Science.gov

Sample records for ability measure faam

  1. Validity and Reliability of Thai Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Subjective Form.

    PubMed

    Arunakul, Marut; Arunakul, Preeyaphan; Suesiritumrong, Chakhrist; Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha

    2015-06-01

    Self-administered questionnaires have become an important aspect for clinical outcome assessment of foot and ankle-related problems. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) subjective form is a region-specific questionnaire that is widely used and has sufficient validity and reliability from previous studies. Translate the original English version of FAAM into a Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai FAAM in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. The FAAM subjective form was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation protocol. Afterward, reliability and validity were tested. Following responses from 60 consecutive patients on two questionnaires, the Thai FAAM subjective form and the short form (SF)-36, were used. The validity was tested by correlating the scores from both questionnaires. The reliability was adopted by measuring the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Thai FAAM score including activity of daily life (ADL) and Sport subscale demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF) and physical composite score (PCS) domains of the SF-36 (statistically significant with p < 0.001 level and ≥ 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.8 and 0.77, respectively from test-retest study. The internal consistency was strong (Cronbach alpha = 0.94 and 0.88, respectively). The Thai version of FAAM subjective form retained the characteristics of the original version and has proved a reliable evaluation instrument for patients with foot and ankle-related problems.

  2. Validity and reliability of a Dutch version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure.

    PubMed

    Weel, Hanneke; Zwiers, Ruben; Azim, Donija; Sierevelt, Inger N; Haverkamp, Daniel; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a Dutch language version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and evaluate its measurement properties according to the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN) definitions. A forward-backward translation procedure was performed and subsequently the Dutch version of the FAAM was evaluated for its reliability and validity in 369 patients with a variety of foot and ankle complaints. The reliability was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, test-retest reliability), Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency), the standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change (MDC). Additionally, this was done for athletes. The construct validity was assessed by the use of Spearman's correlation coefficient between FAAM domains and similar and contradictory domains of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, Short Form 36 and the Numeric Rating Scale for pain. The ICC of the subscales ranged from 0.62 to 0.86. Cronbach's alpha's minimum was 0.97. At individual level, the MDC ranged from 23.9 to 44.7 and at group level from 2.77 to 4.32. In the subgroup of athletes, the reliability was higher. The hypothesized correlations of the construct validity were supported by an 80% confirmation rate. The Dutch version of the FAAM met adequate measurement properties, although the reliability is not optimal. The FAAM-Sport subscale is more useful in athletes and the FAAM-Sport % seems not to contribute. In athletes with various foot and ankle symptoms, the FAAM can be used for functional assessment and follow-up at group level. For the general population, the FAAM is less appropriate. Diagnostic study, Level I.

  3. Validity of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure in Athletes With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R; Martin, RobRoy L; Drouin, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a region-specific, non–disease-specific outcome instrument that possesses many of the clinimetric qualities recommended for an outcome instrument. Evidence of validity to support the use of the FAAM is available in individuals with a wide array of ankle and foot disorders. However, additional evidence to support the use of the FAAM for those with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is needed. Objective: To provide evidence of construct validity for the FAAM based on hypothesis testing in athletes with CAI. Design: Between-groups comparison. Setting: Athletic training room. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes (16 men, 14 women) from one university. Main Outcome Measure(s): The FAAM including activities of daily living (ADL) and sports subscales and the global and categorical ratings of function. Results: For both the ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in healthy participants (100 ± 0.0 and 99 ± 3.5, respectively) than in subjects with CAI (88 ± 7.7 and 76 ± 12.7, respectively; P < .001). Similarly, for both ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in athletes who indicated that their ankles were normal (98 ± 6.3 and 96 ± 6.9, respectively) than in those who classified their ankles as either nearly normal or abnormal (87 ± 6.6 and 71 ± 11.1, respectively; P < .001). We found relationships between FAAM scores and self-reported global ratings of function for both ADL and sports subscales. Relationships were stronger when all athletes, rather than just those with CAI, were included in the analyses. Conclusions: The FAAM may be used to detect self-reported functional deficits related to CAI. PMID:18345343

  4. Evidence of Validity for the Japanese Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Shinozuka, Nobuyuki; Sunagawa, Norihiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Context: The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. Objective: To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eighty-three collegiate athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. Conclusions: The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however

  5. Validity of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure in athletes with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Carcia, Christopher R; Martin, RobRoy L; Drouin, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a region-specific, non-disease-specific outcome instrument that possesses many of the clinimetric qualities recommended for an outcome instrument. Evidence of validity to support the use of the FAAM is available in individuals with a wide array of ankle and foot disorders. However, additional evidence to support the use of the FAAM for those with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is needed. To provide evidence of construct validity for the FAAM based on hypothesis testing in athletes with CAI. Between-groups comparison. Athletic training room. Thirty National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes (16 men, 14 women) from one university. The FAAM including activities of daily living (ADL) and sports subscales and the global and categorical ratings of function. For both the ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in healthy participants (100 +/- 0.0 and 99 +/- 3.5, respectively) than in subjects with CAI (88 +/- 7.7 and 76 +/- 12.7, respectively; P < .001). Similarly, for both ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in athletes who indicated that their ankles were normal (98 +/- 6.3 and 96 +/- 6.9, respectively) than in those who classified their ankles as either nearly normal or abnormal (87 +/- 6.6 and 71 +/- 11.1, respectively; P < .001). We found relationships between FAAM scores and self-reported global ratings of function for both ADL and sports subscales. Relationships were stronger when all athletes, rather than just those with CAI, were included in the analyses. The FAAM may be used to detect self-reported functional deficits related to CAI.

  6. Measurement properties of the most commonly used Foot- and Ankle-Specific Questionnaires: the FFI, FAOS and FAAM. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sierevelt, I N; Zwiers, R; Schats, W; Haverkamp, D; Terwee, C B; Nolte, P A; Kerkhoffs, G M M J

    2017-10-12

    In the foot and ankle literature, a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is used, however, consensus as to which PROMs are preferred is lacking. Selection of a PROM is among other reasons, often based on measurement properties without considering the methodological quality of the studies that evaluate these measurement properties. The aim of current study was first to identify the most frequently used foot and ankle-specific PROMs in recent orthopaedic foot and ankle literature, and second to conduct a systematic review to synthesize and critically appraise the measurement properties of these PROMS. Six PubMed indexed journals focussing on foot and ankle research were screened to identify most commonly used foot and ankle-specific PROMs over a 2 year period (2015-2016). Subsequently, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Scopus to identify relevant studies on their measurement properties. Methodological quality assessment was performed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, criteria for good measurement properties were applied, and a level of evidence was determined for the measurement properties of each domain of the questionnaires. The three most frequently reported PROMs were the Foot Function Index (FFI), the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Activity Measure (FAAM). Among 2046 unique citations, 50 studies were included evaluating these PROMs. Evidence to support the measurement properties of the FFI was mainly lacking due to poor methodological quality. More evidence was available for the measurement properties of the FAOS and the FAAM, but overall evidence supporting all measurement properties is not yet sufficient. The best available evidence retrieved in this review showed that the FAOS and the FAAM are promising outcome measures for evaluation of patients with foot and ankle conditions, but their

  7. The MOYA aircraft campaign: First measurements of methane, ethane and C-13 isotopes from West African biomass burning and other regional sources using the UK FAAM aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Lee, James; Hopkins, James; Young, Stuart; Bauguitte, Stéphane; Gallagher, Martin; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    Global methane concentrations continue to rise due to an imbalance between sources and sinks. There remains little consensus on the relative components of the manifold source types and their geographical origin. The Global Methane Budget and Yearly Assessments (MOYA) project is tasked with better characterising the global methane budget through an augmented global measurement and modelling programme. As part of MOYA, the UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM), will fly four campaigns based out of West Africa and Ascension Island in the period 2017-2019, to focus on the important role of tropical sources. The first of these, to be conducted in late February 2017, will focus on the biomass burning season in West Africa. This paper will present the plan for future FAAM MOYA campaigns and report on our first aircraft data gathered in the West African region. The new addition of an interband cascade laser spectrometer to the FAAM aircraft, flown in this campaign for the first time, promises to provide the first real-time, continuous, and simultaneous, airborne measurements of methane, ethane and methane C-13 isotopologues. Together, these measurements, when interpreted in combination with other trace gases and aerosol measured on the aircraft, will serve as case studies to inform modelling of regional and global fluxes through their isotopic fingerprints.

  8. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately one hundred flights executed over the course of two years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water; it is not susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II respond much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  9. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  10. Predicting Manual Therapy Treatment Success in Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability: Improving Self-Reported Function.

    PubMed

    Wikstrom, Erik A; McKeon, Patrick O

    2017-04-01

      Therapeutic modalities that stimulate sensory receptors around the foot-ankle complex improve chronic ankle instability (CAI)-associated impairments. However, not all patients have equal responses to these modalities. Identifying predictors of treatment success could improve clinician efficiency when treating patients with CAI.   To conduct a response analysis on existing data to identify predictors of improved self-reported function in patients with CAI.   Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial.   Sports medicine research laboratories.   Fifty-nine patients with CAI, which was defined in accordance with the International Ankle Consortium recommendations.   Participants were randomized into 3 treatment groups (plantar massage [PM], ankle-joint mobilization [AJM], or calf stretching [CS]) that received six 5-minute treatments over 2 weeks.   Treatment success, defined as a patient exceeding the minimally clinically important difference of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Sport (FAAM-S).   Patients with ≤5 recurrent sprains and ≤82.73% on the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure had a 98% probability of having a meaningful FAAM-S improvement after AJM. As well, ≥5 balance errors demonstrated 98% probability of meaningful FAAM-S improvements from AJM. Patients <22 years old and with ≤9.9 cm of dorsiflexion had a 99% probability of a meaningful FAAM-S improvement after PM. Also, those who made ≥2 single-limb-stance errors had a 98% probability of a meaningful FAAM-S improvement from PM. Patients with ≤53.1% on the FAAM-S had an 83% probability of a meaningful FAAM-S improvement after CS.   Each sensory-targeted ankle-rehabilitation strategy resulted in a unique combination of predictors of success for patients with CAI. Specific indicators of success with AJM were deficits in self-reported function, single-limb balance, and <5 previous sprains. Age, weight-bearing-dorsiflexion restrictions, and single-limb balance

  11. The clinimetric qualities of patient-assessed instruments for measuring chronic ankle instability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eechaute, Christophe; Vaes, Peter; Van Aerschot, Lieve; Asman, Sara; Duquet, William

    2007-01-18

    The assessment of outcomes from the patient's perspective becomes more recognized in health care. Also in patients with chronic ankle instability, the degree of present impairments, disabilities and participation problems should be documented from the perspective of the patient. The decision about which patient-assessed instrument is most appropriate for clinical practice should be based upon systematic reviews. Only rating scales constructed for patients with acute ligament injuries were systematically reviewed in the past. The aim of this study was to review systematically the clinimetric qualities of patient-assessed instruments designed for patients with chronic ankle instability. A computerized literature search of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register was performed to identify eligible instruments. Two reviewers independently evaluated the clinimetric qualities of the selected instruments using a criteria list. The inter-observer reliability of both the selection procedure and the clinimetric evaluation was calculated using modified kappa coefficients. The inter-observer reliability of the selection procedure was excellent (k = .86). Four instruments met the eligibility criteria: the Ankle Joint Functional Assessment Tool (AJFAT), the Functional Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and the Functional Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). The inter-observer reliability of the quality assessment was substantial to excellent (k between .64 and .88). Test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the FAOS, the FADI and the FAAM but not for the AJFAT. The FAOS and the FAAM met the criteria for content validity and construct validity. For none of the studied instruments, the internal consistency was sufficiently demonstrated. The presence of floor- and ceiling effects was assessed for the FAOS but ceiling effects were present for all subscales. Responsiveness was demonstrated for the

  12. Integrating Allergen Analysis Within a Risk Assessment Framework: Approaches to Development of Targeted Mass Spectrometry Methods for Allergen Detection and Quantification in the iFAAM Project.

    PubMed

    Nitride, Chiara; Lee, Victoria; Baricevic-Jones, Ivona; Adel-Patient, Karine; Baumgartner, Sabine; Mills, E N Clare

    2018-01-01

    Allergen analysis is central to implementing and monitoring food allergen risk assessment and management processes by the food industry, but current methods for the determination of allergens in foods give highly variable results. The European Union-funded "Integrated Approaches to Food Allergen and Allergy Risk Management" (iFAAM) project has been working to address gaps in knowledge regarding food allergen management and analysis, including the development of novel MS and immuno-based allergen determination methods. Common allergenic food ingredients (peanut, hazelnut, walnut, cow's milk [Bos domesticus], and hen's egg [Gallus domesticus]) and common food matrixes (chocolate dessert and cookie) have been used for both clinical studies and analytical method development to ensure that the new methods are clinically relevant. Allergen molecules have been used as analytical targets and allergenic ingredients incurred into matrixes at levels close to reference doses that may trigger the use of precautionary allergen labeling. An interlaboratory method comparison has been undertaken for the determination of peanut in chocolate dessert using MS and immuno-based methods. The iFAAM approach has highlighted the need for methods to report test results in allergenic protein. This will allow food business operators to use them in risk assessments that are founded on clinical study data in which protein has been used as a measure of allergenic potency.

  13. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  14. Relationships between self-reported ankle function and modulation of Hoffmann reflex in patients with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported ankle function and Hoffmann (H) reflex modulation during changes in body positions in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Observational. Laboratory. Thirty-one young adults with CAI (19 males, 12 females) participated. There were two subscales of Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) to quantify self-reported ankle function during activities of daily living (ADL) and sports activities. Maximum H-reflexes (H-max) and motor waves (M-max) from soleus and fibularis longus were recorded while participants lied prone and stood in bipedal and unipedal stances. For each muscle, percent change scores in Hmax:Mmax ratios were calculated between each pair of positions: prone-to-bipedal, bipedal-to-unipedal, and prone-to-unipedal, and used as a measure of H-reflex modulation. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between FAAM and H-reflex modulation measures. There were significant correlations between: (1) FAAM-ADL and soleus prone-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.384, p = 0.04), (2) FAAM-Sport and soleus prone-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.505, p = 0.005), (3) FAAM-Sport and fibular bipedal-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.377, p = 0.05), and (4) FAAM-Sport and fibular prone-to-unipedal modulation (r = 0.396, p = 0.04). CAI patients presented moderate, positive relationships between self-reported ankle function and H-reflex modulation during changes in body positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Ankle Instability and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Wright, Cynthia J.; Ross, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Context: To our knowledge, no authors have assessed health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in participants with functional ankle instability (FAI). Furthermore, the relationships between measures of ankle functional limitation and HR-QOL are unknown. Objective: To use the Short Form–36v2 Health Survey (SF-36) to compare HR-QOL in participants with or without FAI and to determine whether HR-QOL was related to functional limitation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-eight participants with FAI (defined as at least 1 lateral ankle sprain and 1 episode of giveway per month) or without FAI were recruited (FAI group: n = 34, age = 25 ± 5 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.08 m, mass = 74.39 ± 12.78 kg, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score = 19.3 ± 4; uninjured [UI] group: n = 34, age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.08 m, mass = 67.94 ± 11.27 kg, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score = 29.4 ± 1). Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the SF-36 as a measure of HR-QOL and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and the FAAM Sport version (FAAMS) as assessments of functional limitation. To compare the FAI and UI groups, we calculated multiple analyses of variance followed by univariate tests. Additionally, we correlated the SF-36 summary component scale and domain scales with the FAAM and FAAMS scores. Results: Participants with FAI had lower scores on the SF-36 physical component summary (FAI = 54.4 ± 5.1, UI = 57.8 ± 3.7, P = .005), physical function domain scale (FAI = 54.5 ± 3.8, UI = 56.6 ± 1.2, P = .004), and bodily pain domain scale (FAI = 52.0 ± 6.7, UI = 58.5 ± 5.3, P < .005). Similarly, participants with FAI had lower scores on the FAAM (FAI = 93.7 ± 8.4, UI = 99.5 ± 1.4, P < .005) and FAAMS (FAI = 84.5 ± 8.4, UI = 99.8 ± 0.72, P < .005) than did the UI group. The FAAM score was correlated with the physical component summary scale (r = 0.42, P = .001

  16. New paradigm for patient-reported outcomes assessment in foot & ankle research: computerized adaptive testing.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Nickisch, Florian; Beals, Timothy C; Greene, Tom; Clegg, Daniel O; Saltzman, Charles L

    2012-08-01

    Accurately measuring, reporting and comparing outcomes is essential for improving health care delivery. Current challenges with available health status scales include patient fatigue, floor/ceiling effects and validity/reliability. This study compared Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-based Lower Extremity Physical Function Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT) and two legacy scales -the Foot and Function Index (FFI) and the sport module from the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (spFAAM) -for 287 patients scheduled for elective foot and ankle surgery. We documented the time required by patients to complete the instrument, instrument precision, and the extent to which each instrument covered the full range of physical functioning across the patient sample. Average time of test administration: 66 seconds for LE CAT, 130 seconds for spFAAM and 239 seconds for FFI. All three instruments were fairly precise at intermediate physical functioning levels (i.e., Standard Error of Measurement < 0.35), were relatively less precise at the higher trait levels and the LE CAT maintained precision in the lower range while the spFAAM and FFI's had decreased precision. The LE CAT had less floor/ceiling effects than the FFI and the spFAAM. The LE CAT showed considerable advantage compared to legacy scales for measuring patient-reported outcomes in orthopaedic patients with foot and ankle problems. A paradigm shift to broader use of PROMIS-based CATs should be considered to improve precision and reduce patient burden with patient-reported outcome measuremen foot and ankle patients.

  17. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  18. Treatment of first metatarsophalangeal joint arthritis using hemiarthroplasty with a synthetic cartilage implant or arthrodesis: A comparison of operative and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Mark; Younger, Alastair S E; Daniels, Timothy R; Singh, Dishan; Blundell, Chris; de Vries, Gwyneth; Le, Ian L D; Nielsen, Dominic; Pedersen, M Elizabeth; Sakellariou, Anthony; Solan, Matthew; Wansbrough, Guy; Baumhauer, Judith F

    2017-05-29

    First metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ1) hemiarthroplasty using a novel synthetic cartilage implant was as effective and safe as MTPJ1 arthrodesis in a randomized clinical trial. We retrospectively evaluated operative time and recovery period for implant hemiarthroplasty (n=152) and MTPJ1 arthrodesis (n=50). Perioperative data were assessed for operative and anaesthesia times. Recovery and return to function were prospectively assessed with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Sports and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscales and SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) subscore. Mean operative time for hemiarthroplasty was 35±12.3min and 58±21.5min for arthrodesis (p<0.001). Anaesthesia duration was 28min shorter with hemiarthroplasty (p<0.001). At weeks 2 and 6 postoperative, hemiarthroplasty patients demonstrated clinically and statistically significantly higher FAAM Sport, FAAM ADL, and SF-36 PF subscores versus arthrodesis patients. MTPJ1 hemiarthroplasty with a synthetic cartilage implant took less operative time and resulted in faster recovery than arthrodesis. III, Retrospective case control study. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Work Ability with Its Antecedents: Evaluation of the Work Ability Survey.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Jan-Bennet; Deller, Jürgen

    2017-07-24

    Purpose The revised version of the Work Ability Survey (WAS-R) assesses work ability on several sub-scales at the intersection of personal and organizational capacity, thus adding to the measurement of work ability by integrating the holistic model. It, therefore, improves on two features of the current standard measurement tool of work ability, the Work Ability Index (WAI): (1) a ceiling effect and (2) limited detail due to a focus on physical health and personal capacity. Method In two samples (n 1  = 1093, n 2  = 359), psychometric properties and the structure of the WAS-R were analyzed. To evaluate construct validity, inter-correlations of the WAS-R and WAI, sickness absence, expected and desired retirement age, and post-retirement work intention were calculated. Results The WAS-R was found to be distributed closer to normality than the WAI. The structural analyses yielded acceptable results for the hypothesized model. The WAS-R was adequately correlated with the WAI, negatively with sickness absence, and positively with desired retirement age. Conclusions The WAS-R extends the measurement of work ability, reflecting organizations' work demands. Its broad sub-scales lead to high acceptance of the results within the participating companies. In particular, the organizational capacity scales can be used to guide interventions aiming at organizational characteristics to improve work ability.

  20. The effects of mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic balance, and self-reported function in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Julie P; Gaven, Stacey L; Van Lunen, L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy intervention known as Mobilization with Movement (MWM) to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). While a single talocrural MWM treatment has increased dorsiflexion ROM in these individuals, examining the effects of multiple treatments on dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, and self-reported function would enhance the clinical application of this intervention. This study sought to determine if three treatment sessions of talocrural MWM would improve dorsiflexion ROM, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, and self-reported function using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in individuals with CAI. Eleven participants with CAI (5 Males, 6 Females, age: 21.5 ± 2.2 years, weight: 83.9 ± 15.6 kg, height: 177.7 ± 10.9 cm, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool: 17.5 ± 4.2) volunteered in this repeated-measures study. Subjects received three MWM treatments over one week. Weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM (cm), normalized SEBT reach distances (%), and self-reported function (%) were assessed one week before the intervention (baseline), prior to the first MWM treatment (pre-intervention), and 24–48 h following the final treatment (post-intervention). No significant changes were identified in dorsiflexion ROM, SEBT reach distances, or the FAAM-Activities of Daily Living scale (p > 0.05). Significant changes were identified on the FAAM-Sport (p = 0.01). FAAM-Sport scores were significantly greater post-intervention (86.82 ± 9.18%) compared to baseline (77.27 ± 11.09%; p = 0.01) and pre-intervention (79.82 ± 13.45%; p = 0.04). These results indicate the MWM intervention did not improve dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, or patient-centered measures of activities of daily living. However, MWM did improve patient-centered measures of sport-related activities in individuals with CAI.

  1. An overview of the flight campaign for the GAUGE project: airborne greenhouse gas (and other complementary trace gas) measurements around and over the UK between April 2014 and May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Percival, Carl; Bannan, Thomas; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair; Rigby, Matt; Gannesan, Anita; Mead, Mohammed; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Wenger, Angelina; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This work highlights data measured during flights by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) campaign. A total of 17 flights (85 flight-hours) have been conducted so far around the UK mainland and Ireland to sample precision in situ CH4, CO2, N2O (and other trace gas) concentrations and meteorological parameters at altitudes up to 9500m throughout the period April 2014 to May 2015. Airborne remote sensing retrievals of greenhouse gas total columns have also been calculated using the Manchester Airborne Retrieval Scheme for the UK Met Office ARIES high resolution FTIR instrument. This airborne dataset represents a mapped climatology and a series of case studies from which to assess top-down bulk-net-flux snapshots for regions of the UK, and provides for evaluation of inverse modelling approaches that challenge bottom-up inventories, satellite remote sensing measurements, and assessment of model transport uncertainty. In this paper, we shall describe the instrumentation on the FAAM aircraft and provide a diary of GAUGE FAAM flights (and data highlights) to date; and discuss selected flights of interest to studies such as those above with a focus of net mass flux evaluation.

  2. Manual physical therapy and exercise versus supervised home exercise in the management of patients with inversion ankle sprain: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Joshua A; Mintken, Paul E; McDevitt, Amy; Bieniek, Melanie L; Carpenter, Kristin J; Kulp, Katherine; Whitman, Julie M

    2013-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To compare the effectiveness of manual therapy and exercise (MTEX) to a home exercise program (HEP) in the management of individuals with an inversion ankle sprain. An in-clinic exercise program has been found to yield similar outcomes as an HEP for individuals with an inversion ankle sprain. However, no studies have compared an MTEX approach to an HEP. Patients with an inversion ankle sprain completed the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) activities of daily living subscale, the FAAM sports subscale, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and the numeric pain rating scale. Patients were randomly assigned to either an MTEX or an HEP treatment group. Outcomes were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, and 6 months. The primary aim (effects of treatment on pain and disability) was examined with a mixed-model analysis of variance. The hypothesis of interest was the 2-way interaction (group by time). Seventy-four patients (mean ± SD age, 35.1 ± 11.0 years; 48.6% female) were randomized into the MTEX group (n = 37) or the HEP group (n = 37). The overall group-by-time interaction for the mixed-model analysis of variance was statistically significant for the FAAM activities of daily living subscale (P<.001), FAAM sports subscale (P<.001), Lower Extremity Functional Scale (P<.001), and pain (P ≤.001). Improvements in all functional outcome measures and pain were significantly greater at both the 4-week and 6-month follow-up periods in favor of the MTEX group. The results suggest that an MTEX approach is superior to an HEP in the treatment of inversion ankle sprains. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00797368). Therapy, level 1b-.

  3. Measuring Metasyntactic Abilities: On a Classification of Metasyntactic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Simard, Daphnée; Labelle, Marie; Bergeron, Annie

    2017-04-01

    Researchers working on metasyntactic abilities (i.e., the metalinguistic ability associated with syntax) face the problem of defining and measuring them. Metasyntactic abilities is a multifaceted concept, which encompasses various types of behaviours, from being able to intentionally manipulate syntactic structures to being able to state syntactic rules, and the way in which it is defined and measured varies greatly from one study to another. The present paper proposes a theoretically informed classification of syntax related tasks. The first part presents previous research defining and distinguishing various types of syntactic and metasyntactic abilities and their interrelations. In the second part, commonly used tasks are described and analyzed in terms of the framework presented, with the aim of better pinpointing the type of ability measured by each task. Ultimately, with this analysis of commonly used tasks, we hope to offer criteria for discriminating between the various measures of metasyntactic abilities.

  4. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  5. Measurement of latent cognitive abilities involved in concept identification learning.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Patt, Virginie M; Nock, Matthew K; Naifeh, James A; Heeringa, Steven; Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B

    2015-01-01

    We used cognitive and psychometric modeling techniques to evaluate the construct validity and measurement precision of latent cognitive abilities measured by a test of concept identification learning: the Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET). Item response theory parameters were embedded within classic associative- and hypothesis-based Markov learning models and were fitted to 35,553 Army soldiers' PCET data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Data were consistent with a hypothesis-testing model with multiple latent abilities-abstraction and set shifting. Latent abstraction ability was positively correlated with number of concepts learned, and latent set-shifting ability was negatively correlated with number of perseverative errors, supporting the construct validity of the two parameters. Abstraction was most precisely assessed for participants with abilities ranging from 1.5 standard deviations below the mean to the mean itself. Measurement of set shifting was acceptably precise only for participants making a high number of perseverative errors. The PCET precisely measures latent abstraction ability in the Army STARRS sample, especially within the range of mildly impaired to average ability. This precision pattern is ideal for a test developed to measure cognitive impairment as opposed to cognitive strength. The PCET also measures latent set-shifting ability, but reliable assessment is limited to the impaired range of ability, reflecting that perseverative errors are rare among cognitively healthy adults. Integrating cognitive and psychometric models can provide information about construct validity and measurement precision within a single analytical framework.

  6. Measuring Metasyntactic Abilities: On a Classification of Metasyntactic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnée; Labelle, Marie; Bergeron, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Researchers working on "metasyntactic abilities" (i.e., the metalinguistic ability associated with syntax) face the problem of defining and measuring them. Metasyntactic abilities is a multifaceted concept, which encompasses various types of behaviours, from being able to intentionally manipulate syntactic structures to being able to…

  7. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  8. Differences in lateral ankle laxity measured via stress ultrasonography in individuals with chronic ankle instability, ankle sprain copers, and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Croy, Theodore; Saliba, Susan A; Saliba, Ethan; Anderson, Mark W; Hertel, Jay

    2012-07-01

    Cross-sectional. To use stress ultrasonography to measure the change in anterior talofibular ligament length during the simulated anterior drawer and ankle inversion stress tests. In approximately 30% of individuals, ankle sprains may eventually develop into chronic ankle instability (CAI) with recurrent symptoms. Individuals with CAI and those who have a history of ankle sprain (greater than 1 year prior) without chronic instability (copers) may or may not have mechanical laxity. Sixty subjects (n=60 ankles) were divided into 3 groups: 1) Control subjects without ankle injury history (n=20; mean ± SD age; 24.8 ± 4.8 years; height, 173.7 ± 9.4 cm; weight, 77.2 ± 19.5 kg), ankle sprain copers (n=20; 22.3 ± 2.9 years; 172.8 ± 11.3 cm; 72.4 ± 14.3 kg), and subjects with CAI (n=20; 23.5 ± 4.2 years; 174.6 ± 9.6 cm; 74.8 ± 17.3 kg). Ligament length change with the anterior drawer and end range ankle inversion was calculated from ultrasound images. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) was used to quantify self-reported function on activities-of-daily living (ADL) and sports. The anterior drawer test resulted in length changes that were greater (F₂,₅₇=6.2, P=.004) in the CAI (mean ± SD length change, 15.6 ± 15.1%, P=.006) and the coper groups (14.0 ± 15.9%, P=.016) compared to the control group (1.3 ± 10.7%); however the length change for the CAI and coper groups were not different (P=.93). Ankle inversion similarly resulted in greater ligament length change (F₂,₅₇=6.5, P=.003) in the CAI (25.3 ± 15.5%, P=.003) and coper groups (20.2 ± 19.6%, P=.039) compared to the control group (7.4 ± 12.9%); with no difference in length change between the copers and CAI groups (P=.59). The CAI group had a lower score on the FAAM-ADL (87.4 ± 13.4%) and FAAM-Sports (74.2 ± 17.8%) when compared to the control (98.8 ± 2.9% and 98.9 ± 3.1%, P<.0001) and coper groups (99.4 ± 1.8% and 94.6 ± 8.8%, P<.0001). Stress ultrasonography identified greater

  9. Language Sample Measures and Language Ability in Spanish English Bilingual Kindergarteners

    PubMed Central

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity and sentence organization are useful metrics for quantifying language development and language impairments in monolingual and bilingual children. It is not yet known what measures within and across languages are most informative when evaluating the language skills of bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how measures of language productivity and organization in two languages converge with children’s measured language abilities on the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment (BESA), a standardized measure of language ability. 170 kindergarten age children who produced narrative language samples in Spanish and in English based on a wordless picture book were included in the analysis. Samples were analyzed for number of utterances, number of different words, mean length of utterance, and percentage of grammatical utterances. The best predictors of language ability as measured by the BESA scores were English MLU, English grammaticality, and Spanish grammaticality. Results are discussed in relationship to the nature of the measures in each of the languages and in regard to their potential utility for identifying low language ability in bilingual children. PMID:20955835

  10. Comparison of trait and ability measures of emotional intelligence in medical students.

    PubMed

    Brannick, Michael T; Wahi, Monika M; Arce, Melissa; Johnson, Hazel-Anne; Nazian, Stanley; Goldin, Steven B

    2009-11-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI), the ability to perceive emotions in the self and others, and to understand, regulate and use such information in productive ways, is believed to be important in health care delivery for both recipients and providers of health care. There are two types of EI measure: ability and trait. Ability and trait measures differ in terms of both the definition of constructs and the methods of assessment. Ability measures conceive of EI as a capacity that spans the border between reason and feeling. Items on such a measure include showing a person a picture of a face and asking what emotion the pictured person is feeling; such items are scored by comparing the test-taker's response to a keyed emotion. Trait measures include a very large array of non-cognitive abilities related to success, such as self-control. Items on such measures ask individuals to rate themselves on such statements as: 'I generally know what other people are feeling.' Items are scored by giving higher scores to greater self-assessments. We compared one of each type of test with the other for evidence of reliability, convergence and overlap with personality. Year 1 and 2 medical students completed the Meyer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, an ability measure), the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, a trait measure) and an industry standard personality test (the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness [NEO] test). The MSCEIT showed problems with reliability. The MSCEIT and the WLEIS did not correlate highly with one another (overall scores correlated at 0.18). The WLEIS was more highly correlated with personality scales than the MSCEIT. Different tests that are supposed to measure EI do not measure the same thing. The ability measure was not correlated with personality, but the trait measure was correlated with personality.

  11. Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis With Botulinum Toxin.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jamal; Ahmad, Stacy H; Jones, Kennis

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of botulinum toxin upon plantar fasciitis through a randomized, controlled, and blinded trial. Between 2012 and 2015, 50 patients presented with plantar fasciitis. Twenty-five patients each randomly received an IncobotulinumtoxinA (IBTA) or saline injection of their affected foot. Pre- and postinjection function and pain were graded with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measures (FAAM) and visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. All 50 study patients who randomly received either placebo or IBTA presented at 6 and 12 months after injection. At 6 months, the mean FAAM increased from 35.9 to 40.9 of 100, and the mean pain score decreased from 8.4 to 7.9 of 10 within the placebo group. At 6 months, the mean FAAM increased from 36.3 to 73.8 of 100, and mean pain score decreased from 7.2 to 3.6 of 10 within the IBTA group. These postinjection scores were significantly better than the placebo group ( P = .01). At 12 months after injection, the IBTA group maintained significantly better function and pain than the placebo group ( P < .05). By that time, 0 (0%) and 3 (12%) patients who received IBTA and saline, respectively, underwent surgery for recalcitrant plantar fasciitis ( P < .005). Compared with placebo saline injection, using IBTA to treat plantar fasciitis resulted in significantly better improvement in foot function and pain. IBTA also lessened the need for operative treatment of plantar fasciitis. I, Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

  12. Do motor ability and handwriting kinematic measures predict organizational ability among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders?

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) exhibit deficient daily performance concealed in their perception-action mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior organization of children with DCD, in varied tasks that require generating and monitoring mental representations related to space and time inputs/requirements, for achieving better insight about their perception-action mechanism. Participants included 42 children aged 7-10, half of whom were defined with DCD and half were typically developing (TD). The children were matched for age, gender and school. They were evaluated using the Movement-ABC and performed three handwriting tasks on an electronic tablet that is part of a computerized system (ComPET - Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). In addition, their teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-Teachers (QASOA-T) to assess the children's daily organizational ability. Significant group differences (DCD versus controls) were found for all handwriting kinematic measures across the three handwriting tasks and for the children's organizational abilities. Motor ability predicted a considerable percentage of the variance of the kinematic handwriting measures (30-37%), as well as a high percentage of the variance of their organizational abilities (67%). The coefficient of variance of the pen tilt added an additional 3% to the prediction of their organizational abilities. The results of this study exhibited deficient ability among children with DCD in organizing their behavior in varied real-world tasks requiring generation and monitoring representation related to space and time. The significance of the results to understanding the performance mechanism and implication to the clinical field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Instrument to Measure the Cognitive Ability Evaluation of the Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaff, John F.

    Described is the development of an instrument designed to measure the cognitive ability of evaluation in high school chemistry students. The instrument was composed of several situations found in chemistry courses, each designed to measure a student's evaluation ability based on his knowledge of kinetic-molecular theory as it applied to gases,…

  14. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  15. Measures of Writing Ability of Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, George Franklin

    The purpose of this canonical and multiple correlation study of measures of writing ability was to develop a valid weighted index of writing ability to replace the single measures now being used to evaluate elementary English programs. The subjects, 134 pupils from each fourth, fifth, and sixth grade level of Broadway and Dunham schools in Maple…

  16. The elementary school teachers’ ability in the length measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julie, Hongki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the elementary school teachers' mathematical ability (1) to develop students’ activities which constructed longer than, shorter than, and as long as concepts, (2) to develop students’ activities which constructed standard unit on the length measurement, and (3) to develop a problem which used by student to construct why a conversion activity on the unit of the length was useful in the daily life after they have participated in the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) workshops. Curry and Outhread said if teachers knew more about the growth of students’ conceptual understanding of the length, they would be better able to teach that topic [4]. Therefore, in the workshop, teachers were asked to learn more on the stages of the measurement teaching and learning process and why each stage was important. This capability was described by the results of a test which was content of four problems given to teachers after they have attended the workshop. Research subjects in this study were 14 elementary school teachers at Yogyakarta. The results of the study were as follows: (1) only four of 14 teachers who had the first ability; (2) all teachers had the second ability; and (3) all the teachers did not have the third ability.

  17. Psychometric analysis of five measures of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Thomas P

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzed psychometric properties of five measures of spatial ability on 96 young adults, with supplementary analysis for three of the measures on another sample of 71 young adults. Two measures were taken from the widely cited Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests and three other measures were taken from a relatively new source originally intended as laboratory demonstrations. Previous research provided limited information on the psychometric properties of the measures. All five measures yielded adequate reliability and loaded on a single factor. Three measures yielded markedly skewed distributions. Two measures showed clear sex differences with men scoring higher but this difference seemed contaminated by a speed factor; three measures did not show a sex difference. Recommendations for use of the measures in future studies are provided.

  18. Primary Arthrodesis versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries in a Young Athletic Population.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Grant; Renninger, Christopher; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    There are 2 Level I studies comparing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and primary arthrodesis (PA) in high-energy Lisfranc injuries. There are no studies comparing ORIF and PA in young athletic patients with low-energy injuries. All operatively managed low-energy Lisfranc injuries sustained by active duty military personnel at a single institution were identified from 2010 to 2015. The injury pattern, method of treatment, and complications were reviewed. Implant removal rates, fitness test scores, return to military duty rates, and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores were compared. Thirty-two patients were identified with the average age of 28 years. PA was performed in 14 patients with ORIF in 18. The PA group returned to full duty at an average of 4.5 months whereas the ORIF group returned at an average of 6.7 months ( P = .0066). The PA group ran their fitness test an average of 9 seconds per mile slower than their preoperative average whereas the ORIF group ran it an average of 39 seconds slower per mile ( P = .032). There were no differences between the 2 groups in the FAAM scores at an average of 35 months. Implant removal was performed in 15 (83%) in the ORIF group and 2 (14%) in the PA group ( P = .005). Low-energy Lisfranc injuries treated with primary arthrodesis had a lower implant removal rate, an earlier return to full military activity, and better fitness test scores after 1 year, but there was no difference in FAAM scores after 3 years. Level III, comparative cohort study.

