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Sample records for ability measure faam

  1. A Summary of the ICARTT Measurement Comparison Between the NASA DC-8 and FAAM BAe-146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, C.; Chen, G.; Arnold, S.; Ryerson, T.; Brune, W.

    2005-12-01

    One of the objectives of the ICARTT (International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) experiment during the summer of 2004 was to examine the transformation of pollutants as they were transported across the North Atlantic. To enable this, measurements were made on several platforms across the North Atlantic, and at times it was attempted to resample air previously encountered by an upstream platform (Lagrangian experiment). To treat all the data collected on the different platforms as a single database and in particular to interpret the Lagrangian measurements it is essential to know how measurements on each platform compare. To facilitate this, a number of comparisons were made between pairs of platforms to create a chain of comparisons across all platforms. The comparison between the measurements on the NASA DC-8 and the FAAM BAe-146 was one such comparison and provides links to the NOAA WP-3D and DLR Falcon. The comparison flight between the NASA DC-8 and the FAAM BAe-146 was carried out on July 28, 2004, following a coordinated plan devised by both INTEX and ITOP science teams. The aircraft rendezvoused west of the Azores (~ 38° North, ~ 38° West) and both planes flew in wing-tip to wing-tip formation for approximately 70 minutes, performing level runs at 22,000 ft, 12,000 ft and 1,000 ft in cloud free air. This allowed both aircraft to sample the same air masses and compare the common measurements quantitatively over an altitude range of 21,000 ft. The species presented here include O3, CO, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, benzene, toluene, CH2O, acetone, CH3OH, peroxide, total particle concentration, particulate sulfate, nitrate and meteorological parameters, i.e., pressure, ambient temperature, and dew point temperature.

  2. Five Years Lidar Research on Board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, Franco

    2016-06-01

    I will present a summary of the results obtained with the backscatter lidar on-board the FAAM research aircraft. This simple instrument has been used in several campaigns, and has contributed successfully to the characterization of volcanic ash, mineral dust, biomass burning aerosols, clouds, and the boundary layer structure. Its datasets have been used in many applications, from numerical weather predictions to the validation of satellite remote sensing.

  3. Aerosol scattering and absorption during the EUCAARI-LONGREX flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146: can measurements and models agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Highwood, E. J.; Northway, M. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Liu, D.; Osborne, S.; Bower, K.; Coe, H.; Ryder, C.; Williams, P.

    2012-08-01

    Scattering and absorption by aerosol in anthropogenically perturbed air masses over Europe has been measured using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) on 14 flights during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign in May 2008. The geographical and temporal variations of the derived shortwave optical properties of aerosol are presented. Values of single scattering albedo of dry aerosol at 550 nm varied considerably from 0.86 to near unity, with a campaign average of 0.93 ± 0.03. Dry aerosol optical depths ranged from 0.030 ± 0.009 to 0.24 ± 0.07. An optical properties closure study comparing calculations from composition data and Mie scattering code with the measured properties is presented. Agreement to within measurement uncertainties of 30% can be achieved for both scattering and absorption, but the latter is shown to be sensitive to the refractive indices chosen for organic aerosols, and to a lesser extent black carbon, as well as being highly dependent on the accuracy of the absorption measurements. Agreement with the measured absorption can be achieved either if organic carbon is assumed to be weakly absorbing, or if the organic aerosol is purely scattering and the absorption measurement is an overestimate due to the presence of large amounts of organic carbon. Refractive indices could not be inferred conclusively due to this uncertainty, despite the enhancement in methodology compared to previous studies that derived from the use of the black carbon measurements. Hygroscopic growth curves derived from the wet nephelometer indicate moderate water uptake by the aerosol with a campaign mean f(RH) value (ratio in scattering) of 1.5 (range from 1.23 to 1.63) at 80% relative humidity. This value is qualitatively consistent with the major chemical components of the aerosol measured by the aerosol mass spectrometer, which are primarily mixed organics and

  4. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  5. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  6. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  7. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  8. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  9. Measuring Musical Abilities of Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Edward; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Three normal children with reported musical ability and three autistic children (all Ss 14 to 18 years old) were tested for the ability to imitate individual tones and series of tones delivered by voice, piano, and synthesizer. (Author)

  10. Assessing the Gap Between Current Movement Ability and Preferred Movement Ability as a Measure of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background If disability is the gap between what an individual can do and what that individual would like to be able to do, then measures that assess only current ability fall short of describing the impact of disability on the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to examine a potential measure of disability, the gap between current movement ability and preferred movement ability, as recorded with the Movement Ability Measure (MAM). This investigation was performed by establishing the relationship between self-perceived current ability and other measures and examining the evidence of convergence or divergence between the gap and other measures. Design This investigation was a descriptive study. Methods Thirty people who had multiple sclerosis and were ambulatory completed the MAM and 18 other measures of bodily function, activity, and participation. Item response theory methods were used to generate logit estimates of average current movement ability and separate abilities in the 6 dimensions of movement on the MAM. Pearson correlations were calculated between estimated abilities from the MAM and scores from measures expected to be associated with these estimated abilities, as well as between the MAM and additional measures in exploratory analyses of relationships. Results The average current ability and the separate dimensions correlated moderately to strongly (.5–.8) with many of the measures expected to be related and showed additional moderately strong correlations in exploratory analyses. The average gap between current ability and preferred ability correlated moderately with pain (−.56) and a scale of current ability (.46) but diverged from many of the measures. Limitations The limitations of this study included the lack of an intervention to assess the response of the gap to therapy and the use of multiple statistical tests with a small sample. Conclusions The evidence supports the convergent validity for current ability on the MAM but mostly

  11. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  12. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  13. Concurrent Adaptive Measurement of Multiple Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry A.; Davey, Tim C.

