references.) (CR)

  5. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  6. Developing Historical Thinking through Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham

    2012-01-01

    The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…

  7. Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

  8. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  9. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately depression.…

  10. The Importance of Undisciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This past year, Baylor University created a program to reward some of its best teachers and challenge them to do something truly daring: teach their students how to think--not just how to think "about" course material, but rather how to think "through" the material. The idea is to help students learn how teachers, as practitioners of their…

  11. Are There Levels of Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    1989-01-01

    This article argues that attempts to identify criteria that mark out higher-order thinking and distinguish it from lower-order thinking are still far from satisfactory. Bloom's cognitive hierarchy is discussed, as are the characteristics of higher-order thinking assembled by Resnick. (IAH)

  12. Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.

  13. Fuzzy-logic optical optimization of mainframe CPU and memory.

    PubMed

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David

    2006-07-01

    The allocation of CPU time and memory resources is a familiar problem in organizations with a large number of users and a single mainframe. Usually the amount of resources allocated to a single user is based on the user's own statistics not on the statistics of the entire organization, therefore patterns are not well identified and the allocation system is prodigal. A fuzzy-logic-based algorithm to optimize the CPU and memory distribution among users based on their history is suggested. The algorithm works on heavy and light users separately since they present different patterns to be observed. The result is a set of rules generated by the fuzzy-logic inference engine that will allow the system to use its computing ability in an optimized manner. Test results on data taken from the Faculty of Engineering of Tel Aviv University demonstrate the capabilities of the new algorithm.

  14. Fuzzy-logic optical optimization of mainframe CPU and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David

    2006-07-01

    The allocation of CPU time and memory resources is a familiar problem in organizations with a large number of users and a single mainframe. Usually the amount of resources allocated to a single user is based on the user's own statistics not on the statistics of the entire organization, therefore patterns are not well identified and the allocation system is prodigal. A fuzzy-logic-based algorithm to optimize the CPU and memory distribution among users based on their history is suggested. The algorithm works on heavy and light users separately since they present different patterns to be observed. The result is a set of rules generated by the fuzzy-logic inference engine that will allow the system to use its computing ability in an optimized manner. Test results on data taken from the Faculty of Engineering of Tel Aviv University demonstrate the capabilities of the new algorithm.

  15. Tri-state logic circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, Richard Lee (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A line driver including a pair of complementary transistors having their conduction paths serially connected between an operating and a reference potential and their bases connected through a first switch to a signal input terminal. A second switch is connected between the common base connection and the common connection of the conduction paths. With the second switch open and the first closed, an output voltage, responsive to the input signal, corresponding to first or second binary values is obtained. When the second switch is closed and the first opened, the transistor pair is turned off, disconnecting the line driver from its load, thereby providing tri-state logic operation.

  16. Deoxyribozyme-based logic gates.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Milan N; Mitchell, Tiffany Elizabeth; Stefanovic, Darko

    2002-04-10

    We report herein a set of deoxyribozyme-based logic gates capable of generating any Boolean function. We construct basic NOT and AND gates, followed by the more complex XOR gate. These gates were constructed through a modular design that combines molecular beacon stem-loops with hammerhead-type deoxyribozymes. Importantly, as the gates have oligonucleotides as both inputs and output, they open the possibility of communication between various computation elements in solution. The operation of these gates is conveniently connected to a fluorescent readout.

  17. Changing Reasoning Ability in College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Data from several years and several different classes have shown that student scores on the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning don't change much over the course of a single semester, and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

  18. Using Think Alouds, Think Afters, and Think Togethers to Research Adolescents' Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents three research methods--Think Alouds, Think Afters, and Think Togethers--as ways of gathering data to describe the experiences of adolescents during instructional activities. These verbal report methods were used in two studies that examined the information-seeking processes of adolescents in Inuvik, Northwest Territories and…

  19. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  20. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588