  19. Measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Codier, Estelle; Odell, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    For most schools of nursing, grade point average is the most important criteria for admission to nursing school and constitutes the main indicator of success throughout the nursing program. In the general research literature, the relationship between traditional measures of academic success, such as grade point average and postgraduation job performance is not well established. In both the general population and among practicing nurses, measured emotional intelligence ability correlates with both performance and other important professional indicators postgraduation. Little research exists comparing traditional measures of intelligence with measured emotional intelligence prior to graduation, and none in the student nurse population. This exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken to explore the relationship between measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average of first year nursing students. The study took place at a school of nursing at a university in the south central region of the United States. Participants included 72 undergraduate student nurse volunteers. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, version 2, an instrument for quantifying emotional intelligence ability. Pre-admission grade point average was reported by the school records department. Total emotional intelligence (r=.24) scores and one subscore, experiential emotional intelligence(r=.25) correlated significantly (>.05) with grade point average. This exploratory, descriptive study provided evidence for some relationship between GPA and measured emotional intelligence ability, but also demonstrated lower than average range scores in several emotional intelligence scores. The relationship between pre-graduation measures of success and level of performance postgraduation deserves further exploration. The findings of this study suggest that research on the relationship between traditional and nontraditional

  20. Measuring Spatial Ability with a Computer Managed Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    This study presents data augmenting the validity studies of the Wheatley Cube (McDaniel and Kroll, 1984), a computer managed test of spatial visualization. Twenty-one students in pilot training are administered several instruments designed to measure the ability to construct a cognitive three-dimensional space, including: (1) the Wheatley Cube,…

  1. Measures of Dogs' Inhibitory Control Abilities Do Not Correlate across Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Brucks, Désirée; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Wallis, Lisa Jessica; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to overcome prepotent but ineffective behaviors, has been studied extensively across species, revealing the involvement of this ability in many different aspects of life. While various different paradigms have been created in order to measure inhibitory control, only a limited number of studies have investigated whether such measurements indeed evaluate the same underlying mechanism, especially in non-human animals. In humans, inhibitory control is a complex construct composed of distinct behavioral processes rather than of a single unified measure. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the validity of inhibitory control paradigms in dogs. Sixty-seven dogs were tested in a battery consisting of frequently used inhibitory control tests. Additionally, dog owners were asked to complete an impulsivity questionnaire about their dog. No correlation of dogs' performance across tasks was found. In order to understand whether there are some underlying behavioral aspects explaining dogs' performance across tests, we performed principle component analyses. Results revealed that three components (persistency, compulsivity and decision speed) explained the variation across tasks. The questionnaire and dogs' individual characteristics (i.e., age and sex) provided only limited information for the derived components. Overall, results suggest that no unique measurement for inhibitory control exists in dogs, but tests rather measure different aspects of this ability. Considering the context-specificity of inhibitory control in dogs and most probably also in other non-human animals, extreme caution is needed when making conclusions about inhibitory control abilities based on a single test. PMID:28596749

  2. Generally objective measurement of human temperature and reading ability: some corollaries.

    PubMed

    Stenner, A Jackson; Stone, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We argue that a goal of measurement is general objectivity: point estimates of a person's measure (height, temperature, and reader ability) should be independent of the instrument and independent of the sample in which the person happens to find herself. In contrast, Rasch's concept of specific objectivity requires only differences (i.e., comparisons) between person measures to be independent of the instrument. We present a canonical case in which there is no overlap between instruments and persons: each person is measured by a unique instrument. We then show what is required to estimate measures in this degenerate case. The canonical case encourages a simplification and reconceptualization of validity and reliability. Not surprisingly, this reconceptualization looks a lot like the way physicists and chemometricians think about validity and measurement error. We animate this presentation with a technology that blurs the distinction between instruction, assessment, and generally objective measurement of reader ability. We encourage adaptation of this model to health outcomes measurement.

  3. Assessing Workplace Emotional Intelligence: Development and Validation of an Ability-based Measure.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup; Hopkins, Kay; Szmerekovsky, Joseph G; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Existing measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), defined as the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions for productive purposes, have displayed limitations in predicting workplace outcomes, likely in part because they do not target this context. Such considerations led to the development of an ability EI measure with work-related scenarios in which respondents infer the likely emotions (perception) and combinations of emotion (understanding) that would occur to protagonists while rating the effectiveness of ways of responding (management). Study 1 (n = 290 undergraduates) used item-total correlations to select scenarios from a larger pool and Study 2 (n = 578) reduced the measure-termed the NEAT-to 30 scenarios on the basis of structural equation modeling. Study 3 (n = 96) then showed that the NEAT had expected correlations with personality and cognitive ability and Study 4 (n = 85) demonstrated convergent validity with other ability EI measures. Last, study 5 (n = 91) established that the NEAT had predictive validity with respect to job satisfaction, job stress, and job performance. The findings affirm the importance of EI in the workplace in the context of a valid new instrument for assessing relevant skills.

  4. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  5. Prediction of general mental ability based on neural oscillation measures of sleep.

    PubMed

    Bódizs, Róbert; Kis, Tamás; Lázár, Alpár Sándor; Havrán, Linda; Rigó, Péter; Clemens, Zsófia; Halász, Péter

    2005-09-01

    The usual assessment of general mental ability (or intelligence) is based on performance attained in reasoning and problem-solving tasks. Differences in general mental ability have been associated with event-related neural activity patterns of the wakeful working brain or physical, chemical and electrical brain features measured during wakeful resting conditions. Recent evidences suggest that specific sleep electroencephalogram oscillations are related to wakeful cognitive performances. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between non-rapid eye movement sleep-specific oscillations (the slow oscillation, delta activity, slow and fast sleep spindle density, the grouping of slow and fast sleep spindles) and general mental ability assessed by the Raven Progressive Matrices Test (RPMT). The grouping of fast sleep spindles by the cortical slow oscillation in the left frontopolar derivation (Fp1) as well as the density of fast sleep spindles over the right frontal area (Fp2, F4), correlated positively with general mental ability. Data from those selected electrodes that showed the high correlations with general mental ability explained almost 70% of interindividual variance in RPMT scores. Results suggest that individual differences in general mental ability are reflected in fast sleep spindle-related oscillatory activity measured over the frontal cortex.

  6. The Effect of Obesity on Surgical Treatment of Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jamal; Jones, Kennis

    2017-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective comparison of surgical treatment outcomes for acute Achilles tendon ruptures in nonobese and obese patients. Between October 2006 and April 2014, we studied 76 patients with acute midsubstance Achilles tendon rupture: 44 nonobese and 32 obese (body mass index >30 kg/m). Preoperative and postoperative function and pain were graded with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Sports subscale and the visual analog scale for pain, respectively. All 76 patients presented for follow-up. On a scale of 100, the mean FAAM score for the nonobese patients increased from 38.1 preoperatively to 90.2 at final visit, and on a scale of 10, the mean pain score decreased from 7.1 preoperatively to 1.6 at latest follow-up. For obese patients, the mean FAAM score increased from 34.2 preoperatively to 83.3 at final visit, and the mean pain score decreased from 6.2 preoperatively to 1.9 at the latest follow-up. The postoperative scores of the two groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Postoperative wound complications developed in six nonobese patients and one obese patient (13.6% and 3.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). To our knowledge, comparing outcomes from surgically treated acute Achilles ruptures in nonobese and obese patients has not been previously reported. We found that both obese and nonobese patients can achieve improved Achilles tendon function and pain as a result of surgery. The findings of this study demonstrate that both nonobese and obese patients can achieve a high rate of improvement in ankle function and pain relief after surgical repair of the Achilles tendon.

  7. Outcome of nonoperative management of displaced oblique spiral fractures of the fifth metatarsal shaft.

    PubMed

    Aynardi, Michael; Pedowitz, David I; Saffel, Heather; Piper, Christine; Raikin, Steven M

    2013-12-01

    Nonoperative management has been the preferred treatment for displaced oblique spiral fractures of the fifth metatarsal shaft; yet a paucity of literature supports this claim. The purpose of this investigation was to report the incidence and long-term outcome in the largest cohort of these fractures reported to date. From 2006 through 2010, 2990 patients sustaining closed metatarsal fractures were seen and treated. Displaced, oblique, spiral fractures of the distal shaft of the fifth metatarsal were identified and follow-up was conducted. Only patients who were initially treated with nonoperative management were included. Patients were seen at 6 and 12 weeks, and a minimum 2-year follow-up was conducted. In addition, demographic information was obtained, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) were administered. Average follow-up was 3.5 years. In all, 142 acute fractures were managed for an incidence of 4.8% of all metatarsal fractures. There were 117 females and 25 males, average age was 55. FAAM activities of daily living subscale scores averaged 95.5 (±5.7), while FAAM sports subscales were 92.7 (±9.1). SF-12 physical and mental scores averaged 51.4 (±4.9) and 50.3 (±4.6), respectively. There were 2 delayed unions, 1 asymptomatic nonunion treated nonoperatively, and 2 painful nonunions that required open reduction internal fixation with bone grafting. This large cohort described the relative incidence and functional outcomes of displaced oblique fracture of shaft of the fifth metatarsal bone treated nonoperatively. Nonoperative management of these fractures resulted in excellent, long-term functional outcomes. Level II, prospective cohort study.

  8. ABILHAND-Kids: a measure of manual ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Renders, Anne; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2004-09-28

    To develop a clinical tool for measuring manual ability (ABILHAND-Kids) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using the Rasch measurement model. The authors developed a 74-item questionnaire based on existing scales and experts' advice. The questionnaire was submitted to 113 children with CP (59% boys; mean age, 10 years) without major intellectual deficits (IQ > 60) and to their parents, and resubmitted to both groups after 1 month. The children's and parents' responses were analyzed separately with the WINSTEPS Rasch software to select items presenting an ordered rating scale, sharing the same discrimination, and fitting a unidimensional scale. The final ABILHAND-Kids scale consisted of 21 mostly bimanual items rated by the parents. The parents reported a finer perception of their children's ability than the children themselves, leading to a wider range of measurement, a higher reliability (R = 0.94), and a good reproducibility over time (R = 0.91). The item difficulty hierarchy was consistent between the parents and the experts. The ABILHAND-kids measures are significantly related to school education, type of CP, and gross motor function. ABILHAND-Kids is a functional scale specifically developed to measure manual ability in children with CP providing guidelines for goal setting in treatment planning. Its range and measurement precision are appropriate for clinical practice.

  9. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    PubMed

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  10. Effect of monophasic pulsed current on heel pain and functional activities caused by plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Abdullah K; Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Daher, Noha S; Lohman, Everett; Laymon, Michael; Syed, Hasan M

    2015-03-20

    Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a soft tissue disorder considered to be one of the most common causes of inferior heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of monophasic pulsed current (MPC) and MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises (SE) on the treatment of PF. Forty-four participants (22 women and 22 men, with a mean age of 49 years) diagnosed with PF were randomly assigned to receive MPC (n=22) or MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific SE (n=22). Prior to and after 4 weeks of treatment, participants underwent baseline evaluation; heel pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), heel tenderness threshold was quantified using a handheld pressure algometer (PA), and functional activities level was assessed using the Activities of Daily Living subscale of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (ADL/FAAM). Heel pain scores showed a significant reduction in both groups compared to baseline VAS scores (P<0.001). Heel tenderness improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline PA scores (P<0.001). Functional activity level improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline (ADL/FAAM) scores (P<0.001). However, no significant differences existed between the 2 treatment groups in all post-intervention outcome measures. This trial showed that MPC is useful in treating inferior heel symptoms caused by PF.

  11. Effect of Monophasic Pulsed Current on Heel Pain and Functional Activities caused by Plantar Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah K.; Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Daher, Noha S.; Lohman, Everett; Laymon, Michael; Syed, Hasan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a soft tissue disorder considered to be one of the most common causes of inferior heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of monophasic pulsed current (MPC) and MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises (SE) on the treatment of PF. Material/Methods Forty-four participants (22 women and 22 men, with a mean age of 49 years) diagnosed with PF were randomly assigned to receive MPC (n=22) or MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific SE (n=22). Prior to and after 4 weeks of treatment, participants underwent baseline evaluation; heel pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), heel tenderness threshold was quantified using a handheld pressure algometer (PA), and functional activities level was assessed using the Activities of Daily Living subscale of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (ADL/FAAM). Results Heel pain scores showed a significant reduction in both groups compared to baseline VAS scores (P<0.001). Heel tenderness improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline PA scores (P<0.001). Functional activity level improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline (ADL/FAAM) scores (P<0.001). However, no significant differences existed between the 2 treatment groups in all post-intervention outcome measures. Conclusions This trial showed that MPC is useful in treating inferior heel symptoms caused by PF. PMID:25791231

  12. Ability of College Students to Simulate ADHD on Objective Measures of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booksh, Randee Lee; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Gouvier, William Drew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ability of college students to simulate ADHD symptoms on objective and self-report measures and the relationship between knowledge of ADHD and ability to simulate ADHD. Method: Undergraduate students were assigned to a control or a simulated ADHD malingering condition and compared with a clinical AD/HD group.…

  13. The Measurement of Abilities Needed for Planning in PBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Satoshi; Konishi, Masaki; Hanabusa, Takao

    We have been trying to heighten students' creativity at The Center for Innovation and Creativity Development by two ways. One is supporting their project activities, which are extracurricular and autonomous. We have expected students make their creativity higher by acting with project members in different grades and fields. The another is education for fresh students by PBL (Project Based Learning) courses which are opened as public lectures. In both of these attempts, we have tried to clarify the factors which are necessary for planning, because we have thought planning ability is essential for students to drive PBL. In this paper, we have reported how to measure abilities needed for planning and have discussed how to teach the way of making plans.

  14. Measurement of clinicians' ability to hand torque dental implant components.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Ali; Richards, Mark W; Becker, Jeffery J; Monaco, Natalie E

    2009-01-01

    There is a varying degree of hand torque abilities using finger drivers among clinicians. Calibrating one's own abilities requires complicated instruments not readily available. This study evaluated a simple-to-use method that allows dental practitioners to have a quantifiable clinical assessment of relative torque ability using finger drivers to torque down dental implant components. A typodont that includes dental implants was mounted in a mannequin placed in a patient-reclined position. The subjects were asked to torque as tightly as they could a new healing abutment to an implant secured firmly in resin within the typodont. All participants wore moistened gloves when using a finger driver. The healing abutment was countertorqued using a certified precalibrated precision torque measurement device. The reading on the torque driver was recorded when the healing abutment disengaged. An average of torque values of dentists and dental students was calculated. Fifty subjects had an average maximum torque ability of 24 Ncm (male dentists: 28 Ncm; students: 22 Ncm; male students: 24 Ncm; female students: 19 Ncm). Maximum torque values for all participants ranged from 11 Ncm to 38 Ncm. There was no significant difference between groups. This study showed a varying degree of hand torquing abilities using a finger driver. Clinicians should regularly calibrate their ability to torque implant components to more predictably perform implant dentistry. Dental implant manufacturers should more precisely instruct clinicians as to maximum torque, as opposed to "finger tighten only".

  15. Clinical evaluation of a new noninvasive ankle arthrometer.

    PubMed

    Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz; Gollhofer, Albert

    2010-06-01

    A nonradiographic arthrometer was developed to objectively quantify anterior talar drawer instability in stable and unstable ankles. Diagnostic validity of this device was previously demonstrated in a cadaver study. The aim of the present study was to validate the ankle arthrometer in an in vivo setting. Twenty-three subjects participated in the study. An orthopedic surgeon first performed a manual anterior talar drawer test to classify the subjects' ankles as stable or unstable. The subjects were then evaluated using the ankle arthrometer, and filled out a validated self-reported questionnaire (German version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure [FAAM-G]). Ankle stiffness was calculated from the low linear region (40-60 N) of the load deformation curves obtained from the ankle arthrometer. Reliability testing of these stiffness values was done based on load deformation curves, with 150 and 200 N maximum anterior drawer loads applied in the ankle arthrometer. Using the manual anterior drawer test, 16 ankles were classified as stable and 7 were classified as unstable. Arthrometer stiffness analysis differentiated stable from unstable ankles (P = 0.00 and P = 0.01, respectively). Test-retest demonstrated an accurate reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80). A significant correlation was found between both FAAM-G subscales and the arthrometer stiffness values (r = 0.43 and 0.54; P = 0.04 and 0.01). Discussion Subjects with and without mechanical ankle instability could be differentiated by ankle arthrometer stiffness analysis and the FAAM-G questionnaire results. This nonradiographic device may be relevant for screening athletes at risk for ankle injuries, for clinical follow-up studies, and implementing preventive strategies. Validity and reliability of the new ankle arthrometer is demonstrated in a small cohort in an in vivo setting.

  16. The Development of an Instrument to Measure Creative Teaching Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, John F.

    The development of an instrument to measure creative teaching abilities, the Creative Teaching Dilemma (CTD), involved three phases. The instrument was constructed and refined, and scoring procedures were outlined. The activities comprising the CTD included defining the teaching dilemma, gathering additional facts, identifying and stating the…

  17. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Return to Activity After Peroneus Brevis Repair.

    PubMed

    Steginsky, Brian; Riley, Aimee; Lucas, Douglas E; Philbin, Terrence M; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    There is limited data on functional outcomes after primary repair of partial peroneal tendon tears. Previous reports have been limited by small cohorts, duration of follow-up, and often included both tenodesis and primary repair. The purpose of this study was to report the functional outcomes and return to activity in the largest cohort to date with partial peroneal tendon tears treated with primary repair. A chart review identified all patients who underwent primary repair of the peroneus brevis tendon from 2008 to 2012. Demographic data, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Patients were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Foot Function Index (FFI). There were 201 patients who underwent primary repair of the peroneus brevis tendon. The average age at time of operation was 44.3 years. Seventy-one patients returned the follow-up questionnaires with an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Fifty-two patients completed the FFI questionnaire preoperatively and postoperatively. Fifty-nine patients (83.1%) reported a return to regular exercise and sports at final follow-up. At 1 year postoperatively, 76.5% of patients returned to the same preinjury activities, and 62.3% returned to the same level of preinjury activity. Furthermore, 85.9% of patients were satisfied with their outcome, and 91.4% of patients reported they would choose to undergo the same procedure again. The mean FAAM score was 85.2 at follow-up. The mean preoperative and postoperative FFI score was 41.1 and 12.2, respectively. There was a significant improvement in the FFI score of 28.9 after primary peroneus brevis tendon repair (P < .001). Primary repair of peroneus brevis tendon provided consistent improvement in functional outcomes in the majority of patients, as measured by a validated scoring system, the FFI. FAAM scores demonstrated good function compared to historical controls. The majority of patients

  18. Measuring ability to enhance and suppress emotional expression: The Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale.

    PubMed

    Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Measuring Management Abilities and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Ann

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of managerial abilities and motivation is displayed in the assessment center method, where judgments depend on a comprehensive package of such techniques as paper-and-pencil tests, interviews, simulations, and projective tests. (Author)

  20. Functional Outcomes Following Anterior Transfer of the Tibialis Posterior Tendon for Foot Drop Secondary to Peroneal Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Ki; Park, Kyoung-Jin; Choi, Seung-Myung; Im, Se-Hyuk; SooHoo, Nelson F

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective comparative study reports the practical function in daily and sports activities after tibialis posterior tendon transfer for foot drop secondary to peroneal nerve palsy. Seventeen patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years after tibialis posterior tendon transfer for foot drop secondary to peroneal nerve palsy. Matched controls were used to evaluate the level of functional restoration. Functional evaluations included American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) scores, and isokinetic muscle strength test. Radiographic evaluation for the changes of postoperative foot alignment included Meary angle, calcaneal pitch angle, hindfoot alignment angle, and navicular height. Mean AOFAS, FAOS, and FAAM scores significantly improved from 65.1 to 86.2, 55.6 to 87.8, and 45.7 to 84.4 points at final follow-up, respectively. However, all functional evaluation scores were significantly lower as compared to the control group ( P < .001). Mean peak torque (60 degrees/sec) of ankle dorsiflexors, plantarflexors, invertors, and evertors at final follow-up were 7.1 (deficit ratio of 65.4%), 39.2, 9.8, and 7.3 Nm, respectively. These muscle strengths were significantly lower compared to the control group ( P < .001). No significant differences in radiographic measurements were found, and no patients presented with a postoperative flat foot deformity. One patient (5.9%) needed an ankle-foot orthosis for occupational activity. Anterior transfer of the tibialis posterior tendon appears to be an effective surgical option for paralytic foot drop secondary to peroneal nerve palsy. Although restoration of dorsiflexion strength postoperatively was about 33% of the normal ankle, function in daily activities and gait ability were satisfactorily improved. In addition, tibialis posterior tendon transfer demonstrated no definitive radiographic or clinical progression to postoperative flat

  1. ASD Screening Measures for High-Ability Youth with ASD: Examining the ASSQ and SRS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Charles D.; Gann, Lianne C.; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Sussman, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    High-ability youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) historically have been neglected within samples validating ASD screening measures, and consensus for what constitutes high ability has not been established. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) are two common screening tools for ASD…

  2. Children's human figure drawings do not measure intellectual ability.

    PubMed

    Willcock, Emma; Imuta, Kana; Hayne, Harlene

    2011-11-01

    Children typically follow a well-defined series of stages as they learn to draw, but the rate at which they progress through these stages varies from child to child. Some experts have argued that these individual differences in drawing development reflect individual differences in intelligence. Here we assessed the validity of a drawing test that is commonly used to assess children's intellectual abilities. In a single study, 125 5- and 6-year-olds completed the Draw-A-Person: A Quantitative Scoring System (DAP:QSS) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) or the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Although there was a statistically significant correlation between scores on the DAP:QSS and scores on the Wechsler tests, when the scores of individual children were examined, the DAP:QSS yielded a high number of false positives and false negatives for low intellectual functioning. We conclude that the DAP:QSS is not a valid measure of intellectual ability and should not be used as a screening tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  4. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  5. The use of cognitive ability measures as explanatory variables in regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Brian; Schofield, Lynne Steuerle; Taylor, Lowell J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive ability measures are often taken as explanatory variables in regression analysis, e.g., as a factor affecting a market outcome such as an individual’s wage, or a decision such as an individual’s education acquisition. Cognitive ability is a latent construct; its true value is unobserved. Nonetheless, researchers often assume that a test score, constructed via standard psychometric practice from individuals’ responses to test items, can be safely used in regression analysis. We examine problems that can arise, and suggest that an alternative approach, a “mixed effects structural equations” (MESE) model, may be more appropriate in many circumstances. PMID:26998417

  6. The use of cognitive ability measures as explanatory variables in regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Junker, Brian; Schofield, Lynne Steuerle; Taylor, Lowell J

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive ability measures are often taken as explanatory variables in regression analysis, e.g., as a factor affecting a market outcome such as an individual's wage, or a decision such as an individual's education acquisition. Cognitive ability is a latent construct; its true value is unobserved. Nonetheless, researchers often assume that a test score , constructed via standard psychometric practice from individuals' responses to test items, can be safely used in regression analysis. We examine problems that can arise, and suggest that an alternative approach, a "mixed effects structural equations" (MESE) model, may be more appropriate in many circumstances.

  7. Ankle Fusion Combined With Calcaneal Sliding Osteotomy for Severe Arthritic Ball and Socket Ankle Deformity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Ki; Park, Kyoung-Jin; Choi, Seung-Myung; Kang, Sang-Woo; Lee, Hyung-Ki

    2016-12-01

    Although a ball and socket ankle deformity is usually congenital and asymptomatic, abnormal inversion and eversion mobility can result in recurrent ankle sprain and osteoarthritis. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of ankle fusion combined with calcaneal sliding osteotomy for severe arthritic ball and socket ankle deformity. Fourteen patients with severe arthritic ball and socket ankle deformity were followed for more than 3 years after operation. The clinical evaluation consisted of American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and subjective satisfaction score. The period to fusion and union of osteotomy, the change of hindfoot alignment angle, and complications were evaluated radiologically. AOFAS and FAAM scores were significantly improved from an average of 37.4 and 34.5 points to 74.6 and 78.5 points, respectively. VAS for pain with walking over 20 minutes was significantly improved from an average of 8.4 points to 1.9 points. The average satisfaction score of patients was 88.9 points. The difference in heel alignment angle (compared to contralateral side) was significantly improved from an average of 34.8 to 5.4 degrees. There were 2 cases of progressive arthritis in an adjacent joint and 1 case of failed fusion. Ankle fusion combined with calcaneal sliding osteotomy can be an effective operative option for ball and socket ankle deformity with advanced arthritis. In spite of increased complication rate, reliable pain relief, and restoration of gait ability through correcting hindfoot malalignment could improve the quality of life. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The Measurement of Auditory Abilities of Blind, Partially Sighted, and Sighted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Spilsbury, Georgina

    1979-01-01

    Auditory tests were administered to 30 blind, partially sighted, and sighted children. Overall, the blind and sighted were equal on most of the measured abilities. Blind children performed well on tonal memory tests. Partially sighted children performed more poorly than the other two groups. (MH)

  9. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  10. Readability and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  11. Continuous spectroscopic measurement of methane isotopes and ethane made on board an aircraft: instrument configuration and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joseph; Young, Stuart; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Bauguitte, Stéphane; Dorsey, James; Allen, Grant; Gallagher, Martin; Yacovitch, Tara; Zahniser, Mark; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, Dave; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    We describe the configuration of two commercially available absorption spectrometers for use on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Research (FAAM) aircraft. A dual laser instrument has been used to make continuous measurements of the atmospheric 13CH4:12CH4 ratio and ethane mole fraction, using an interband cascade laser (ICL) and a recently developed type of diode laser respectively. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric ethane have also been made using a single laser instrument employing an ICL, enabling instrument inter-comparison. Instrument performance is evaluated over a series of test flights, and initial results from the MOYA (Methane Observations and Yearly Assessments) campaign, targeting biomass burning plumes in west Africa, are also presented. We describe the calibration procedure and data analysis approaches for methane isotope measurement, involving calibration over a range of methane isotopic composition and methane mole fraction. We assess the effectiveness of this calibration technique during the first MOYA campaign period using measurements of a target cylinder of known composition.

  12. Microphysical and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust Measured during the ICE-D Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Claire; Marenco, Franco; Brooke, Jennifer; Cotton, Richard; Taylor, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    During August 2015, the UK FAAM BAe146 research aircraft was stationed in Cape Verde off the coast of West Africa. Measurements of Saharan dust, and ice and liquid water clouds, were taken for the ICE-D (Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust) project - a multidisciplinary project aimed at further understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. Six flights formed part of a sub-project, AER-D, solely focussing on measurements of Saharan dust within the African dust plume. Dust loadings observed during these flights varied (aerosol optical depths of 0.2 to 1.3), as did the vertical structure of the dust, the size distributions and the optical properties. The BAe146 was fully equipped to measure size distributions covering aerosol accumulation, coarse and giant modes. Initial results of size distribution and optical properties of dust from the AER-D flights will be presented, showing that a substantial coarse mode was present, in agreement with previous airborne measurements. Optical properties of dust relating to the measured size distributions will also be presented.

  13. Nonverbal and Language-Reduced Measures of Cognitive Ability: A Review and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevon, Daniel D.; Knight, Rachel M.; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    With the number of new and revised nonverbal and language-reduced tests of cognitive ability, selection and interpretation of appropriate measures can be complicated. Seven nonverbal or language-reduced tests with normative data collected within the last 15 years were evaluated. Besides evaluating technical adequacy, other variables affecting test…

  14. Face Validity of the Single Work Ability Item: Comparison with Objectively Measured Heart Rate Reserve over Several Days

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hanisch, Christiana; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. Methods: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18–65 years from the cross-sectional “New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD)” study. The workers reported their single item work ability and completed an aerobic capacity cycling test and objective measurements of heart rate reserve monitored with Actiheart for 3–4 days with a total of 5,810 h, including 2,640 working hours. Results: A significant moderate correlation between work ability and %HRR was observed among males (R = −0.33, P = 0.005), but not among females (R = 0.11, P = 0.431). In a gender-stratified multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, males with high %HRR were more likely to report a reduced work ability compared to males with low %HRR [OR = 4.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.31 to 17.25]. However, this association was not found among females (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.16), and a significant interaction between work ability, %HRR and gender was observed (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The observed association between work ability and objectively measured %HRR over several days among male blue-collar workers supports the face validity of the single work ability item. It is a useful and valid measure of the relation between physical work demands and resources among male blue-collar workers. The contrasting association among females needs to be further investigated. PMID:24840350

  15. TOEFL and IELTS as Measures of Academic Reading Ability: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, James G.

    This paper discusses research conducted in the spring of 1991 that measured the relationship of reading subtest scores to teacher ratings of students' reading abilities. Sixty-eight advanced-level students in an intensive English program took an institutional version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and a specimen reading…

  16. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  17. Age-related invariance of abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Navaneetham J; Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of measurement invariance across populations is essential for meaningful comparison of test scores, and is especially relevant where repeated measurements are required for educational assessment or clinical diagnosis. Establishing measurement invariance legitimizes the assumption that test scores reflect the same psychological trait in different populations or across different occasions. Examination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) U.S. standardization samples revealed that a first-order 5-factor measurement model was best fitting across 9 age groups from 16 years to 69 years. Strong metric invariance was found for 3 of 5 factors and partial intercept invariance for the remaining 2. Pairwise comparisons of adjacent age groups supported the inference that cognitive-trait group differences are manifested by group differences in the test scores. In educational and clinical settings these findings provide theoretical and empirical support to interpret changes in the index or subtest scores as reflecting changes in the corresponding cognitive abilities. Further, where clinically relevant, the subtest score composites can be used to compare changes in respective cognitive abilities. The model was supported in the Canadian standardization data with pooled age groups but the sample sizes were not adequate for detailed examination of separate age groups in the Canadian sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D.; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use. PMID:23483964

  19. Cognitive strategy use and measured numeric ability in immediate- and long-term recall of everyday numeric information.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use.

  20. Multidimensional Ability Tests and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Evidence of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability tests are used by teachers to provide additional context for interpreting student achievement and as a tool for differentiating instruction to the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of students. Tests that provide the most useful information for these purposes measure school-related content domains including verbal and quantitative…

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Persian version of the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool.

    PubMed

    Hadadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Ebrahim Mosavi, Mohammad; Aminian, Gholamreza; Fardipour, Shima; Abbasi, Faeze

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and to cross-culturally adapt the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) into Persian language and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The International Quality of Life Assessment process was pursued to translate CAIT into Persian. Two groups of Persian-speaking individuals, 105 participants with a history of ankle sprain and 30 participants with no history of ankle sprain, were asked to fill out Persian version of CAIT (CAIT-P), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Data obtained from the first administration of CAIT were used to evaluate floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, dimensionality, and criterion validity. To determine the test-retest reliability, 45 individuals re-filled CAIT 5-7 days after the first session. Cronbach's alpha was over the cutoff point of 0.70 for both ankles and in both groups. The intra-class correlation coefficient was high for right (0.95) and left (0.91) ankles. There was a strong correlation between each item and the total score of the CAIT-P. Although the CAIT-P had strong correlation with VAS, its correlation with both subscales of FAAM was moderate. The CAIT-P has good validity and reliability and it can be used by clinicians and researchers for identification and investigation of functional ankle instability. Implications for Rehabilitation Chronic ankle instability is one of the most common consequences of acute ankle sprain. Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool is an acceptable measure to determine functional ankle instability and its severity. The Persian version of Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool is a valid and reliable tool for clinical and research purpose in Persian-speaking individuals.

  2. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  3. Long-term outcome of pronation-external rotation ankle fractures treated with syndesmotic screws only.

    PubMed

    Lambers, Kaj T A; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Doornberg, Job N; Stufkens, Sjoerd A S; van Dijk, C Niek; Kloen, Peter

    2013-09-04

    There is sparse information in the literature on the outcome of Maisonneuve-type pronation-external rotation ankle fractures treated with syndesmotic screws. The primary aim of this study was to determine the long-term results of such treatment of these fractures as indicated by standardized patient-based and physician-based outcome measures. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of the outcome with use of bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Fifty patients with pronation-external rotation (predominantly Maisonneuve) fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation of the syndesmosis utilizing only one or two screws. The results were evaluated at a mean of twenty-one years after the fracture utilizing three standardized outcomes instruments: (1) the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), (2) the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale, and (3) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. Osteoarthritis was graded according to the van Dijk and revised Takakura radiographic scoring systems. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of long-term outcome. Forty-four (92%) of forty-eighty patients had good or excellent AOFAS scores, and forty-four (90%) of forty-nine had good or excellent FAAM scores. Arthrodesis for severe osteoarthritis was performed in two patients. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis was observed in twenty-four (49%) of forty-nine patients. Multivariate analysis identified pain as the most important independent predictor of long-term ankle function as indicated by the AOFAS and FAAM scores, explaining 91% and 53% of the variation in scores, respectively. Analysis of pain as the dependent variable in bivariate analyses revealed that depression, ankle range of motion, and a subsequent surgery were significantly correlated with higher pain scores. No firm conclusions could be drawn after multivariate analysis of predictors of pain

  4. Item Banking Enables Stand-Alone Measurement of Driving Ability.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Jyoti; Fenwick, Eva K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    To explore whether large item sets, as used in item banking, enable important latent traits, such as driving, to form stand-alone measures. The 88-item activity limitation (AL) domain of the glaucoma module of the Eye-tem Bank was interviewer-administered to patients with glaucoma. Rasch analysis was used to calibrate all items in AL domain on the same interval-level scale and test its psychometric properties. Based on Rasch dimensionality metrics, the AL scale was separated into subscales. These subscales underwent separate Rasch analyses to test whether they could form stand-alone measures. Independence of these measures was tested with Bland and Altman (B&A) Limit of Agreement (LOA). The AL scale was completed by 293 patients (median age, 71 years). It demonstrated excellent precision (3.12). However, Rasch analysis dimensionality metrics indicated that the domain arguably had other dimensions which were driving, luminance, and reading. Once separated, the remaining AL items, driving and luminance subscales, were unidimensional and had excellent precision of 4.25, 2.94, and 2.22, respectively. The reading subscale showed poor precision (1.66), so it was not examined further. The luminance subscale demonstrated excellent agreement (mean bias, 0.2 logit; 95% LOA, -2.2 to 3.3 logit); however, the driving subscale demonstrated poor agreement (mean bias, 1.1 logit; 95% LOA, -4.8 to 7.0 logit) with the AL scale. These findings indicate that driving items in the AL domain of the glaucoma module were perceived and responded to differently from the other AL items, but the reading and luminance items were not. Therefore, item banking enables stand-alone measurement of driving ability in glaucoma.

  5. A Comparison of Outcomes of Particulated Juvenile Articular Cartilage and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Talus.

    PubMed

    Lanham, Nathan S; Carroll, John J; Cooper, Minton T; Perumal, Venkat; Park, Joseph S

    2017-08-01

    Articular cartilage lesions of the talus remain a challenging clinical problem because of the lack of natural regeneration and limited treatment options. Microfracture is often the first-line therapy, however lesions larger than 1.5 cm 2 have been shown to not do as well with this treatment method. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate concentrate/collagen scaffold (ICBMA) and particulated juvenile articular cartilage (PJAC) for larger articular cartilage lesions of the talus. Fifteen patients undergoing ICBMA or PJAC for articular cartilage lesions of the talus from 2010 to 2013 were reviewed. Twelve patients, 6 from each treatment option, were included in the study. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgeons (AOFAS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Short Form-12 (SF-12) outcome scores were collected for each patient. The mean age was 34.7 ± 14.8 years for ICBMA and 31.5 ± 7.4 years for PJAC. Lesion size was 2.0 ± 1.1 cm 2 for ICBMA and 1.9 ± 0.9 cm 2 for PJAC. At a mean follow-up of 25.7 months (range, 12-42 months), the mean AOFAS score was 71.33 for ICBMA and 95.83 for PJAC (  P = .019). The FAAM activities of daily living subscale mean was 77.77 for ICBMA and 97.02 for PJAC (   P = .027). The mean FAAM sports subscale was 45.14 for ICBMA and 86.31 for PJAC (  P = .054). The SF-12 physical health mean was 47.58 for ICBMA and 53.98 for PJAC (  P = .315). The SF-12 mental health mean was 53.25 for ICBMA and 57.8 for PJAC (  P = .315). One patient in treated initially with ICBMA underwent revision fixation for nonunion of their medial malleolar osteotomy, which ultimately resulted in removal of hardware and tibiotalar arthrodesis at 2 years from the index procedure. In the present analysis, PJAC yields better clinical outcomes at 2 years when compared with ICBMA for articular cartilage lesions of the talus that were on average greater than 1.5cm 2 . Therapeutic, Level

  6. Learning-Ability Relations in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)

  7. Low back pain and disability in individuals with plantar heel pain.

    PubMed

    McClinton, Shane; Weber, Carolyn F; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    Lack of response to plantar heel pain (PHP) treatment may be related to unmanaged low back pain (LBP) and low back dysfunction, but a relationship between LBP and PHP has not been established. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of LBP among individuals with and without PHP and to assess the association between low back disability and foot/ankle function. A cross-sectional study compared the prevalence and likelihood of LBP in individuals with (n=27) and without (n=27) PHP matched to age, sex, BMI, foot posture, and foot mobility. In individuals with PHP, correlations were examined between foot/ankle function using the foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM), low back disability using the Oswestry low back disability questionnaire (OSW), duration of PHP symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and age. A greater percentage of individuals with PHP had LBP (74% versus 37% of controls, odds ratio=5.2, P=0.009) and higher levels of low back disability (17% higher OSW score than controls, P<0.001). In individuals with PHP, FAAM scores were correlated with OSW scores (ρ=-0.463, P=0.015), but not with duration of PHP symptoms, BMI, or age (P>0.150). Individuals with PHP had a greater prevalence of LBP and higher low back disability that was correlated to reduced foot and ankle function. Treatment to address both local and proximal impairments, including impairments related to LBP, may be warranted to improve the management of PHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

  9. Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Mathematics Achievement across the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Evans, Jeffrey J.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantly related to mathematics achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Multiple regression analyses were used to…

  10. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  11. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score.

    PubMed

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-04-08

    Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI's first item, which consists in the worker's self-assessment of his/her current work ability level as opposed to his/her lifetime best, this single question being termed "Work Ability score" (WAS). Using a database created by an occupational health service, the study intends to answer the following questions: could the assessment of work ability be based on a single-item measure and which are the variables significantly associated with self-reported work ability among those systematically recorded by the occupational physician during health examinations? A logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability of observing "poor" or "moderate" WAI levels depending on age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, position held, firm size and diseases reported by the worker in a population of workers aged 40 to 65 and examined between January 2006 and June 2010 (n=12389). The convergent validity between WAS and WAI was statistically significant (rs=0.63). In the multivariable model, age (p<0.001), reported diseases (OR=1.13, 95%CI [1.11-1.15]) and holding a position mostly characterized by physical activity (OR=1.67, 95%CI [1.49-1.87]) increased the probability of reporting moderate or poor work ability. A work position characterized by the predominance of mental activity (OR=0.71, 95%CI [0.61-0.84]) had a favourable impact on work ability. These relations were observed regardless of the work ability measurement tool used. The convergent validity and the similarity in results between WAI and WAS observed in a large population of employed

  12. Fighting against a shortage of truck drivers in logistics: Measures that employers can take to promote drivers' work ability and health.

    PubMed

    Staats, Ulrike; Lohaus, Daniela; Christmann, Alina; Woitschek, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    For several years, the transportation industry has been concerned about a severe shortage of professional truck drivers. Studies investigating the reasons found that poor working conditions and stresses and strains resulting from physiological and psychological job demands have had a negative impact on drivers' health and ability to work. Nevertheless, until now, most employers have refrained from offering measures to support the work ability and well-being of drivers, mainly due to financial pressures in the industry. The present study was aimed at designing adequate and affordable measures to support drivers' health. With reference to the Work Ability Index and the house of work ability (Ilmarinen & Tuomi, 2004), 56 truck drivers participated in guided interviews about their working conditions and health-related problems as well as their attitudes, experiences, and desires with respect to being offered supportive measures by their employers. The measures derived are specific and realizable and expected to be widely accepted by professional drivers. They are designed to elicit a positive attitude in the drivers toward exercising and to help them overcome related psychological barriers. The implementation of the recommended measures can be expected to support drivers' work ability and help reduce the frictional costs of their employers.

  13. Socioeconomic Position Across the Life Course and Cognitive Ability Later in Life: The Importance of Considering Early Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke

    2017-11-01

    Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N = 2,479) who completed ability tests at age 12, 18, and 56-58 linked to register-based information on paternal occupational class, educational attainment, and occupational level. Associations were assessed using structural equation models, and different models were estimated to examine the importance of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. The impact of adult SEP on later life ability may be exaggerated when not accounting for the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability and measurement error in test scores.