    An adaptive test can usually match or exceed the measurement precision of conventional tests several times its length. This increased efficiency is not without costs, however, as the models underlying adaptive testing make strong assumptions about examinees and items. Most troublesome is the assumption that item pools are unidimensional. Truly…

  14. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  15. Two Fifth Grade Measures of Cognitive Abilities. A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Pamela Elizabeth

    Two fifth grade measures of the ability to deal with symbolic relationships were developed for use in future factor analytic research concerning the nature of intelligence. Circle Reasoning was adopted from an adult level test by modifying the number of symbols and the nature of the principles on which the items were based. Item analysis results…

  16. Evaluating Measures of Global Coherence Ability in Stories in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Koutsoftas, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Discourse coherence is a reflection of the listener's ability to interpret the overall meaning conveyed by the speaker. Measuring global coherence (maintenance of thematic unity of the discourse) is useful for quantifying communication impairments at the discourse level in clinical populations and for measuring response to…

  17. Measuring Writing Ability with the Cloze Test is not Closed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Helmut; Yost, Carlson

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to examine the usefulness of the cloze test as an objective measure of a native speaker's writing ability. A modified version of the cloze test used by Oller and others to measure integrative language skills in non-native speakers was given to 100 freshman English students. The test…

  18. Measure of the ability to rotate mental images.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an innovative test to measure the ability to rotate mental images. An unfolded cube was designed, which participants had to reassemble mentally, prior to mentally rotating the image, and answering 23 questions concerning the cube. The Measure of the Ability to Rotate Mental Images (MARMI) test was administered to 354 participants. Cronbach alpha was .90, and high correlations between this test and other image rotation and spatial image tests were found. However, poor correlations were observed between test scores and the responses to the visual imagery vividness questionnaire. Both test reliability and validity underscore that it is a good instrument for measuring the ability to rotate mental images.

  19. Abilities, skills and knowledge in measures of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163

  20. Measuring Spatial Ability with a Computer Managed Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    This study presents data augmenting the validity studies of the Wheatley Cube (McDaniel and Kroll, 1984), a computer managed test of spatial visualization. Twenty-one students in pilot training are administered several instruments designed to measure the ability to construct a cognitive three-dimensional space, including: (1) the Wheatley Cube,…

  1. Improving Student Achievement by Measuring Ability, Not Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malbert S., III

    2005-01-01

    Although significant federal funds are tied to student assessment, public education in this country is the responsibility of individual states. Subsequently, it seems as if there are as many approaches to measuring student ability and achievement as there are states. We now live in an increasingly mobile society in which today's families move from…

  2. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    PubMed

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  3. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Flores, Ranee A.; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors (“Implementation” and “Learning”) were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific—r = 0.26 and Writing—r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination

  4. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Flores, Ranee A; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors ("Implementation" and "Learning") were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific-r = 0.26 and Writing-r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination ability

  5. A simulation study of predictive ability measures in a survival model I: explained variation measures.

    PubMed

    Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Royston, Patrick; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2012-10-15

    Measures of predictive ability play an important role in quantifying the clinical significance of prognostic factors. Several measures have been proposed to evaluate the predictive ability of survival models in the last two decades, but no single measure is consistently used. The proposed measures can be classified into the following categories: explained variation, explained randomness, and predictive accuracy. The three categories are conceptually different and are based on different principles. Several new measures have been proposed since Schemper and Stare's study in 1996 on some of the existing measures. This paper is the first of two papers that study the proposed measures systematically by applying a set of criteria that a measure of predictive ability should possess in the context of survival analysis. The present paper focuses on the explained variation category, and part II studies the proposed measures in the other categories. Simulation studies are used to examine the performance of five explained variation measures with respect to these criteria, discussing their strengths and shortcomings. Our simulation studies show that the measures proposed by Kent and O'Quigley, R(PM)(2), and Royston and Sauerbrei, R(D)(2), appear to be the best overall at quantifying predictive ability. However, it should be noted that neither measure is perfect; R(PM)(2) is sensitive to outliers and R(D)(2) to (marked) non-normality of the distribution of the prognostic index. The results show that the other measures perform poorly, primarily because they are adversely affected by censoring.