  14. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree.

  15. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other Than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2016-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mindset, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so. We first address confusion over terminology, including the descriptor “non-cognitive.” We conclude that debate over the optimal name for this broad category of personal qualities obscures substantial agreement about the specific attributes worth measuring. Next, we discuss advantages and limitations of different measures. In particular, we compare self-report questionnaires, teacher-report questionnaires, and performance tasks, using self-control as an illustrative case study to make the general point that each approach is imperfect in its own way. Finally, we discuss how each measure’s imperfections can affect its suitability for program evaluation, accountability, individual diagnosis, and practice improvement. For example, we do not believe any available measure is suitable for between-school accountability judgments. In addition to urging caution among policymakers and practitioners, we highlight medium-term innovations that may make measures of these personal qualities more suitable for educational purposes. PMID:27134288

  16. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  17. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  18. Measuring the ability of military aircrews to adapt to perceived stressors when undergoing centrifuge training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenhung; Lin, Pei-Chun; Li, Shih-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of military aircrews to adapt to stressors when undergoing centrifuge training and determined what equipment items caused perceived stress and needed to be upgraded. We used questionnaires and the Rasch model to measure aircrew personnel's ability to adapt to centrifuge training. The measurement items were ranked by 611 military aircrew personnel. Analytical results indicated that the majority of the stress perceived by aircrew personnel resulted from the lightproof cockpit without outer reference. This study prioritized the equipment requiring updating as the lightproof cockpit design, the dim lighting of the cockpit, and the pedal design. A significant difference was found between pilot and non-pilot subjects' stress from the pedal design; and considerable association was discernible between the seat angle design and flight hours accrued. The study results provide aviators, astronauts, and air forces with reliable information as to which equipment items need to be urgently upgraded as their present physiological and psychological effects can affect the effectiveness of centrifuge training.

  19. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  20. Recent advances in measurement of the water vapour continuum in the far-infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, P. D.; Newman, S. M.; Beeby, R. J.; Murray, J. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Harries, J. E.

    2012-06-01

    We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm-1) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) far-IR spectro-radiometer instrument onboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft; and compare this new derivation with those recently published in the literature in this spectral band. This new dataset validates the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) 2.5 model parametrization above 300 cm-1, but indicates the need to strengthen the parametrization below 300 cm-1, by up to 50 per cent at 100 cm-1. Data recorded at a number of flight altitudes have allowed measurements within a wide range of column water vapour environments, greatly increasing the sensitivity of this analysis to the continuum strength.

  1. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630

  2. Do Self-Efficacy and Ability Self-Estimate Scores Reflect Distinct Facets of Ability Judgments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Bubany, Shawn T.

    2008-01-01

    Vocational psychology has generated a number of concepts and assessment instruments considered to reflect ability self-concept (i.e., one's view of one's own abilities) relevant to career development. These concepts and measures often are categorized as either self efficacy beliefs or self-estimated (i.e., self-rated, self-evaluated) abilities.…

  3. Exploring students’ perceived and actual ability in solving statistical problems based on Rasch measurement tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azila Che Musa, Nor; Mahmud, Zamalia; Baharun, Norhayati

    2017-09-01

    One of the important skills that is required from any student who are learning statistics is knowing how to solve statistical problems correctly using appropriate statistical methods. This will enable them to arrive at a conclusion and make a significant contribution and decision for the society. In this study, a group of 22 students majoring in statistics at UiTM Shah Alam were given problems relating to topics on testing of hypothesis which require them to solve the problems using confidence interval, traditional and p-value approach. Hypothesis testing is one of the techniques used in solving real problems and it is listed as one of the difficult concepts for students to grasp. The objectives of this study is to explore students’ perceived and actual ability in solving statistical problems and to determine which item in statistical problem solving that students find difficult to grasp. Students’ perceived and actual ability were measured based on the instruments developed from the respective topics. Rasch measurement tools such as Wright map and item measures for fit statistics were used to accomplish the objectives. Data were collected and analysed using Winsteps 3.90 software which is developed based on the Rasch measurement model. The results showed that students’ perceived themselves as moderately competent in solving the statistical problems using confidence interval and p-value approach even though their actual performance showed otherwise. Item measures for fit statistics also showed that the maximum estimated measures were found on two problems. These measures indicate that none of the students have attempted these problems correctly due to reasons which include their lack of understanding in confidence interval and probability values.

  4. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  5. [Measurement and analysis of micropore aeration system's oxygenating ability under operation condition in waste water treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang; Qiu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Using the aeration pool in the fourth-stage at Wuxi Lucun Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) as experimental setup, off-gas method was selected to measure the oxygenating ability parameters of micropore aerators in a real WWTP operating condition and these values were compared with those in fresh water to evaluate the performance of the micropore aerators. Results showed that the micropore aerators which were distributed in different galleries of the aeration pool had significantly different oxygenating abilities under operation condition. The oxygenating ability of the micropore aerators distributed in the same gallery changed slightly during one day. Comparing with the oxygenating ability in fresh water, it decreased a lot in the real aeration pool, in more details, under the real WWTP operating condition, the values of oxygen transfer coefficient K(La) oxygenation capacity OC and oxygen utilization E(a) decreased by 43%, 57% and 76%, respectively.

  6. Functional connectivity in resting state as a phonemic fluency ability measure.

    PubMed

    Miró-Padilla, Anna; Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Ávila, César

    2017-03-01

    There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest. Results showed that the higher FC between the thalamus and the cerebellum, and the lower FCs between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula and between the supplementary motor area and the right insula were associated with better performance on the FAS test. Regression analyses revealed that the first two FCs contributed independently to this better phonemic fluency, reflecting a more general attentional factor (FC between thalamus and cerebellum) and a more specific fluency factor (FC between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula). The results support the Spontaneous Trait Reactivation hypothesis, which explains how resting-state derived measures may reflect individual differences in cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lee-Hsieh, Jane

    2010-09-01

    With the growing trend of preparing students for lifelong learning, the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly applied in the context of higher education. In order to foster lifelong learning, abilities among nursing students, faculties need to have an appropriate instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students. The objectives of this study were to develop an instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students and to test the validity and reliability of this instrument. This study was conducted in 4 phases. In Phase 1, based on a review of the literature, the researchers developed an instrument to measure SDL. In Phase 2, two rounds of the Delphi study were conducted, to determine the content validity of the instrument. In Phase 3, a convenience sample of 1072 nursing students from two representative schools across three different types of nursing programs were recruited to test the construct validity of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI). Finally, in Phase 4, the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument were tested. The resulting SDLI consists of 20 items across the following four domains: learning motivation, planning and implementing, self-monitoring, and interpersonal, communication. The final model in confirmatory factor analysis revealed that this 20-item SDLI indicated a good fit of the model. The value of Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .916 and for the four domains were .801, .861, .785, and .765, respectively. The SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying student SDL abilities. It is available to students in nursing and similar medical programs to evaluate their own SDL. This scale may also enable nursing faculty to assess students' SDL status, design better lesson plans and curricula, and, implement appropriate teaching strategies for nursing students in order to foster the growth of lifelong learning abilities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Ryan A; Robertson, Chuck L; Haygood, Christian S; Herdliksa, Anna M; Herdliska, Heather R; Lloyd, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model's ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  9. The emergence of automaticity in reading: Effects of orthographic depth and word decoding ability on an adjusted Stroop measure.

    PubMed

    Megherbi, Hakima; Elbro, Carsten; Oakhill, Jane; Segui, Juan; New, Boris

    2018-02-01

    How long does it take for word reading to become automatic? Does the appearance and development of automaticity differ as a function of orthographic depth (e.g., French vs. English)? These questions were addressed in a longitudinal study of English and French beginning readers. The study focused on automaticity as obligatory processing as measured in the Stroop test. Measures of decoding ability and the Stroop effect were taken at three time points during first grade (and during second grade in the United Kingdom) in 84 children. The study is the first to adjust the classic Stroop effect for inhibition (of distracting colors). The adjusted Stroop effect was zero in the absence of reading ability, and it was found to develop in tandem with decoding ability. After a further control for decoding, no effects of age or orthography were found on the adjusted Stroop measure. The results are in line with theories of the development of whole word recognition that emphasize the importance of the acquisition of the basic orthographic code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Video-Based Measure of Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Predict Elementary Students' Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Carter, Ingrid S.; Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee

    2018-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, the researchers developed a video-based measure called a "Prediction Assessment" to determine preservice elementary teachers' abilities to predict students' scientific reasoning. The instrument is based on teachers' need to develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science. Developing a knowledge…

  11. Acoustic radiation force impulse tissue characterization of the anterior talofibular ligament: A promising non-invasive approach in ankle imaging.

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Heiss, Rafael; Janka, Rolf; Forst, Raimund; Raithel, Martine; Lutter, Christoph; Gelse, Kolja; Pachowsky, Milena; Golditz, Tobias

    2018-06-09

    The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is the most frequently injured ligament during inversion strains of the ankle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and to determine the in vivo mechanical properties of the ATFL in healthy athletes. Fifty-one healthy athletes (32 female, 28 male; 29 ±2 years) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. ARFI values, represented as shear wave velocities (SWV) as well as conventional ultrasound were obtained for the ATFL in neutral ankle position. A clinical assessment was performed in which the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score and the functional ankle ability measure (FAAM) were collected. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability (repeated sessions and repeated days) were assessed using an intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (TE) calculation in absolute (TE) and relative units as coefficient of the variation (CV). SWV values of the ATFL had an average velocity of 1.79±0.34 m/s for all participants, with an average of 1.72±0.36 m/s for females and 1.85±0.31 m/s for males. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability revealed an ICC of 0.902 and 0.933 (TE of 0.67 (CV: 5.2 % and 0.51 m/s (CV: 3.83 %), respectively. FAAM and AOFAS revealed the best possible scores. ARFI seems to be a valuable diagnostic modality and represents a promising imaging marker for the assessment and monitoring of ankle ligaments in the context of acute and chronic ankle instabilities; ARFI could also be used to investigate loading or sport dependent adaptions.

  12. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Harsha L; Kadambi, Sujatha V; Weinreb, Robert N; Puttaiah, Narendra K; Pradhan, Zia S; Rao, Dhanaraj A S; Kumar, Rajesh S; Webers, Carroll A B; Shetty, Rohit

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and to compare these with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements. In a cross-sectional study, 48 eyes of 33 healthy control subjects, 63 eyes of 39 patients with POAG and 49 eyes of 32 patients with PACG underwent OCTA (RTVue-XR, Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) and RNFL imaging with spectral domain OCT. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density and RNFL parameters were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. AUCs of peripapillary vessel density ranged between 0.48 for the temporal sector and 0.88 for the inferotemporal sector in POAG. The same in PACG ranged between 0.57 and 0.86. Sensitivities at 95% specificity ranged from 13% to 70% in POAG, and from 10% to 67% in PACG. AUCs of peripapillary RNFL thickness ranged between 0.51 for the temporal sector and 0.91 for the inferonasal sector in POAG. The same in PACG ranged between 0.61 and 0.87. Sensitivities at 95% specificity ranged from 8% to 68% in POAG, and from 2% to 67% in PACG. AUCs of all peripapillary vessel density measurements were comparable (p>0.05) to the corresponding RNFL thickness measurements in both POAG and PACG. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density parameters of OCTA, especially the inferotemporal sector measurement, was good in POAG and PACG. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density measurements were comparable to RNFL measurements in both POAG and PACG. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum†

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Ryan A.; Robertson, Chuck L.; Haygood, Christian S.; Herdliksa, Anna M.; Herdliska, Heather R.; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads. PMID:28904647

  14. Coping strategies may not be reflected by simulated performance-based measures of functional ability

    PubMed Central

    Riazi, Abbas; Boon, Mei Ying; Dain, Stephen J.; Bridge, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the Melbourne Low Vision Index (MLVI) can be used to characterise the ability to carry out Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in a group of older people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which was reflective of actual day-to-day function according to in-depth interviews which encompassed questions about personal and environmental coping strategies. Method Thirty-one individuals (23 females, 8 males, aged 79.1 ± 5.6 years) with AMD (16 dry, 15 wet) and no other ocular diseases underwent tests of clinical visual function, the MLVI and a semi-structured interview intended to highlight functionality in the home environment. Results Participants’ clinical visual measures were correlated with MLVI score such that poorer visual function was associated with poorer functional ability for daily living activities (p < 0.05). Moreover, part (a) of the MLVI, which is assessed by observation of task performance, has a significant correlation with the severity of AMD (p < 0.05). Semi-structured interviews revealed a mismatch between MLVI part (a) and self-reported functionality in their own home environment. Conclusion Low functionality score (total) with MLVI is associated with severity of AMD and poor clinical visual function. The disparity between observed measures of functional vision (MLVI part (a)) and self-reported measures in the MLVI and in the semi-structured interviews may be explained in part by individual participant coping and adaptation strategies. The MLVI is therefore reflective of function in unfamiliar environments where people with low vision may not have recourse to compensatory strategies.

  15. Can manual ability be measured with a generic ABILHAND scale? A cross-sectional study conducted on six diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Carlyne; Vandervelde, Laure; Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Several ABILHAND Rasch-built manual ability scales were previously developed for chronic stroke (CS), cerebral palsy (CP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD). The present study aimed to explore the applicability of a generic manual ability scale unbiased by diagnosis and to study the nature of manual ability across diagnoses. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Outpatient clinic homes (CS, CP, RA), specialised centres (CP), reference centres (CP, NMD) and university hospitals (SSc). Participants 762 patients from six diagnostic groups: 103 CS adults, 113 CP children, 112 RA adults, 156 SSc adults, 124 NMD children and 124 NMD adults. Primary and secondary outcome measures Manual ability as measured by the ABILHAND disease-specific questionnaires, diagnosis and nature (ie, uni-manual or bi-manual involvement and proximal or distal joints involvement) of the ABILHAND manual activities. Results The difficulties of most manual activities were diagnosis dependent. A principal component analysis highlighted that 57% of the variance in the item difficulty between diagnoses was explained by the symmetric or asymmetric nature of the disorders. A generic scale was constructed, from a metric point of view, with 11 items sharing a common difficulty among diagnoses and 41 items displaying a category-specific location (asymmetric: CS, CP; and symmetric: RA, SSc, NMD). This generic scale showed that CP and NMD children had significantly less manual ability than RA patients, who had significantly less manual ability than CS, SSc and NMD adults. However, the generic scale was less discriminative and responsive to small deficits than disease-specific instruments. Conclusions Our finding that most of the manual item difficulties were disease-dependent emphasises the danger of using generic scales without prior investigation of item invariance across diagnostic groups. Nevertheless, a generic manual ability scale could be

  16. Use of Income as a Measure of Local Fiscal Ability in the State School Aid Formula. Occasional Paper #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samter, Eugene C.

    It is often suggested that measuring local fiscal ability by full valuation of property per public school pupil is inaccurate and inequitable. One substitute measure proposed is district income per pupil or a combination of district income and property value per pupil. However, using this measure would result in a rise in the aid ratios in only…

  17. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory.

    PubMed

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA's item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset.

  18. Measurement of Spatial Ability: Construction and Validation of the Spatial Reasoning Instrument for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramful, Ajay; Lowrie, Thomas; Logan, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a newly designed instrument for measuring the spatial ability of middle school students (11-13 years old). The design of the Spatial Reasoning Instrument (SRI) is based on three constructs (mental rotation, spatial orientation, and spatial visualization) and is aligned to the type of spatial…

  19. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  20. Development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM): Conceptualizing and Measuring Consumer Ability to Choose and Use Private Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Paez, Kathryn A.; Mallery, Coretta J.; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E.; Lucado, Jennifer L.; Ganachari, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure. PMID:25315595

  1. Development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM): conceptualizing and measuring consumer ability to choose and use private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Paez, Kathryn A; Mallery, Coretta J; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E; Lucado, Jennifer L; Ganachari, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure.

  2. Studies on mineral dust using airborne lidar, ground-based remote sensing, and in situ instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, Franco; Ryder, Claire; Estellés, Victor; Segura, Sara; Amiridis, Vassilis; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Marinou, Eleni; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Smith, Helen; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; O'Sullivan, Debbie; Brooke, Jennifer; Pradhan, Yaswant; Buxmann, Joelle

    2018-04-01

    In August 2015, the AER-D campaign made use of the FAAM research aircraft based in Cape Verde, and targeted mineral dust. First results will be shown here. The campaign had multiple objectives: (1) lidar dust mapping for the validation of satellite and model products; (2) validation of sunphotometer remote sensing with airborne measurements; (3) coordinated measurements with the CATS lidar on the ISS; (4) radiative closure studies; and (5) the validation of a new model of dustsonde.

  3. Historical Increase in the Number of Factors Measured by Commercial Tests of Cognitive Ability: Are We Overfactoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A historical increase in the number of factors purportedly measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability may result from four distinct pressures including: increasingly complex models of intelligence, test publishers' desires to provide clinically useful assessment instruments with greater interpretive value, test publishers' desires to…

  4. The ability of clinical balance measures to identify falls risk in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Gillian; Comber, Laura; Galvin, Rose; Coote, Susan

    2018-05-01

    To determine the ability of clinical measures of balance to distinguish fallers from non-fallers and to determine their predictive validity in identifying those at risk of falls. AMED, CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, PubMed Central and Google Scholar. First search: July 2015. Final search: October 2017. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults with a definite multiple sclerosis diagnosis, a clinical balance assessment and method of falls recording. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 scale and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Statistical analysis was conducted for the cross-sectional studies using Review Manager 5. The mean difference with 95% confidence interval in balance outcomes between fallers and non-fallers was used as the mode of analysis. We included 33 studies (19 cross-sectional, 5 randomised controlled trials, 9 prospective) with a total of 3901 participants, of which 1917 (49%) were classified as fallers. The balance measures most commonly reported were the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go and Falls Efficacy Scale International. Meta-analysis demonstrated fallers perform significantly worse than non-fallers on all measures analysed except the Timed Up and Go Cognitive ( p < 0.05), but discriminative ability of the measures is commonly not reported. Of those reported, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value (0.92), but without reporting corresponding measures of clinical utility. Clinical measures of balance differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers but have poor predictive ability for falls risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

  5. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  6. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    PubMed Central

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = −2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = −2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. PMID:29238234

  7. Verbal Ability and Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Michael D.; Cobb, Casey D.; Giampietro, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Critics of traditional teacher education programs have suggested that verbal ability along with subject knowledge is sufficient for measuring good teaching. A small group of research studies is called upon to support this contention. This article reviews these studies, analyzes the role of verbal ability in teaching, and presents research…

  8. Prospective, Randomized, Multi-centered Clinical Trial Assessing Safety and Efficacy of a Synthetic Cartilage Implant Versus First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis in Advanced Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Baumhauer, Judith F; Singh, Dishan; Glazebrook, Mark; Blundell, Chris; De Vries, Gwyneth; Le, Ian L D; Nielsen, Dominic; Pedersen, M Elizabeth; Sakellariou, Anthony; Solan, Matthew; Wansbrough, Guy; Younger, Alastair S E; Daniels, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Although a variety of great toe implants have been tried in an attempt to maintain toe motion, the majority have failed with loosening, malalignment/dislocation, implant fragmentation and bone loss. In these cases, salvage to arthrodesis is more complicated and results in shortening of the ray or requires structural bone graft to reestablish length. This prospective study compared the efficacy and safety of this small (8/10 mm) hydrogel implant to the gold standard of a great toe arthrodesis for advanced-stage hallux rigidus. In this prospective, randomized non-inferiority study, patients from 12 centers in Canada and the United Kingdom were randomized (2:1) to a synthetic cartilage implant or first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint arthrodesis. VAS pain scale, validated outcome measures (Foot and Ankle Ability Measure [FAAM] sport scale), great toe active dorsiflexion motion, secondary procedures, radiographic assessment, and safety parameters were evaluated. Analysis was performed using intent-to-treat (ITT) and modified ITT (mITT) methodology. The primary endpoint for the study consisted of a single composite endpoint using the 3 primary study outcomes (pain, function, and safety). The individual subject's outcome was considered a success if all of the following criteria were met: (1) improvement (decrease) from baseline in VAS pain of ≥30% at 12 months; (2) maintenance of function from baseline in FAAM sports subscore at 12 months; and (3) absence of major safety events at 2 years. The proportion of successes in each group was determined and 1-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between treatment groups was calculated. Noninferiority of the implant to arthrodesis was considered statistically significant if the 1-sided 95% lower confidence interval was greater than the equivalence limit (<15%). A total of 236 patients were initially enrolled; 17 patients withdrew prior to randomization, 17 patients withdrew after randomization, and 22 were

  9. Revision anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ligaments of the ankle augmented with suture tape for patients with a failed Broström procedure.

    PubMed

    Cho, B K; Kim, Y M; Choi, S M; Park, H W; SooHoo, N F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes after revision anatomical ankle ligament reconstruction augmented with suture tape for a failed modified Broström procedure. A total of 30 patients with persistent instability of the ankle after a Broström procedure underwent revision augmented with suture tape. Of these, 24 patients who were followed up for more than two years were included in the study. There were 13 men and 11 women. Their mean age was 31.8 years (23 to 44). The mean follow-up was 38.5 months (24 to 56) The clinical outcome was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) score. The stability of the ankle was assessed using stress radiographs. The mean FAOS and FAAM scores improved significantly to 87.5 (73 to 94) and 85.1 (70 to 95) points at final follow-up, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean angle of talar tilt and anterior talar translation improved significantly to 2.8° (0° to 6°) and 4.1 mm (2 to 7) at final follow-up, respectively (p < 0.001). Side to side comparison in stress radiographs at final follow-up showed no significant difference. The revision failed in one patient who underwent a further revision using allograft tendon. The revision modified Broström procedure augmented with suture tape is an effective form of treatment for recurrent instability of the ankle following a failed Broström procedure. This technique provides reliable stability and satisfactory clinical outcomes at intermediate-term follow-up. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1183-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Walking ability as a measure of treatment effect in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J; Brydson, G; Fraser, S; Grant, M

    2001-04-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of a prototype walkmat system in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four subjects with early RA and symptomatic forefoot disease requiring therapy with second-line drugs were recruited. Each subject underwent clinical assessment together with gait analysis on the contact sensitive walkmat system and Kistler forceplate before and after six months of treatment with second-line drugs. Two subjects were lost to follow-up. There was the expected improvement in disease activity in response to therapy. Significant differences were also demonstrated in defined gait parameters that indicated improved weight-bearing and enhanced forefoot propulsion. Medical therapy improved walking ability in patients with RA and the walkmat system provided a useful adjunct to existing outcome measures in the assessment of lower limb function.

  11. The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients.

  12. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P G; Kernahan, J

    1999-04-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.

  13. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  14. Individual Differences in Dynamic Measures of Verbal Learning Abilities in Young Twin Pairs and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Soelen, Inge L. C.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Dekker, Peter H.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the genetic background of individual differences in dynamic measures of verbal learning ability in children, using a Dutch version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Nine-year-old twin pairs (N = 112 pairs) were recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. When possible, an older sibling between 10 and 14 years old…

  15. Measuring Mathematical Ability Needed for "Non-Mathematical" Majors: The Construction of a Scale Applying IRT and Differential Item Functioning across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Silvia; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    Given that basic mathematical ability is a requirement to succeed in "non-mathematical" majors, e.g. degrees for Psychology, Education, and Health Sciences with compulsory introductory stats courses, assessing this ability can be useful to promote achievement. The aim of the present study was to develop a scale to measure the…

  16. Shared-environmental contributions to high cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-07-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measures of the family environment in a subsample of adoptive siblings: parental occupational status, parental education, and disruptive life events. Only parental education showed significant (albeit modest) association with ability in both the biological and adoptive samples. We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement.

  17. Relationship between uninasal anatomy and uninasal olfactory ability.

    PubMed

    Hornung, D E; Leopold, D A

    1999-01-01

    To examine the relationship between uninasal anatomy and olfactory ability. A stepwise analysis of variance was used to regress the logarithm of the percentage of correct responses on the Odorant Confusion Matrix (a measure of olfactory ability) against the logarithm of nasal volume measurements determined from computed tomographic scans. Nineteen patients with hyposmia whose olfactory losses were thought to be related to conductive disorders. After correcting for sex differences, a mathematical model was developed in which the volume of 6 regions of the nasal cavity, 6 first-order interactions, and 3 second-order interactions accounted for 97% of the variation in the measure of olfactory ability. Increases in the size of compartments of the nasal cavity around the olfactory cleft generally increase olfactory ability. Also, anatomical differences in the nasal cavities of men and women may account, in part, for sex differences in olfactory ability.

  18. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  19. [Person-organization fit and work ability].

    PubMed

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.

  20. A Response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study," the authors agree that assessments should seek parsimony in both theory and application wherever possible. Doing so allows maximal dissemination and implementation while minimizing costs. The Writing…

  1. Measurement of time processing ability and daily time management in children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Janeslätt, Gunnel; Granlund, Mats; Kottorp, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Improvement is needed in methods for planning and evaluating interventions designed to facilitate daily time management for children with intellectual disability, Asperger syndrome, or other developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the hypothesized relation between children's time processing ability (TPA), daily time management, and self-rated autonomy. Such a relationship between daily time management and TPA may support the idea that TPA is important for daily time management and that children with difficulties in TPA might benefit from intervention aimed at improving daily time management. Participants were children aged 6 to 11 years with dysfunctions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, or physical or intellectual disabilities (N = 118). TPA was measured with the instrument KaTid. All data were transformed to interval measures using applications of Rasch models and then further analysed with correlation and regression analysis. The results demonstrate a moderate significant relation between the parents' ratings of daily time management and TPA of the children, and between the self-rating of autonomy and TPA. There was also a significant relation between self-ratings of autonomy and the parents' rating of the children's daily time management. Parents' ratings of their children's daily time management explain 25% of the variation in TPA, age of the children explains 22%, while the child's self-rating of autonomy can explain 9% of the variation in TPA. The three variables together explain 38% of the variation in TPA. The results indicate the viability of the instrument for assessing TPA also in children with disabilities and that the ability measured by KaTid is relevant for daily time management. TPA seems to be a factor for children's daily time management that needs to be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating interventions designed to facilitate everyday functioning for children with

  2. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  3. Engineering Play: Exploring Associations with Executive Function, Mathematical Ability, and Spatial Ability in Preschool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Zachary Samuel

    Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive

  4. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  5. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    PubMed Central

    Redick, Thomas S.; Webster, Sean B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices. PMID:24723880

  6. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  7. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links with Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…

  8. Quantifying the influence of boreal biomass burning emissions on tropospheric oxidant chemistry over the North Atlantic using BORTAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul I.; Rickard, Andrew; Young, Jennifer; Lewis, Ally; Lee, James; Henze, Daven; Tarasick, David; Hyer, Edward; Yantosca, Robert; Bowman, Kevin; Worden, John; Griffin, Debora; Franklin, Jonathan; Helmig, Detlev

    2013-04-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model to quantify the impact of boreal biomass burning on tropospheric oxidant chemistry over the North Atlantic region during summer of 2011. The GEOS-Chem model is used at a spatial resolution of 1/2 degree latitude by 2/3 degree longitude for a domain covering eastern North America, the North Atlantic Ocean and western Europe. We initialise the model with biomass burning emissions from the Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) inventory and use a modified chemical mechanism providing a detailed description of ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning outflow derived from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). We evaluate the 3-D model distribution of ozone and tracers associated with biomass burning against measurements made by the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft, ozonesondes, ground-based and satellite instruments as part of the BORTAS experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. We also use the GEOS-Chem model adjoint to fit the model to BORTAS measurements to analyse the sensitivity of the model chemical mechanism and ozone distribution to wildfire emissions in central Canada.

  9. Measurements of the abilities of cultured fishes to moisturize their digesta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.G.; Barrows, R.

    1990-01-01

    1. Four salmonid and four cool-water fish species were tested to determine their ability to moisturize their digesta.2. After the fish were fed, they were sacrificed, the gut contents were removed and water content was determined.3. The digesta of the salmonids contained the least water (63–72%) and those of largemouth bass the most (78%).4. We conclude that there are distinct and significant differences between species and genera in the ability of fish to moisturize their digesta. The potential significance of this finding is discussed.

  10. Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Differential Ability Scales and the "Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities--Third Edition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Sarah; McIntosh, David E.; Dunham, Mardis; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, Holmes

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the "Differential Ability Scales" ("DAS"; C.D. Elliott, 1990a) as they relate to the "Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory" (K.S. McGrew, 1997) of cognitive abilities. The "DAS" and "Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities" ("WJ-III COG"; R.W.Woodcock, K.S. McGrew, & N. Mather, 2001)…

  11. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  12. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  13. Latent ability: grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students.

    PubMed

    Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    Past research has assumed that group differences in academic performance entirely reflect genuine differences in ability. In contrast, extending research on stereotype threat, we suggest that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and against women in quantitative fields. This bias results not from the content of performance measures, but from the context in which they are assessed-from psychological threats in common academic environments, which depress the performances of people targeted by negative intellectual stereotypes. Like the time of a track star running into a stiff headwind, such performances underestimate the true ability of stereotyped students. Two meta-analyses, combining data from 18,976 students in five countries, tested this latent-ability hypothesis. Both meta-analyses found that, under conditions that reduce psychological threat, stereotyped students performed better than nonstereotyped students at the same level of past performance. We discuss implications for the interpretation of and remedies for achievement gaps.

  14. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  15. Echocardiographic measurements of epicardial adipose tissue and comparative ability to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Morales-Portano, Julieta D; Peraza-Zaldivar, Juan Ángel; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan A; Aceves-Millán, Rocío; Amezcua-Gómez, Lilia; Ixcamparij-Rosales, Carlos H; Trujillo-Cortés, Rafael; Robledo-Nolasco, Rogelio; Mondragón-Terán, Paul; Pérez-Cabeza de Vaca, Rebeca; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Melchor-López, Alberto; Vannan, Mani A; Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco

    2018-05-02

    The present study aimed to compare echocardiography measurements of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and other risk factors regarding their ability to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Outcomes of 107 patients (86 males, 21 females, mean age 63.6 years old) submitted to diagnostic echocardiography and coronary angiography were prospectively analyzed. EAT (measures over the right ventricle, interventricular groove and complete bulk of EAT) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed by echocardiography. Coronary complexity was evaluated by Syntax score. Primary endpoints were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE's), composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, intra-stent re-stenosis and episodes of decompensate heart failure requiring hospital attention during a mean follow up of 15.94 ± 3.6 months. Mean EAT thickness was 4.6 ± 1.9 mm; and correlated with Syntax score and body mass index; negatively correlated with LVEF. Twenty-three cases of MACE's were recorded during follow up, who showed higher EAT. Diagnostic ability of EAT to discriminate MACE's was comparable to LVEF (AUROC > 0.5); but higher than Syntax score. Quartile comparison of EAT revealed that measurement of the complete bulk of EAT provided a better discrimination range for MACE's, and higher, more significant adjusted risk (cutoff 4.6 mm, RR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.01-15.08; p = 0.04) than the other risk factors. We concluded that echocardiographic measurement of EAT showed higher predicting ability for MACE's than the other markers tested, in patients with CAD. Whether location for echocardiographic measurement of EAT impacts the diagnostic performance of this method deserves further study.

  16. A clinical knowledge measurement tool to assess the ability of community pharmacists to detect drug-related problems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mackenzie; Peterson, Gregory M; Tenni, Peter C; Bindoff, Ivan K

    2012-08-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with most DRPs thought to be preventable. Community pharmacists can detect and either prevent or resolve many of these DRPs. A survey-based clinical knowledge measurement tool was designed and validated to estimate a community pharmacist's clinical knowledge and ability to detect and appropriately resolve DRPs. Nine clinical cases with seven multiple-choice statements (63 statements in total) were constructed, based on scenarios that were found to occur frequently in Australian community pharmacies. The statements aimed to assess a pharmacist's ability to identify, gather relevant information about and make appropriate recommendations to resolve, a DRP. The survey was pilot tested with 18 academics at three Australian pharmacy schools, resulting in the removal of 23 statements. The survey was then administered to undergraduate pharmacy students (28 fourth-year, 41 third-year and 42 first-year students) and to 433 Australian community pharmacists who were participating in an intervention documentation trial. The pharmacists' resultant survey scores were correlated against their actual rate of documenting clinical interventions. The tool had relatively good internal consistency. Significant differences were seen between the three groups of students (P < 0.01). Community pharmacists with additional clinical qualifications had a significantly higher score than other participating pharmacists (P < 0.01). A moderate, but significant, correlation was seen between the pharmacists' survey score and their clinical intervention rate in practice during the trial (P < 0.01). The clinical knowledge measurement tool appeared to estimate a pharmacist's ability to detect and resolve DRPs within the community pharmacy environment. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. The impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability.

    PubMed

    Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Nauta, Mary C E; Oosterhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability. This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of healthy working Dutch women aged 44 to 60 years. Work ability was measured using the Work Ability Index, and menopausal symptoms were measured using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and work ability. A total of 208 women were included in this study. There was a significant negative correlation between total Greene Climacteric Scale score and Work Ability Index score. Total Greene Climacteric Scale score predicted 33.8% of the total variance in the Work Ability Index score. Only the psychological and somatic subscales of the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant predictors in multiple linear regression analysis. Together, they accounted for 36.5% of total variance in Work Ability Index score. Menopausal symptoms are negatively associated with work ability and may increase the risk of sickness absence.

  18. Stability of person ability measures in people with acquired brain injury in the use of everyday technology: the test-retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META).

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson-Lund, Maria; Kottorp, Anders

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META) in a sample of people with acquired brain injury (ABI). The META was administered twice within a two-week period to 25 people with ABI. A Rasch measurement model was used to convert the META ordinal raw scores into equal-interval linear measures of each participant's ability to manage everyday technology (ET). Test-retest reliability of the stability of the person ability measures in the META was examined by a standardized difference Z-test and an intra-class correlations analysis (ICC 1). The results showed that the paired person ability measures generated from the META were stable over the test-retest period for 22 of the 25 subjects. The ICC 1 correlation was 0.63, which indicates good overall reliability. The META demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability in a sample of people with ABI. The results illustrate the importance of using sufficiently challenging ETs (relative to a person's abilities) to generate stable META measurements over time. Implications for Rehabilitation The findings add evidence regarding the test-retest reliability of the person ability measures generated from the observation assessment META in a sample of people with ABI. The META might support professionals in the evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve clients' performance of activities including the ability to manage ET.

  19. Generalist genes analysis of DNA markers associated with mathematical ability and disability reveals shared influence across ages and abilities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Generalist Genes Hypothesis is based upon quantitative genetic findings which indicate that many of the same genes influence diverse cognitive abilities and disabilities across age. In a recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 43 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA, 10 of which were validated in an individually genotyped sample. The 4927 children in this genotyped sample have also been studied at 7, 9 and 12 years of age on measures of mathematical ability, as well as on other cognitive and learning abilities. Results Using these data we have explored the Generalist Genes Hypothesis by assessing the association of the available measures of ability at age 10 and other ages with two composite 'SNP-set' scores, formed from the full set of 43 nominated SNPs and the sub-set of 10 SNPs that were previously found to be associated with mathematical ability at age 10. Both SNP sets yielded significant associations with mathematical ability at ages 7, 9 and 12, as well as with reading and general cognitive ability at age 10. Conclusions Although effect sizes are small, our results correspond with those of quantitative genetic research in supporting the Generalist Genes Hypothesis. SNP sets identified on the basis of their associations with mathematical ability at age 10 show associations with mathematical ability at earlier and later ages and show associations of similar magnitude with reading and general cognitive ability. With small effect sizes expected in such complex traits, future studies may be able to capitalise on power by searching for 'generalist genes' using longitudinal and multivariate approaches. PMID:20602751

  20. Developing an instrument to measure emotional behaviour abilities of meaningful learning through the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-09-01

    To identify items for a new instrument that measures emotional behaviour abilities of meaningful learning, according to Fink's Taxonomy. Meaningful learning is an active process that promotes a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and previous knowledge and produces a long-term change of knowledge and skills. To measure meaningful learning capability, it is very important in the education of health professionals to identify problems or special learning needs. For this reason, it is necessary to create valid instruments. A Delphi Study technique was implemented in four phases by means of e-mail. The study was conducted from April-September 2015. An expert panel consisting of ten researchers with experience in Fink's Taxonomy was established to identify the items of the instrument. Data were analysed for conceptual description and item characteristics and attributes were rated. Expert consensus was sought in each of these phases. An 87·5% consensus cut-off was established. After four rounds, consensus was obtained for validation of the content of the instrument 'Assessment of Meaningful learning Behavioural and Emotional Abilities'. This instrument consists of 56 items evaluated on a 6-point Likert-type scale. Foundational Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring and Learning How to Learn were the six major categories explored. This content validated tool can help educators (teachers, trainers and tutors) to identify and improve the strategies to support students' learning capability, which could increase their awareness of and/or responsibility in the learning process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Implicit measures of beliefs about sport ability in swimming and basketball.

    PubMed

    Mascret, Nicolas; Falconetti, Jean-Louis; Cury, François

    2016-01-01

    Sport ability may be seen as relatively stable, genetically determined and not easily modified by practice, or as increasable with training, work and effort. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the purpose of the present study is to examine whether the practice of a particular sport (swimming or basketball) can influence automatic beliefs about sport ability in these two sports. The IAT scores evidence that swimmers and basketball players automatically and implicitly associate their own sport with training rather than genetics, whereas non-sportspersons have no significant automatic association. This result is strengthened when perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in swimming or basketball are high.

  2. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index.

    PubMed

    Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W

    2014-07-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. This prospective cohort study comprised 11 537 male construction workers, who completed the WAI at baseline and reported DP after a mean 2.3 years of follow-up. WAS and WAI were calibrated for DP risk predictions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and their ability to discriminate between high- and low-risk construction workers was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). At follow-up, 336 (3%) construction workers reported DP. Both WAS [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.78] and WAI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63) scores were associated with DP at follow-up. The WAS showed miscalibration (H-L model χ (�)=10.60; df=3; P=0.01) and poorly discriminated between high- and low-risk construction workers (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). In contrast, calibration (H-L model χ �=8.20; df=8; P=0.41) and discrimination (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80) were both adequate for the WAI. Although associated with the risk of future DP, the single-item WAS poorly identified male construction workers at risk of DP. We recommend using the multi-item WAI to screen for risk of DP in occupational health practice.

  3. Experimental study of ERT monitoring ability to measure solute dispersion.

    PubMed

    Lekmine, Grégory; Pessel, Marc; Auradou, Harold

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental measurements performed to test the ability of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) imaging to provide quantitative information about transport parameters in porous media such as the dispersivity α, the mixing front velocity u, and the retardation factor R(f) associated with the sorption or trapping of the tracers in the pore structure. The flow experiments are performed in a homogeneous porous column placed between two vertical set of electrodes. Ionic and dyed tracers are injected from the bottom of the porous media over its full width. Under such condition, the mixing front is homogeneous in the transverse direction and shows an S-shape variation in the flow direction. The transport parameters are inferred from the variation of the concentration curves and are compared with data obtained from video analysis of the dyed tracer front. The variations of the transport parameters obtained from an inversion performed by the Gauss-Newton method applied on smoothness-constrained least-squares are studied in detail. While u and R(f) show a relatively small dependence on the inversion procedure, α is strongly dependent on the choice of the inversion parameters. Comparison with the video observations allows for the optimization of the parameters; these parameters are found to be robust with respect to changes in the flow condition and conductivity contrast. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  4. MEASURING SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES IN MALE GYMNASTS: THE MEN'S GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL.

    PubMed

    Sleeper, Mark D; Kenyon, Lisa K; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts' USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r 2 ). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects' current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r 2  = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level 3.

  5. Communication-Related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Studies relationships among four measures of communication abilities, and between these abilities and job level and upward mobility in a selected insurance company. Concludes that communication abilities are important to the success of individuals in organizations. (MS)

  6. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  7. Communication Related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.

    To provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between various communication and communication related abilities and individuals' work performance, a four-year investigation was conducted to examine the relationships among four measures of social cognitive and communication abilities, and the relationships of these measures to job level…

  8. Measuring intellectual ability in children with cerebral palsy: can we do better?

    PubMed

    Sherwell, Sarah; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Wrennall, Jacquie; Ong, Ben; Stargatt, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Standard intelligence tests such as the WPPSI-III have limitations when testing children with motor impairment. This study aimed to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy with sufficient verbal and motor skills to complete the WPPSI-III, to determine their comparative ability to complete tasks with and without a significant motor component, and to investigate short forms of the WPPSI-III as alternatives. Participants were 78 of 235 eligible 4-5 year old children with cerebral palsy resident in the Australian state of Victoria. Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) were determined using the WPPSI-III. Initial screening for pointing and verbal abilities determined which tests were attempted. The impact of speed was investigated by comparing scores on the Block Design subtest with and without an imposed time limit. FSIQ scores were calculated from two short forms of the WPPSI-III and compared to the full form. On screening, 16 children had inadequate pointing (14) and verbal abilities (2). FSIQ was obtained in 62 (82%) children. Strong associations were seen between completion of the entire test battery and topographical pattern, level of manual ability and level of gross motor function. Scores on subtests requiring manual ability were depressed relative to other scores. Children performed better using short forms of the WPPSI-III and, for a minority, when time limits were disregarded. In summary, children with cerebral palsy often lack the fine and gross motor skills necessary to complete the WPPSI-III, scoring relatively poorly on tasks requiring a fine motor response. Using short-form estimations of FSIQ comprised of subtests without a significant fine motor component has the potential to increase a child's FSIQ by approximately 5 points. These findings have important clinical implications when assessing a child with both motor and cognitive limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ability to manage everyday technology after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Malinowsky, Camilla; Jacobsson, Lars; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and describe how persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) manage everyday technology (ET) in their daily activities and to explore whether the ability to manage ET was related to the severity of the disability. Eighty-one persons with ABI were observed while managing ET by using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to assess the severity of disability after the ABI. A computer application of a Rasch measurement model was used to generate measures of the participants' ability to manage ET and the measures were compared groupwise with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The degree of severity of disability had a significant main effect on the ability to manage ET. The groups with severe and moderate disability exhibited a significantly lower ability to manage ET compared to the group with good recovery. The result indicates that the ability to manage ET in daily activities can be related to the global severity of disability after ABI. This demonstrates the importance of considering the ability to manage ET to support the performance of activities at home, at work and in society in persons with ABI.

  10. [Occupational stress effects on work ability in chemistry workers].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huifang; Wang, Mianzhen; Wang, Zhiming; Lan, Yajia

    2004-03-01

    Investigating the status of work ability and occupational stress in 1030 chemistry workers at levels of chemical materials and explore their relationship and influence factors (481 workers of study group, 549 workers of control group). Work ability and occupational stress were measured with the work ability index (WAI) and occupational stress questionnaire (OSQ). The risk factors of work ability decline were evaluated. WAI and OSQ scores scores are significantly different between study group and control group (P < 0.01), and work ability correlated inversely with occupational stress (P < 0.01). The WAI scores are reducing with a higher of the OSQ. The work ability of chemistry-workers became lower with the increasing of age. Variables that influence work ability included the factors of disorder of musculoskeletal function (OR = 2.884), assessment of the current health (OR = 2.651), the diseases (OR = 2.498), emotion status (OR = 2.407), physical load (OR = 1.254) and lack of exercise (OR = 1.956). The stress levels and stress factors had affected work ability in chemistry-workers, and it was suggested that the findings could be helpful for the measures protecting and promoting of work ability on the health of workers.

  11. Talofibular interval changes after acute ankle sprain: a stress ultrasonography study of ankle laxity.

    PubMed

    Croy, Theodore; Saliba, Susan; Saliba, Ethan; Anderson, Mark W; Hertel, Jay

    2013-11-01

    Quantifying talocrural joint laxity after ankle sprain is problematic. Stress ultrasonography (US) can image the lateral talocrural joint and allow the measurement of the talofibular interval, which may suggest injury to the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL). The acute talofibular interval changes after lateral ankle sprain are unknown. Twenty-five participants (9 male, 16 female; age 21.8 ± 3.2 y, height 167.8 ± 34.1 cm, mass 72.7 ± 13.8 kg) with 27 acute, lateral ankle injuries underwent bilateral stress US imaging at baseline (<7 d) and on the affected ankle at 3 wk and 6 wk from injury in 3 ankle conditions: neutral, anterior drawer, and inversion. Talofibular interval (mm) was measured using imaging software and self-reported function (activities of daily living [ADL] and sports) by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). The talofibular interval increased with anterior-drawer stress in the involved ankle (22.65 ± 3.75 mm; P = .017) over the uninvolved ankle (19.45 ± 2.35 mm; limb × position F1,26 = 4.9, P = .035) at baseline. Inversion stress also resulted in greater interval changes (23.41 ± 2.81 mm) than in the uninvolved ankles (21.13 ± 2.08 mm). A main effect for time was observed for inversion (F2,52 = 4.3, P = .019, 21.93 ± 2.24 mm) but not for anterior drawer (F2,52 = 3.1, P = .055, 21.18 ± 2.34 mm). A significant reduction in the talofibular interval took place between baseline and week 3 inversion measurements only (F1,26 = 5.6, P = .026). FAAM-ADL and sports results increased significantly from baseline to wk 3 (21.9 ± 16.2, P < .0001 and 23.8 ± 16.9, P < .0001) and from wk 3 to wk 6 (2.5 ± 4.4, P = .009 and 10.5 ± 13.2, P = .001). Stress US methods identified increased talofibular interval changes suggestive of talocrural laxity and ATFL injury using anterior drawer and inversion stress that, despite significant improvements in self-reported function, only marginally improved during the 6 wk after ankle sprain. Stress US

  12. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  13. Problem solving ability in children with intellectual disability as measured by the Raven's colored progressive matrices.

    PubMed

    Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the developmental trajectory of problem solving ability in children with intellectual disability (ID) of different etiologies (Down Syndrome, Idiopathic ID or low functioning Autism) as measured on the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices test (RCPM). Children with typical development (TD) and children with ID were matched on total correct performance (i.e., non-verbal mental age) on the RCPM. RCPM total correct performance and the sophistication of error types were found to be associated with receptive vocabulary in all participants, suggesting that verbal ability plays a role in more sophisticated problem solving tasks. Children with ID made similar errors on the RCPM as younger children with TD as well as more positional error types. This result suggests that children with ID who are deficient in their cognitive processing resort to developmentally immature problem solving strategies when unable to determine the correct answer. Overall, the findings support the use of RCPM as a valid means of matching intellectual capacity of children with TD and ID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Reported Work Ability Predicts Rehabilitation Measures, Disability Pensions, Other Welfare Benefits, and Work Participation: Longitudinal Findings from a Sample of German Employees.

    PubMed

    Bethge, Matthias; Spanier, Katja; Peters, Elke; Michel, Elliot; Radoschewski, Michael

    2017-09-27

    Purpose The study examined the performance of the Work Ability Index in predicting rehabilitation measures and disability pensions, sickness absence and unemployment benefits, and work participation among a sample of workers previously receiving sickness absence benefits. Methods Workers aged 40 to 54 years who received sickness absence benefits in 2012 completed the Work Ability Index in 2013. Outcomes were extracted from administrative data records. Results Data for 2149 participants were included (mean age: 47.8 years; 54.4% women). Mean follow-up was 19 months. Work Ability Index scores were poor (7-27 points) in 21% of the participants, and moderate (28-36 points) in 38.4%. In all, 224 rehabilitation measures and 35 disability pensions were approved. Fully adjusted analyses showed increased risk of rehabilitation measures in workers with poor (HR 4.55; 95% CI 3.14-6.60) and moderate scores (HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.43-3.01) compared to workers with good or excellent scores (37-49 points). The risk of a disability pension increased significantly for workers with poor scores (HR 7.78; 95% CI 2.59-23.35). In addition, poor scores were prospectively associated with a longer duration of sickness absence and employment benefits, and fewer employment days and less income from regular employment. Conclusions The Work Ability Index is a potential tool for following up workers who already have an increased risk of permanent work disability due to previous long-term sickness absence.

  15. An Assessment of the Influence of Attention to the Task in the Measurement of Visual Perceptual Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenborn, Leo V., Jr.

    The project's purpose was to determine whether attention to the task during testing was a confounding variable in measures of visual perception ability. Samples of 30 perceptually handicapped (PH) and 30 normal subjects (N) were randomly selected from children so classified on the Frostig DTVP, providing they had IQ scores between 85 and 115 on…

  16. Assessing the Validity of Multiple-Choice Questions in Measuring Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs about Motion and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulger, Mehmet; Deniz, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the validity of multiple-choice questions in measuring fourth grade students' ability to interpret graphs related to physical science topics such as motion and temperature. We administered a test including 6 multiple-choice questions to 28 fourth grade students. Students were asked to explain their thinking…

  17. MEASURING SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES IN MALE GYMNASTS: THE MEN'S GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Background Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts’ USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects’ current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). Conclusions The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27999723

  18. Measuring Speed, Ability, or Motivation: A Comment on Goldhammer (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Ranger, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, Kuhn and Ranger hypothesize that most people are aware that talent does not guarantee success in case one is lazy. This is also true for the performance in achievement tests that depends on, among other factors, achievement potential (ability) and willingness to achieve (test-taking motivation) of the test taker. They add that…

  19. Are there cross-cultural differences of ADL ability in children measured with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS)?

    PubMed

    Peny-Dahlstrand, Marie; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In many studies of self-care assessments for children, cultural differences in age-norm values have been shown. No study has evaluated whether there are cross-cultural differences in ADL motor and/or process skills in children when measured with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). To investigate if there were systematic differences in ADL ability measured with the AMPS between children from the Nordic countries and North America and to evaluate the applicability of the existing international age-normative values for children from these two regions. Values from a total of 4 613 children, 3-15 years old, without known disabilities, from these geographical regions were compared with ANOVA. The difference in logits between each region and the mean values for each age group were calculated. No differences of relevance in age-related ADL ability measures between children from the two geographical regions were found, and the age-norm values are applicable to both regions. The AMPS may be considered free from cultural bias and useful in both clinical practice and research concerned with children in both the Nordic countries and North America.

  20. Relationship between candidate communication ability and oral certification examination scores.

    PubMed

    Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G

    2008-12-01

    Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.

  1. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  2. Differential V-Q Ability: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, S. Viterbo

    1975-01-01

    The initial portion of this paper addresses itself to some of the methodological concerns associated with Verbal-Quantitative (V-Q) research. The second section focuses on studies using differential V-Q ability as an independent variable. The final section focuses on reasearch using V-Q ability measures as dependent variables. (Author/BJG)

  3. GGE analysis of ratooning ability in Louisiana sugarcane breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ratooning ability is an important sugarcane growth habit that affects profitability. Ratooning ability is the ability of sugarcane to regrow after harvesting and it is measured in this research as the percentage of second ratoon of a trait to plant cane. In sugarcane breeding programs, it is time co...

  4. Narrative Fiction and Expository Nonfiction Differentially Predict Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Rain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Although reading is known to be an important contributor to language abilities, it is not yet well established whether different text genres are uniquely associated with verbal abilities. We examined how exposure to narrative fiction and expository nonfiction predict language ability among university students. Exposure was measured both with…

  5. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested.

  6. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested. PMID:28603360

  7. [Occupational and non-occupational determinants of work ability].

    PubMed

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Koszada-Włodarczyk, Wiesława; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Jóźwiak, Zbigniew; Pokorski, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the work ability subjective assessment, using the work ability index (WAI), are widely applied in the examination of workers. The measurement results suggest that the low level of work ability, which is determined by work-burden factors, health condition, and lifestyles of persons under study, can be a predictor of earlier retirement. The aim of the study was to find out whether WAI can be used in Polish conditions and to identify personal traits and/or job characteristics and conditions of its performance that generate the risk of low work ability. The cross-sectional study embraced 669 men and 536 women at the working age, representing different occupations and exposed to various factors. They self-assessed their work ability by completing a questionnaire that allows to determine WAI values. They also characterized their jobs in terms of physical burden, occupational stress, harmful and strenuous factors, work fatigue, chronic fatigue, and lifestyle. Based on the energy expenditure and health condition (number of diseases), the work burden was objectively defined. A model of multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the analyzed factors on the risk of low or moderate work ability. The level of work ability in the study group was lower than that observed in analogous occupational groups in other European countries. The results of the analysis indicate that job characterizing factors and workers' individual traits exert a stronger effect on the level of WAI components, which reflect a subjective assessment of work abilities, than factors concerning health conditions. Highly stressogenic work and low tolerance of work burden as well as personal traits (age, frequent alcohol consumption among men and non-occupational burdens among women) represented risk factors responsible for low or moderate VAI values. The measurement of work ability index is an indirect assessment of workers' physical state, and it slightly depends on

  8. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  9. Constraints on oceanic methane emissions west of Svalbard from atmospheric in situ measurements and Lagrangian transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Eckhardt, Sabine; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Mienert, Jurgen; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Bauguitte, Stephane; Pitt, Joseph; Allen, Grant; Bower, Keith; O'Shea, Sebastian; Gallagher, Martin; Percival, Carl; Pyle, John; Cain, Michelle; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Methane stored in seabed reservoirs such as methane hydrates can reach the atmosphere in the form of bubbles or dissolved in water. Hydrates could destabilize with rising temperature further increasing greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate. To assess the impact of oceanic emissions from the area west of Svalbard, where methane hydrates are abundant, we used measurements collected with a research aircraft (FAAM) and a ship (Helmer Hansen) during the Summer 2014, and for Zeppelin Observatory for the full year. We present a model-supported analysis of the atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios measured by the different platforms. To address uncertainty about where CH4 emissions actually occur, we explored three scenarios: areas with known seeps, a hydrate stability model and an ocean depth criterion. We then used a budget analysis and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to compare measurements taken upwind and downwind of the potential CH4 emission areas. We found small differences between the CH4 mixing ratios measured upwind and downwind of the potential emission areas during the campaign. By taking into account measurement and sampling uncertainties and by determining the sensitivity of the measured mixing ratios to potential oceanic emissions, we provide upper limits for the CH4 fluxes. The CH4 flux during the campaign was small, with an upper limit of 2.5 nmol / m s in the stability model scenario. The Zeppelin Observatory data for 2014 suggests CH4 fluxes from the Svalbard continental platform below 0.2 Tg/yr . All estimates are in the lower range of values previously reported.

  10. Diagnostic Ability of Automated Pupillography in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Harsha L; Kadambi, Sujatha V; Mehta, Pooja; Dasari, Srilakshmi; Puttaiah, Narendra K; Pradhan, Zia S; Rao, Dhanraj A S; Shetty, Rohit

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability of automated pupillography measurements in glaucoma and study the effect of inter-eye asymmetry in glaucomatous damage on the diagnostic ability. In an observational, cross-sectional study, 47 glaucoma patients and 42 control subjects underwent automated pupillography using a commercially available device. Diagnostic abilities of the pupillary response measurements were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. Influence of inter-eye asymmetry in glaucoma [inter-eye mean deviation (MD) difference on visual fields (VF)] on the diagnostic ability of pupillography parameters was evaluated by ROC regression approach. The AUCs of automated pupillography parameters ranged from 0.60 (amplitude score with peripheral blue stimulus) to 0.82 (amplitude score with full field white stimulus, Amp-FF-W). Sensitivity at 95% specificity ranged between 5% (amplitude score with full field blue stimulus) and 45% (amplitude score with full field green stimulus). Inter-eye MD difference significantly affected the diagnostic performance of automated pupillography parameters (p < 0.05). AUCs of Amp-FF-W at inter-eye MD difference of 0 dB, 5 dB, 10 dB and 15 dB were 0.71, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.93, respectively, according to the regression model. The corresponding sensitivities at 95% specificity were 20%, 34%, 50% and 66%, respectively. The diagnostic abilities of even the best automated pupillography parameters were only moderate in glaucoma. The performance of these pupillography measurements in detecting glaucoma significantly increased with greater inter-eye asymmetry in the glaucomatous damage.

  11. Physical ability, fitness and police work.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, J; Brown, J

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of physical ability, fitness and police work. The literature will be reviewed, and the method we have used to develop a tool that measures the physical abilities required for police work will be presented. The importance of linking this standard with a programme for health promotion will be stressed. The reasons why this standard is occupation specific and non-discriminatory will be explained.

  12. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  13. Lifestyle index and work ability.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.

  14. Recovery From a First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain and the Predictors of Chronic Ankle Instability: A Prospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-04-01

    Impairments in motor control may predicate the paradigm of chronic ankle instability (CAI) that can develop in the year after an acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. No prospective analysis is currently available identifying the mechanisms by which these impairments develop and contribute to long-term outcome after LAS. To identify the motor control deficits predicating CAI outcome after a first-time LAS injury. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Eighty-two individuals were recruited after sustaining a first-time LAS injury. Several biomechanical analyses were performed for these individuals, who completed 5 movement tasks at 3 time points: (1) 2 weeks, (2) 6 months, and (3) 12 months after LAS occurrence. A logistic regression analysis of several "salient" biomechanical parameters identified from the movement tasks, in addition to scores from the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) recorded at the 2-week and 6-month time points, were used as predictors of 12-month outcome. At the 2-week time point, an inability to complete 2 of the movement tasks (a single-leg drop landing and a drop vertical jump) was predictive of CAI outcome and correctly classified 67.6% of cases (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 55%; P = .004). At the 6-month time point, several deficits exhibited by the CAI group during 1 of the movement tasks (reach distances and sagittal plane joint positions at the hip, knee and ankle during the posterior reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test) and their scores on the activities of daily living subscale of the FAAM were predictive of outcome and correctly classified 84.8% of cases (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 91%; P < .001). An inability to complete jumping and landing tasks within 2 weeks of a first-time LAS and poorer dynamic postural control and lower self-reported function 6 months after a first-time LAS were predictive of eventual CAI outcome. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Sports Participation, Functional Outcome, and Complications After Ankle Arthrodesis: Midterm Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Yvonne R A; Keijsers, Noël L W; Louwerens, Jan Willem K

    2017-10-01

    Ankle arthrodesis provides satisfactory functional outcome based on basic daily activities, but information regarding more demanding tasks is limited. Also, studies reporting longer term survival and complication rates are sparse and concern small study populations. This study reports functional outcome with more focus on demanding tasks and sports and reports the mid- to long-term union and complication rates in a large study population. Between 2005 and 2010, an ankle arthrodesis was performed on 185 ankles. Clinical results were retrospectively assessed with the Foot Function Index (FFI), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Information regarding sports pre- and postoperatively was obtained through a questionnaire. In addition, postoperative complications, reoperations, and failures (defined as nonunion of the ankle arthrodesis) were determined. Mean follow-up time was 8 years. FFI scores significantly improved, the FAAM ADL score was 70%, and the mean VAS for pain at the ankle/hindfoot at follow-up was 20. Sports participation slightly diminished from 79.5% prior to the onset of disabling complaints to 68.9% postoperatively. Of the patients, 73.1% were able to hike with a median hiking time of 40 minutes (range, 2-600 minutes). Kneeling could be performed on average 10 minutes (range, 2-60 minutes) in 39.8% and jumping down from steps by 23.5% of the patients. A small selection of patients was able to sprint (14%), and 16.8% of the patients were able to run a median distance of 60 meters (range, 3-1000 meters). Failure occurred in 9.2% and other postoperative complications were present in 21.6%, requiring reoperation in 8.6% of the cases. Ankle arthrodesis led to satisfactory functional outcome and pain reduction. Most patients remained active in sports, but a transition to less demanding sporting activities was seen. The complication and failure rates were similar with previous literature, and the incidence of

  16. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer-Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…

  18. Measuring the Reading Ability of Incoming Freshmen: A Path Analysis Investigation into Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a complex process involving numerous skills and abilities contributing to acquiring meaning from text. Individuals without the requisite reading skills will have difficulty not only in school but throughout their lifetimes. The purpose of the study was to compare the reading ability of incoming college freshmen with that of adults with…

  19. Fabricating Atom-Sized Gaps by Field-Aided Atom Migration in Nanoscale Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Bi, Jun-Jie; Xie, Zhen; Yin, Kaikai; Wang, Dunyou; Zhang, Guang-Ping; Xiang, Dong; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Li, Zong-Liang

    2018-05-01

    The gap sizes between electrodes generated by typical methods are generally much larger than the dimension of a common molecule when fabricating a single-molecule junction, which dramatically suppresses the yield of single-molecule junctions. Based on the ab initio calculations, we develop a strategy named the field-aided method to accurately fabricate an atomic-sized gap between gold nanoelectrodes. To understand the mechanism of this strategy, configuration evolutions of gold nanojunction in stretching and compressing processes are calculated. The numerical results show that, in the stretching process, the gold atoms bridged between two electrodes are likely to form atomic chains. More significantly, lattice vacant positions can be easily generated in stretching and compressing processes, which make field-aided gap generation possible. In field-aided atom migration (FAAM), the external field can exert driving force, enhance the initial energy of the system, and decrease the barrier in the migration path, which makes the atom migration feasible. Conductance and stretching and compressing forces, as measurable variables in stretching and compressing processes, present very useful signals for determining the time to perform FAAM. Following this desirable strategy, we successfully fabricate gold nanogaps with a dimension of 0.38 ±0.05 nm in the experiment, as our calculation simulates.

  20. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  1. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597

  2. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G; Bavin, Edith L; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.

  3. Predicting absenteeism: screening for work ability or burnout.

    PubMed

    Schouteten, R

    2017-01-01

    In determining the predictors of occupational health problems, two factors can be distinguished: personal (work ability) factors and work-related factors (burnout, job characteristics). However, these risk factors are hardly ever combined and it is not clear whether burnout or work ability best predicts absenteeism. To relate measures of work ability, burnout and job characteristics to absenteeism as the indicators of occupational health problems. Survey data on work ability, burnout and job characteristics from a Dutch university were related to the absenteeism data from the university's occupational health and safety database in the year following the survey study. The survey contained the Work Ability Index (WAI), Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) and seven job characteristics from the Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW). There were 242 employees in the study group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that job characteristics did not predict absenteeism. Exceptional absenteeism was most consistently predicted by the WAI dimensions 'employees' own prognosis of work ability in two years from now' and 'mental resources/vitality' and the burnout dimension 'emotional exhaustion'. Other significant predictors of exceptional absenteeism frequency included estimated work impairment due to diseases (WAI) and feelings of depersonalization or emotional distance from the work (burnout). Absenteeism among university personnel was best predicted by a combination of work ability and burnout. As a result, measures to prevent absenteeism and health problems may best be aimed at improving an individual's work ability and/or preventing the occurrence of burnout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  5. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  6. Chewing ability, nutritional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Yang, Y-H; Ho, P-S; Lee, I-C

    2014-02-01

    In the literature, most researchers evaluate individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability by types of foods chosen or blood test. However, most of previous researches enrolled small sample size and the results might be influenced by personal preference of foods as well as the individuals' response to invasive examination. In this study, researchers assessed individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability with non-invasive test and excluded the personal preference of foods. This study had two aims: first, to explore associations between chewing ability, edentulous or dentulous, self-perceived oral health and individuals' nutritional status and quality of life; second, to assess whether the association proposed by Locker's model is valid. This study used the database of Phase I 'Publicly-funded Denture Installation Plan for the Elderly' of Kaohsiung City Government. Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects aged 65 years and older completed the questionnaires for data analysis. The research results supported and verified the theoretical model proposed by Locker. Individual's chewing ability associated significantly with his/her nutritional status and quality of life. The results demonstrated that better chewing ability of the elderly leads to better nutritional status and quality of life. The appropriateness of the indicators and measurements of individual's chewing ability and nutritional status used in this study has been evaluated and presented. These indicators and measurements are suggested to be generally used for clinical or research application on future-related issues. Consequently, the maintenance or improvement in the chewing ability of the elderly is extremely beneficial to healthy ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-08-15

    Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m(-2)) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m(-2)) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (-0.32, 95% confidence interval -0.60,-0.05; -0.45, -0.75,-0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (-0.84, -1.56,-0.11; -1.07,-1.88,-0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (-0.62,-1.14,-0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in early childhood, poses a risk for adiposity in adulthood, as characterized

  8. The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline M.; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation and number representation have both been studied widely, but although mental rotation has been linked to higher-level mathematical skills, to date it has not been shown whether mental rotation ability is linked to the most basic mental representation and processing of numbers. To investigate the possible connection between mental rotation abilities and numerical representation, 43 participants completed four tasks: 1) a standard pen-and-paper mental rotation task; 2) a multi-digit number magnitude comparison task assessing the compatibility effect, which indicates separate processing of decade and unit digits; 3) a number-line mapping task, which measures precision of number magnitude representation; and 4) a random number generation task, which yields measures both of executive control and of spatial number representations. Results show that mental rotation ability correlated significantly with both size of the compatibility effect and with number mapping accuracy, but not with any measures from the random number generation task. Together, these results suggest that higher mental rotation abilities are linked to more developed number representation, and also provide further evidence for the connection between spatial and numerical abilities. PMID:23933002

  9. Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both? Challenges, Psychometric Solutions, and What Can Be Gained from Experimental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge of ability tests relates to the difficulty of items, whereas speed tests demand that test takers complete very easy items quickly. This article proposes a conceptual framework to represent how performance depends on both between-person differences in speed and ability and the speed-ability compromise within persons. Related…

  10. Verbal ability and delinquency: testing the moderating role of psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Luna C; Frick, Paul J; Kimonis, Eva R; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2008-04-01

    Impaired verbal abilities are one of the most consistent risk factors for serious antisocial and delinquent behavior. However, individuals with psychopathic traits often show serious antisocial behavior, despite showing no impairment in their verbal abilities. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine whether psychopathy moderates the relationship between verbal abilities and delinquent behavior in a sample of detained youth. The sample included 100 detained adolescent boys who were assessed on self-reported delinquent acts and psychopathic traits, as well as their age at first offense based on official records. Participants also completed a competitive computer task involving two levels of provocation, during which skin conductance was measured. A standard measure of receptive vocabulary was individually administered. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between callous-unemotional (CU) traits (a critical dimension of psychopathy) and verbal ability when predicting violent delinquency. Individuals who were high on CU traits with higher scores on the measure of verbal abilities reported the greatest violent delinquency. These individuals also showed the lowest level of skin conductance reactivity during the provocation task. The results suggest CU traits are an important moderator of the relation between verbal abilities and violent delinquency.

  11. Students' Ability in Science: Results from a Test Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkanat, Cigdem; Gokdere, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Student's ability to use and manipulate scientific concepts has been widely explored; however there is still a need to define the characteristics and nature of science ability. Also, the tests and performance scales that require minimal conceptual knowledge to measure this ability are relatively less common. The aim of this study was to develop an…

  12. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  13. Language Ability Predicts the Development of Behavior Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children’s schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children. PMID:23713507

  14. Determination of the Ability to Measure Traces of Water in Dehydrated Residues of Waste Water by IR Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratsenka, S. V.; Voropai, E. S.; Belkin, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid measurement of the moisture content of dehydrated residues is a critical problem, the solution of which will increase the efficiency of treatment facilities and optimize the process of applying flocculants. The ability to determine the moisture content of dehydrated residues using a meter operating on the IR reflectance principle was confirmed experimentally. The most suitable interference filters were selected based on an analysis of the obtained diffuse reflectance spectrum of the dehydrated residue in the range 1.0-2.7 μm. Calibration curves were constructed and compared for each filter set. A measuring filter with a transmittance maximum at 1.19 μm and a reference filter with a maximum at 1.3 μm gave the best agreement with the laboratory measurements.

  15. Predictors of fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van Muijen, P; Duijts, S F A; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, K; van der Beek, A J; Anema, J R

    2017-12-30

    Workers diagnosed with cancer are at risk for job loss or work disability. To determine predictors of fatigue and work ability at 36 months after diagnosis in a population of cancer survivors. Individuals diagnosed with cancer and who applied for work disability benefit at 24 months of sick leave were surveyed at the time of application and again 12 months later. Fatigue was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness-Fatigue scale questionnaire and work ability was measured using the work ability index. Linear regression analyses were applied to identify predictors. There were 336 participants. Participants who were divorced or widowed had more physical limitations, more depressive symptoms and were more fatigued at baseline, and who worked in health care demonstrated higher levels of fatigue. Lower fatigue was predicted by having received chemotherapy. A higher level of work ability was predicted by having received chemotherapy, better global health and better work ability at baseline. Lower work ability was predicted by being principal wage earner, insecurity about being free of disease, having more physical limitations and having greater wage loss. Socio-demographic, health- and work-related factors were associated with fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors on long-term sick leave. As fatigue and poor work ability are important risk factors for work disability, addressing the identified predictive factors may assist in mitigation of work disability in cancer survivors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Contribution of General Reading Ability to Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the reading ability and science achievement of students in grades 5, 8, and 9. Reading ability was assessed with four measures: word recognition, vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and comprehension (23% of all passages were on science topics). Science achievement was assessed with state…

  18. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  19. Trainability of Abilities: Training and Transfer of Abilities Related to Electronic Fault-Finding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Psychology , 1953, 45, 1-11. Educational Testing Service. Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests . Princeton, N.J., 1976. Ferguson, G. A. On transfer and...Cliff 1 Dr. Richard L. Ferguson Department of Psychology The American College Testing Program University of Southern P. 0. Box 168 California Iowa City...enhanced spatial scanning but not flexibility of closure as measured by standard ability tests administered before and after training. On the other

  20. Factor structure and reliability of the Spanish version of the Dissociative Ability Scale.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fabello, María José; Campos, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Everybody has dissociative ability to some extent, though this may vary from one individual to another. Several tests have been designed to measure dissociative ability, such as the Dissociative Ability Scale (Fisher, Johnson, & Elkins, 2013). Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of this test in a sample of 204 undergraduates seeking a fine arts degree at the University of Vigo (Spain). The reliability and validity of the Dissociative Ability Scale was found to be satisfactory for measuring dissociative ability. The results are discussed and innovative lines of research are proposed.

  1. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  2. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  3. Emotion Recognition Ability: A Multimethod-Multitrait Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Margie; And Others

    A common paradigm in measuring the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion is to present photographs of facial expressions and to ask subjects to identify the emotion. The Affect Blend Test (ABT) uses this method of assessment and is scored for accuracy on specific affects as well as total accuracy. Another method of measuring affect…

  4. An Investigation of Cognitive Skills and Behavior in High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles of high ability students. Performance on measures of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory and general ability (vocabulary and block design) was compared across the following groups: high, average, and low ability students. The behavioral profile of high ability…

  5. Paired-Associate Learning Ability Accounts for Unique Variance in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Wass, Malin; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Paired-associate learning is a dynamic measure of the ability to form new links between two items. This study aimed to investigate whether paired-associate learning ability is associated with success in orthographic learning, and if so, whether it accounts for unique variance beyond phonological decoding ability and orthographic knowledge. A group…

  6. Highways of the emotional intellect: white matter microstructural correlates of an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pisner, Derek A; Smith, Ryan; Alkozei, Anna; Klimova, Aleksandra; Killgore, William D S

    2017-06-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to understand emotional information and apply that understanding to make decisions and solve problems effectively - a construct known as Emotional Intelligence (EI). While considerable evidence supports the importance of EI in social and occupational functioning, the neural underpinnings of this capacity are relatively unexplored. We used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to determine the white matter correlates of EI as measured by the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Participants included 32 healthy adults (16 men; 16 women), aged 18-45 years. White matter integrity in key tracts was positively correlated with the Strategic Area branches of the MSCEIT (Understanding Emotions and Managing Emotions), but not the Experiential branches (Perceiving and Facilitating Emotions). Specifically, the Understanding Emotions branch was associated with greater fractional anisotropy (FA) within somatosensory and sensory-motor fiber bundles, particularly those of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and corticospinal tract. Managing Emotions was associated with greater FA within frontal-affective association tracts including the anterior forceps and right uncinate fasciculus, along with frontal-parietal cingulum and interhemispheric corpus callosum tracts. These findings suggest that specific components of EI are directly related to the structural microarchitecture of major axonal pathways.

  7. An international age- and gender-controlled model for the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI).

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, Giorgio; Glass, Clive; Anderson, Kim D; Galili, Tal; Benjamin, Yoav; Front, Lilach; Aidinoff, Elena; Bluvshtein, Vadim; Itzkovich, Malka; Aito, Sergio; Baroncini, Ilaria; Benito-Penalva, Jesùs; Castellano, Simona; Osman, Aheed; Silva, Pedro; Catz, Amiram

    2015-01-01

    Background. A quadratic formula of the Spinal Cord Injury Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) has previously been published. This formula was based on a model of Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM95), the 95th percentile of the SCIM III values, which correspond with the American Spinal Injury Association Motor Scores (AMS) of SCI patients. Objective. To further develop the original formula. Setting. Spinal cord injury centers from 6 countries and the Statistical Laboratory, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Methods. SCIM95 of 661 SCI patients was modeled, using a quantile regression with or without adjustment for age and gender, to calculate SCI-ARMI values. SCI-ARMI gain during rehabilitation and its correlations were examined. Results. A new quadratic SCIM95 model was created. This resembled the previously published model, which yielded similar SCIM95 values in all the countries, after adjustment for age and gender. Without this adjustment, however, only 86% of the non-Israeli SCIM III observations were lower than those SCIM95 values (P < .0001). Adding the variables age and gender to the new model affected the SCIM95 value significantly (P < .04). Adding country information did not add a significant effect (P > .1). SCI-ARMI gain was positive (38.8 ± 22 points, P < .0001) and correlated weakly with admission age and AMS. Conclusions. The original quadratic SCI-ARMI formula is valid for an international population after adjustment for age and gender. The new formula considers more factors that affect functional ability following SCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    PubMed Central

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  9. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age.

    PubMed

    Royle, Natalie A; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  11. Metric and structural equivalence of core cognitive abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in the United States and Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen C; Lissner, Dianne; McCarthy, Kerri A L; Weiss, Lawrence G; Holdnack, James A

    2007-10-01

    Equivalence of the psychological model underlying Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) scores obtained in the United States and Australia was examined in this study. Examination of metric invariance involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the measurement model relating observed scores to latent variables are numerically equal in different samples. The assumption of metric invariance is necessary for interpretation of scores derived from research studies that seek to generalize patterns of convergent and divergent validity and patterns of deficit or disability. An Australian community volunteer sample was compared to the US standardization data. A pattern of strict metric invariance was observed across samples. In addition, when the effects of different demographic characteristics of the US and Australian samples were included, structural parameters reflecting values of the latent cognitive variables were found not to differ. These results provide important evidence for the equivalence of measurement of core cognitive abilities with the WAIS-III and suggest that latent cognitive abilities in the US and Australia do not differ.

  12. [Visual perception abilities in children with reading disabilities].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-05-01

    Visual perceptual abilities are increasingly being neglected in research concerning reading disabilities. This study measures the visual perceptual abilities of children with disabilities in reading. The visual perceptual abilities of 35 children with specific reading disorder and 30 controls were compared using the German version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception – Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A). 11 % of the children with specific reading disorder show clinically relevant performance on the DTVP-A. The perceptual abilities of both groups differ significantly. No significant group differences exist after controlling for general IQ or Perceptional Reasoning Index, but they do remain after controlling for Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, and Processing Speed Index. The number of children with reading difficulties suffering from visual perceptual disorders has been underestimated. For this reason, visual perceptual abilities should always be tested when making a reading disorder diagnosis. Profiles of IQ-test results of children suffering from reading and visual perceptual disorders should be interpreted carefully.

  13. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    PubMed

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  14. Cognitive Ability and the Demand for Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution. PMID:25343713

  15. Improved self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of medical students through structured improvement measures in an internal medicine bedside course

    PubMed Central

    Fünger, S. M.; Lesevic, H.; Rosner, S.; Ott, I.; Berberat, P.; Nikendei, C.; Sonne, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bedside courses are of outstanding importance when training medical students. The fact that less and less teaching is taking place nowadays at the patient's bedside makes it all the more important that the available time be put to effective use. The aim of this study was to check whether structured improvement measures in the course (scripts, lecturer briefing, e-learning cases) would improve the abilities of the students on the basis of a subjective self-assessment as well as an external assessment by the lecturers with respect to clinical abilities. Methods: Bedside teaching takes place in the fourth study year in the Medical Clinics of the TU Munich. Both students and lecturers had the chance to hand in an anonymous, quantitative self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of the students (German grading system) after every course date. This assessment took place online in the three categories "Medical history & examination", "Diagnosis" and "Therapy". An overall period of four semesters, each with 6 course dates, was investigated. After two of the total of four semesters in the study, the course was changed by introducing scripts, lecturer briefing as well as interactive e-learning cases. The self- and external assessment was compared both within the semester (date 1-3: A; date 4-6: B), during the course as well as before and after introducing the improvement measures ("before" (T0): SS 2012, SS 2013, "after" (T1): WS 2013/2014, SS 2014). Results: There was a significant improvement in one's own abilities on the basis of the self-assessment within each semester when comparing the first (A) and the last (B) course dates. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in the performances in all three categories when T0 was compared with T1, from both the point of view of the students ("Medical history & examination": T0 =2.5±0.9, T1=2.2±0.7, pp<0.001; "Diagnosis" T0=3.1±1.0, T1=2.8 ±0.9, pp<0.001; "Therapy": T0=3.8±1.3, T1=3.5±1.2, pp

  16. Improved self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of medical students through structured improvement measures in an internal medicine bedside course.