  6. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  7. Measuring Speed, Ability, or Motivation: A Comment on Goldhammer (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Ranger, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, Kuhn and Ranger hypothesize that most people are aware that talent does not guarantee success in case one is lazy. This is also true for the performance in achievement tests that depends on, among other factors, achievement potential (ability) and willingness to achieve (test-taking motivation) of the test taker. They add that…

  8. Why You Should Measure Your Students' Reasoning Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-04-01

    Many teachers administer a force concept test such as the Force Concept Inventory1,2 (FCI) to their students in an effort to evaluate and improve their instructional practices. It has been commonly assumed that looking at class normalized gains allows teachers to compare their courses with other courses. In this paper we present evidence to suggest that the use of class normalized gains alone may not provide a complete picture. We argue that student reasoning ability should also be assessed before between-course comparisons can be made. Assessment of reasoning ability is also useful in identifying students who are at risk. In the following we shall concentrate on the FCI, but we think our conclusions probably apply to physics concept tests generally.

  9. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597

  10. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  11. Proportional Reasoning Tasks as a Measure of Formal Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Michal

    A nonequivalent control group design study, with a math unit on ratio and proportion as the treatment, was conducted to examine the validity of some written tasks as a measure of formal reasoning. Subjects in the study were 68 fifth grade students who enrolled in two classes in a small urban school. The experimental group learned a 12-lesson math…

  12. An Instrument to Measure the Cognitive Ability Evaluation of the Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaff, John F.

    Described is the development of an instrument designed to measure the cognitive ability of evaluation in high school chemistry students. The instrument was composed of several situations found in chemistry courses, each designed to measure a student's evaluation ability based on his knowledge of kinetic-molecular theory as it applied to gases,…

  13. Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both? Challenges, Psychometric Solutions, and What Can Be Gained From Experimental Control

    PubMed Central

    Goldhammer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge of ability tests relates to the difficulty of items, whereas speed tests demand that test takers complete very easy items quickly. This article proposes a conceptual framework to represent how performance depends on both between-person differences in speed and ability and the speed-ability compromise within persons. Related measurement challenges and psychometric models that have been proposed to deal with the challenges are discussed. It is argued that addressing individual differences in the speed-ability trade-off requires the control of item response times. In this way, response behavior can be captured exclusively with the response variable remedying problems in traditional measurement approaches. PMID:26807063

  14. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  15. Can reading ability be measured with tests of memory and processing speed?

    PubMed

    Tirre, W C

    1992-04-01

    The author investigated the possibility of estimating reading ability using tests of memory and processing speed that have significantly reduced reading requirements. Four hundred three air force trainees were given tests of their working memory and long-term memory processes, as well as a standardized reading test. A multiple correlation of .79 indicated that global reading ability is substantially correlated with memory processes. Additional analyses indicated that word knowledge and comprehension, the two major components of reading ability, were both explained by the same set of memory process factors, namely, long-term memory processes, semantic memory retrieval speed, and working memory capacity. These results, which are consistent with the view that memory ability underlies reading ability, support the endeavor of measuring reading ability with memory and processing speed tasks.

  16. The Bentley "Measures of Musical Abilities" as Predictors of Conservatory Students' Musical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musumeci, Orlando

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the reliability and validity of the Bentley Measures of Musical Abilities (BMMA) for predicting musical achievement of students entering the Conservatory Alberto Ginastera (Argentina) by measuring the students improvement over the first four-month term. Encourages the use of the BMMA as a means to evaluating the entering students…

  17. Language Sample Measures and Language Ability in Spanish English Bilingual Kindergarteners

    PubMed Central

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity and sentence organization are useful metrics for quantifying language development and language impairments in monolingual and bilingual children. It is not yet known what measures within and across languages are most informative when evaluating the language skills of bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how measures of language productivity and organization in two languages converge with children’s measured language abilities on the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment (BESA), a standardized measure of language ability. 170 kindergarten age children who produced narrative language samples in Spanish and in English based on a wordless picture book were included in the analysis. Samples were analyzed for number of utterances, number of different words, mean length of utterance, and percentage of grammatical utterances. The best predictors of language ability as measured by the BESA scores were English MLU, English grammaticality, and Spanish grammaticality. Results are discussed in relationship to the nature of the measures in each of the languages and in regard to their potential utility for identifying low language ability in bilingual children. PMID:20955835

  18. A study on the reliability of measuring dynamic balance ability using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seulki; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Evaluation of the reliability of smartphones as measuring equipment for dynamic balance ability was the goal of this study. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 healthy young students in their 20s. The first and second rounds of measurements were taken at a one-day interval to confirm test-retest reliability. The subjects stood on the footboard of the Biodex Balance System. Balance was measured using a smart phone. [Results] Acceleration rates corresponding to subjects with open eyes were 2.7 ± 2.2 (first measurement) and 3.3 ± 1.5 (second measurement), and the interclass correlation coefficient ICC (1,1) was 0.8. Acceleration rates corresponding to subjects with closed eyes were 4.1 ± 2.4 (first measurement) and 4.5 ± 1.8 (second measurement), and the ICC (1,1) was 0.9. Gyroscope rates corresponding to subjects with open eyes were 1.7 ± 1.2 (first measurement) and 2.3 ± 1.5 (second measurement), and the ICC (1,1) was 0.7. Gyroscope rates corresponding to subjects with closed eyes were 6.7 ± 2.4 (first measurement) and 6.6 ± 2.3 (second measurement), and the ICC (1,1) was 0.6. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that smartphones have sufficient potential as measuring equipment for dynamic balance ability. PMID:27799682

  19. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Measurement Equivalence across 13 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales…

  20. TOEFL and IELTS as Measures of Academic Reading Ability: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, James G.