    PubMed

    Fünger, S M; Lesevic, H; Rosner, S; Ott, I; Berberat, P; Nikendei, C; Sonne, C

    2016-01-01

    Bedside courses are of outstanding importance when training medical students. The fact that less and less teaching is taking place nowadays at the patient's bedside makes it all the more important that the available time be put to effective use. The aim of this study was to check whether structured improvement measures in the course (scripts, lecturer briefing, e-learning cases) would improve the abilities of the students on the basis of a subjective self-assessment as well as an external assessment by the lecturers with respect to clinical abilities. Bedside teaching takes place in the fourth study year in the Medical Clinics of the TU Munich. Both students and lecturers had the chance to hand in an anonymous, quantitative self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of the students (German grading system) after every course date. This assessment took place online in the three categories "Medical history & examination", "Diagnosis" and "Therapy". An overall period of four semesters, each with 6 course dates, was investigated. After two of the total of four semesters in the study, the course was changed by introducing scripts, lecturer briefing as well as interactive e-learning cases. The self- and external assessment was compared both within the semester (date 1-3: A; date 4-6: B), during the course as well as before and after introducing the improvement measures ("before" (T0): SS 2012, SS 2013, "after" (T1): WS 2013/2014, SS 2014). There was a significant improvement in one's own abilities on the basis of the self-assessment within each semester when comparing the first (A) and the last (B) course dates. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in the performances in all three categories when T0 was compared with T1, from both the point of view of the students ("Medical history & examination": T0 =2.5±0.9, T1=2.2±0.7, pp<0.001; "Diagnosis" T0=3.1±1.0, T1=2.8 ±0.9, pp<0.001; "Therapy": T0=3.8±1.3, T1=3.5±1.2, pp<0.018) and in two of the

  17. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial…

  18. Profile of mathematical reasoning ability of 8th grade students seen from communicational ability, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarsih; Budiyono; Indriati, D.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to understand the students’ weaknesses in mathematical reasoning ability in junior secondary school. A set of multiple choice tests were used to measure this ability involve components mathematical communication, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking. A total of 259 respondents were determined by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova test with Fobs = 109.5760 and F = 3.0000. The results show that students’ ability from schools with high National Exam in mathematics category was the best and followed by medium and low category. Mathematical connection is the most difficult component performed by students. In addition, most students also have difficulty in expressing ideas and developing logical arguments.

  19. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring metacognitive ability based on science literacy in dynamic electricity topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warni; Sunyono; Rosidin

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to produce an instrument of metacognition ability assessment based on science literacy on theoretically and empirically feasible dynamic electrical material. The feasibility of the assessment instrument includes theoretical validity on material, construction, and language aspects, as well as empirical validity, reliability, difficulty, distinguishing, and distractor indices. The development of assessment instruments refers to the Dick and Carey development model which includes the preliminary study stage, initial product development, validation and revision, and piloting. The instrument was tested to 32 students of class IX in SMP Negeri 20 Bandar Lampung, using the design of One Group Pretest-Postest Design. The result shows that the metacognition ability assessment instrument based on science literacy is feasible theoretically with theoretical validity percentage of 95.44% and empirical validity of 43.75% for the high category, 43.75% for the medium category, and 12.50 % for low category questions; Reliability of assessment instruments of 0.83 high categories; Difficulty level of difficult item is about 31.25% and medium category is equal to 68.75%. Item that has very good distinguishing power is 12.50%, 62.50% for good stage, and medium category is 25.00%; As well as the duplexing function on a matter of multiple choice is 80.00% including good category and 20.00% for medium category.

  1. Familial aggregation patterns in mathematical ability.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Ellen M; Robinson, Nancy M; Ainsworth, Kathryn H; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Holzman, Ted; Raskind, Wendy H

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical talent is an asset in modern society both at an individual and a societal level. Environmental factors such as quality of mathematics education undoubtedly affect an individual's performance, and there is some evidence that genetic factors also may play a role. The current study was performed to investigate the feasibility of undertaking genetics studies on mathematical ability. Because the etiology of low ability in mathematics is likely to be multifactorial and heterogeneous, we evaluated families ascertained through a proband with high mathematical performance in grade 7 on the SAT to eliminate, to some degree, adverse environmental factors. Families of sex-matched probands, selected for high verbal performance on the SAT, served as the comparison group. We evaluated a number of proxy measures for their usefulness in the study of clustering of mathematical talent. Given the difficulty of testing mathematics performance across developmental ages, especially with the added complexity of decreasing exposure to formal mathematics concepts post schooling, we also devised a semiquantitative scale that incorporated educational, occupational, and avocational information as a surrogate for an academic mathematics measure. Whereas several proxy measures showed no evidence of a genetic basis, we found that the semiquantitative scale of mathematical talent showed strong evidence of a genetic basis, with a differential response as a function of the performance measure used to select the proband. This observation suggests that there may be a genetic basis to specific mathematical talent, and that specific, as opposed to proxy, investigative measures that are designed to measure such talent in family members could be of benefit for this purpose.

  2. Ability Tests? A Shot in the Dark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovsky, Arthur V.

    1973-01-01

    Several areas of controversy between Soviet pyschologists and their Western colleagues concerning the usefulness of tests for measurement of mental ability are noted in this article. The author outlines test procedures suggested by Russian psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. (SM)

  3. Ability to Work among Patients with ESKD: Relevance of Quality Care Metrics.

    PubMed

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca

    2017-08-07

    Enabling patient ability to work was a key rationale for enacting the United States (US) Medicare program that provides financial entitlement to renal replacement therapy for persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, fewer than half of working-age individuals in the US report the ability to work after starting maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Quality improvement is a well-established objective in oversight of the dialysis program, but a more patient-centered quality assessment approach is increasingly advocated. The ESKD Quality Incentive Program (QIP) initiated in 2012 emphasizes clinical performance indicators, but a newly-added measure requires the monitoring of patient depression-an issue that is important for work ability and employment. We investigated depression scores and four dialysis-specific QIP measures in relation to work ability reported by a multi-clinic cohort of 528 working-age maintenance HD patients. The prevalence of elevated depression scores was substantially higher among patients who said they were not able to work, while only one of the four dialysis-specific clinical measures differed for patients able/not able to work. Ability to work may be among patients' top priorities. As the parameters of quality assessment continue to evolve, increased attention to patient priorities might facilitate work ability and employment outcomes.

  4. Testing Based on Understanding: Implications from Studies of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Dennis E.

    1979-01-01

    The information-processing approach and results of research on spatial ability are analyzed. Performance consists of a sequence of distinct mental operations that seem general across subjects, and can be individually measured. New interpretations for some classical concepts in psychological testing and procedures for abilities are suggested.…

  5. Evolution of vehicle exhaust particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Canagaratna, Manjula R; Onasch, Timothy B; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Cross, Eben S; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Kolb, Charles E; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements are used to characterize the evolution of exhaust particulate matter (PM) properties near and downwind of vehicle sources. The AMS provides time-resolved chemically speciated mass loadings and mass-weighted size distributions of nonrefractory PM smaller than 1 microm (NRPM1). Source measurements of aircraft PM show that black carbon particles inhibit nucleation by serving as condensation sinks for the volatile and semi-volatile exhaust gases. Real-world source measurements of ground vehicle PM are obtained by deploying an AMS aboard a mobile laboratory. Characteristic features of the exhaust PM chemical composition and size distribution are discussed. PM mass and number concentrations are used with above-background gas-phase carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to calculate on-road emission factors for individual vehicles. Highly variable ratios between particle number and mass concentrations are observed for individual vehicles. NRPM1 mass emission factors measured for on-road diesel vehicles are approximately 50% lower than those from dynamometer studies. Factor analysis of AMS data (FA-AMS) is applied for the first time to map variations in exhaust PM mass downwind of a highway. In this study, above-background vehicle PM concentrations are highest close to the highway and decrease by a factor of 2 by 200 m away from the highway. Comparison with the gas-phase CO2 concentrations indicates that these vehicle PM mass gradients are largely driven by dilution. Secondary aerosol species do not show a similar gradient in absolute mass concentrations; thus, their relative contribution to total ambient PM mass concentrations increases as a function of distance from the highway. FA-AMS of single particle and ensemble data at an urban receptor site shows that condensation of these secondary aerosol species onto vehicle exhaust particles results in spatial and temporal evolution of the size and composition of vehicle exhaust PM on

  6. Development of Overarm Throwing Technique Reflects Throwing Ability during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    KASUYAMA, Tatsuya; MUTOU, Ikuo; SASAMOTO, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to acquire fundamental movement skills during childhood. Throwing is a representative manipulative skill required for various intrinsic factors. However, the relationship between intrinsic factors and throwing ability in childhood is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate intrinsic factors related to the ball throwing distance of Japanese elementary school children. Methods: Japanese elementary school children from grades 1-6 (aged 6-12 years; n=112) participated in this study. The main outcome was throwing ability, which was measured as the ball throwing distance. We measured five general anthropometric parameters, seven physical fitness parameters, and the Roberton's developmental sequence for all subjects. The relationships between the throwing ability and the 13 parameters were analysed. Results: The Roberton's developmental sequence was the best predictor of ball throwing distance (r=0.80, p≤0.01). The best multiple regression model, which included sex, handgrip strength, shuttle run test, and the Roberton's developmental sequence, accounted for 81% of the total variance. Conclusions: The development of correct throwing technique reflects throwing abilities in childhood. In addition to the throwing sequence, enhancement of grip strength and aerobic capacity are also required for children's throwing ability. PMID:28289578

  7. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  8. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  10. Measuring a hospital's ability to improve.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Steven J; Counte, Michael A; Rubio, Doris M; Arrington, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a recently developed measure of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) implementation can provide health care researchers and administrators with a tool to assist in understanding and with developing an appropriate structure for improvement efforts in hospitals. Two hundred respondents from 40 Missouri hospitals completed a 28-item survey addressing 8 domains of CQI. Overall, hospital scores showed low implementation of a structure that supports improvement efforts. All survey domains showed acceptable psychometric results. Leadership proved to be the most important domain of CQI because it differentiated well between all levels of the scale. Because of its ease of administration and analysis, and its reliability, validity, and level differentiation results, the researchers recommend the widespread use of this tool to understand and develop a hospital's organizational structure to support improvement activities.

  11. Right-Hemispheric Cortical Contributions to Language Ability in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Ragnehed, Mattias; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Engstrom, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between individual linguistic ability based on performance levels and their engagement of typical and atypical language areas in the brain. Eighteen healthy subjects between 21 and 64 years participated in language ability tests, and subsequent functional MRI scans measuring brain activity in response…

  12. The association of children's mathematic abilities with both adults' cognitive abilities and intrinsic fronto-parietal networks is altered in preterm-born individuals.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, J G; Meng, C; Daamen, M; Baumann, N; Busch, B; Bartmann, P; Wolke, D; Boecker, H; Wohlschläger, A; Sorg, C; Jaekel, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Mathematic abilities in childhood are highly predictive for long-term neurocognitive outcomes. Preterm-born individuals have an increased risk for both persistent cognitive impairments and long-term changes in macroscopic brain organization. We hypothesized that the association of childhood mathematic abilities with both adulthood general cognitive abilities and associated fronto-parietal intrinsic networks is altered after preterm delivery. 72 preterm- and 71 term-born individuals underwent standardized mathematic and IQ testing at 8 years and resting-state fMRI and full-scale IQ testing at 26 years of age. Outcome measure for intrinsic networks was intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). Controlling for IQ at age eight, mathematic abilities in childhood were significantly stronger positively associated with adults' IQ in preterm compared with term-born individuals. In preterm-born individuals, the association of children's mathematic abilities and adults' fronto-parietal iFC was altered. Likewise, fronto-parietal iFC was distinctively linked with preterm- and term-born adults' IQ. Results provide evidence that preterm birth alters the link of mathematic abilities in childhood and general cognitive abilities and fronto-parietal intrinsic networks in adulthood. Data suggest a distinct functional role of intrinsic fronto-parietal networks for preterm individuals with respect to mathematic abilities and that these networks together with associated children's mathematic abilities may represent potential neurocognitive targets for early intervention.

  13. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  14. What contributes to driving ability in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Esther; Martinez Martin, Pablo; Gonzalez, Miguel; Bergareche, Alberto; Campos, Victor; Fernández, José Manuel; Alvárez, María; Bayes, Angels

    2010-01-01

    To determine the most significant clinical predictors that influence driving ability in Parkinson disease (PD). National-multi-centre, cross-sectional study covering PD outpatients. Clinical assessment was based on the following questionnaires: cognition (SCOPA-Cog); motor impairment and disabilities (SCOPA motor); depression/anxiety; sleep (SCOPA-Sleep); psychosis and severity/global impairment (HY and CISI-PD). Driving status data was obtained using a standardized questionnaire. Comparisons between drivers and ex-drivers were calculated using chi(2) and Student t-tests as appropriate. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent driving ability clinical predictors. Compared with the drivers, the ex-drivers were older (p = 0.00005), had longer disease duration (p = 0.03), had more overall cognitive dysfunction (p = 0.004) and had greater motor impairment, as measured by the CISI (p = 0.02), HY stage (p = 0.034) and by the SCOPA-motor scale (p = 0.002) and difficulty in activities of daily life (p = 0.002). In the regression model analysis, aging and ADL impairment were the principal clinical predictors that differentiated drivers from ex-drivers. Although overall driving impairment in PD is associated with advancing disease severity, driving ability seems to be more strongly influenced by age and ADL impairment. Multi-disciplinary teams are required to assess driving ability in patients with PD and develop rehabilitation measures for safer driving.

  15. Associations between conceptual reasoning, problem solving, and adaptive ability in high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diane L; Mazefsky, Carla A; Walker, Jon D; Minshew, Nancy J; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-11-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and without autism. The individuals with autism had weaker conceptual reasoning ability than individuals with typical development of similar age and cognitive ability. For the autism group, their flexible thinking scores were significantly correlated with laboratory measures of strategy formation and rule shifting and with reported overall adaptive behavior but not socialization scores. Therefore, in autism, flexibility of thought is potentially more important for adaptive functioning in the natural environment than conceptual reasoning or problem-solving.

  16. The Sport Students’ Ability of Literacy and Statistical Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, N.

    2017-03-01

    The ability of literacy and statistical reasoning is very important for the students of sport education college due to the materials of statistical learning can be taken from their many activities such as sport competition, the result of test and measurement, predicting achievement based on training, finding connection among variables, and others. This research tries to describe the sport education college students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning related to the identification of data type, probability, table interpretation, description and explanation by using bar or pie graphic, explanation of variability, interpretation, the calculation and explanation of mean, median, and mode through an instrument. This instrument is tested to 50 college students majoring in sport resulting only 26% of all students have the ability above 30% while others still below 30%. Observing from all subjects; 56% of students have the ability of identification data classification, 49% of students have the ability to read, display and interpret table through graphic, 27% students have the ability in probability, 33% students have the ability to describe variability, and 16.32% students have the ability to read, count and describe mean, median and mode. The result of this research shows that the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning has not been adequate and students’ statistical study has not reached comprehending concept, literary ability trining and statistical rasoning, so it is critical to increase the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning

  17. Cognitive Modeling of Learning Abilities: A Status Report of LAMP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Christal, Raymond E.

    Research activities underway as part of the Air Force's Learning Abilities Measurement Program (LAMP) are described. A major objective of the program is to devise new models of the nature and organization of human abilities, that could be applied to improve personnel selection and classification systems. The activities of the project have been…

  18. Factors related to work ability among Thai workers.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Saleekul, Sumlee; Usathaporn, Suthee

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors related to work ability among small and medium enterprise (SME) workers in Thailand. The subjects consisted of 845 males and 1,163 females. They were interviewed regarding personal information, working conditions, health status, job stress and work ability. Their blood pressure, body weight and height were also measured. More than half the subjects reported high job stress. Women had higher job stress than men. The work ability index (WAI) results for managers, supervisors and operators were 42.3, 41.4 and 39.8, respectively. Job control of managers and supervisors was higher than operators. The WAI of females decreased with increasing age for those over age 45 years. Factors related to WAI were mental health, social support at work, depression and age. The results suggest job stress reduction programs should be considered to improve work ability among SME workers.

  19. Work ability is influenced by kinesiophobia among patients with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Mona-Lisa; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Lundberg, Mari

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how kinesiophobia fluctuates in patients over a four weeks multimodal rehabilitation program and to study the relationship between work ability and kinesiophobia. The study included 112 patients (94 women, 18 men). Measurements were made before, directly after, 2 months after, and 12 months after the program. The level of work ability was rated by the patients on a scale from 0% to 100%, and kinesiophobia was measured by the Swedish version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-SV). Kinesiophobia decreased between the start of the multimodal rehabilitation program and the follow-up periods. Work ability increased over time, but not between baseline and the 2-month follow-up. Decreases in the TSK-SV score between baseline and the 2-month follow-up were related to the increased probability of improved work ability at the 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, a decrease in kinesiophobia seems to be related to increased work ability of patients participating in a 4-week multimodal rehabilitation program.

  20. Work conditions and socioeconomic inequalities in work ability.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Lahelma, Eero; Roos, Eva

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in work ability among municipal employees and the contribution of work conditions to these inequalities. The subjects were employees of the City of Helsinki and were all over 40 years of age. Data (N=1,827) were collected in the age-group-based medical check-ups by occupational health personnel. Work ability was measured with a work ability index. The association between the work ability index with socioeconomic status was examined by fitting logistic regression models. There was a consistent gradient in work ability, lower socioeconomic groups having poorer work ability. Adjusting for physical stress accounted for a substantial part of the socioeconomic inequalities. Adjusting for possibilities for influence and development at work accounted for some of the difference between white-collar and blue-collar employees, but not for differences between the white-collar subgroups among the women. Mental stress and problems in the social environment were not clearly associated with the inequalities. Socioeconomic inequalities in work ability among municipal employees correspond to the inequalities in ill health found in general populations. Physical stress at work explained a large part of the inequality. Poor possibilities to influence one's work contributed to the excess of lowered work ability among the blue-collar employees, but not to the inequalities between white-collar subgroups of women. Apart from physical workload, work conditions did not explain socioeconomic inequalities between white-collar subgroups of women.

  1. [Tracking study to improve basic academic ability in chemistry for freshmen].

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.

  2. A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing and algebra ability.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults' rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Creative Thinking Ability and Susceptibility to Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raia, James R.; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1970-01-01

    Students scoring high on creativity measures ( Creative Thinking Abilities") were found to be more susceptible to persuasion. Treatment: author fabricated report on high school activities; criterion: Attitudes Toward Guidance Programs." Data from a follow-up study using Children's Withholding Opinion Scale indicate a relationship…

  4. Telephone Counselors' Conceptualising Abilities and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Jim; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes two studies examining the link between the counseling skills of hotline counselors and their conceptualizing abilities. The first relied on counselors' postinterview conceptualizations of callers' problems and found no link between conceptualization accuracy and counseling skill. However, the accuracy of conceptualizations as measured by…

  5. The Distribution of Academic Ability in the Teaching Force: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Victor S.; Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1982-01-01

    Data indicate that teaching attracts and retains a disproportionately high percentage of those with low measured academic ability and fails to attract and retain those with high ability. If policy makers wish to change this situation, they must be prepared to pay the price. (Author)

  6. Gene-environment interaction in the etiology of mathematical ability using SNP sets.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Sophia J; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics ability and disability is as heritable as other cognitive abilities and disabilities, however its genetic etiology has received relatively little attention. In our recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 10 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA and validated in an individually genotyped sample. In this paper, we use a 'SNP set' composite of these 10 SNPs to investigate gene-environment (GE) interaction, examining whether the association between the 10-SNP set and mathematical ability differs as a function of ten environmental measures in the home and school in a sample of 1888 children with complete data. We found two significant GE interactions for environmental measures in the home and the school both in the direction of the diathesis-stress type of GE interaction: The 10-SNP set was more strongly associated with mathematical ability in chaotic homes and when parents are negative.

  7. Gene-Environment Interaction in the Etiology of Mathematical Ability Using SNP Sets

    PubMed Central

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics ability and disability is as heritable as other cognitive abilities and disabilities, however its genetic etiology has received relatively little attention. In our recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 10 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA and validated in an individually genotyped sample. In this paper, we use a ‘SNP set’ composite of these 10 SNPs to investigate gene-environment (GE) interaction, examining whether the association between the 10-SNP set and mathematical ability differs as a function of ten environmental measures in the home and school in a sample of 1888 children with complete data. We found two significant GE interactions for environmental measures in the home and the school both in the direction of the diathesis-stress type of GE interaction: The 10-SNP set was more strongly associated with mathematical ability in chaotic homes and when parents are negative. PMID:20978832

  8. Identifying Sources of Long-Distance Transported Pollution to the Arctic using δ13C in CH4 and Particle Dispersion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, J. L.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Lanoiselle, M.; Cain, M.; Pyle, J. A.; Illingworth, S.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    A stratified pollution plume of increased CH4 was identified at ~2000ft to ~7000ft altitude between the North coast of Norway and Svalbard on 21st July, 2012. The increased CH4 was identified through continuous CH4 measurements using a fast greenhouse gas analyser on board the NERC FAAM aircraft as part of the MAMM (Methane in the Arctic: Measurements and Modelling) campaign. Measurements of δ13C in CH4 on air samples taken whilst the aircraft was in the pollution plume demonstrate that the plume has a δ13C in CH4 source signature of -70 ‰. (×2.1 ‰). A δ13C source signature of -70 ‰ (×2.1 ‰) is within the expected boundaries of δ13C for wetland emissions in the Arctic (-70 to - 60‰ (Dlugokencky, Nisbet, Fisher, & Lowry, 2011)). The NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model was run backwards from the measurement locations to identify periods where the measured air mass was in contact with the surface (lowest 300 m of the atmosphere). Combining the results together show that the likely source of the elevated methane measured is from wetlands located in North-West Russia. By sampling stratified air at altitude using the FAAM aircraft as a measurement platform, the joint application of isotopic source identification and NAME modelling allows identification of methane plumes from sources that we would otherwise not be able to sample, due to either remote access and / or political reasons (providing that suitable meteorological conditions exist). The use of this joined up approach will give us an extra tool in adding data to the global inventory of δ13C in CH4 source signatures and will enable better understanding of the sources of above background concentrations of CH4 to the Arctic. References. Dlugokencky, E. J., Nisbet, E. G., Fisher, R., & Lowry, D. (2011). Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers. Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 369(1943), 2058-72. doi

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Kindergarten Nonverbal Ability and Third-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased scrutiny of educational proficiency targets has intensified the urgency for educators to identify measurements that indicate students' likelihood of eventual achievement in reading. This regression analysis explored the relationship between nonverbal ability in kindergarten as measured by the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) and…

  10. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  11. Diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer measurements in glaucoma using swept source and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tatham, Andrew J; Weinreb, Robert N; Medeiros, Felipe A; Liu, Ting; Zangwill, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer measurements in glaucoma, obtained using swept source (SS) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare to circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurements. The study included 106 glaucomatous eyes of 80 subjects and 41 eyes of 22 healthy subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL), macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) and cpRNFL thickness were assessed using SS-OCT and SD-OCT, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to determine ability to differentiate glaucomatous and healthy eyes and between early glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Mean (± standard deviation) mGCIPL and mGCC thickness were thinner in both healthy and glaucomatous eyes using SS-OCT compared to using SD-OCT. Fixed and proportional biases were detected between SS-OCT and SD-OCT measures. Diagnostic accuracy (AUCs) for differentiating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes for average and sectoral mGCIPL was similar in SS-OCT (0.65 to 0.81) and SD-OCT (0.63 to 0.83). AUCs for average cpRNFL acquired using SS-OCT and SD-OCT tended to be higher (0.83 and 0.85, respectively) than for average mGCC (0.82 and 0.78, respectively), and mGCIPL (0.73 and 0.75, respectively) but these differences did not consistently reach statistical significance. Minimum SD-OCT mGCIPL and mGCC thickness (unavailable in SS-OCT) had the highest AUC (0.86) among macular measurements. Assessment of mGCIPL thickness using SS-OCT or SD-OCT is useful for detecting glaucomatous damage, but measurements are not interchangeable for patient management decisions. Diagnostic accuracies of mGCIPL and mGCC from both SS-OCT and SD-OCT were similar to that of cpRNFL for glaucoma detection.

  12. Diagnostic Ability of Macular Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Measurements in Glaucoma Using Swept Source and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tatham, Andrew J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Liu, Ting; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer measurements in glaucoma, obtained using swept source (SS) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare to circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurements. Methods The study included 106 glaucomatous eyes of 80 subjects and 41 eyes of 22 healthy subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL), macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) and cpRNFL thickness were assessed using SS-OCT and SD-OCT, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to determine ability to differentiate glaucomatous and healthy eyes and between early glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Results Mean (± standard deviation) mGCIPL and mGCC thickness were thinner in both healthy and glaucomatous eyes using SS-OCT compared to using SD-OCT. Fixed and proportional biases were detected between SS-OCT and SD-OCT measures. Diagnostic accuracy (AUCs) for differentiating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes for average and sectoral mGCIPL was similar in SS-OCT (0.65 to 0.81) and SD-OCT (0.63 to 0.83). AUCs for average cpRNFL acquired using SS-OCT and SD-OCT tended to be higher (0.83 and 0.85, respectively) than for average mGCC (0.82 and 0.78, respectively), and mGCIPL (0.73 and 0.75, respectively) but these differences did not consistently reach statistical significance. Minimum SD-OCT mGCIPL and mGCC thickness (unavailable in SS-OCT) had the highest AUC (0.86) among macular measurements. Conclusion Assessment of mGCIPL thickness using SS-OCT or SD-OCT is useful for detecting glaucomatous damage, but measurements are not interchangeable for patient management decisions. Diagnostic accuracies of mGCIPL and mGCC from both SS-OCT and SD-OCT were similar to that of cpRNFL for glaucoma detection. PMID:25978420

  13. Cognitive correlates of financial abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Wadley, Virginia G; Griffith, H Randall; Ball, Karlene; Marson, Daniel C

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the cognitive correlates of financial abilities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Controlled, matched-sample, cross-sectional analysis regressing five cognitive composites on financial performance measures. University medical and research centers. Forty-three persons with MCI and 43 normal controls. The Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI) and a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Patients with MCI performed significantly worse than controls on cognitive domains of executive function, memory, and language and on FCI domains of financial conceptual knowledge, bank statement management, and bill payment. Patients with MCI also needed significantly more time to complete a multistep financial task and were significantly more likely than controls to make errors on this task. Stepwise regression models revealed that, within the MCI group, attention and executive function were significant correlates of FCI performance. Although impaired memory is the cardinal deficit in MCI, the neurocognitive basis of lower functional performance in MCI appears to be emergent declines in abilities to selectively attend, self-monitor, and temporally integrate information. Compromised performance on cognitive measures of attention and executive function may constitute clinical markers of lower financial abilities and should be evaluated for its relationship to functional ability in general. These cognitive domains may be appropriate targets of future intervention studies aimed at preservation of functional independence in people with MCI.

  14. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  15. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem. PMID:26811470

  16. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem.

  17. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Theory of mind abilities in young siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Michal; Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2006-03-01

    Deficits in theory of mind (ToM), evident in most individuals with autism, have been suggested as a core deficit of autism. ToM difficulties in young siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) compared to siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD) would place the former within the broad phenotype. We examined ToM's possible associations with measures of language, cognition, and daily living skills. Participants comprised 24 SIBS-A and 24 matched SIBSTD aged 4.6 years. They completed the false belief and the strange stories tasks. We also collected measures of verbal and cognitive ability and daily living skills. Non-significant differences emerged between the groups on both ToM tasks. Differences did emerge in within-group associations between ToM ability and receptive language. The conclusion is that SIBS-A show resilience in ToM abilities. Possibly, these deficits are not genetically transferred to siblings, at least as measured in laboratory-based ToM tasks.

  19. Brain Responses to Emotional Images Related to Cognitive Ability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Shannon M.; Davis, Hasker P.; Kisley, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to exhibit a positivity effect in processing of emotional stimuli, seemingly focusing more on positive than negative information. Whether this reflects purposeful changes or an unintended side-effect of declining cognitive abilities is unclear. For the present study older adults displaying a wide range of cognitive abilities completed measures of attention, visual and verbal memory, executive functioning, and processing speed, as well as a socioemotional measure of time perspective. Regression analyses examined the ability of these variables to predict neural responsivity to select emotional stimuli as measured with the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related brain potential (ERP). Stronger cognitive functioning was associated with higher LPP amplitude in response to negative images (i.e., greater processing). This does not support a voluntary avoidance of negative information processing in older adults for this particular measure of attentional allocation. A model is proposed to reconcile this finding with the extant literature that has demonstrated positivity effects in measures of later, controlled attentional allocation. PMID:23276213

  20. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  1. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159

  2. Do quiet standing centre of pressure measures within specific frequencies differ based on ability to recover balance in individuals with stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Singer, Jonathan C.; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether quiet standing measures at specific frequency levels (representative of reactive control) differed between individuals with stroke based on their ability to recover balance (failed or successful responses to external perturbations). Methods Individuals with stroke completed a clinical assessment, including 30 s of quiet standing and lean-and-release postural perturbations, at admission to in-patient rehabilitation. Quiet standing centre of pressure (COP) signals were calculated and discrete wavelet decomposition was performed. Net COP amplitude, between-limb synchronization, and ratios of individual-limb COP were determined for each frequency level of interest, and for the non-decomposed signal (all frequency levels). Outcome measures were compared between individuals who exhibited failed and successful responses during a) unconstrained and b) encouraged-use lean-and-release trials. Results Individuals with failed responses during the unconstrained lean-and-release trials displayed greater net COP amplitude than those with successful responses, specifically within a frequency range of 0.40–3.20 Hz. Conclusions Reduced ability to recover balance among individuals with stroke may be reflected in impaired reactive control of quiet standing. Significance These results provide insight into the mechanism by which reactive control of quiet standing is impaired in individuals with stroke, and may inform assessment and rehabilitation strategies for post-stroke reactive balance control. PMID:27178866

  3. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  4. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  6. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  7. Availability of new drugs and Americans' ability to work.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this work was the investigation of the extent to which the introduction of new drugs has increased society's ability to produce goods and services by increasing the number of hours worked per member of the working-age population. Econometric models of ability-to-work measures from data on approximately 200,000 individuals with 47 major chronic conditions observed throughout a 15-year period (1982-1996) were estimated. Under very conservative assumptions, the estimates indicate that the value of the increase in ability to work attributable to new drugs is 2.5 times as great as expenditure on new drugs. The potential of drugs to increase employee productivity should be considered in the design of drug-reimbursement policies. Conversely, policies that broadly reduce the development and utilization of new drugs may ultimately reduce our ability to produce other goods and services.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Links Between Natural Language Use and Cognitive Ability in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Caitlin F; Edelson, Lisa R; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2017-03-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between language and nonverbal cognitive ability is well-documented, studies examining the etiology of the covariance between these abilities are scant, particularly in very young children. The goal of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the genetic and environmental links between language use, assessed through conversational language samples, and nonverbal cognition in a sample of 3-year-old twins (N = 281 pairs). Significant genetic and nonshared environmental influences were found for nonverbal cognitive ability and language measures, including mean length of utterance and number of different words, as well as significant genetic covariance between cognitive ability and both language measures. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. The Development of Reading Ability in Kindergarten. Technical Report No. 515.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Linda A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore how children learn to read in kindergarten. The study employed a heuristic model that included entering ability, home background, instructional processes, home support for literacy development, and measures of student ability at the end of kindergarten. Children were tested, whole-day classroom observations were…

  10. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  11. Investigating the Impact of Uncertainty about Item Parameters on Ability Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Xie, Minge; Song, Xiaolan; Lu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic expansions of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of an examinee's ability are derived while item parameter estimators are treated as covariates measured with error. The asymptotic formulae present the amount of bias of the ability estimators due to the uncertainty of item parameter estimators.…

  12. RELATING OLDER WORKERS' INJURIES TO THE MISMATCH BETWEEN PHYSICAL ABILITY AND JOB DEMANDS

    PubMed Central

    Fraade-Blanar, Laura A.; Sears, Jeanne M.; Chan, Kwun Chuen G.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Crane, Paul K.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between job demand and occupational injury among older workers. Methods Participants were workers aged 50+ enrolled in the Health and Retirement Study, 2010–2014. Participants reported physical ability within three domains: physical effort, stooping/kneeling/crouching, and lifting. To measure subjective job demand, participants rated their job's demands within domains. We generated objective job demand measures through the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Using Poisson regression, we modeled the association between physical ability, job demand, and self-reported occupational injury. A second model explored interaction between job demand and physical ability. Results The injury rate was 22 /1,000 worker-years. Higher job demand was associated with increased injury risk. Within high job demands, lower physical ability was associated with increased injury risk. Conclusions Older workers whose physical abilities do not meet job demands face increased injury risk. PMID:28166127

  13. Effect of Mixing Ability Groups on Ability Levels Attained.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, John H. A. L.

    In 1983, in the Netherlands' highly differentiated school system, two types of curriculum representing different ability levels were combined as a first step towards a more heterogeneous grouping of student abilities. A study of one aspect of the results of this change compared over 1000 samples of English and German second language listening…

  14. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    PubMed

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  15. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses

    PubMed Central

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or “interoception” may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes, and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion, and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals. PMID:24916358

  16. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  17. Retained executive abilities in mild cognitive impairment are associated with increased white matter network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Danielle C; Mian, Asim Z; Budson, Andrew E; Moss, Mark B; Koo, Bang Bon; Killiany, Ronald J

    2018-01-01

    To describe structural network differences in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with high versus low executive abilities, as reflected by measures of white matter connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Of the 128 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database who had both a DTI scan as well as a diagnosis of MCI, we used an executive function score to classify the top 15 scoring patients as high executive ability, and the bottom-scoring 16 patients as low executive ability. Using a regions-of-interest-based analysis, we constructed networks and calculated graph theory measures on the constructed networks. We used automated tractography in order to compare differences in major white matter tracts. The high executive ability group yielded greater network size, density and clustering coefficient. The high executive ability group reflected greater fractional anisotropy bilaterally in the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. The network measures of the high executive ability group demonstrated greater white matter integrity. This suggests that white matter reserve may confer greater protection of executive abilities. Loss of this reserve may lead to greater impairment in the progression to Alzheimer's disease dementia. • The MCI high executive ability group yielded a larger network. • The MCI high executive ability group had greater FA in numerous tracts. • White matter reserve may confer greater protection of executive abilities. • Loss of executive reserve may lead to greater impairment in AD dementia.

  18. Determinants of work ability and its predictive value for disability.

    PubMed

    Alavinia, S M; de Boer, A G E M; van Duivenbooden, J C; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Burdorf, A

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction workers aged 40 years and older, with average follow-up period of 23 months. Disability was defined as receiving a disability pension, granted to workers unable to continue working in their regular job. Work ability was assessed using the work ability index (WAI). Associations between work-related factors and individual characteristics with work ability at baseline were evaluated using linear regression analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of work ability for disability. Work-related factors were associated with a lower work ability at baseline, but had little prognostic value for disability during follow-up. The hazard ratios for disability among workers with a moderate and poor work ability at baseline were 8 and 32, respectively. All separate scales in the WAI had predictive power for future disability with the highest influence of current work ability in relation to job demands and lowest influence of diseases diagnosed by a physician. A moderate or poor work ability was highly predictive for receiving a disability pension. Preventive measures should facilitate a good balance between work performance and health in order to prevent quitting labour participation.

  19. The relationship between work ability and oxidative stress in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Masanori; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Morita, Yusaku; Konno, Yoshimasa; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Work ability is based on the balance between personal resources and work demand. This study focused on the personal resources component of work ability. The aims of this study were to elucidate the association between work ability and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, particularly oxidative stress, and to estimate the effect of a community-implemented lifestyle modification programme on work ability and CV risk factors. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was negatively correlated with psychological resources, as measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). Overall WAI score was unchanged following the programme, while CV risk factors and antioxidative activity improved. A reduction in PGF2α levels was correlated with an improvement in subjective work ability relative to job demands, as assessed by a WAI item. Taken together, the results suggest that lifestyle modification programmes enhance the personal resources component of work ability and are associated with a reduction in oxidative stress.

  20. Developing entrepreneurship ability of pre-service mathematics teachers through GSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohaeti, E. E.; Afrilianto, M.; Primandhika, R. B.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to describe mathematical entrepreneurship ability of 136 mathematics education students through Gerakan STKIP Siliwangi Mengajar (GSSM) that was conducted in 7 districts (of 17 villages) in West Java. GSSM was a programme that combines devotion to the society and college student internships activity at several schools within three months. The data was obtained through observation towards the activities performed by the students during GSSM. The questionnaire to measure the mathematical entrepreneurship ability of students. The results showed that 1) there were three activities that encourage the mathematical entrepreneurship ability of students; such as tutoring post, teaching practices in school and entrepreneurial activities in society, 2) through those three activities, students can develop their entrepreneurial spirit well and grow creativity, innovation and calculation take risk ability, 3) there was medium-association between student mathematical concept mastery that supports entrepreneurship with their mathematical entrepreneurship ability.

  1. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Is there a general task switching ability?

    PubMed

    Yehene, Einat; Meiran, Nachshon

    2007-11-01

    Participants were tested on two analogous task switching paradigms involving Shape/Size tasks and Vertical/Horizontal tasks, respectively, and three measures of psychometric intelligence, tapping fluid, crystallized and perceptual speed abilities. The paradigms produced similar patterns of group mean reaction times (RTs) and the vast majority of the participants showed switching cost (switch RT minus repeat RT), mixing cost (repeat RT minus single-task RT) and congruency effects. The shared intra-individual variance across paradigms and with psychometric intelligence served as criteria for general ability. Structural equations modeling indicated that switching cost with ample preparation ("residual cost") and mixing cost met these criteria. However, switching cost with little preparation and congruency effects were predominantly paradigm specific.

  3. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  4. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  5. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  6. Visuospatial ability correlates with performance in simulated gynecological laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahlborg, Liv; Hedman, Leif; Murkes, Daniel; Westman, Bo; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars

    2011-07-01

    To analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopy performed by consultants in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). This was a prospective cohort study carried out at two community hospitals in Sweden. Thirteen consultants in obstetrics and gynecology were included. They had previously independently performed 10-100 advanced laparoscopies. Participants were tested for visuospatial ability by the Mental Rotations Test version A (MRT-A). After a familiarization session and standardized instruction, all participants subsequently conducted three consecutive virtual tubal occlusions followed by three virtual salpingectomies. Performance in the simulator was measured by Total Time, Score and Ovarian Diathermy Damage. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopic performance. The learning curves in the simulator were assessed in order to interpret the relationship with the visuospatial ability. Visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r=-0.62; p=0.03) and Score (r=0.57; p=0.05) in the medium level of the virtual tubal occlusion. In the technically more advanced virtual salpingectomy the visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r=-0.64; p=0.02), Ovarian Diathermy Damage (r=-0.65; p=0.02) and with overall Score (r=0.64; p=0.02). Visuospatial ability appears to be related to the performance of gynecological laparoscopic procedures in a simulator. Testing visuospatial ability might be helpful when designing individual training programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Idiom, syntax, and advanced theory of mind abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Nelson, Keith E; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the authors investigated idiom, syntax, and advanced TOM abilities in children with ASD compared to children with typical development (TD). Twenty-six children with ASD, ages 5 to 12 years, were compared to individuals in each of 2 control groups of children with TD: 1 matched on chronological age and nonverbal IQ, and 1 matched on syntax age-equivalence and raw scores. Idiom comprehension, syntax, vocabulary, and 2 measures of advanced TOM abilities were examined. Although children with ASD performed worse on idiom comprehension compared to the age-matched group with TD, they exhibited comparable idiom performance to the syntax-matched group with TD. Advanced TOM abilities were related to idiom comprehension for children with ASD, but not for children with TD, above the contributions of basic language abilities. Syntax abilities should be used as a matching variable when examining figurative or other late-developing language skills.

  8. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  9. Effects of lorazepam on visual perceptual abilities.

    PubMed

    Pompéia, S; Pradella-Hallinan, M; Manzano, G M; Bueno, O F A

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of an acute dose of the benzodiazepine (BZ) lorazepam in young healthy volunteers on five distinguishable visual perception abilities determined by previous factor-analytic studies. This was a double-blind, cross-over design study of acute oral doses of lorazepam (2 mg) and placebo in young healthy volunteers. We focused on a set of paper-and-pencil tests of visual perceptual abilities that load on five correlated but distinguishable factors (Spatial Visualization, Spatial Relations, Perceptual Speed, Closure Speed, and Closure Flexibility). Some other tests (DSST, immediate and delayed recall of prose; measures of subjective mood alterations) were used to control for the classic BZ-induced effects. Lorazepam impaired performance in the DSST and delayed recall of prose, increased subjective sedation and impaired tasks of all abilities except Spatial Visualization and Closure Speed. Only impairment in Perceptual Speed (Identical Pictures task) and delayed recall of prose were not explained by sedation. Acute administration of lorazepam, in a dose that impaired episodic memory, selectively affected different visual perceptual abilities before and after controlling for sedation. Central executive demands and sedation did not account for results, so impairment in the Identical Pictures task may be attributed to lorazepam's visual processing alterations. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  11. The International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) - First results from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, Jana; Eriksson, Patrick; Fox, Stuart; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observations bear the potential to measure properties of non-thin ice clouds like mass content and mean particle size. The next generation of European meteorological satellites, the MetOp-SG series, will carry the first satellite-borne submillimeter sounder, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI). An airborne demonstrator, the International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR), is operated together with other remote sensing instruments and in-situ probes on the FAAM aircraft. Scientific measurements from two campaings in the North Atlantic region, STICCS and COSMIC, are available so far. Here we will introduce the ISMAR instrument, present the acquired measurements from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns and show some first results. This will include estimation of instrument performance, first analysis of clear-sky and cloudy cases and discussion of selected features observed in the measurements (e.g. polarisation signatures).

  12. White matter microstructural properties correlate with sensorimotor synchronization abilities.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Tal; Tal, Idan; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) to an external auditory rhythm is a developed ability in humans, particularly evident in dancing and singing. This ability is typically measured in the lab via a simple task of finger tapping to an auditory beat. While simplistic, there is some evidence that poor performance on this task could be related to impaired phonological and reading abilities in children. Auditory-motor synchronization is hypothesized to rely on a tight coupling between auditory and motor neural systems, but the specific pathways that mediate this coupling have not been identified yet. In this study, we test this hypothesis and examine the contribution of fronto-temporal and callosal connections to specific measures of rhythmic synchronization. Twenty participants went through SMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements. We quantified the mean asynchrony between an auditory beat and participants' finger taps, as well as the time to resynchronize (TTR) with an altered meter, and examined the correlations between these behavioral measures and diffusivity in a small set of predefined pathways. We found significant correlations between asynchrony and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left (but not right) arcuate fasciculus and in the temporal segment of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, TTR correlated with FA in the precentral segment of the callosum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that relates these particular white matter tracts with performance on an auditory-motor rhythmic synchronization task. We propose that left fronto-temporal and temporal-callosal fibers are involved in prediction and constant comparison between auditory inputs and motor commands, while inter-hemispheric connections between the motor/premotor cortices contribute to successful resynchronization of motor responses with a new external rhythm, perhaps via inhibition of tapping to the previous rhythm. Our results indicate that auditory

  13. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: a latent trait analysis of items from the 'Claim Evaluation Tools' database using Rasch modelling.

    PubMed

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Guttersrud, Øystein; Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-05-25

    The Claim Evaluation Tools database contains multiple-choice items for measuring people's ability to apply the key concepts they need to know to be able to assess treatment claims. We assessed items from the database using Rasch analysis to develop an outcome measure to be used in two randomised trials in Uganda. Rasch analysis is a form of psychometric testing relying on Item Response Theory. It is a dynamic way of developing outcome measures that are valid and reliable. To assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of 88 items addressing 22 key concepts using Rasch analysis. We administrated four sets of multiple-choice items in English to 1114 people in Uganda and Norway, of which 685 were children and 429 were adults (including 171 health professionals). We scored all items dichotomously. We explored summary and individual fit statistics using the RUMM2030 analysis package. We used SPSS to perform distractor analysis. Most items conformed well to the Rasch model, but some items needed revision. Overall, the four item sets had satisfactory reliability. We did not identify significant response dependence between any pairs of items and, overall, the magnitude of multidimensionality in the data was acceptable. The items had a high level of difficulty. Most of the items conformed well to the Rasch model's expectations. Following revision of some items, we concluded that most of the items were suitable for use in an outcome measure for evaluating the ability of children or adults to assess treatment claims. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Factors that impact on emergency nurses' ethical decision-making ability.

    PubMed

    Alba, Barbara

    2016-11-10

    Reliance on moral principles and professional codes has given nurses direction for ethical decision-making. However, rational models do not capture the emotion and reality of human choice. Intuitive response must be considered. Supporting intuition as an important ethical decision-making tool for nurses, the aim of this study was to determine relationships between intuition, years of worked nursing experience, and perceived ethical decision-making ability. A secondary aim explored the relationships between rational thought to years of worked nursing experience and perceived ethical decision-making ability. A non-experimental, correlational research design was used. The Rational Experiential Inventory measured intuition and rational thought. The Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale measured perceived ethical decision-making ability. Pearson's r was the statistical method used to analyze three primary and two secondary research questions. A sample of 182 emergency nurses was recruited electronically through the Emergency Nurses Association. Participants were self-selected. Approval to conduct this study was obtained by the Adelphi University Institutional Review Board. A relationship between intuition and perceived ethical decision-making ability (r = .252, p = .001) was a significant finding in this study. This study is one of the first of this nature to make a connection between intuition and nurses' ethical decision-making ability. This investigation contributes to a broader understanding of the different thought processes used by emergency nurses to make ethical decisions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Diagnosis of students' ability in a statistical course based on Rasch probabilistic outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Zamalia; Ramli, Wan Syahira Wan; Sapri, Shamsiah; Ahmad, Sanizah

    2017-06-01

    Measuring students' ability and performance are important in assessing how well students have learned and mastered the statistical courses. Any improvement in learning will depend on the student's approaches to learning, which are relevant to some factors of learning, namely assessment methods carrying out tasks consisting of quizzes, tests, assignment and final examination. This study has attempted an alternative approach to measure students' ability in an undergraduate statistical course based on the Rasch probabilistic model. Firstly, this study aims to explore the learning outcome patterns of students in a statistics course (Applied Probability and Statistics) based on an Entrance-Exit survey. This is followed by investigating students' perceived learning ability based on four Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) and students' actual learning ability based on their final examination scores. Rasch analysis revealed that students perceived themselves as lacking the ability to understand about 95% of the statistics concepts at the beginning of the class but eventually they had a good understanding at the end of the 14 weeks class. In terms of students' performance in their final examination, their ability in understanding the topics varies at different probability values given the ability of the students and difficulty of the questions. Majority found the probability and counting rules topic to be the most difficult to learn.

  16. Sensorimotor abilities predict on-field performance in professional baseball.

    PubMed

    Burris, Kyle; Vittetoe, Kelly; Ramger, Benjamin; Suresh, Sunith; Tokdar, Surya T; Reiter, Jerome P; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2018-01-08

    Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues. Within this framework, we find that sensorimotor abilities are significant predictors of on-base percentage, walk rate and strikeout rate, accounting for age, position, and league. We find no such relationship for either slugging percentage or fielder-independent pitching. The pattern of results suggests performance contributions from both visual-sensory and visual-motor abilities and indicates that sensorimotor screenings may be useful for player scouting.

  17. Loss of ability to work and ability to live independently in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Heckman, Michael G; Wider, Christian; Putzke, John D; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J

    2012-02-01

    Ability to work and live independently is of particular concern for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied a series of PD patients able to work or live independently at baseline, and evaluated potential risk factors for two separate outcomes: loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. The series comprised 495 PD patients followed prospectively. Ability to work and ability to live independently were based on clinical interview and examination. Cox regression models adjusted for age and disease duration were used to evaluate associations of baseline characteristics with loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. Higher UPDRS dyskinesia score, UPDRS instability score, UPDRS total score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, and presence of intellectual impairment at baseline were all associated with increased risk of future loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently (P ≤ 0.0033). Five years after initial visit, for patients ≤70 years of age with a disease duration ≤4 years at initial visit, 88% were still able to work and 90% to live independently. These estimates worsened as age and disease duration at initial visit increased; for patients >70 years of age with a disease duration >4 years, estimates at 5 years were 43% able to work and 57% able to live independently. The information provided in this study can offer useful information for PD patients in preparing for future ability to perform activities of daily living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  19. Ability evaluation by binary tests: Problems, challenges & recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkansky, E.; Turetsky, V.

    2016-11-01

    Binary tests designed to measure abilities of objects under test (OUTs) are widely used in different fields of measurement theory and practice. The number of test items in such tests is usually very limited. The response to each test item provides only one bit of information per OUT. The problem of correct ability assessment is even more complicated, when the levels of difficulty of the test items are unknown beforehand. This fact makes the search for effective ways of planning and processing the results of such tests highly relevant. In recent years, there has been some progress in this direction, generated by both the development of computational tools and the emergence of new ideas. The latter are associated with the use of so-called “scale invariant item response models”. Together with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, they helped to solve some problems of engineering and proficiency testing. However, several issues related to the assessment of uncertainties, replications scheduling, the use of placebo, as well as evaluation of multidimensional abilities still present a challenge for researchers. The authors attempt to outline the ways to solve the above problems.

  20. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: a latent trait analysis of items from the ‘Claim Evaluation Tools’ database using Rasch modelling

    PubMed Central

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Guttersrud, Øystein; Nsangi, Allen; Semakula, Daniel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Background The Claim Evaluation Tools database contains multiple-choice items for measuring people’s ability to apply the key concepts they need to know to be able to assess treatment claims. We assessed items from the database using Rasch analysis to develop an outcome measure to be used in two randomised trials in Uganda. Rasch analysis is a form of psychometric testing relying on Item Response Theory. It is a dynamic way of developing outcome measures that are valid and reliable. Objectives To assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of 88 items addressing 22 key concepts using Rasch analysis. Participants We administrated four sets of multiple-choice items in English to 1114 people in Uganda and Norway, of which 685 were children and 429 were adults (including 171 health professionals). We scored all items dichotomously. We explored summary and individual fit statistics using the RUMM2030 analysis package. We used SPSS to perform distractor analysis. Results Most items conformed well to the Rasch model, but some items needed revision. Overall, the four item sets had satisfactory reliability. We did not identify significant response dependence between any pairs of items and, overall, the magnitude of multidimensionality in the data was acceptable. The items had a high level of difficulty. Conclusion Most of the items conformed well to the Rasch model’s expectations. Following revision of some items, we concluded that most of the items were suitable for use in an outcome measure for evaluating the ability of children or adults to assess treatment claims. PMID:28550019

  1. Musical Competence is Predicted by Music Training, Cognitive Abilities, and Personality.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2018-06-15

    Individuals differ in musical competence, which we defined as the ability to perceive, remember, and discriminate sequences of tones or beats. We asked whether such differences could be explained by variables other than music training, including socioeconomic status (SES), short-term memory, general cognitive ability, and personality. In a sample of undergraduates, musical competence had positive simple associations with duration of music training, SES, short-term memory, general cognitive ability, and openness-to-experience. When these predictors were considered jointly, musical competence had positive partial associations with music training, general cognitive ability, and openness. Nevertheless, moderation analyses revealed that the partial association between musical competence and music training was evident only among participants who scored below the mean on our measure of general cognitive ability. Moreover, general cognitive ability and openness had indirect associations with musical competence by predicting music training, which in turn predicted musical competence. Musical competence appears to be the result of multiple factors, including but not limited to music training.

  2. Ability Self-Estimates and Self-Efficacy: Meaningfully Distinct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubany, Shawn T.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual differences between self-efficacy and ability self-estimate scores, used in vocational psychology and career counseling, were examined with confirmatory factor analysis, discriminate relations, and reliability analysis. Results suggest that empirical differences may be due to measurement error or scale content, rather than due to the…

  3. Intensity of musculoskeletal pain and (in) ability to work in nursing.

    PubMed

    Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; de Lima, Ana Cláudia Soares; Prochnow, Andrea; Ceron, Marinez Diniz da Silva; Tavares, Juliana Petri; Urbanetto, Janete de Souza

    2012-01-01

    the aim was to evaluate the association between the intensity of musculoskeletal pain and reduction in work ability among nursing workers. a cross-sectional study, involving 592 nursing staff in a public university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Brazilian version of the Finnish questionnaire for calculating Work Ability Index was used, whose score varies from 7 to 49 points. The score was dichotomized as reduced work ability (7 to 36 points) and good/excellent ability (37 to 49 points). The intensity of musculoskeletal pain over the previous week was evaluated, using a numerical pain scale. 43.3% of the participants had reduced work ability and 48.8% reported strong to unbearable pain. Even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors (function and length of service in the function), the workers who mentioned strong to unbearable pain were four times more likely to be classified in the group with reduced work ability. A positive association was determined between intensity of musculoskeletal pain and reduction in work ability. It is necessary to adopt intervention measures in the organizational structure, so as to promote/restore work ability.

  4. Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-01

    Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy.

  5. Numerosity but Not Texture-Density Discrimination Correlates with Math Ability in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anobile, Giovanni; Castaldi, Elisa; Turi, Marco; Tinelli, Francesca; Burr, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable recent work suggests that mathematical abilities in children correlate with the ability to estimate numerosity. Does math correlate only with numerosity estimation, or also with other similar tasks? We measured discrimination thresholds of school-age (6- to 12.5-years-old) children in 3 tasks: numerosity of patterns of relatively…

  6. Observational study of the effectiveness of spinal cord injury rehabilitation using the Spinal Cord Injury-Ability Realization Measurement Index.

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, G; Bonavita, J; Torre, M; Baroncini, I; Tiberti, S; Maietti, E; Laurenza, L; China, S; Corallo, V; Guerra, F; Buscaroli, L; Candeloro, C; Brunelli, E; Catz, A; Molinari, M

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective observational study. The objective of this study was to determine the rehabilitation potential and the extent to which it is realized in a cohort of spinal cord injury patients using the Spinal Cord Injury-Ability Realization Measurement Index (SCI-ARMI) and to study the clinical factors that influence this realization. Two spinal units in Italy. Consecutive patients were assessed at the end of an in-patient rehabilitation program using the Spinal Cord Independence Measure and the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. On the basis of these data and of the age and gender of the patients, we calculated the SCI-ARMI score. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between clinical factors and the extent to which rehabilitation potential is realized. We examined the data for 306 patients. Most patients were discharged without having reached their rehabilitation potential, with an SCI-ARMI score <80%. SCI-ARMI scores at discharge were positively influenced by etiology and the lesion level and correlated negatively with lesion severity and the presence of complications during rehabilitation. The SCI-ARMI is an effective tool that can be used to measure the achievement of rehabilitation potential in SCI patients and to identify groups of patients who are at risk of not meeting their rehabilitative potential.

  7. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  8. Prologue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Kamhi, Alan G

    2017-04-20

    In this initial article of the clinical forum on reading comprehension, we argue that reading comprehension is not a single ability that can be assessed by one or more general reading measures or taught by a small set of strategies or approaches. We present evidence for a multidimensional view of reading comprehension that demonstrates how it varies as a function of reader ability, text, and task. The implications of this view for instruction of reading comprehension are considered. Reading comprehension is best conceptualized with a multidimensional model. The multidimensionality of reading comprehension means that instruction will be more effective when tailored to student performance with specific texts and tasks.

  9. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  10. Preschool acuity of the approximate number system correlates with school math ability.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-11-01

    Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people's school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and with non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants' ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children's math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children's ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Preschool Acuity of the Approximate Number System Correlates with School Math Ability

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people’s school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants’ ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children’s math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children’s ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. PMID:22010889

  12. Work ability and associated factors of Brazilian technical-administrative workers in education.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Guerra, Maximiliano Ribeiro; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-02

    Studies about work ability have grown in importance owing to the worldwide aging of active populations. Research has shown that measuring work ability has a predictive value in cases of long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Our goal was to analyze the work ability and associated factors of civil servants from a higher education institution in Brazil. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 600 technical-administrative workers at a public university. Work ability was measured using the work ability index. The participants were as follows: 51.8% male; mean age of 45 years (SD = ±11); married or in a stable union (61.5%); holding a graduate degree (56.7%); having only one job (83.3%), working 40 h a week or less (78.6%); not working evenings (79.8%); and having direct contact with the public (58.3%). The prevalence of reduced work ability was 13.9%. The following factors were found to be associated with reduced work ability: age 50 years old or above (PR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.25-5.09); female (PR = 2.77; 95% CI 1.25-3.60); education up to secondary school (PR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.13-3.59); overall poor self-assessed health (PR = 2.96; 95% CI 1.32-3.93); signs and symptoms of depression (PR = 4.86; 95% CI 2.23-6.55); sedentariness (PR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.38-4.68) and poor social support at work (PR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.66-4.37). Most of the participants showed good work ability, but some subjects had reduced work ability. This study makes a contribution to expanding the discussion about the factors associated with work ability toward proposing actions for maintaining that ability or helping recovery in the case of diminished ability. Such actions can help reduce work absenteeism and early retirement, both of which have a social and economic impact in Brazil. Studying the determinants of work ability and recommendations to address those determinants will help efforts to improve the quality of life of individuals, both at work and personally, and promote healthy

  13. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Divided Attention Abilities in Young and Old Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somberg, Benjamin L.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments on divided attention and adult aging are reported that take into account age differences in single-task performance and that measure divided attention independently of resource allocation strategies. No significant age difference in divided attention ability independent of single-task performance level was found in either…

  15. Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Ankney, C. Davison

    2009-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between whole brain size and general mental ability (GMA) both within and between species. Among humans, in 28 samples using brain imaging techniques, the mean brain size/GMA correlation is 0.40 (N = 1,389; p < 10−10); in 59 samples using external head size measures it is 0.20 (N = 63,405; p < 10−10). In 6 samples using the method of correlated vectors to distill g, the general factor of mental ability, the mean r is 0.63. We also describe the brain size/GMA correlations with age, socioeconomic position, sex, and ancestral population groups, which also provide information about brain–behavior relationships. Finally, we examine brain size and mental ability from an evolutionary and behavior genetic perspective. PMID:19283594

  16. Relationships among Preservice Primary Mathematics Teachers' Gender, Academic Success and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate relationships among pre-service primary mathematics teachers' gender, academic success and spatial ability. The study was conducted in Izmir with 193 pre-service primary mathematics teachers of Dokuz Eylul University. In the work, spatial ability test, which consists of two main sub-tests measuring spatial…

  17. Relationships among abilities in elderly adults: a time lag analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Brookshire, R G

    1985-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that relationships among primary abilities said to measure crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligences remain the same across cohorts if age is held constant, despite generational changes in the levels of abilities. The present study assessed differences in relationship among several components of Gf/Gc in two independent samples of elderly adults, tested in 1975 and 1979 by the same investigator. The 1975 sample consisted of 54 elderly adults aged 59 to 76 years (M = 67.7); the 1979 sample of 50 elderly adults was aged 55 to 82 (M = 69.4). Time-lagged differences in relationships among abilities measuring Gf and Gc (induction, figural relations, and verbal comprehension) were investigated using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. Although a two factor (Gf, Gc) model was common to both the 1975 and 1979 samples, significant differences in unique variances were observed across samples. Some, albeit weaker, evidence was found suggesting time-lagged differences in factor covariances. These data, for the most part, support previous research with younger individuals, suggesting consistency in factor structure across time and cohort.

  18. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees.

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand-specific work ability). Reduced demand-specific work ability varied from 9% to 19% among the 46-year old and from 11% to 21% among the 56-year old. Age was associated with two, gender with four, and education with all measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. MSP was associated with four and MD was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Baseline hearing abilities and variability in wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Castellote, Manuel; Mooney, T Aran; Quakenbush, Lori; Hobbs, Roderick; Goertz, Caroline; Gaglione, Eric

    2014-05-15

    While hearing is the primary sensory modality for odontocetes, there are few data addressing variation within a natural population. This work describes the hearing ranges (4-150 kHz) and sensitivities of seven apparently healthy, wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a population health assessment project that captured and released belugas in Bristol Bay, Alaska. The baseline hearing abilities and subsequent variations were addressed. Hearing was measured using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). All audiograms showed a typical cetacean U-shape; substantial variation (>30 dB) was found between most and least sensitive thresholds. All animals heard well, up to at least 128 kHz. Two heard up to 150 kHz. Lowest auditory thresholds (35-45 dB) were identified in the range 45-80 kHz. Greatest differences in hearing abilities occurred at both the high end of the auditory range and at frequencies of maximum sensitivity. In general, wild beluga hearing was quite sensitive. Hearing abilities were similar to those of belugas measured in zoological settings, reinforcing the comparative importance of both settings. The relative degree of variability across the wild belugas suggests that audiograms from multiple individuals are needed to properly describe the maximum sensitivity and population variance for odontocetes. Hearing measures were easily incorporated into field-based settings. This detailed examination of hearing abilities in wild Bristol Bay belugas provides a basis for a better understanding of the potential impact of anthropogenic noise on a noise-sensitive species. Such information may help design noise-limiting mitigation measures that could be applied to areas heavily influenced and inhabited by endangered belugas. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Factors associated with inadequate work ability among women in the clothing industry.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; César, Cibele Comini

    2015-01-01

    Work ability depends on a balance between individual resources and work demands. This study evaluated factors that are associated with inadequate work ability among workers in the clothing industry. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 306 workers in 40 small and medium-sized enterprises. We assessed work ability, individual resources, physical and psychosocial demands, and aspects of life outside work using a binary logistic regression model with hierarchical data entry. The mean work ability was 42.5 (SD=3.5); when adjusted for age, only 11% of the workers showed inadequate work ability. The final model revealed that smoking, high isometric physical load, and poor physical environmental conditions were the most significant predictors of inadequate work ability. Good working conditions and worker education must be implemented to eliminate factors that can be changed and that have a negative impact on work ability. These initiatives include anti-smoking measures, improved postures at work, and better physical environmental conditions.

  1. Individual variability and environmental characteristics influence older adults' abilities to manage everyday technology.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Almkvist, Ove; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2012-03-01

    The ability to manage everyday technology (ET), such as computers and microwave ovens, is increasingly required in the performance of everyday activities and participation in society. This study aimed to identify aspects that influence the ability to manage ET among older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and without known cognitive impairment were assessed as they managed their ET at home. Data were collected using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). Rasch-based measures of the person's ability to manage ET were analyzed. These measures were used as dependent variables in backward procedure ANOVA analyses. Different predefined aspects that could influence the ability to manage ET were used as independent variables. Three aspects had a significant effect upon the ability to manage ET. These were: (1) variability in intrapersonal capacities (such as "the capacity to pay attention and focus", (2) environmental characteristics (such as "the impact of the design") and (3) diagnostic group. Variability in intrapersonal capacities seems to be of more importance than the actual level of intrapersonal capacity in relation to the ability to manage ET for this sample. This implies that investigations of ability to manage ET should also include intraperson variability. Additionally, adaptations in environmental characteristics could simplify the management of ET to support older adults as technology users.

  2. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape.

    PubMed

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was conducted for each group, in which a cross-shaped line and lines at 45° in eight directions were drawn on the floor. In this study, only three directions were used, namely anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial. The mean of the SEBT was calculated by measuring three times for each group, and the values were standardized using the following equation: measured value/leg length × 100. [Results] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability were found between the normal, pronated, and supinated foot groups. [Conclusion] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability according to the foot shape were found among the healthy university students with normal, pronated, and supinated feet.

  3. Education and Health: the Role of Cognitive Ability*

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert; Veenman, Justus

    2015-01-01

    We aim to disentangle the relative impact of (i) cognitive ability, and (ii) education on health and mortality using a structural equation model suggested by Conti et al. (2010). We extend their model by allowing for a duration dependent variable (mortality), and an ordinal educational variable. Data come from a Dutch cohort born between 1937 and 1941, including detailed measures of cognitive ability and family background in the final grade of primary school. The data are linked to the mortality register 1995–2011, such that we observe mortality between ages 55 and 75. The results suggest that at least half of the unconditional survival differences between educational groups are due to a ‘selection effect’, primarily on the basis of cognitive ability. Conditional survival differences across those having finished just primary school and those entering secondary education are still substantial, and amount to a 4 years gain in life expectancy, on average. PMID:25912224

  4. Balance ability and postural stability among patients with painful shoulder disorders and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In therapeutic settings, patients with shoulder pain often exhibit deficient coordinative abilities in their trunk and lower extremities. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) if there is a connection between shoulder pain and deficits in balance ability and postural stability, 2) if pain intensity is related to balance ability and postural stability, and 3) if there is a connection between body mass index (BMI) and balance ability and postural stability. Methods In this case–control study, patients (n = 40) with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) were matched with a healthy controls (n = 40) and were compared with regard to their balance ability and postural stability. Outcome parameters were postural stability, balance ability and symmetry index which were measured using the S3-Check system. In addition, the influence of shoulder pain intensity and BMI on the outcome parameters was analysed. Results Patients with shoulder pain showed significantly worse results in measurements of postural stability right/left (p < 0.01) and front/back (p < 0.01) as well as balance ability right/left (p = 0.01) and front/back (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. There were no significant group differences with regard to symmetry index. However, there was a significant (p < 0.01) symmetry shift towards the affected side within the shoulder pain group. There was no correlation between pain intensity and measurements of balance ability or postural stability. Likewise, no correlation between BMI and deficiencies in balance ability and postural stability was established. Conclusions Patients with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) have deficiencies in balance ability and postural stability; however the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. Neither pain intensity nor BMI influenced the outcome parameters. Patients with shoulder pain shift their weight to the affected side. Further research is needed to determine if

  5. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  6. Motor ability and inhibitory processes in children with ADHD: a neuroelectric study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Shih, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children.

  7. A Tale of Two Types of Perspective Taking: Sex Differences in Spatial Ability.

    PubMed

    Tarampi, Margaret R; Heydari, Nahal; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in favor of males have been documented in measures of spatial perspective taking. In this research, we examined whether social factors (i.e., stereotype threat and the inclusion of human figures in tasks) account for these differences. In Experiment 1, we evaluated performance when perspective-taking tests were framed as measuring either spatial or social (empathetic) perspective-taking abilities. In the spatial condition, tasks were framed as measures of spatial ability on which males have an advantage. In the social condition, modified tasks contained human figures and were framed as measures of empathy on which females have an advantage. Results showed a sex difference in favor of males in the spatial condition but not the social condition. Experiments 2 and 3 indicated that both stereotype threat and including human figures contributed to these effects. Results suggest that females may underperform on spatial tests in part because of negative performance expectations and the character of the spatial tests rather than because of actual lack of abilities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Fusiform gyrus face selectivity relates to individual differences in facial recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Furl, Nicholas; Garrido, Lúcia; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon; Duchaine, Bradley

    2011-07-01

    Regions of the occipital and temporal lobes, including a region in the fusiform gyrus (FG), have been proposed to constitute a "core" visual representation system for faces, in part because they show face selectivity and face repetition suppression. But recent fMRI studies of developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) raise questions about whether these measures relate to face processing skills. Although DPs manifest deficient face processing, most studies to date have not shown unequivocal reductions of functional responses in the proposed core regions. We scanned 15 DPs and 15 non-DP control participants with fMRI while employing factor analysis to derive behavioral components related to face identification or other processes. Repetition suppression specific to facial identities in FG or to expression in FG and STS did not show compelling relationships with face identification ability. However, we identified robust relationships between face selectivity and face identification ability in FG across our sample for several convergent measures, including voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping, peak face selectivity in individually defined "fusiform face areas" (FFAs), and anatomical extents (cluster sizes) of those FFAs. None of these measures showed associations with behavioral expression or object recognition ability. As a group, DPs had reduced face-selective responses in bilateral FFA when compared with non-DPs. Individual DPs were also more likely than non-DPs to lack expected face-selective activity in core regions. These findings associate individual differences in face processing ability with selectivity in core face processing regions. This confirms that face selectivity can provide a valid marker for neural mechanisms that contribute to face identification ability.

  9. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E.

    2014-01-01

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. PMID:24993021

  10. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2014-07-03

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. © 2014 ARVO.

  11. The malleability of spatial ability under treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-based robotics unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n=75) ages 9-14 was drawn from 16 public school districts' gifted programs, including as many females (n=28) and children from groups traditionally underrepresented in gifted programs (n=18) as available. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental (n=38) and a control group (n=37) for an intervention study. All participants took the CogAT (form 6) Verbal Battery and the Project TALENT Spatial Ability Assessments. The experimental group participated in a simulation of the FIRST LEGO League (FLL) competition for 20 hours total over five consecutive days. All participants took the spatial measure another time. Experimental males evidenced significant and meaningful gains in measured spatial ability (Cohen's d = 0.87). Females did not evidence significant gains in measured spatial ability. This may be due to sampling error, gender differences in prior experience with LEGO, or differences in facets of spatial ability in the treatment or measurements. Further research studies with larger samples of females, other treatments and measurement tools, and longer treatment periods are recommended. The literature review revealed that FLL is beneficial for STEM engagement in both genders and its use in schools is recommended. The present study provides additional evidence for FLL's usefulness in increasing the number of individuals in the STEM pipeline. Keywords: spatial, gilled, talent, robotics, FIRST LEGO League, science

  12. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  13. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory.

  14. Measuring the Ability to Cope with Serious Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    effort to negate a problem or situation; avoidance refers to acceptance of the reality of the threat, but there is deliberate effort not to ’think or... hypnosis or self- hypnosis (Kroger, 1977), mental imagery (Simonton, Simonton, and Creighton, 1978), and relaxation exercises (Jaffe, 1980). Escape/Distra...health and coping. Virtually none of the social network/social support measures were associated \\o;ith. any of the ratings, except people I.’ith

  15. The impact of beliefs about face recognition ability on memory retrieval processes in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D; Hall, Louise C; Williams, Louise C; Ryder, Hannah L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether beliefs about face recognition ability differentially influence memory retrieval in older compared to young adults. Participants evaluated their ability to recognise faces and were also given information about their ability to perceive and recognise faces. The information was ostensibly based on an objective measure of their ability, but in actuality, participants had been randomly assigned the information they received (high ability, low ability or no information control). Following this information, face recognition accuracy for a set of previously studied faces was measured using a remember-know memory paradigm. Older adults rated their ability to recognise faces as poorer compared to young adults. Additionally, negative information about face recognition ability improved only older adults' ability to recognise a previously seen face. Older adults were also found to engage in more familiarity than item-specific processing than young adults, but information about their face recognition ability did not affect face processing style. The role that older adults' memory beliefs have in the meta-cognitive strategies they employ is discussed.

  16. Tools of the trade: Improving nurses' ability to access and evaluate research.

    PubMed

    Sleutel, Martha R; Bullion, John W; Sullivan, Ronnie

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of a manager-required RN competency on staff nurses' perceived knowledge, ability and frequency of information-seeking activities. Basing clinical practice on research and standards of care is essential to delivering appropriate care with optimal outcomes. Nurses' information-seeking abilities are critical for acquiring evidence-based answers to aid clinical decision-making, yet nurses under-utilize library resources and report barriers. A unit manager sought to test the effect of an innovative competency for acquiring and appraising evidence for practice. This longitudinal descriptive study evaluated 28 nurses before and after a 1-hr class, as well as 5 months later. The class covered library information services and the basics of critiquing research articles. Nurses had statistically significant improvements in four of five items measuring knowledge/ability and four of five items measuring frequency of information-seeking activities. At 5 months, most knowledge/ability items increased. There was no effect of nurse characteristics on outcomes. A required competency improved nurses' knowledge, ability and frequency of acquiring and appraising evidence with a single 1-hr class and a hands-on practice activity. Unit managers can have great impact on nurses' use of evidence for practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ability Grouping in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1982-01-01

    Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)

  18. Personality and problem-solving performance explain competitive ability in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2012-03-22

    Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, but why individuals vary so much in their competitiveness remains only partially understood. One increasingly prevalent view is that realized competitive ability varies because it represents alternative strategies that arise because of the costs associated with competitiveness. Here we use a population of great tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait 'exploration behaviour' and a simple cognitive trait, 'innovative problem-solving performance'. We assayed these traits under standardized conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable within individual males across days and correlated positively with exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in 'individual quality', our results support the hypothesis that individual variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural strategies.

  19. Personality and problem-solving performance explain competitive ability in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ella F.; Quinn, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, but why individuals vary so much in their competitiveness remains only partially understood. One increasingly prevalent view is that realized competitive ability varies because it represents alternative strategies that arise because of the costs associated with competitiveness. Here we use a population of great tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait ‘exploration behaviour’ and a simple cognitive trait, ‘innovative problem-solving performance’. We assayed these traits under standardized conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable within individual males across days and correlated positively with exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in ‘individual quality’, our results support the hypothesis that individual variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural strategies. PMID:21937498

  20. Emotional Intelligence and cognitive abilities - associations and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Pardeller, Silvia; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2017-09-01

    In order to expand on previous research, this cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive abilities in healthy adults with a special focus on potential sex differences. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), whereas cognitive abilities were investigated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), which measures key aspects of cognitive functioning, i.e. verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. 137 subjects (65% female) with a mean age of 38.7 ± 11.8 years were included into the study. While males and females were comparable with regard to EI, men achieved significantly higher BACS composite scores and outperformed women in the BACS subscales motor speed, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Verbal fluency significantly predicted EI, whereas the MSCEIT subscale understanding emotions significantly predicted the BACS composite score. Our findings support previous research and emphasize the relevance of considering cognitive abilities when assessing ability EI in healthy individuals.

  1. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents: do parental expectations of their child's intellectual ability match the child's ability?

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emma; Cleare, Anthony; Coddington, Alice; Roberts, Amanda; Weinman, John; Chalder, Trudie

    2009-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the discrepancy between actual and perceived IQ in a sample of adolescents with CFS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that adolescents with CFS and their parent would have higher expectations of the adolescent's intellectual ability than healthy adolescents and their parent. The sample was 28 CFS patients and 29 healthy controls aged 11-19 years and the parent of each participant. IQ was assessed using the AH4 group test of general intelligence and a self-rating scale which measured perceived IQ. Parents' perceptions of their children's IQ were significantly higher for individuals with CFS than healthy controls. High expectations may need to be addressed within the context of treatment.

  3. Predictors of chewing ability among community-residing older adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyongok; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son

    2017-01-01

    Decreased chewing ability in older adults can lead to poor nutritional and physical conditions, and eventually death. The present study examined the relationships between chewing ability and related characteristics (e.g. health promotion habits, health status and functional status), and identified predictors of chewing ability in community-residing older adults. Among the total of 11 542 participants in the 2011 National Survey on Older Adults in Korea, data from 10 543 participants were used for analysis. Chewing ability was evaluated using a self-report of chewing ability. Exercise ability was assessed by objective exercise ability and perceived exercise ability in both the upper and lower extremities. Depression and cognitive functions were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. A total of 56.9% of participants had poor chewing abilities. After adjusting for age and sex, logistic regression analysis showed that depression (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.60-1.92), cognitive impairment (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.40), objective exercise ability (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), regular exercise habits (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.34), medical check-up history (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.32), number of chronic diseases (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15) and perceived exercise ability in the lower extremities (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.10) were significant predictors of chewing ability. Chewing ability in older adults should be improved in consideration of mental and general health condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 78-84. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. The HSE indicator tool, psychological distress and work ability.

    PubMed

    Guidi, S; Bagnara, S; Fichera, G P

    2012-04-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) indicator tool is one of the most commonly used tools for assessing the risk of work-related stress. Few studies, however, have investigated whether and how its scales are related to psychological distress or other work-related health outcomes. To investigate the relationship between the HSE indicator tool, psychological distress, as measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12, and work ability, assessed by the Work Ability Index (WAI). All the employees of a mid-sized bank in Italy were asked to fill in an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire. The questionnaire was structured in four sections: the first one comprised socio-demographic questions and the other three corresponded, respectively, to the Italian translations of the GHQ-12, the HSE and the WAI questionnaires. Four hundred and thirteen employees completed the questionnaire. The response rate was 99%. Controlling for age and gender, the indicator subscales were negatively associated with the adopted measures of psychological distress and work ability. The GHQ score was also highly correlated with the WAI score and able to explain ≈ 47% of its variance. The only subscale that was still significantly associated with the WAI after removing the effect of psychological distress was 'control'. The study presents new evidence for the validity of the HSE indicator tool to estimate the risk of work-related stress and suggests that most but not all the effects of psychosocial conditions on work ability might be mediated by the level of psychological distress induced by these conditions.

  5. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: the development of the 'Claim Evaluation Tools'.

    PubMed

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Semakula, Daniel; Nsangi, Allen; Oxman, Andrew David; Chalmers, Iain; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Guttersrud, Øystein

    2017-05-17

    To describe the development of the Claim Evaluation Tools, a set of flexible items to measure people's ability to assess claims about treatment effects. Methodologists and members of the community (including children) in Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Norway, the UK and Australia. In the iterative development of the items, we used purposeful sampling of people with training in research methodology, such as teachers of evidence-based medicine, as well as patients and members of the public from low-income and high-income countries. Development consisted of 4 processes: (1) determining the scope of the Claim Evaluation Tools and development of items; (2) expert item review and feedback (n=63); (3) cognitive interviews with children and adult end-users (n=109); and (4) piloting and administrative tests (n=956). The Claim Evaluation Tools database currently includes a battery of multiple-choice items. Each item begins with a scenario which is intended to be relevant across contexts, and which can be used for children (from age 10  and above), adult members of the public and health professionals. People with expertise in research methods judged the items to have face validity, and end-users judged them relevant and acceptable in their settings. In response to feedback from methodologists and end-users, we simplified some text, explained terms where needed, and redesigned formats and instructions. The Claim Evaluation Tools database is a flexible resource from which researchers, teachers and others can design measurement instruments to meet their own requirements. These evaluation tools are being managed and made freely available for non-commercial use (on request) through Testing Treatments interactive (testingtreatments.org). PACTR201606001679337 and PACTR201606001676150; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    conducted by Sir Francis Galton . Galton’s view of intelligence was that it distinguished those individuals who had genius (e.g., demonstrated by making...genius must have more refined sensory and motor faculties. Thus, Galton argued, intelligence could be measured by assessing constructs such as visual...block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Learning, individual differences, cognitive abilities, 05 09 intelligence , skill acquisition, perceptual speed, - i

  7. What Does the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) Measure? Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the CAS and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (3rd Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Kranzler, John H.; Flanagan, Dawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of the first joint confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-3rd Edition (WJ III). Results of these analyses do not support the construct validity of the CAS as a measure of the PASS (planning, attention, simultaneous, and sequential)…

  8. Higher-Order Factor Structure of the Differential Ability Scales-II: Consistency across Ages 4 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Low, Justin A.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published second edition of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS-II) is designed to measure multiple broad and general abilities from Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory. Although the technical manual presents information supporting the test's structure, additional research is needed to determine the constructs measured by the test and…

  9. The role of trait and ability emotional intelligence in bulimic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Quinton, Stephanie; Qualter, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    Bulimia is characterized by poor affect regulation, yet the role of emotional intelligence (EI) is little understood. This study examined associations between EI and bulimic symptoms using 235 women from community and student populations. They completed measures of trait and ability EI, and the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale. Results showed that deficiencies in different aspects of trait EI and/or ability EI are a function of symptom type: binge eating, compensatory behaviours or weight and shape concerns. Consistent with affect regulation models, self-regulatory aspects of trait EI were related to two bulimic symptoms: binge eating and weight and shape concerns. Ability-based self-emotion management was not important, and explanatory power of lower-level EI facets (traits or abilities) was not superior to more broadly defined EI factors. Results support the conclusion that trait and ability EI may maintain subclinical levels of bulimic symptoms but have different paths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  11. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Floyd, R. Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically. PMID:26223027

  12. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age.