    This paper discusses research conducted in the spring of 1991 that measured the relationship of reading subtest scores to teacher ratings of students' reading abilities. Sixty-eight advanced-level students in an intensive English program took an institutional version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and a specimen reading…

  1. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  2. The Construct Validity of an Inventory for the Measurement of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Abilities in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2003-01-01

    In recent years metacognition has been receiving increased attention in mathematics education. Special attention has been focused on metacognition and its essential role in achievement settings. The basic difficulty of the study on the field of metacognition is to develop and use valid tasks in order to measure metacognitive ability especially for…

  3. Empirical Investigation of the Stradaptive Testing Model for the Measurement of Human Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Brian K.

    This study empirically investigated the validity and utility of the stratified adaptive computerized testing model (stradaptive]developed by Weiss (1973). The model presents a tailored testing strategy based on Binet IQ measurement theory and Lord's (1972) modern test theory. Nationally normed School and College Ability Test Verbal analogy items…

  4. Assessing Workplace Emotional Intelligence: Development and Validation of an Ability-based Measure.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup; Hopkins, Kay; Szmerekovsky, Joseph G; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Existing measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), defined as the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions for productive purposes, have displayed limitations in predicting workplace outcomes, likely in part because they do not target this context. Such considerations led to the development of an ability EI measure with work-related scenarios in which respondents infer the likely emotions (perception) and combinations of emotion (understanding) that would occur to protagonists while rating the effectiveness of ways of responding (management). Study 1 (n = 290 undergraduates) used item-total correlations to select scenarios from a larger pool and Study 2 (n = 578) reduced the measure-termed the NEAT-to 30 scenarios on the basis of structural equation modeling. Study 3 (n = 96) then showed that the NEAT had expected correlations with personality and cognitive ability and Study 4 (n = 85) demonstrated convergent validity with other ability EI measures. Last, study 5 (n = 91) established that the NEAT had predictive validity with respect to job satisfaction, job stress, and job performance. The findings affirm the importance of EI in the workplace in the context of a valid new instrument for assessing relevant skills. PMID:26176668

  5. Multidimensional Ability Tests and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Evidence of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability tests are used by teachers to provide additional context for interpreting student achievement and as a tool for differentiating instruction to the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of students. Tests that provide the most useful information for these purposes measure school-related content domains including verbal and quantitative…

  6. Measuring women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it can help to improve the

  7. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Filipe; dos Reis, Ivan; Ribeiro, Luiz; Martins, Luiz; Gobatto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s) completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p < 0.05). Pearson product-moment correlation measured the relationship between mechanical variables and free running performance. A total impulse, the rate of force development and maximum force did not show significant differences for most sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and −0.35). Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = −0.71 and −0.76, respectively; p < 0.001), followed by mean force (r = −0.61; p < 0.001) and total work (r = −0.50; p < 0.001). It was concluded that under a severe work-to-rest ratio condition, power variables were better suited to evaluating repeated sprint ability than the other studied variables. PMID:26839625

  8. Validity of two brief measures: the General Abilities Measure for Adults and the Shiple Institute of Living Scale.

    PubMed

    Matthews, T D; Lassiter, K; Habedank, H

    2001-06-01

    The present investigation examined the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults by Naglieri and Bardos (1997) and the Shipley Institute of Living Scale by Zachary (1991). These scales were administered to 129 college students who ranged in age from 18 to 55 years (M age=24.8 yr.). Pearson correlations were computed to evaluate the association of scores on these measures. Significant small correlations were found for GAMA IQ scores with scores on the Shipley Verbal (r = .29) and Total scales (r = .28) but not with scores on the Shipley Abstraction subscale (r=.11). Although the GAMA has been presented as a measure of general intelligence, only partial support for this view was found.

  9. Using regression to measure holistic face processing reveals a strong link with face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition variance. Regressing, rather than subtracting, a control condition from a condition of interest corrects this validity problem by statistically removing all control condition variance, thereby producing a specific measure that is uncorrelated with the control measure. Using 43 participants, we measured the relationships amongst the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and two holistic processing measures, the composite task (CT) and the part-whole task (PW). For the holistic processing measures (CT and PW), we contrasted the results for regressing vs. subtracting the control conditions (parts for PW; misaligned congruency effect for CT) from the conditions of interest (wholes for PW; aligned congruency effect for CT). The regression-based holistic processing measures correlated with each other and with CFMT, supporting the idea of a unitary holistic processing mechanism that is involved in skilled face recognition. Subtraction scores yielded weaker correlations, especially for the PW. Together, the regression-based holistic processing measures predicted more than twice the amount of variance in CFMT (R(2)=.21) than their respective subtraction measures (R(2)=.10). We conclude that holistic processing is robustly linked to skilled face recognition. In addition to confirming this theoretically significant link, these results provide a case in point for the inappropriateness of subtraction scores when requiring a specific individual differences measure that removes the variance of a control task.