    PubMed

    De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects.

  14. Prologue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Kamhi, Alan G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this initial article of the clinical forum on reading comprehension, we argue that reading comprehension is not a single ability that can be assessed by one or more general reading measures or taught by a small set of strategies or approaches. Method: We present evidence for a multidimensional view of reading comprehension that…

  15. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  16. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  17. Relationship between sensibility and ability to read braille in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Nakada, M; Dellon, A L

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five vision-impaired diabetics received an evaluation of sensibility. Each subject had received 2 years of instruction in braille reading at the Konan Rehabilitation Center prior to the sensibility testing. Sensibility evaluation consisted of cutaneous pressure threshold measurements with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and evaluation of moving and static two-point discrimination with Disk-Criminator. The ability to read braille was graded by the braille-teaching instructors as good, fair, and unable. The results of the evaluation of sensibility demonstrated that the value of the cutaneous pressure threshold did not correlate with the ability to read braille. Moving and static two-point discrimination were found to correlate highly (P less than .001) with the ability to read braille at a level of fair or good. No patient in this study with a moving two-point discrimination value of 4 or more or a static two-point discrimination value of 5 or more was able to read braille even at the fair level of ability.

  18. Predicting the Ability of Marine Mammal Populations to Compensate for Behavioral Disturbances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Predicting the Ability of Marine Mammal Populations to...determine the ability of marine mammal populations to respond to behavioral disturbances. These tools are to be generic and applicable in a wide range...scale consequences. OBJECTIVES • Develop simple, generic measures that allow the estimation of marine mammal populations and individuals to

  19. Planning Abilities in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa Compared with Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Carral-Fernández, Laura; González-Blanch, César; Goddard, Elizabeth; González-Gómez, Jana; Benito-González, Pilar; Bustamante-Cruz, Encarnación; Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés

    2016-02-01

    Altered cognitive functioning could have an important role in the development and maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The majority of previous research has focused on flexibility and global-detail processing. The aim of this study was to explore planning abilities in women with AN. Women with AN (n = 32) were compared to healthy controls (n = 42) using two different types of neuropsychological tasks for the assessment of planning abilities: Tower of London (ToL), a classic measure of planning abilities, and Zoo Map test, a more ecologically valid planning measure. Measures of AN psychopathology, anxiety, depression, and obsessive compulsivity were also collected. The AN group did not differ from controls in the ToL (all p-values p > .05), although they performed significantly worse than controls in the main score of the Zoo Map (p = .02). A worse performance in the Zoo Map test More was associated with more eating disorders (rho = -.44, p = .018) and depressive (rho = -.42, p = .026) symptoms in the AN group. Our study suggests the presence of subtle planning difficulties in women with AN which might be better detected using tasks with increased ecological validity.

  20. Executive Function Mediates the Relations between Parental Behaviors and Children's Early Academic Ability

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Rory T.; Bignardi, Giacomo; Hughes, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a growth of interest in parental influences on individual differences in children's executive function (EF) on the one hand and in the academic consequences of variation in children's EF on the other hand. The primary aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's EF mediated the relation between three distinct aspects of parental behavior (i.e., parental scaffolding, negative parent-child interactions, and the provision of informal learning opportunities) and children's academic ability (as measured by standard tests of literacy and numeracy skills). Data were collected from 117 parent-child dyads (60 boys) at two time points ~1 year apart (M Age at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53; M Age at Time 2 = 5.11 years, SD = 0.54). At both time points children completed a battery of tasks designed to measure general cognitive ability (e.g., non-verbal reasoning) and EF (e.g., inhibition, cognitive flexibility, working memory). Our models revealed that children's EF (but not general cognitive ability) mediated the relations between parental scaffolding and negative parent-child interactions and children's early academic ability. In contrast, parental provision of opportunities for learning in the home environment was directly related to children's academic abilities. These results suggest that parental scaffolding and negative parent-child interactions influence children's academic ability by shaping children's emerging EF. PMID:28018253

  1. The Effect of Concurrent Music Reading and Performance on the Ability to Detect Tempo Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark Carlton

    1989-01-01

    Measures the ability of three groups of musicians to detect tempo change while reading and performing music. Compares this ability with that of the same musicians to detect tempo change while listening only. Found that for all groups the ability to detect tempo changes was inhibited by the playing task, although to different degrees for each…

  2. Teacher Judgments of Students' Reading Abilities across a Continuum of Rating Methods and Achievement Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Krouse, Hailey E.; Brown, Kristina G.; Mann, Courtney M.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher judgments about students' academic abilities are important for instructional decision making and potential special education entitlement decisions. However, the small number of studies evaluating teachers' judgments are limited methodologically (e.g., sample size, procedural sophistication) and have yet to answer important questions…

  3. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  4. The Relationship Between Academic Performance and Reading Ability of Pensacola Junior College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbecker, Polly Godwin

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between reading ability and academic performance of junior college freshman and to what degree a measure of reading ability could predict academic performance. The 313 Pensacola Junior College freshman for whom 1970 Reading Index Scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test were…

  5. Measuring the CCN and IN ability of bacterial isolates: implications for the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdue, S.; Waters, S.; Konstantinidis, K.; Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation is an important process in the climate system as it influences global precipitation processes, and can affect the vertical distribution of clouds with effects that both cool and warm the atmosphere. Of the pathways to ice nucleation, immersion mode, which occurs when ice nuclei (IN) particles are surrounded by an aqueous phase that subsequently freezes, dominates primary ice production in mixed-phase clouds. A simple but effective method to study immersion freezing is to utilize a droplet freezing assay (DFA) that consists of an aluminum plate, precisely cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture. Using such a system we study the immersion IN characteristics of bacterial isolates (for temperatures ranging from -15oC to 0oC) isolated from rainwater and air collected in Atlanta, GA and Puerto Rico, over storms throughout the year. Despite their relatively large size and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the outer membranes of many bacteria, it is unclear if bacteria possess an inherent ability to nucleate an aqueous phase (a requirement for immersion freezing) for the wide range of supersaturations found in clouds. For this, we measure the cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity of each isolate (over the 0.05% to 0.6% supersaturation range) using a Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter. Initial results have shown certain isolates to be very efficient CCN, allowing them to form droplets even for the very low supersaturations found in radiation fogs. In combination, these experiments provide insight into the potential dual-ability of some bacteria, isolated from the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, to act as both efficient CCN and IN.

  6. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    PubMed

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li

    2014-04-13

    Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China's economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants' social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers' work ability. Improving of migrant workers' physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability.

  8. The Relationship between Reading Ability and Lateralized Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Scott A.; Zaidel, Eran

    2004-01-01

    Although lexical decision remains one of the most extensively studied cognitive tasks, very little is known about its relationship to broader linguistic performance such as reading ability. In a correlational study, several aspects of lateralized lexical decision performance were related to vocabulary and reading comprehension measures, as…

  9. Acquisition of dental skills in preclinical technique courses: influence of spatial and manual abilities.

    PubMed

    Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo

    2016-10-01

    Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two consecutive preclinical technique courses. We measured spatial and manual abilities of applicants to Hamburg Dental School by means of a multiple choice test on Technical Aptitude and a wire-bending test, respectively. Preclinical dental technique tasks were categorized as consistent-simple and inconsistent-complex based on their contents. For analysis, we used robust regression to circumvent typical limitations in dental studies like small sample size and non-normal residual distributions. We found that manual, but not spatial ability exhibited a moderate influence on the performance in consistent-simple tasks during dental skill acquisition in preclinical dentistry. Both abilities revealed a moderate relation with the performance in inconsistent-complex tasks. These findings support the hypotheses which we had postulated on the basis of Ackerman's work. Therefore, spatial as well as manual ability are required for the acquisition of dental skills in preclinical technique courses. These results support the view that both abilities should be addressed in dental admission procedures in addition to cognitive measures.

  10. Training the elderly on the ability factors of spatial orientation and inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Willis, S L; Schaie, K W

    1986-09-01

    We examined the effects of cognitive training with elderly participants from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Subjects were classified as having remained stable or having declined over the previous 14-year interval on each of two primary abilities, spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. Subjects who had declined on one of these abilities received training on that ability; subjects who had declined on both abilities or who had remained stable on both were randomly assigned to the spatial orientation or inductive reasoning training programs. Training outcomes were examined within an ability-measurement framework with empirically determined factorial structure. Significant training effects, at the level of the latent ability constructs, occurred for both spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. These effects were general, in that no significant interactions with decline status or gender were found. Thus, training interventions were effective both in remediating cognitive decline on the target abilities and in improving the performance of stable subjects.

  11. White matter tract covariance patterns predict age-declining cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Yunglin; Bowman, F DuBois; Razlighi, Qolamreza R; O'Shea, Deirdre; Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies investigating the relationship of white matter (WM) integrity to cognitive abilities and aging have either focused on a global measure or a few selected WM tracts. Ideally, contribution from all of the WM tracts should be evaluated at the same time. However, the high collinearity among WM tracts precludes systematic examination of WM tracts simultaneously without sacrificing statistical power due to stringent multiple-comparison corrections. Multivariate covariance techniques enable comprehensive simultaneous examination of all WM tracts without being penalized for high collinearity among observations. In this study, Scaled Subprofile Modeling (SSM) was applied to the mean integrity of 18 major WM tracts to extract covariance patterns that optimally predicted four cognitive abilities (perceptual speed, episodic memory, fluid reasoning, and vocabulary) in 346 participants across ages 20 to 79years old. Using expression of the covariance patterns, age-independent effects of white matter integrity on cognition and the indirect effect of WM integrity on age-related differences in cognition were tested separately, but inferences from the indirect analyses were cautiously made given that cross-sectional data set was used in the analysis. A separate covariance pattern was identified that significantly predicted each cognitive ability after controlling for age except for vocabulary, but the age by WM covariance pattern interaction was not significant for any of the three abilities. Furthermore, each of the patterns mediated the effect of age on the respective cognitive ability. A distinct set of WM tracts was most influential in each of the three patterns. The WM covariance pattern accounting for fluid reasoning showed the most number of influential WM tracts whereas the episodic memory pattern showed the least number. Specific patterns of WM tracts make significant contributions to the age-related differences in perceptual speed, episodic memory, and

  12. Self-assessment of social cognitive ability in schizophrenia: Association with social cognitive test performance, informant assessments of social cognitive ability, and everyday outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Juliet M; Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Harvey, Philip D

    2018-04-17

    Impairments in self-assessment are common in people with schizophrenia and impairments in self-assessment of cognitive ability have been found to predict impaired functional outcome. In this study, we examined self-assessment of social cognitive ability and related them to assessments of social cognition provided by informants, to performance on tests of social cognition, and to everyday outcomes. The difference between self-reported social cognition and informant ratings was used to predict everyday functioning. People with schizophrenia (n=135) performed 8 different tests of social cognition. They were asked to rate their social cognitive abilities on the Observable Social Cognition Rating Scale (OSCARs). High contact informants also rated social cognitive ability and everyday outcomes, while unaware of the patients' social cognitive performance and self-assessments. Social competence was measured with a performance-based assessment and clinical ratings of negative symptoms were also performed. Patient reports of their social cognitive abilities were uncorrelated with performance on social cognitive tests and with three of the four domains of functional outcomes. Differences between self-reported and informant rated social cognitive ability predicted impaired everyday functioning across all four functional domains. This difference score predicted disability even when the influences of social cognitive performance, social competence, and negative symptoms were considered. Mis-estimation of social cognitive ability was an important predictor of social and nonsocial outcomes in schizophrenia compared to performance on social cognitive tests. These results suggest that consideration of self-assessment is critical when attempting to evaluate the causes of disability and when trying to implement interventions targeting disability reduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Relationship of College Freshmen Honors Students' Effort and Ability Attribution, Interest, and Implicit Theory of Intelligence with Perceived Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del; Da Via Rubenstein, Lisa; Pollard, Elizabeth; Romey, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Although there are several explanations for why one succeeds or fails, effort and ability are the major causes that students report. The purpose of the present study was to measure the perceptions of 149 college freshmen enrolled in a university honors program about their skills in 15 talent areas. In addition, this study explored the relationship…

  14. The Structure of Cognitive Abilities in Youths with Manic Symptoms: A Factorial Invariance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Freeman, Megan Joseph; Youngstrom, Eric; Carlson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the structure of cognitive ability (specifically, verbal/crystallized ["Gc"] and visual-spatial ability ["Gv"]), as measured in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, in youth with manic symptoms with a nationally representative group of similarly aged youth. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis…

  15. Laparoscopic baseline ability assessment by virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Madan, Atul K; Frantzides, Constantine T; Sasso, Lisa M

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of any surgical skill is time-consuming and difficult. Currently, there are no accepted metrics for most surgical skills, especially laparoscopic skills. Virtual reality has been utilized for laparoscopic training of surgical residents. Our hypothesis is that this technology can be utilized for laparoscopic ability metrics. This study involved medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience. All students were taken into a porcine laboratory in order to assess two operative tasks (measuring a piece of bowel and placing a piece of bowel into a laparoscopic bag). Then they were taken into an inanimate lab with a Minimally Invasive Surgery Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR). Each student repeatedly performed one task (placing a virtual reality ball into a receptacle). The students' scores and times from the animate lab were compared with average economy of movement and times from the MIST-VR. The MIST-VR scored both hands individually. Thirty-two first- and second-year medical students were included in the study. There was statistically significant (P < 0.05) correlation between 11 of 16 possible relationships between the virtual reality trainer and operative tasks. While not all of the possible relationships demonstrated statistically significant correlation, the majority of the possible relationships demonstrated statistically significant correlation. Virtual reality may be an avenue for measuring laparoscopic surgical ability.

  16. Developmental patterns of spatial ability: an early sex difference.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Meade, A C

    1987-06-01

    Over 1,800 public school students (grades K-12, ages 6-18) took a battery of 7 spatial tests tailored to their respective developmental levels. Analyses of resulting data indicate that it is feasible to measure spatial ability throughout this developmental range with modified versions of adult paper-and-pencil tests, that a male advantage in spatial performance appears reliably by age 10, and that the magnitude of the advantage remains constant through age 18. Analysis of covariance suggests that an early female precocity in language skills may mask a male advantage in spatial ability during the primary school years. There is no indication of a sex difference in kindergarten children.

  17. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L.; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities–defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them–have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are “mental rotation” (rotating mental models) and “visualisation” (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel “Bricks” test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  18. Relationships Between Measures of the Ability to Perform Vision-Related Activities, Vision-Related Quality of Life, and Clinical Findings in Patients With Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Feyzahan; Loh, Rebecca; Waisbourd, Michael; Sun, Yi; Martinez, Patricia; Nayak, Natasha; Wizov, Sheryl S; Hegarty, Sarah; Hark, Lisa A; Spaeth, George L

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, few studies have combined an objective measure of vision-related performance (VRP) and subjective measures of vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) with clinically related visual parameters, particularly in a large, prospective, cohort study setting. To examine the relationships between clinical visual assessments and both a VRP and 2 self-reported VRQoL measurements. Patients (N = 161) with moderate-stage glaucoma recruited from the Glaucoma Service at Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were enrolled from May 2012 to May 2014 in an ongoing prospective, 4-year longitudinal observational study. This report includes cross-sectional results from the baseline visit. Patients received a complete ocular examination, automated visual field (VF) test and Cirrus optical coherence tomographic scan. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Pelli-Robson and the Spaeth-Richman Contrast Sensitivity (SPARCS) tests. Vision-related performance was assessed by the Compressed Assessment of Ability Related to Vision (CAARV) test. Vision-related QoL was assessed by the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ-25) and a modified Glaucoma Symptom Scale (MGSS). Correlations between clinical measures and CAARV, NEI-VFQ-25, and MGSS scores. A total of 161 patients were enrolled in the study. The strongest correlation was found between SPARCS score in the better eye and total CAARV score (r = 0.398; 95% CI, 0.235-0.537; P < .001). The CAARV score also correlated with the Pelli-Robson score (r = 0.353; 95% CI, 0.186-0.499; P = .001), VF mean deviation (r = 0.366; 95% CI, 0.200-0.510; P < .001), and VA (r = -0.326, 95% CI = -0.476 to -0.157; P = .003) in the better eye. There were more statistically significant correlations between contrast sensitivity tests and VF mean deviation with VRQoL measurements than with other clinical measures (visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Disc Damage Likelihood

  19. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... AgrAbility Resources AgrAbility Services Equipment and Vehicle Modifications Financing-Related Matters Other Modifications Other Disability and Agricultural-related questions Main Menu Home About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning ...

  20. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  1. New Testing Methods to Assess Technical Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

    Tests to assess problem-solving ability being provided for the Air Force are described, and some details on the development and validation of these computer-administered diagnostic achievement tests are discussed. Three measurement approaches were employed: (1) sequential problem solving; (2) context-free assessment of fundamental skills and…

  2. The influence of cognitive ability and instructional set on causal conditional inference.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Handley, Simon J; Neilens, Helen; Over, David

    2010-05-01

    We report a large study in which participants are invited to draw inferences from causal conditional sentences with varying degrees of believability. General intelligence was measured, and participants were split into groups of high and low ability. Under strict deductive-reasoning instructions, it was observed that higher ability participants were significantly less influenced by prior belief than were those of lower ability. This effect disappeared, however, when pragmatic reasoning instructions were employed in a separate group. These findings are in accord with dual-process theories of reasoning. We also took detailed measures of beliefs in the conditional sentences used for the reasoning tasks. Statistical modelling showed that it is not belief in the conditional statement per se that is the causal factor, but rather correlates of it. Two different models of belief-based reasoning were found to fit the data according to the kind of instructions and the type of inference under consideration.

  3. Visuo-spatial Ability in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Is it Really a Strength?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities – visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. PMID:24755229

  4. Test Review: C. D. Elliott "Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition." San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephanie; McGoey, Kara E.; Moschos, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II), an individually administered cognitive test battery, designed to evaluate children ages 2 years 6 months to 17 years 11 months. It purports to measure a hierarchy of cognitive abilities, including broad abilities contributing to a single cognitive factor…

  5. Comparison of memory and meta-memory abilities of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Durr, Doris H; Josman, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed (1) to compare visual memory and meta-memory abilities, including the use of strategies as context, of children with cochlear implant (CI) and children with normal hearing; (2) to examine the concurrent and construct validity of 'The Contextual Memory Test for Children' (CMT-CH). Twenty children with CI and 20 children with normal hearing, aged 8-10 years, participated in this study. Memory abilities were measured by two subtests of the Children's Memory Scale (CMS) and by CMT-CH, which also measures meta-memory abilities. Children with CI scored significantly lower in both tests of memory and meta-memory and showed less efficient use of context to memorise. Significant positive correlations were found between CMS and CMT-CH memory tests in both groups. Visual memory and meta-memory abilities may be impaired in children with CI. Evaluation and intervention for children with CI should refer to their memory and meta-memory abilities in order to measure the outcomes of CIs, and enhance language development academic achievements. Although more studies on CMT-CH should be performed, the CMT-CH may be used for the evaluation of visual memory of children with CI.

  6. Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO) Test: A Brief and Useful Measure for Assessing Visuospatial Abilities in Manifest, but not Premanifest, Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Corey-Bloom, Jody; Gluhm, Shea; Herndon, Andrew; Haque, Ameera S; Park, Sungmee; Gilbert, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Visuospatial deficits have been described in Huntington's disease (HD); however, the extent of these deficits remains unclear. The Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO) Test, commonly used to assess visuospatial ability, requires minimal motor involvement. It has demonstrated sensitivity to visuospatial deficits in Parkinson's disease; however, few studies have examined performance on this test in HD. The objective of the current study was to assess visuospatial ability in premanifest and manifest HD using the JoLO. A global cognitive measure, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), was used to stratify manifest HD patients as mild (DRS ≥129) vs. moderate-severe (DRS ≤128). Fifty mild, 42 moderate-severe, and 30 premanifest HD subjects, as well as 35 matched controls, were administered the JoLO. HD Burden of Pathology (BOP) scores were used as a measure of disease severity. Results revealed that the total manifest HD sample (p <  0.001), in addition to the mild (p = 0.028), and moderate-severe (p <  0.001), but not premanifest, HD subjects scored significantly lower on the JoLO compared to normal controls. Our results suggest that the JoLO is useful for detecting visuospatial deficits across various stages of manifest HD. However, any visuospatial impairment that might be present during the premanifest stage of HD was not detected using the JoLO in the present sample.

  7. Extreme cognitions are associated with diminished ability to use disconfirming evidence.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Matthew; Dodd, Alyson L

    2017-03-01

    An Integrative Cognitive Model of mood swings and bipolar disorder proposes that cognitive styles characterized by extreme self-referent appraisals of internal states (e.g., 'If I have a bad night's sleep it means that I am about to have a breakdown') interfere with mood regulation. The aim of this study is to determine whether strong endorsement of such appraisals is predicted by a diminished ability to access disconfirming counterexamples. We examined whether the ability to access two different categories of counterexample (known as Disabling Conditions and Alternative Causes) would predict endorsement of extreme appraisals (measured by the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory; HAPPI) and mania risk (measured by the Hypomanic Personality Scale; HPS). A non-clinical sample of 150 students completed the HAPPI, the HPS and a conditional reasoning task that indexed the ability to access Disabling Conditions and Alternative Causes. Current mood was controlled for using the Internal States Scale. The ability to make use of disabling counterexamples during the reasoning task was inversely related with scores on the HAPPI (r = -.19, p < .05); participants that were less able to make use of disabling counterexamples endorsed extreme self-referent appraisals to a greater extent. There was no association between the use of alternative cause counterexamples and the HAPPI, and no association between either measure of counterexample generation and the HPS. A diminished ability to use disconfirming evidence when reasoning about the world may reinforce problematic cognitive styles such as extreme, personalized appraisals of experience, which can interfere with mood regulation. Problematic cognitive styles such as extreme, personalized appraisals of experience may be reinforced by the inability to produce or access evidence that disconfirms these maladaptive beliefs. This reasoning bias may be associated with cognitive styles underlying psychopathology

  8. Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings. Whether such changes in cognitive abilities influence the survival of hatchlings is unknown. To determine whether incubation-induced changes in spatial learning ability affect hatchling survival, we incubated velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii , eggs using two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current (cold) versus future (hot) nest temperatures. We measured the spatial learning ability of hatchlings from each treatment, and released individually marked animals at two field sites in southeastern Australia. Hatchlings from hot-incubated eggs were slower learners than hatchlings from cold-incubated eggs. Survival analyses revealed that hatchlings with higher learning scores had higher survival than hatchlings with poor learning scores. Our results show that incubation temperature affects spatial learning ability in hatchling lizards, and that such changes can influence the survival of hatchlings in the wild. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Inhibition and Updating, but Not Switching, Predict Developmental Dyslexia and Individual Variation in Reading Ability

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Caoilainn; Smeaton, Alan F.; Roche, Richard A. P.; Boran, Lorraine

    2018-01-01

    To elucidate the core executive function profile (strengths and weaknesses in inhibition, updating, and switching) associated with dyslexia, this study explored executive function in 27 children with dyslexia and 29 age matched controls using sensitive z-mean measures of each ability and controlled for individual differences in processing speed. This study found that developmental dyslexia is associated with inhibition and updating, but not switching impairments, at the error z-mean composite level, whilst controlling for processing speed. Inhibition and updating (but not switching) error composites predicted both dyslexia likelihood and reading ability across the full range of variation from typical to atypical. The predictive relationships were such that those with poorer performance on inhibition and updating measures were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of developmental dyslexia and also demonstrate poorer reading ability. These findings suggest that inhibition and updating abilities are associated with developmental dyslexia and predict reading ability. Future studies should explore executive function training as an intervention for children with dyslexia as core executive functions appear to be modifiable with training and may transfer to improved reading ability. PMID:29892245

  10. ANS acuity and mathematics ability in preschoolers from low-income homes: contributions of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; McNeil, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings by Libertus, Feigenson, and Halberda (2011) suggest that there is an association between the acuity of young children's approximate number system (ANS) and their mathematics ability before exposure to instruction in formal schooling. The present study examined the generalizability and validity of these findings in a sample of preschoolers from low-income homes. Children attending Head Start (N = 103) completed measures to assess ANS acuity, mathematics ability, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control. Results showed only a weak association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability that was reduced to non-significance when controlling for a direct measure of receptive vocabulary. Results also revealed that inhibitory control plays an important role in the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics ability. Specifically, ANS acuity accounted for significant variance in mathematics ability over and above receptive vocabulary, but only for ANS acuity trials in which surface area conflicted with numerosity. Moreover, this association became non-significant when controlling for inhibitory control. These results suggest that early mathematical experiences prior to formal schooling may influence the strength of the association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability and that inhibitory control may drive that association in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Probability misjudgment, cognitive ability, and belief in the paranormal.

    PubMed

    Musch, Jochen; Ehrenberg, Katja

    2002-05-01

    According to the probability misjudgment account of paranormal belief (Blackmore & Troscianko, 1985), believers in the paranormal tend to wrongly attribute remarkable coincidences to paranormal causes rather than chance. Previous studies have shown that belief in the paranormal is indeed positively related to error rates in probabilistic reasoning. General cognitive ability could account for a relationship between these two variables without assuming a causal role of probabilistic reasoning in the forming of paranormal beliefs, however. To test this alternative explanation, a belief in the paranormal scale (BPS) and a battery of probabilistic reasoning tasks were administered to 123 university students. Confirming previous findings, a significant correlation between BPS scores and error rates in probabilistic reasoning was observed. This relationship disappeared, however, when cognitive ability as measured by final examination grades was controlled for. Lower cognitive ability correlated substantially with belief in the paranormal. This finding suggests that differences in general cognitive performance rather than specific probabilistic reasoning skills provide the basis for paranormal beliefs.

  12. The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning throughout adulthood.

    PubMed

    Turano, Maria Teresa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood. Aging modulates these relationships because as they age, individuals that present a higher level of these traits also show low-level face recognition ability. Intriguingly, the association between depression and face recognition abilities is evident with increasing age. Overall, the present results emphasize the importance of embedding face metacognition measurement into the context of these studies and suggest that aging is an important factor to be considered, which seems to contribute to the relationship between socioemotional and face-cognitive functioning.

  13. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Executive functioning as a predictor of children's mathematics ability: inhibition, switching, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Bull, R; Scerif, G

    2001-01-01

    Children's mathematical skills were considered in relation to executive functions. Using multiple measures--including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), dual-task performance, Stroop task, and counting span-it was found that mathematical ability was significantly correlated with all measures of executive functioning, with the exception of dual-task performance. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that each executive function measure predicted unique variance in mathematics ability. These results are discussed in terms of a central executive with diverse functions (Shallice & Burgess, 1996) and with recent evidence from Miyake, et al. (2000) showing the unity and diversity among executive functions. It is proposed that the particular difficulties for children of lower mathematical ability are lack of inhibition and poor working memory, which result in problems with switching and evaluation of new strategies for dealing with a particular task. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed, along with suggestions for task changes and longitudinal studies that would clarify theoretical and developmental issues related to executive functioning.

  15. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children’s precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the present study we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of two years. Additionally, at the last time point, we tested children’s informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3; Ginsburg & Baroody, 2003). We found that children’s numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned, non-symbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematical reasoning that children come to master through instruction. PMID:24076381

  16. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. An Iconic Comparison of Photographs and the Live Television Screen in Visual Diagnostic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Jarrel

    This study focused on five major activities: (1) developing an achievement test to measure visual diagnostic ability of television service technicians, (2) assessing the independence of the dimension of visual diagnostic ability, (3) comparing the iconic equivalence of photographs with motion cues and live screen presentations of defective…

  19. Physical Ability-Task Performance Models: Assessing the Risk of Omitted Variable Bias

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    association was evaluated in a study of simulated job performance in men and women. The study measured four major abilities, Static Strength (SS), Dynamic...ability- performance interface for physical tasks. Methods Sample Participants were active-duty naval personnel (64 men , 38 women) between ages 20...bench with feet flat on the floor. Position was adjusted so the bar was between the shoulder and nipple line. Handles were gripped at a comfortable

  20. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  1. Risk approximation in decision making: approximative numeric abilities predict advantageous decisions under objective risk.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Silke M; Schiebener, Johannes; Delazer, Margarete; Brand, Matthias

    2018-01-22

    Many decision situations in everyday life involve mathematical considerations. In decisions under objective risk, i.e., when explicit numeric information is available, executive functions and abilities to handle exact numbers and ratios are predictors of objectively advantageous choices. Although still debated, exact numeric abilities, e.g., normative calculation skills, are assumed to be related to approximate number processing skills. The current study investigates the effects of approximative numeric abilities on decision making under objective risk. Participants (N = 153) performed a paradigm measuring number-comparison, quantity-estimation, risk-estimation, and decision-making skills on the basis of rapid dot comparisons. Additionally, a risky decision-making task with exact numeric information was administered, as well as tasks measuring executive functions and exact numeric abilities, e.g., mental calculation and ratio processing skills, were conducted. Approximative numeric abilities significantly predicted advantageous decision making, even beyond the effects of executive functions and exact numeric skills. Especially being able to make accurate risk estimations seemed to contribute to superior choices. We recommend approximation skills and approximate number processing to be subject of future investigations on decision making under risk.

  2. Association between Ability Emotional Intelligence and Left Insula during Social Judgment of Facial Emotions.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotion-specific.

  3. A Life Course Model of Cognitive Activities, Socioeconomic Status, Education, Reading Ability, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Carvalho, Janessa O.; Manly, Jennifer; Bennett, David A.; Jones, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To cross-sectionally quantify the contribution of proxy measures of cognitive reserve reflective of the lifespan, such as education, socioeconomic status (SES), reading ability, and cognitive activities, in explaining late-life cognition. DESIGN Prospective observational cohort study of aging. SETTING Retirement communities across the Chicago metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred fifty-one older adults free of clinical dementia in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (aged 79 ± 8, 74% female). MEASUREMENTS Baseline data on multiple life course factors included early-, mid-, and late-life participation in cognitive activities; early-life and adult SES; education; and reading ability (National Adult Reading Test; NART). Path analysis quantified direct and indirect standardized effects of life course factors on global cognition and five cognitive domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, perceptual speed). RESULTS Adjusting for age, sex, and race, education had the strongest association with global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, and visuospatial ability, whereas NART (followed by education) had the strongest association with working memory. Late-life cognitive activities had the strongest association with perceptual speed, followed by education. CONCLUSIONS These cross-sectional findings suggest that education and reading ability are the most-robust proxy measures of cognitive reserve in relation to late-life cognition. Additional research leveraging path analysis is warranted to better understand how these life course factors, reflecting the latent construct of cognitive reserve, affect abnormal cognitive aging. PMID:21797830

  4. Ability-versus skill-based assessment of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Travis R; Su, Lac D

    2006-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has received an intense amount of attention in leadership circles during the last decade and continuing debate exists concerning the best method for measuring this construct. This study analyzed leader emotional intelligence scores, measured via skill and ability methodologies, against leader job performance. Two hundred twelve employees from three organizations participated in this study. Scores on the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, a skill-based assessment, were positively, though not significantly, correlated with scores on the MSCEIT, an ability-based assessment of emotional intelligence. Scores on the MSCEIT did not have a significant relationship with job performance in this study, whereas, scores on the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal had a strong link to leader job performance. The four subcomponents of the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal were examined against job performance. Relationship management was a stronger predictor of leader job performance than the other three subcomponents. Social awareness was the single emotional intelligence skill that did not have a significant link to leader job performance. Factor analyses yielded a two-component model of emotional intelligence encompassing personal and social competence, rather than confirmation of a four-part taxonomy.

  5. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  6. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T I J; Alavinia, S M; Bredt, F J; Lindeboom, D; Elders, L A M; Burdorf, A

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors.

  7. Validation of an instrument to assess visual ability in children with visual impairment in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinhai; Khadka, Jyoti; Gao, Rongrong; Zhang, Sifang; Dong, Wenpeng; Bao, Fangjun; Chen, Haisi; Wang, Qinmei; Chen, Hao; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2017-04-01

    To validate a visual ability instrument for school-aged children with visual impairment in China by translating, culturally adopting and Rasch scaling the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC). The 25-item CVAQC was translated into Mandarin using a standard protocol. The translated version (CVAQC-CN) was subjected to cognitive testing to ensure a proper cultural adaptation of its content. Then, the CVAQC-CN was interviewer-administered to 114 school-aged children and young people with visual impairment. Rasch analysis was carried out to assess its psychometric properties. The correlation between the CVAQC-CN visual ability scores and clinical measure of vision (visual acuity; VA and contrast sensitivity, CS) were assessed using Spearman's r. Based on cultural adaptation exercise, cognitive testing, missing data and Rasch metrics-based iterative item removal, three items were removed from the original 25. The 22-item CVAQC-CN demonstrated excellent measurement precision (person separation index, 3.08), content validity (item separation, 10.09) and item reliability (0.99). Moreover, the CVAQC-CN was unidimensional and had no item bias. The person-item map indicated good targeting of item difficulty to person ability. The CVAQC-CN had moderate correlations between CS (-0.53, p<0.00001) and VA (0.726, p<0.00001), respectively, indicating its validity. The 22-item CVAQC-CN is a psychometrically robust and valid instrument to measure visual ability in children with visual impairment in China. The instrument can be used as a clinical and research outcome measure to assess the change in visual ability after low vision rehabilitation intervention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The continuing benefits of education: adult education and midlife cognitive ability in the British 1946 birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Stephani L; Feinstein, Leon; Link, Bruce G; Wadsworth, Michael E J; Richards, Marcus

    2007-11-01

    Evidence shows education positively impacts cognitive ability. However, researchers have given little attention to the potential impact of adult education on cognitive ability, still malleable in midlife. The primary study aim was to examine whether there were continuing effects of education over the life course on midlife cognitive ability. This study used data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort, and multivariate regression to estimate the continuing effects of adult education on multiple measures of midlife cognitive ability. Educational attainment completed by early adulthood was associated with all measures of cognitive ability in late midlife. The continued effect of education was apparent in the associations between adult education and higher verbal ability, verbal memory, and verbal fluency in late midlife. We found no association between adult education and mental speed and concentration. Associations between adult education and midlife cognitive ability indicate wider benefits of education to health that may be important for social integration, well-being, and the delay of cognitive decline in later life.

  9. The Continuing Benefits of Education: Adult Education and Midlife Cognitive Ability in the British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Stephani L.; Feinstein, Leon; Link, Bruce G.; Wadsworth, Michael E. J.; Richards, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Evidence shows education positively impacts cognitive ability. However, researchers have given little attention to the potential impact of adult education on cognitive ability, still malleable in midlife. The primary study aim was to examine whether there were continuing effects of education over the life course on midlife cognitive ability. Methods. This study used data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort, and multivariate regression to estimate the continuing effects of adult education on multiple measures of midlife cognitive ability. Results. Educational attainment completed by early adulthood was associated with all measures of cognitive ability in late midlife. The continued effect of education was apparent in the associations between adult education and higher verbal ability, verbal memory, and verbal fluency in late midlife. We found no association between adult education and mental speed and concentration. Discussion. Associations between adult education and midlife cognitive ability indicate wider benefits of education to health that may be important for social integration, well-being, and the delay of cognitive decline in later life. PMID:18079429

  10. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  11. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  12. Measuring the Effects of Reading Assistance Dogs on Reading Ability and Attitudes in Elementary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Dawn; McCobb, Emily; Diurba, Amanda; Linder, Deborah; Freeman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Reading assistance dogs can be incorporated into reading programs to increase a child's desire and ability to read. However, more data is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of such programs. A 5-week reading assistance dog program was implemented to assess feasibility and effectiveness. Participants included 18 children entering the 2nd grade…

  13. Health, functional ability and life satisfaction among older people 65 years and over: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Vivien; Neville, Stephen; La Grow, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Satisfaction with life is a complex interplay of older people's perspectives on life achievements. Satisfaction with life, alongside health and functional ability contribute to successful ageing. To explore the impact of increasing age on older people's perceptions of their health, functional ability and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalised older people (65+) was conducted (n = 542). The Short Form-12 Health Survey measured perceived physical and mental health, the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale measured functional ability and the Satisfaction With Life Scale measured life satisfaction. Significant group differences were found; while participants' perceptions of health and function decreased with age, perceptions of life satisfaction increased. Unexpectedly, the youngest groups reported low levels of life satisfaction while the oldest reported very high levels. Further study should consider factors that might influence the perception of health, functional ability and particularly life satisfaction across older age groups.

  14. The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Arcara, Giorgio; Mondini, Sara; Bisso, Alice; Palmer, Katie; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65–98 years). Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL), which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment. PMID:29311910

  15. The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Mondini, Sara; Bisso, Alice; Palmer, Katie; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65-98 years). Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL), which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.

  16. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  17. Information Processing and Human Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)

  18. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  19. Deficits in Social Attribution Ability in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of mental retardation, involves a myriad of physical and behavioral problems. Poor social adjustment has been reported, but the origin of this difficulty is unknown. The Social Attribution Task, a measure of one's ability to make appropriate social attributions from an ambiguous visual display [Klin…

  20. Predicting functional ability in mild cognitive impairment with the Dementia Rating Scale-2.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Melanie C; Duncan, Noah L; Hanna, Sherrie; Smith, Glenn E

    2012-06-01

    We examined the utility of cognitive evaluation to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and decisional ability in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Sixty-seven individuals with single-domain amnestic MCI were administered the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) as well as the Everyday Cognition assessment form to assess functional ability. The DRS-2 Total Scores and Initiation/Perseveration and Memory subscales were found to be predictive of IADLs, with Total Scores accounting for 19% of the variance in IADL performance on average. In addition, the DRS-2 Initiation/Perseveration and Total Scores were predictive of ability to understand information, and the DRS-2 Conceptualization helped predict ability to communicate with others, both key variables in decision-making ability. These findings suggest that performance on the DRS-2, and specific subscales related to executive function and memory, is significantly related to IADLs in individuals with MCI. These cognitive measures are also associated with decision-making-related abilities in MCI.

  1. Predicting student performance in sonographic scanning using spatial ability as an ability determinent of skill acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and interpretation of these medical images. Using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance as a conceptual framework, this study explored the relationship of spatial ability and learning sonographic scanning. Beginning first year sonography students from four different educational institutions were administered a spatial abilities test prior to their initial scanning lab coursework. The students' spatial test scores were compared with their scanning competency performance scores. A significant relationship between the students' spatial ability scores and their scanning performance scores was found. This result suggests that the use of spatial ability tests for admission to sonography programs may improve candidate selection, as well as assist programs in adjusting instruction and curriculum for students who demonstrate low spatial ability.