  10. Measuring Student Ability, Classifying Schools, and Detecting Item Bias at School Level, Based on Student-Level Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennink, Margot; Croon, Marcel A.; Keuning, Jos; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2014-01-01

    In educational measurement, responses of students on items are used not only to measure the ability of students, but also to evaluate and compare the performance of schools. Analysis should ideally account for the multilevel structure of the data, and school-level processes not related to ability, such as working climate and administration…

  11. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  12. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  13. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  14. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other Than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2016-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mindset, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so. We first address confusion over terminology, including the descriptor “non-cognitive.” We conclude that debate over the optimal name for this broad category of personal qualities obscures substantial agreement about the specific attributes worth measuring. Next, we discuss advantages and limitations of different measures. In particular, we compare self-report questionnaires, teacher-report questionnaires, and performance tasks, using self-control as an illustrative case study to make the general point that each approach is imperfect in its own way. Finally, we discuss how each measure’s imperfections can affect its suitability for program evaluation, accountability, individual diagnosis, and practice improvement. For example, we do not believe any available measure is suitable for between-school accountability judgments. In addition to urging caution among policymakers and practitioners, we highlight medium-term innovations that may make measures of these personal qualities more suitable for educational purposes. PMID:27134288

  15. Measuring anhedonia: impaired ability to pursue, experience, and learn about reward.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2015-01-01

    Ribot's (1896) long standing definition of anhedonia as "the inability to experience pleasure" has been challenged recently following progress in affective neuroscience. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests that reward consists of multiple subcomponents of wanting, liking and learning, as initially outlined by Berridge and Robinson (2003), and these processes have been proposed to relate to appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases of a pleasure cycle. Building on this work, we recently proposed to reconceptualize anhedonia as "impairments in the ability to pursue, experience, and/or learn about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness." (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald's (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders. Successful translations of animal models have led to strong evidence of impairments in the ability to pursue and learn about reward in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. It is of high importance that we continue to systematically target impairments in all phases of reward processing across disorders using behavioral testing in combination with neuroimaging techniques. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment, and is essential for the purposes of identifying the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here I review recent progress in the development and application of behavioral procedures that measure subcomponents of anhedonia across relevant patient groups, and discuss methodological caveats as

  16. Measuring anhedonia: impaired ability to pursue, experience, and learn about reward

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2015-01-01

    Ribot’s (1896) long standing definition of anhedonia as “the inability to experience pleasure” has been challenged recently following progress in affective neuroscience. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests that reward consists of multiple subcomponents of wanting, liking and learning, as initially outlined by Berridge and Robinson (2003), and these processes have been proposed to relate to appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases of a pleasure cycle. Building on this work, we recently proposed to reconceptualize anhedonia as “impairments in the ability to pursue, experience, and/or learn about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness.” (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald’s (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders. Successful translations of animal models have led to strong evidence of impairments in the ability to pursue and learn about reward in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. It is of high importance that we continue to systematically target impairments in all phases of reward processing across disorders using behavioral testing in combination with neuroimaging techniques. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment, and is essential for the purposes of identifying the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here I review recent progress in the development and application of behavioral procedures that measure subcomponents of anhedonia across relevant patient groups, and discuss

  17. Development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM): conceptualizing and measuring consumer ability to choose and use private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Paez, Kathryn A; Mallery, Coretta J; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E; Lucado, Jennifer L; Ganachari, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure. PMID:25315595

  18. Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both? Challenges, Psychometric Solutions, and What Can Be Gained from Experimental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge of ability tests relates to the difficulty of items, whereas speed tests demand that test takers complete very easy items quickly. This article proposes a conceptual framework to represent how performance depends on both between-person differences in speed and ability and the speed-ability compromise within persons. Related…

  19. Can Simulation Measure Differences in Task-Switching Ability Between Junior and Senior Emergency Medicine Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dustin; Miller, Daniel G.; Cukor, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Work interruptions during patient care have been correlated with error. Task-switching is identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) as a core competency for emergency medicine (EM). Simulation has been suggested as a means of assessing EM core competencies. We assumed that senior EM residents had better task-switching abilities than junior EM residents. We hypothesized that this difference could be measured by observing the execution of patient care tasks in the simulation environment when a patient with a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interrupted the ongoing management of a septic shock case. Methods This was a multi-site, prospective, observational, cohort study. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of EM residents in their first three years of training. Each subject performed a standardized simulated encounter by evaluating and treating a patient in septic shock. At a predetermined point in every sepsis case, the subject was given a STEMI electrocardiogram (ECG) for a separate chest pain patient in triage and required to verbalize an interpretation and action. We scored learner performance using a dichotomous checklist of critical actions covering sepsis care, ECG interpretation and triaging of the STEMI patient. Results Ninety-one subjects participated (30 postgraduate year [PGY]1s, 32 PGY2s, and 29 PGY3s). Of those, 87 properly managed the patient with septic shock (90.0% PGY1s, 100% PGY2, 96.6% PGY 3s; p=0.22). Of the 87 who successfully managed the septic shock, 80 correctly identified STEMI on the simulated STEMI patient (86.7% PGY1s, 96.9% PGY2s, 93.1% PGY3s; p=0.35). Of the 80 who successfully managed the septic shock patient and correctly identified the STEMI, 79 provided appropriate interventions for the STEMI patient (73.3% PGY1s, 93.8% PGY2s, 93.8% PGY3s; p=0.07). Conclusion When management of a septic shock patient was interrupted with a STEMI ECG in a simulated

  20. Characteristic free volumes of bulk metallic glasses: Measurement and their correlation with glass-forming ability

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Qiang; Zeng Xierong; Fu, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    A convenient method is proposed for the measurement of the characteristic free volumes, viz., the amount of excess free volume annihilation in structural relaxation V{sub f-sr} and the amount of new free volume production in glass transition V{sub f-gt} of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by thermal dilation (DIL) test. Through the DIL tests, the characteristic free volumes are found to be sensitive to the change of glass forming ability (GFA). The Pd{sub 40}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} BMG has a quite small V{sub f-sr}. For a series of Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-(Er) BMGs, Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2} with the largest GFA is identified to have the largest V{sub f-gt} and smallest V{sub f-sr}. The correlation between V{sub f-sr} and the squares of critical diameters of these iron-based BMGs can be fitted as a negative exponential function with high accuracy.

  1. Measuring the Reading Ability of Incoming Freshmen: A Path Analysis Investigation into Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a complex process involving numerous skills and abilities contributing to acquiring meaning from text. Individuals without the requisite reading skills will have difficulty not only in school but throughout their lifetimes. The purpose of the study was to compare the reading ability of incoming college freshmen with that of adults with…

  2. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  3. Measuring Creative Abilities in Junior High School Industrial Arts. Monograph 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.

    The principal purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the pencil and paper "Minnesota Tests for Creative Thinking, Abbreviated Form VII" for identifying the creative abilities of eighth-grade students in industrial arts classes. Concomitant purposes were to investigate the relationships of creative abilities and (1)…

  4. Do Subjective Measures Improve the Ability to Identify Limited Health Literacy in a Clinical Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.; Griffey, Richard T.; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing health literacy assessments developed for research purposes have constraints that limit their utility for clinical practice, including time requirements and administration protocols. The Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) consists of 3 self-administered Single-Item Literacy Screener (SILS) questions and obviates these clinical barriers. We assessed whether the addition of SILS items or the BHLS to patient demographics readily available in ambulatory clinical settings reaching underserved patients improves the ability to identify limited health literacy. Methods We analyzed data from 2 cross-sectional convenience samples of patients from an urban academic emergency department (n = 425) and a primary care clinic (n = 486) in St. Louis, Missouri. Across samples, health literacy was assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the BHLS. Our analytic sample consisted of 911 adult patients, who were primarily female (62%), black (66%), and had at least a high school education (82%); 456 were randomly assigned to the estimation sample and 455 to the validation sample. Results The analysis showed that the best REALM-R estimation model contained age, sex, education, race, and 1 SILS item (difficulty understanding written information). In validation analysis this model had a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 81%, a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.26, and a negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of 0.47; there was a 28% misclassification rate. The best NVS estimation model contained the BHLS, age, sex, education and race; this model had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 72%, LR+ of 2.75, LR− of 0.32, and a misclassification rate of 25%. Conclusions Findings suggest that the BHLS and SILS items improve the ability to identify patients with limited health literacy compared with demographic predictors alone. However, despite being easier to administer in clinical settings, subjective

  5. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  6. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  7. Are chronotype, social jetlag and sleep duration associated with health measured by Work Ability Index?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Fischer, Dorothee; Germann, Christina; Lang, Stefan; Vetter, Céline; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of chronotype, social jetlag and sleep duration on self-perceived health, measured by Work Ability Index (WAI), within an industrial setting. Between 2011 and 2013, 2474 day and shift workers participated in a health check offered by an occupational health promotion program and filled out the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (adapted to the rotational 12-h schedule for shift workers) and the WAI. We computed sleep duration on work and free days, chronotype, and social jetlag. We used linear regression models to examine chronotype, sleep duration and social jetlag for association with the WAI sum score, and proportional odds models to estimate the combined effect of social jetlag and sleep duration. Participants reported an average daily sleep duration of 7.35 h (SD: 1.2 h), had an average chronotype of 3:08 a.m. (SD: 1 h), and the average social jetlag corresponded to 1.96 h (SD: 2.05 h). Increasing social jetlag and shorter sleep duration were independently associated with a decreasing WAI, while chronotype per se was not associated with WAI. Short sleep duration combined with high social jetlag significantly increased the risk of poor WAI (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.72), while long sleep duration and high social jetlag were not associated with poor WAI (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.88-1.35). Our results add to a growing body of literature, suggesting that circadian misalignment, but not chronotype per se, may be critical for health. Our results indicate that longer sleep may override the adverse effects of social jetlag on WAI.