  2. Factors Associated With Work Ability in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eunice; Johnston, Venerina; Wibault, Johanna; Löfgren, Håkan; Dedering, Åsa; Öberg, Birgitta; Zsigmond, Peter; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-08-15

    Cross-sectional study. To investigate the factors associated with work ability in patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. Surgery is a common treatment of cervical radiculopathy in people of working age. However, few studies have investigated the impact on the work ability of these patients. Patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy (n = 201) were recruited from spine centers in Sweden to complete a battery of questionnaires and physical measures the day before surgery. The associations between various individual, psychological, and work-related factors and self-reported work ability were investigated by Spearman rank correlation coefficient, multivariate linear regression, and forward stepwise regression analyses. Factors that were significant (P < 0.05) in each statistical analysis were entered into the successive analysis to reveal the factors most related to work ability. Work ability was assessed using the Work Ability Index. The mean Work Ability Index score was 28 (SD, 9.0). The forward stepwise regression analysis revealed 6 factors significantly associated with work ability, which explained 62% of the variance in the Work Ability Index. Factors highly correlated with greater work ability included greater self-efficacy in performing self-cares, lower physical load on the neck at work, greater self-reported chance of being able to work in 6 months' time, greater use of active coping strategies, lower frequency of hand weakness, and higher health-related quality of life. Psychological, work-related and individual factors were significantly associated with work ability in patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. High self-efficacy was most associated with greater work ability. Consideration of these factors by surgeons preoperatively may provide optimal return to work outcomes after surgery. 3.

  3. Workplace interventions to improve work ability: A systematic review and meta-analysis of their effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Oakman, Jodi; Neupane, Subas; Proper, Karin I; Kinsman, Natasha; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2018-03-01

    Objective Extended working lives due to an ageing population will necessitate the maintenance of work ability across the life course. This systematic review aimed to analyze whether workplace interventions positively impact work ability. Methods We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase databases using relevant terms. Work-based interventions were those focused on individuals, the workplace, or multilevel (combination). Work ability - measured using the work ability index (WAI) or the single-item work ability score (WAS) - was the outcome measure. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development & Evaluation (GRADE) criteria was used to assess evidence quality, and impact statements were developed to synthesize the results. Meta-analysis was undertaken where appropriate. Results We reviewed 17 randomized control trials (comprising 22 articles). Multilevel interventions (N=5) included changes to work arrangements and liaisons with supervisors, whilst individual-focused interventions (N=12) involved behavior change or exercise programs. We identified only evidence of a moderate quality for either individual or multilevel interventions aiming to improve work ability. The meta-analysis of 13 studies found a small positive significant effect for interventions on work ability [overall pooled mean 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.21] with no heterogeneity for the effect size (Chi 2 =11.28, P=0.51; I 2 =0%). Conclusions The meta-analysis showed a small positive effect, suggesting that workplace interventions might improve work ability. However, the quality of the evidence base was only moderate, precluding any firm conclusion. Further high quality studies are require to establish the role of interventions on work ability.

  4. Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2009-12-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.

  5. Cultural Views, Language Ability, and Mammography Use in Chinese American Women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women’s ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors’ results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population. PMID:19233947

  6. Diagnostic efficiency of an ability-focused battery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Justin B; Fichtenberg, Norman L; Millis, Scott R

    2010-05-01

    An ability-focused battery (AFB) is a selected group of well-validated neuropsychological measures that assess the conventional range of cognitive domains. This study examined the diagnostic efficiency of an AFB for use in clinical decision making with a mixed sample composed of individuals with neurological brain dysfunction and individuals referred for cognitive assessment without evidence of neurological disorders. Using logistic regression analyses and ROC curve analysis, a five-domain model composed of attention, processing speed, visual-spatial reasoning, language/verbal reasoning, and memory domain scores was fitted that had an AUC of.89 (95% CI =.84-.95). A more parsimonious two-domain model using processing speed and memory was also fitted that had an AUC of.90 (95% confidence interval =.84-.95). A model composed of a global ability score calculated from the mean of the individual domain scores was also fitted with an AUC of.88 (95% CI =.82-.94).

  7. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    PubMed

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  8. Typical intellectual engagement, Big Five personality traits, approaches to learning and cognitive ability predictors of academic performance.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-12-01

    Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and age of pupils to predict their General Certificate in Secondary Education (GCSE) test results. The aim was to determine how much variance ability and non-ability tests can account for in predicting specific GCSE exam scores. The sample comprised 212 British schoolchildren. Of these, 123 were females. Their mean age was 15.8 years (SD 0.98 years). Pupils completed three self-report tests: the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) which measures the 'Big Five' personality traits, (Costa & McCrae, 1992); the Typical Intellectual Engagement Scale (Goff & Ackerman, 1992) and a measure of learning style, the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ; Biggs, 1987). They also completed two ability tests: the Wonderlic Personnel Test (Wonderlic, 1992) a short measure of general intelligence and the General Knowledge Test (Irving, Cammock, & Lynn, 2001) a measure of crystallized intelligence. Six months later they took their (10th grade) GCSE exams comprising four 'core' compulsory exams as well as a number of specific elective subjects. Correlational analysis suggested that intelligence was the best predictors of school results. Preference test measures accounted for relatively little variance. Regressions indicated that over 50% of the variance in school exams for English (Literature and Language) and Maths and Science combined could be accounted for by these individual difference factors. Data from less than an hour's worth of testing pupils could predict school exam results 6 months later. These tests could, therefore, be used to reliably inform important decisions about how pupils are taught.

  9. Investigating the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of Phonological Abilities in a Sufficiently Transparent Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Spanoudis, George

    2012-01-01

    Theory-driven conceptualizations of phonological abilities in a sufficiently transparent language (Greek) were examined in children ages 5 years 8 months to 7 years 7 months, by comparing a set of a priori models. Specifically, the fit of 9 different models was evaluated, as defined by the Number of Factors (1 to 3; represented by rhymes,…

  10. Contrast ratio and masking ability of three ceramic veneering materials.

    PubMed

    Shono, N N; Al Nahedh, H N A

    2012-01-01

    Porcelain veneer materials are translucent and are therefore affected by their thickness as well as the color of the underlying substructure, which limits their masking ability and compromises the esthetic result in heavily stained teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the contrast ratio (CR) and masking ability of three different veneering ceramics with two thicknesses by measuring the color differences over white and black backgrounds. Correlations between CR and masking ability of these veneering ceramics were evaluated. A total of 30 disc-shaped specimens (12 mm diameter × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm) were fabricated in shade A2 from three types of all-ceramic systems: IPS e.max Press (IPSe; Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtensein), Vita VM7 (VM7; VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany), and Nobel Rondo Press Alumina: Solo (NRPA; Nobel Biocare, Zürich-Flughafen, Switzerland). The CR, defined as the ratio of illuminance (Y) of the test material when placed on the black background (Yb) to the illuminance of the same material when placed over a white background (Yw), was determined (CR=Yb/Yw). The color (CIE L*a*b*) and Y of each specimen were measured over standard white and black tiles using a spectrophotometer (ColorEye 7000 A, Model C6, GretagMacbeth, New Windsor, NY, USA). Masking abilities of the specimens were determined by measuring the color difference (ΔE) over white and black backgrounds. Both CR and ΔE data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean values of CR across the three materials followed by the Duncan multiple comparison test. The correlations between CR and ΔE were determined by comparing R(2) values obtained from a linear regression analysis. A Student t-test for independent samples was used to compare the mean contrast ratio and ΔE values for the two thicknesses. CR values of NRPA were significantly less than those of IPSe and VM7, and the CR of IPSe was higher than that of VM

  11. Automatic Ability Attribution after Failure: A Dual Process View of Achievement Attribution

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou

    2013-01-01

    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people automatically attribute their achievement failure to their ability, but reduce the ability attribution in a controlled manner. To address this hypothesis, we measured participants’ causal attribution belief for their task failure either under the cognitive load (load condition) or with full attention (no-load condition). Across two studies, participants attributed task performance to their ability more in the load than in the no-load condition. The increased ability attribution under cognitive load further affected intrinsic motivation. These results indicate that cognitive resources available after feedback play crucial roles in determining causal attribution belief, as well as achievement motivations. PMID:23667576

  12. Automatic ability attribution after failure: a dual process view of achievement attribution.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Michiko; Murayama, Kou

    2013-01-01

    Causal attribution has been one of the most influential frameworks in the literature of achievement motivation, but previous studies considered achievement attribution as relatively deliberate and effortful processes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people automatically attribute their achievement failure to their ability, but reduce the ability attribution in a controlled manner. To address this hypothesis, we measured participants' causal attribution belief for their task failure either under the cognitive load (load condition) or with full attention (no-load condition). Across two studies, participants attributed task performance to their ability more in the load than in the no-load condition. The increased ability attribution under cognitive load further affected intrinsic motivation. These results indicate that cognitive resources available after feedback play crucial roles in determining causal attribution belief, as well as achievement motivations.

  13. Work ability in vibration-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Hagberg, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand-arm vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including sensorineural disturbances. To investigate which factors had the strongest impact on work ability in vibration-exposed workers. A cross-sectional study in which vibration-exposed workers referred to a department of occupational and environmental medicine were compared with a randomized sample of unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants underwent a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including measurements of hand and finger muscle strength and vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds. The vibration-exposed group (47 subjects) showed significantly reduced sensitivity to cold and warmth in digit 2 bilaterally (P < 0.01) and in digit 5 in the left hand (P < 0.05) and to warmth in digit 5 in the right hand (P < 0.01), compared with the 18 referents. Similarly, tactilometry showed significantly raised vibration perception thresholds among the workers (P < 0.05). A strong relationship was found for the following multiple regression model: estimated work ability = 11.4 - 0.1 × age - 2.3 × current stress level - 2.5 × current pain in hands/arms (multiple r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Vibration-exposed workers showed raised vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds, compared with unexposed referents. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stress disorders and muscle pain in hands/arms must also be considered when evaluating work ability among subjects with HAVS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  14. Preserved, deteriorated, and premorbidly impaired patterns of intellectual ability in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Narmeen; Heinrichs, R Walter; Pinnock, Farena; Miles, Ashley A; Muharib, Eva; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to identify patterns of intellectual performance in schizophrenia patients suggesting preserved, deteriorated, and premorbidly impaired ability, and to determine clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates of these patterns. We assessed 101 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 80 non-psychiatric control participants. The "preserved" performance pattern was defined by average-range estimated premorbid and current IQ with no evidence of decline (premorbid-current IQ difference <10 points). The "deteriorated" pattern was defined by a difference between estimated premorbid and current IQ estimates of 10 points or more. The premorbidly "impaired" pattern was defined by below average estimated premorbid and current IQ and no evidence of decline greater than 10 points. Preserved and deteriorated patterns in healthy controls were also identified and studied in comparison to patient findings. The groups were compared on demographic, neurocognitive, clinical and functionality variables. Patients with the preserved pattern outperformed those meeting criteria for deteriorated and compromised intellectual ability on a composite measure of neurocognitive ability as well as in terms of functional competence. Patients demonstrating the deteriorated and compromised patterns were equivalent across all measures. However, "preserved" patients failed to show any advantage in terms of community functioning and demonstrated cognitive impairments relative to control participants. Our results suggest that proposed patterns of intellectual decline and stability exist in both the schizophrenia and general populations, but may not hold true across other cognitive abilities and do not translate into differential functional outcome.

  15. In-Person versus Telehealth Assessment of Discourse Ability in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Quinn-Padron, Maura; Johnson, Jacqueline E.; Workinger, Marilyn S.; Antoniotti, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare in-person (IP) vs. telehealth (TH) assessment of discourse ability in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Repeated-measures design with random order of conditions. Participants Twenty adults with moderate-to-severe TBI. Method Participants completed conversation, picture description, story-generation, and procedural description tasks. Sessions were video-recorded and transcribed. Measures Measures of productivity and quality of discourse. Results Significant differences between conditions were not detected in this sample, and feedback from participants was positive. Conclusions These preliminary results support the use of TH for the assessment of discourse ability in adults with TBI, at least for individuals with sufficient cognitive skills to follow TH procedures. PMID:22190010

  16. Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: the role of sport ability beliefs.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K John; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated determinants of active lifestyles in Singaporean university students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a measure of lay beliefs concerning athletic ability was confirmed. Other results confirmed hypotheses that beliefs reflecting that athletic ability can be developed over time (incremental beliefs) predict an achievement task (self-referenced) orientation, while beliefs reflecting that athletic ability is relatively stable (entity beliefs) predict an ego (other-person, comparative) orientation. Goal orientations directly affect perceived competence which, in turn, influence intrinsic motivation to be physically active. A task orientation had a direct link to intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation towards sport and physical activity might be enhanced through interventions that focus on self-referenced and self-improvement notions of ability as well as perceived competence.

  17. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Work-family conflicts and self-reported work ability: cross-sectional findings in women with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Bethge, Matthias; Borngräber, Yvonne

    2015-03-18

    Under conditions of gender-specific division of paid employment and unpaid childcare and housework, rising employment of women increases the likelihood that they will be faced with work-family conflicts. As recent research indicates, such conflicts might also contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. However, research in patient samples is needed to clarify how important these conflicts are for relevant health-related measures of functioning (e.g., work ability). We therefore examined, in a sample of women with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, the indirect and direct associations between the indicators of work-family conflicts and self-reported work ability as well as whether the direct effects remained significant after adjustment for covariates. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. Participants were recruited from five rehabilitation centers. Work-family conflicts were assessed by four scales referring to time- and strain-based work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW). Self-reported work ability was measured by the Work Ability Index. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to approve the anticipated four-factor structure of the work-family conflict measure. Direct and indirect associations between work-family conflict indicators and self-reported work ability were examined by path model analysis. Multivariate regression models were performed to calculate adjusted estimators of the direct effects of strain-based WIF and FIW on work ability. The study included 351 employed women. The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the anticipated four-factor structure of the work-family conflict measure. The path model analysis identified direct effects of both strain-based scales on self-reported work ability. The time-based scales were indirectly associated with work ability via the strain-based scales. Adjusted regression analyses showed that a five-point increase in strain-based WIF or FIW was

  19. Development and validation of the Sports Athlete Foot and Ankle Score: an instrument for sports-related ankle injuries.

    PubMed

    Morssinkhof, M L A; Wang, O; James, L; van der Heide, H J L; Winson, I G

    2013-09-01

    Many existing scoring systems assess ankle function, but there is no evidence that any of them has been validated in a group of patients with a higher demand on their ankle function. Problems include ceiling effects, not being able to detect change or they do not contain a sports-subscale. The aim of this study was to create a validated self-administered scoring system for ankle injuries in the higher performing athlete. First, 26 patients were interviewed to solicit opinions needed to create the final score, which is modified from the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Second, SAFAS was validated in a group of 25 athletes with and 14 athletes without ankle injury. It is a self-administered region specific sports foot and ankle score that contains four subscales assessing the levels of symptoms, pain, daily living and sports. The Spearman correlation coefficients between SAFAS and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) ranged from 0.78 to 0.88. Content validity is established by key informant interviews, expert opinions and a high satisfaction rate of 75%. Cronbach's alpha indicated good internal consistency of each subscale ranging from 0.77 to 0.92. SAFAS has shown good evidence for being a valid instrudent for assessing sports-related ankle injuries in high-performing athletes. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution of psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures to low work ability: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Emberland, Jan S; Knardahl, Stein

    2015-03-01

    To determine the contribution of specific psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures to the self-reported low level of work ability. Employees from 48 organizations were surveyed over a 2-year period (n = 3779). Changes in 16 work exposures and 3 work ability measures-the work ability index score, perceived current, and future work ability-were tested with Spearman rank correlations. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine contribution of work exposures to low work ability. Role conflict, human resource primacy, and positive challenge were the most consistent predictors of low work ability across test designs. Role clarity and fair leadership were less consistent but prominent predictors. Mechanical exposures were not predictive. To protect employee work ability, work place interventions would benefit from focusing on reducing role conflicts and on promoting positive challenges and human resource primacy.

  1. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, T. I. J.; Alavinia, S. M.; Bredt, F. J.; Lindeboom, D.; Elders, L. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Results Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Conclusion Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors. PMID:18175140

  2. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding

    PubMed Central

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

  3. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding.

    PubMed

    Klaczynski, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.

  4. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  5. The Measurement and Predictive Ability of Metacognition in Middle School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Rayne A.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Ramsay, Crystal M.; Klapp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relations among components of metacognition from varying theoretical perspectives, explored the psychometric characteristics of known measures of metacognition, and examined the predictive strength of measures of metacognition for both science and overall academic achievement in 97 seventh-grade students. Findings indicated…

  6. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--China Form: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…

  7. Association between Ability Emotional Intelligence and Left Insula during Social Judgment of Facial Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain “somatic marker circuitry” (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotion-specific. PMID:26859495

  8. Slow Sleep Spindle Activity, Declarative Memory, and General Cognitive Abilities in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Roell, Judith; Peigneux, Philippe; Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Georg; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. Design: Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Measurements and Results: Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). Conclusions: Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8–11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency. Citation: Hoedlmoser K, Heib DPJ, Roell J, Peigneux P, Sadeh A, Gruber G, Schabus M. Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1501-1512. PMID:25142558

  9. Application of Organosilane Monolayer Template to Quantitative Evaluation of Cancer Cell Adhesive Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanii, Takashi; Sasaki, Kosuke; Ichisawa, Kota; Demura, Takanori; Beppu, Yuichi; Vu, Hoan Anh; Thanh Chi, Hoan; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Sato, Yuko

    2011-06-01

    The adhesive ability of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines was evaluated using organosilane monolayer templates (OMTs). Using the OMT, the spreading area of adhered cells can be limited, and this enables us to focus on the initial attachment process of adhesion. Moreover, it becomes possible to arrange the cells in an array and to quantitatively evaluate the number of attached cells. The adhesive ability of the cancer cells cultured on the OMT was controlled by adding (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which blocks a receptor that mediates cell adhesion and is overexpressed in cancer cells. Measurement of the relative ability of the cancer cells to attach to the OMT revealed that the ability for attachment decreased with increasing EGCG concentration. The results agreed well with the western blot analysis, indicating that the OMT can potentially be employed to evaluate the adhesive ability of various cancer cells.

  10. Flexible nonlinear estimates of the association between height and mental ability in early life.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    To estimate associations between early-life mental ability and height/height-growth in contemporary US children. Structured additive regression models are used to flexibly estimate the associations between height and mental ability at approximately 24 months of age. The sample is taken from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a national study whose target population was children born in the US during 2001. A nonlinear association is indicated between height and mental ability at approximately 24 months of age. There is an increasing association between height and mental ability below the mean value of height, but a flat association thereafter. Annualized growth shows the same nonlinear association to ability when controlling for baseline length at 9 months. Restricted growth at lower values of the height distribution is associated with lower measured mental ability in contemporary US children during the first years of life. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Balance ability measured with the Berg balance scale: a determinant of fall history in community-dwelling adults with leg amputation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Chen, Christine C; Blackwell, Wren M; Rahal, Rana T; Benoy, Stephany A

    2015-01-01

    Falls are common among adults with leg amputations and associated with balance confidence. But subjective confidence is not equivalent with physical ability. This multivariate analyses of community-dwelling adults with leg amputations examined relationships among individual characteristics, falls, balance ability and balance confidence. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling adults with leg amputations recruited from a support group and prosthetic clinic. Subjects provided self-reported medical/fall history, prosthetic functional use, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire data. Balance ability was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Fall incidence was categorized as any fall (one or more) and recurrent falls (more than one). Multivariate logistic regression analyzed relationships within the two fall categories. Cross tabulations and ANOVA analyzed differences among subcategories. Fifty-four subjects (mean age 56.8) with various etiologies, amputation levels, and balance abilities participated. 53.7% had any fall; 25.9% had recurrent falls. Models for both fall categories correctly classified fall history in > 70% of subjects with combinations of the variables ABC, BBS, body-mass-index, and amputation level. Falls occurred regardless of clinical characteristics. Total BBS and select item scores were independent determinants of fall history. Unlike other balance-impaired populations, adults with leg amputation and better balance ability had greater odds of falling.

  12. Memory styles and related abilities in presentation of self.

    PubMed

    Sehulster, J R

    1995-01-01

    The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles.

  13. Gap detection measured with electrically evoked auditory event-related potentials and speech-perception abilities in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Shuman; Grose, John H; Teagle, Holly F B; Woodard, Jennifer; Park, Lisa R; Hatch, Debora R; Buchman, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed (1) to investigate the feasibility of recording the electrically evoked auditory event-related potential (eERP), including the onset P1-N1-P2 complex and the electrically evoked auditory change complex (EACC) in response to temporal gaps, in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD); and (2) to evaluate the relationship between these measures and speech-perception abilities in these subjects. Fifteen ANSD children who are Cochlear Nucleus device users participated in this study. For each subject, the speech-processor microphone was bypassed and the eERPs were elicited by direct stimulation of one mid-array electrode (electrode 12). The stimulus was a train of biphasic current pulses 800 msec in duration. Two basic stimulation conditions were used to elicit the eERP. In the no-gap condition, the entire pulse train was delivered uninterrupted to electrode 12, and the onset P1-N1-P2 complex was measured relative to the stimulus onset. In the gapped condition, the stimulus consisted of two pulse train bursts, each being 400 msec in duration, presented sequentially on the same electrode and separated by one of five gaps (i.e., 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 msec). Open-set speech-perception ability of these subjects with ANSD was assessed using the phonetically balanced kindergarten (PBK) word lists presented at 60 dB SPL, using monitored live voice in a sound booth. The eERPs were recorded from all subjects with ANSD who participated in this study. There were no significant differences in test-retest reliability, root mean square amplitude or P1 latency for the onset P1-N1-P2 complex between subjects with good (>70% correct on PBK words) and poorer speech-perception performance. In general, the EACC showed less mature morphological characteristics than the onset P1-N1-P2 response recorded from the same subject. There was a robust correlation between the PBK word scores and the EACC thresholds for gap detection. Subjects with poorer speech

  14. Diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Hoon; Ahn, Sang Il; Ko, Sung Ju

    2015-11-01

    Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), this study aims to investigate the glaucoma diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis. A cross-sectional study was conducted. This study was performed to investigate glaucoma diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis in eyes with various degrees of glaucoma. We enrolled 181 healthy eyes and 265 glaucomatous eyes. Glaucomatous eyes were subdivided into pre-perimetric, early, moderate and advanced-to-severe glaucoma based on visual field test results. For each eye, macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness was measured using OCT. Average GCIPL thickness, GCIPL thicknesses in superior and inferior hemispheres, absolute difference in GCIPL thickness between superior and inferior hemispheres and GCIPL asymmetry index calculated as the absolute value of log10 (inferior hemisphere thickness/superior hemisphere thickness) were analysed. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) of GCIPL parameter were calculated and compared. All of the GCIPL parameters showed good glaucoma diagnostic ability (AUCs ≥ 0.817, P < 0.01). AUCs of average, superior and inferior GCIPL thickness increased as the severity of glaucoma increased. GCIPL thickness difference and asymmetry index showed the highest AUCs in early and moderate glaucoma and lower AUCs in pre-perimetric and advanced-to-severe glaucoma. GCIPL thickness difference and asymmetry index showed better glaucoma diagnostic ability than other GCIPL parameters only in early stage of glaucoma (P < 0.05); in other stages, these parameters had similar to or worse glaucoma diagnostic ability than other GCIPL parameters. Macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis showed good glaucoma diagnostic ability, especially in early-stage glaucoma. However, it has limited usefulness in other stages of glaucoma. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course: The relationships between self-rated ability, satisfaction, and actual performance.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Barbara A; Kothe, Emily J

    2010-11-01

    Effective communication is a vital component of nursing care, however, nurses often lack the skills to communicate with patients, carers and other health care professionals. Communication skills training programs are frequently used to develop these skills. However, there is a paucity of data on how best to evaluate such courses. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between student self rating of their own ability and their satisfaction with a nurse training course as compared with an objective measure of communication skills. 209 first year nursing students completed a communication skills program. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and associations between measures were investigated. Paired samples t-tests showed significant improvement in self-rated ability over the course of the program. Students generally were very satisfied with the course which was reflected in both qualitative and quantitative measures. However, neither self-rated ability nor satisfaction was significantly correlated with the objective measure of performance, but self-rated ability and satisfaction were highly correlated with one another. The importance of these findings is discussed and implications for nurse education are proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interference Control, Working Memory Capacity, and Cognitive Abilities: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether various indices of interference control were related to one another and to other cognitive abilities. It was found that the interference control measures were weakly correlated and could form a single factor that was related to overall memory performance on the tasks as well as to measures of working memory…

  17. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.

  18. A Longitudinal Field Study Comparing a Multiplicative and an Additive Model of Motivation and Ability. Technical Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.; And Others

    The relative contribution of motivation to ability measures in predicting performance criteria of sales personnel from successive fiscal periods was investigated. In this context, the merits of a multiplicative and additive combination of motivation and ability measures were examined. The relationship between satisfaction and motivation and…

  19. Domestic Violence and Longitudinal Associations with Children's Physiological Regulation Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigterink, Tami; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of domestic violence (DV) on children's emotion regulation abilities measured via baseline vagal tone (VT). Specifically, the authors examined the relationship between DV exposure and children's regulatory functioning over time, investigating whether DV exposure was related to the trajectory of children's…

  20. Do people have insight into their face recognition abilities?

    PubMed

    Palermo, Romina; Rossion, Bruno; Rhodes, Gillian; Laguesse, Renaud; Tez, Tolga; Hall, Bronwyn; Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta; Irons, Jessica; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Taylor, Libby C; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor

    2017-02-01

    Diagnosis of developmental or congenital prosopagnosia (CP) involves self-report of everyday face recognition difficulties, which are corroborated with poor performance on behavioural tests. This approach requires accurate self-evaluation. We examine the extent to which typical adults have insight into their face recognition abilities across four experiments involving nearly 300 participants. The experiments used five tests of face recognition ability: two that tap into the ability to learn and recognize previously unfamiliar faces [the Cambridge Face Memory Test, CFMT; Duchaine, B., & Nakayama, K. (2006). The Cambridge Face Memory Test: Results for neurologically intact individuals and an investigation of its validity using inverted face stimuli and prosopagnosic participants. Neuropsychologia, 44(4), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.001; and a newly devised test based on the CFMT but where the study phases involve watching short movies rather than viewing static faces-the CFMT-Films] and three that tap face matching [Benton Facial Recognition Test, BFRT; Benton, A., Sivan, A., Hamsher, K., Varney, N., & Spreen, O. (1983). Contribution to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; and two recently devised sequential face matching tests]. Self-reported ability was measured with the 15-item Kennerknecht et al. questionnaire [Kennerknecht, I., Ho, N. Y., & Wong, V. C. (2008). Prevalence of hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA) in Hong Kong Chinese population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(22), 2863-2870. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32552]; two single-item questions assessing face recognition ability; and a new 77-item meta-cognition questionnaire. Overall, we find that adults with typical face recognition abilities have only modest insight into their ability to recognize faces on behavioural tests. In a fifth experiment, we assess self-reported face recognition ability in people with CP and find that some people who expect to

  1. Ability and efficiency of an automatic analysis software to measure microvascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Carsetti, Andrea; Aya, Hollmann D; Pierantozzi, Silvia; Bazurro, Simone; Donati, Abele; Rhodes, Andrew; Cecconi, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of the microcirculation is currently performed offline, is time consuming and operator dependent. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and efficiency of the automatic analysis software CytoCamTools 1.7.12 (CC) to measure microvascular parameters in comparison with Automated Vascular Analysis (AVA) software 3.2. 22 patients admitted to the cardiothoracic intensive care unit following cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Sublingual microcirculatory videos were analysed using AVA and CC software. The total vessel density (TVD) for small vessels, perfused vessel density (PVD) and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) were calculated. Blood flow was assessed using the microvascular flow index (MFI) for AVA software and the averaged perfused speed indicator (APSI) for the CC software. The duration of the analysis was also recorded. Eighty-four videos from 22 patients were analysed. The bias between TVD-CC and TVD-AVA was 2.20 mm/mm 2 (95 % CI 1.37-3.03) with limits of agreement (LOA) of -4.39 (95 % CI -5.66 to -3.16) and 8.79 (95 % CI 7.50-10.01) mm/mm 2 . The percentage error (PE) for TVD was ±32.2 %. TVD was positively correlated between CC and AVA (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). The bias between PVD-CC and PVD-AVA was 6.54 mm/mm 2 (95 % CI 5.60-7.48) with LOA of -4.25 (95 % CI -8.48 to -0.02) and 17.34 (95 % CI 13.11-21.57) mm/mm 2 . The PE for PVD was ±61.2 %. PVD was positively correlated between CC and AVA (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). The median PPV-AVA was significantly higher than the median PPV-CC [97.39 % (95.25, 100 %) vs. 81.65 % (61.97, 88.99), p < 0.0001]. MFI categories cannot estimate or predict APSI values (p = 0.45). The time required for the analysis was shorter with CC than with AVA system [2'42″ (2'12″, 3'31″) vs. 16'12″ (13'38″, 17'57″), p < 0.001]. TVD is comparable between the two softwares, although faster with CC software. The values for PVD and PPV are not interchangeable given the

  2. Cognitive predictors of a common multitasking ability: Contributions from working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Meier, Matthew E; Montroy, Janelle J; Hicks, Kenny L; Unsworth, Nash; Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, D Zachary; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings. First, although the complex tasks used to assess multitasking differed greatly in their task characteristics and demands, a coherent construct specific to multitasking ability was identified. Second, the cognitive ability predictors accounted for substantial variance in the general multitasking construct, with WM and fluid intelligence accounting for the most multitasking variance compared to attention control. Third, the magnitude of the relationships among the cognitive abilities and multitasking varied as a function of the complexity and structure of the various multitasks assessed. Finally, structural equation models based on a multifaceted model of WM indicated that attention control and capacity fully mediated the WM and multitasking relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Aircraft trace gas measurements during the London 2012 Olympics: Air quality and emission fluxes derived from sampling upwind and downwind of a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Lee, J. D.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Barratt, B.; McQuaid, J. B.; Illingworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements recorded during July and August 2012, across the period of the London 2012 Summer Olympics and simultaneous with the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) ground-based measurement and modelling campaign. Through long-term (2-year) and intensive observation periods (Winter 2011 and Summer 2012), the ClearfLo programme aims to better understand emissions, as well as the chemical, dynamical and micro-meteorological processes which modulate air quality in the London urban environment - an important risk factor for both acute and chronic health effects. The work presented here focuses on two contrasting case studies within the summer ClearfLo period: 30 July 2012 and 9 August 2012, representing relatively clean background and polluted background cases, respectively, and characterised by well-mixed Atlantic westerly maritime inflow in the former and stagnant air (high pressure) in the latter. Measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, HCN, and other gases measured on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft will be presented and interpreted, with emphasis on observed concentration gradients and tracer-tracer correlations as well as airmass vertical structure and airmass history upwind and downwind of central London in each case. By applying a simple advective model and making use of vertically resolved thermodynamic and composition data, we are able to derive emission strengths for these gases that are representative of the total enclosed surface area. Example emissions for these two cases range between 6x105 kg(C)/hr and 9x105 kg(C)/hr for CO2, and ~0.6x105 kg(C)/hr for CH4. This airborne sampling methodology highlights the unique utility of aircraft measurements to routinely and climatologically characterise emissions from area sources such as cities, and points to future missions to target localised hotspots and distributed point sources.

  4. Measuring Multi-tasking Ability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    say that the broiler person has 3 minutes, so Jennifer I need that up in 3 minutes... so you have feedback coming at you from everywhere..-..you’ve got...Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28. Baddeley, A. D. (2000). Short-term and working memory. In E. Tulving and F. I. M. Craik , (Eds.), The Oxford

  5. Gender Stereotypes and Women's Reports of Liking and Ability in Traditionally Masculine and Feminine Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Gender stereotypes were examined for their causal influence on women's reported liking for and perceived ability to succeed in traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. One hundred twenty-one women were assigned to either a gender-stereotype activation or filler task and then completed measures of liking for, and perceived ability to…

  6. Reading Ability and Reading Engagement in Older Adults With Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angeline M.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Rubin, Gary S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. Methods. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Results. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P < 0.05). The most difficult reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = −1.60 logits, P < 0.001). Among glaucoma patients, less reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = −0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P < 0.001) and contrast sensitivity (β = −0.76 logits per 0.1-unit lower log CS, P < 0.001). Each 5-dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD was associated with book reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. PMID:25052992

  7. Factors affecting work ability in day and shift-working nurses.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Sartori, Samantha; Campanini, Paolo; Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria; Costa, Giovanni

    2008-04-01

    Satisfactory work ability is sustained and promoted by good physical and mental health and by favorable working conditions. This study examined whether favorable and rewarding work-related factors increased the work ability among European nurses. The study sample was drawn from the Nurses' Early Exit Study and consisted of 7,516 nursing staff from seven European countries working in state-owned and private hospitals. In all, 10.8% were day, 4.2% were permanent night, 20.9% were shift without night shift, and 64.1% were shift workers with night shifts. Participants were administered a composite questionnaire at baseline (Time 0) and 1 yr later (Time 1). The Work Ability Index (WAI) at Time 1 was used as the outcome measure, while work schedule, sleep, rewards (esteem and career), satisfaction with pay, work involvement and motivation, and satisfaction with working hours at Time 0 were included as potential determinants of work ability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted after adjusting for a number of confounders (i.e., country, age, sex, type of employment, family status, and other job opportunities in the same area). Work schedule was not related to Time 1 changes in WAI. Higher sleep quality and quantity and more favorable psychosocial factors significantly increased work ability levels. Higher sleep quality and quantity did not mediate the effect of work schedule on work ability. No relevant interaction effects on work ability were observed between work schedule and the other factors considered at Time 0. As a whole, sleep and satisfaction with working time were gradually reduced from day work to permanent night work. However, scores on work involvement, motivation, and satisfaction with pay and rewards were the highest in permanent night workers and the lowest in rotating shift workers that included night shifts.

  8. Determining Attitudes toward Ability: A New Tool for New Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Antonia; Croft, Laurie; Godor, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teacher attitudes toward gifted students in several distinct areas and to provide psychometric evidence of reliability and validity for the use of an instrument titled "Determining Attitudes Toward Ability" (DATA) to measure specific components of teacher attitudes. Subscales of Focus on Others,…

  9. Age and Gender Differences in Ability Emotional Intelligence in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A.; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the…

  10. Visuospatial, visuoperceptual, and visuoconstructive abilities in congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Simic, Nevena; Khan, Sarah; Rovet, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Individuals with congenital hypothyroidism (CH), even those diagnosed and treated early, experience selective cognitive deficits, the most striking of which involves the visuocognitive domain. However, the range and nature of their visuocognitive disturbances is not fully understood. We assessed a range of higher-order visuocognitive abilities in 19 children and adolescents with CH and 19 age- and sex-matched typically developing peers (TD) using a battery of neuropsychological tests and a novel self-report measure of sense of direction. CH scored lower than TD on direct tests of visuocognitive function (judging line orientation, parts-to-whole localization, copying three-dimensional block towers, discriminating designs, and matching unfamiliar faces in ¾ profile-view) as well as on self-reported problems in spatial ability. Visuocognitive problems were not global as CH and TD did not differ at copying two-dimensional block designs, mentally rotating and matching abstract shapes, or at matching unfamiliar front-view faces, design features, or designs that engaged either figure-ground segregation, visual constancy, or closure. Early and concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were associated with visuocognitive ability, although attention and working memory were not. Individuals with CH exhibit selective visuocognitive weaknesses, some of which are related to early and concurrent TSH levels.

  11. Relationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Catale, Corinne; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2014-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering-the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated-corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one's attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Niileksela, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    "The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities" (WJ IV COG) is an individually administered measure of psychometric intellectual abilities designed for ages 2 to 90+. The measure was published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-Riverside in 2014. Frederick Shrank, Kevin McGrew, and Nancy Mather are the authors. Richard Woodcock, the…

  13. Do Interests and Cognitive Abilities Help Explain College Major Choice Equally Well for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether vocational interests, measured by Holland's RIASEC model, and objectively assessed cognitive abilities, were useful in discriminating among various major categories for a sample of 1990 German university students. Interests and specific abilities, in combination, significantly discriminated among major categories…

  14. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Capturing specific abilities as a window into human individuality: the example of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Gerbasi, Margaret; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Proper characterization of each individual's unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses requires good measures of diverse abilities. Here, we advocate combining our growing understanding of neural and cognitive mechanisms with modern psychometric methods in a renewed effort to capture human individuality through a consideration of specific abilities. We articulate five criteria for the isolation and measurement of specific abilities, then apply these criteria to face recognition. We cleanly dissociate face recognition from more general visual and verbal recognition. This dissociation stretches across ability as well as disability, suggesting that specific developmental face recognition deficits are a special case of a broader specificity that spans the entire spectrum of human face recognition performance. Item-by-item results from 1,471 web-tested participants, included as supplementary information, fuel item analyses, validation, norming, and item response theory (IRT) analyses of our three tests: (a) the widely used Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT); (b) an Abstract Art Memory Test (AAMT), and (c) a Verbal Paired-Associates Memory Test (VPMT). The availability of this data set provides a solid foundation for interpreting future scores on these tests. We argue that the allied fields of experimental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and vision science could fuel the discovery of additional specific abilities to add to face recognition, thereby providing new perspectives on human individuality.

  16. Capturing specific abilities as a window into human individuality: The example of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F.; Chatterjee, Garga; Gerbasi, Margaret; Nakayama, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Proper characterization of each individual's unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses requires good measures of diverse abilities. Here, we advocate combining our growing understanding of neural and cognitive mechanisms with modern psychometric methods in a renewed effort to capture human individuality through a consideration of specific abilities. We articulate five criteria for the isolation and measurement of specific abilities, then apply these criteria to face recognition. We cleanly dissociate face recognition from more general visual and verbal recognition. This dissociation stretches across ability as well as disability, suggesting that specific developmental face recognition deficits are a special case of a broader specificity that spans the entire spectrum of human face recognition performance. Item-by-item results from 1,471 web-tested participants, included as supplementary information, fuel item analyses, validation, norming, and item response theory (IRT) analyses of our three tests: (a) the widely used Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT); (b) an Abstract Art Memory Test (AAMT), and (c) a Verbal Paired-Associates Memory Test (VPMT). The availability of this data set provides a solid foundation for interpreting future scores on these tests. We argue that the allied fields of experimental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and vision science could fuel the discovery of additional specific abilities to add to face recognition, thereby providing new perspectives on human individuality. PMID:23428079

  17. Self-reported craft expertise predicts maintenance of spatial ability in old age.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Shannon K T; Sims, Valerie K

    2014-05-01

    Three hundred and three female participants between the ages of 18 and 77 reported their experience in crafting (sewing, knitting, and crocheting) and completed a measure of spatial ability: The Paper Folding Test. To investigate the connection between spatial ability performance, age, and craft expertise, an ANOVA was conducted for the Paper Folding Test using two levels of crafting expertise (High and Low) and three age categories (younger adults: 18-39, middle-aged adults: 40-59, and older adults: 60-77). Performance on the spatial ability test declined with age as predicted from previous literature. However, there was a significant Age by Expertise interaction. No difference was found between High and Low craft expertise groups in younger adults (18-39), but there was a growing difference between expertise groups in middle-aged adults (40-59) and older adults (60-77). The results suggest that continued hands-on experience in spatial domains is a predictor of maintenance of spatial ability across the life span.

  18. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174

  19. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios D; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction.

  20. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…