  8. Relationships among Selected Measures of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes. Interim Report, January 1979 through June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony; Landis, David B.

    This study, the fourth in a series conducted at the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics School for a computer managed instruction project, reports the relationships among selected measurements of student cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Measures of these characteristics for a sample of 166 graduates of BE/E were analyzed to…

  9. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  10. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  11. Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D.; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use. PMID:23483964

  12. Proprioceptive ability at the lips and jaw measured using the same psychophysical discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Ellie; Coulson, Susan; Adams, Roger; Croxson, Glen; Waddington, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    In the human face, the muscles and joints that generate movement have different properties. Whereas the jaw is a conventional condyle joint, the facial musculature has neither distinct origin nor insertion points, and the muscles do not contain muscle spindle proprioceptors. This current study aims to compare the proprioceptive ability at the orofacial muscles with that of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in 21 neuro-typical people aged between 18 and 65 years. A novel psychophysical task was devised for use with both structures that involved a fixed 30.5 mm start separation followed by closure onto stimuli of 5, 6, 7, 8 mm diameter. The mean proprioceptive score when using the lips was 0.84 compared to 0.79 at the jaw (p < 0.001), and response error was lower by 0.1 mm. The greater accuracy in discrimination of lip movement is significant because, unlike the muscles controlling the TMJ, the orbicularis oris muscle controlling the lips inserts on to connective tissue and other muscle, and contains no muscle spindles, implying a different more effective, proprioceptive mechanism. Additionally, unlike the lack of correlation previously observed between joints in the upper and lower limbs, at the face the scores from performing the task with the two different structures were significantly correlated (r = 0.5, p = 0.018). These data extend the understanding of proprioception being correlated for the same left and right joints and correlated within the same structure (e.g. ankle dorsiflexion and inversion), to include use-dependant proprioception, with performance in different structures being correlated through extended coordinated use. At the lips and jaw, it is likely that this arises from extensive coordinated use. This informs clinical assessment and suggests a potential for coordinated post-injury training of the lips and jaw, as well as having the potential to predict premorbid function via measurement of the uninjured structure, when monitoring

  13. Proprioceptive ability at the lips and jaw measured using the same psychophysical discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Ellie; Coulson, Susan; Adams, Roger; Croxson, Glen; Waddington, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    In the human face, the muscles and joints that generate movement have different properties. Whereas the jaw is a conventional condyle joint, the facial musculature has neither distinct origin nor insertion points, and the muscles do not contain muscle spindle proprioceptors. This current study aims to compare the proprioceptive ability at the orofacial muscles with that of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in 21 neuro-typical people aged between 18 and 65 years. A novel psychophysical task was devised for use with both structures that involved a fixed 30.5 mm start separation followed by closure onto stimuli of 5, 6, 7, 8 mm diameter. The mean proprioceptive score when using the lips was 0.84 compared to 0.79 at the jaw (p < 0.001), and response error was lower by 0.1 mm. The greater accuracy in discrimination of lip movement is significant because, unlike the muscles controlling the TMJ, the orbicularis oris muscle controlling the lips inserts on to connective tissue and other muscle, and contains no muscle spindles, implying a different more effective, proprioceptive mechanism. Additionally, unlike the lack of correlation previously observed between joints in the upper and lower limbs, at the face the scores from performing the task with the two different structures were significantly correlated (r = 0.5, p = 0.018). These data extend the understanding of proprioception being correlated for the same left and right joints and correlated within the same structure (e.g. ankle dorsiflexion and inversion), to include use-dependant proprioception, with performance in different structures being correlated through extended coordinated use. At the lips and jaw, it is likely that this arises from extensive coordinated use. This informs clinical assessment and suggests a potential for coordinated post-injury training of the lips and jaw, as well as having the potential to predict premorbid function via measurement of the uninjured structure, when monitoring

  14. Implicit measures of beliefs about sport ability in swimming and basketball.

    PubMed

    Mascret, Nicolas; Falconetti, Jean-Louis; Cury, François

    2016-01-01

    Sport ability may be seen as relatively stable, genetically determined and not easily modified by practice, or as increasable with training, work and effort. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the purpose of the present study is to examine whether the practice of a particular sport (swimming or basketball) can influence automatic beliefs about sport ability in these two sports. The IAT scores evidence that swimmers and basketball players automatically and implicitly associate their own sport with training rather than genetics, whereas non-sportspersons have no significant automatic association. This result is strengthened when perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in swimming or basketball are high.

  15. Development of a Self-report Measure of Environmental Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Richardson, Anthony E.; Montello, Daniel R.; Lovelace, Kristin; Subbiah, Ilavanil

    2002-01-01

    Developed a standardized self-report scale of environmental spatial ability, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale and evaluated it in six studies with 544 college students. Results supported the reliability of the scale and suggested that the scale is related to tasks that require one to update location in space as a result of self-motion.…

  16. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  17. Measuring Attentional Ability in Older Adults: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of DriverScan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa; Yang, Xiangdong; Bovaird, James A.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Although deficits in visual attention are often postulated as an important component of many declines in cognitive processing and functional outcomes in older adults, surprisingly little emphasis has been placed on evaluating psychometric instruments with which individual differences in visual attention ability can be assessed. This article…

  18. MEASURING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ABILITY TO USE EVIDENCE FROM SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS IN DECISION-MAKING SITUATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MENEFEE, ROBERT WILLIAM

    ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS' ABILITY TO USE EVIDENCE FROM SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS WAS DETERMINED. THE 320 PUPILS FROM GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX WERE PLACED IN DECISION-MAKING SITUATIONS REQUIRING THEM TO USE EVIDENCE FROM A PLATFORM BALANCE OR GRADUATED CYLINDER. PUPILS WERE REQUIRED TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN MASSES OR VOLUMES OF PAIRS OF OBJECTS. THE…

  19. Measuring the Effects of Reading Assistance Dogs on Reading Ability and Attitudes in Elementary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Dawn; McCobb, Emily; Diurba, Amanda; Linder, Deborah; Freeman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Reading assistance dogs can be incorporated into reading programs to increase a child's desire and ability to read. However, more data is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of such programs. A 5-week reading assistance dog program was implemented to assess feasibility and effectiveness. Participants included 18 children entering the 2nd grade…

  20. The interrater reliability of an objective structured practical examination in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kevin A.; Babajanian, Jesika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective structured practical examination (OSPE) is a case-based assessment that can be used to assess the clinical reasoning ability of students. The reliability of using an OSPE for this purpose has not been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the OSPE in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students. Methods: Two examiners tested each student simultaneously when enough were available as a check for interrater reliability. The scores for students over 4 exam administrations were compiled, and we calculated an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using 1-way random single measures. Results: Paired scores were available for 133 students. The ICC was .685, showing a fair-to-good level of agreement for faculty in assessing the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students using an OSPE. Conclusion: The OSPE can be a valuable tool for testing clinical reasoning abilities because it can simulate the decision-making process that needs to be implemented in clinical practice. Faculty members at our chiropractic college were able to achieve an acceptable level of reliability in measuring the clinical reasoning abilities of students using an OSPE. Other health professional programs may consider using this tool for assessing the clinical reasoning skills of their students. PMID:27115474

  1. Measuring intellectual ability in children with cerebral palsy: can we do better?

    PubMed

    Sherwell, Sarah; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Wrennall, Jacquie; Ong, Ben; Stargatt, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Standard intelligence tests such as the WPPSI-III have limitations when testing children with motor impairment. This study aimed to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy with sufficient verbal and motor skills to complete the WPPSI-III, to determine their comparative ability to complete tasks with and without a significant motor component, and to investigate short forms of the WPPSI-III as alternatives. Participants were 78 of 235 eligible 4-5 year old children with cerebral palsy resident in the Australian state of Victoria. Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) were determined using the WPPSI-III. Initial screening for pointing and verbal abilities determined which tests were attempted. The impact of speed was investigated by comparing scores on the Block Design subtest with and without an imposed time limit. FSIQ scores were calculated from two short forms of the WPPSI-III and compared to the full form. On screening, 16 children had inadequate pointing (14) and verbal abilities (2). FSIQ was obtained in 62 (82%) children. Strong associations were seen between completion of the entire test battery and topographical pattern, level of manual ability and level of gross motor function. Scores on subtests requiring manual ability were depressed relative to other scores. Children performed better using short forms of the WPPSI-III and, for a minority, when time limits were disregarded. In summary, children with cerebral palsy often lack the fine and gross motor skills necessary to complete the WPPSI-III, scoring relatively poorly on tasks requiring a fine motor response. Using short-form estimations of FSIQ comprised of subtests without a significant fine motor component has the potential to increase a child's FSIQ by approximately 5 points. These findings have important clinical implications when assessing a child with both motor and cognitive limitations.

  2. Individual Differences in Dynamic Measures of Verbal Learning Abilities in Young Twin Pairs and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Soelen, Inge L. C.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Dekker, Peter H.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the genetic background of individual differences in dynamic measures of verbal learning ability in children, using a Dutch version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Nine-year-old twin pairs (N = 112 pairs) were recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. When possible, an older sibling between 10 and 14 years old…

  3. Historical Increase in the Number of Factors Measured by Commercial Tests of Cognitive Ability: Are We Overfactoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A historical increase in the number of factors purportedly measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability may result from four distinct pressures including: increasingly complex models of intelligence, test publishers' desires to provide clinically useful assessment instruments with greater interpretive value, test publishers' desires to…

  4. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them.

  5. Can manual ability be measured with a generic ABILHAND scale? A cross-sectional study conducted on six diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Carlyne; Vandervelde, Laure; Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Several ABILHAND Rasch-built manual ability scales were previously developed for chronic stroke (CS), cerebral palsy (CP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD). The present study aimed to explore the applicability of a generic manual ability scale unbiased by diagnosis and to study the nature of manual ability across diagnoses. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Outpatient clinic homes (CS, CP, RA), specialised centres (CP), reference centres (CP, NMD) and university hospitals (SSc). Participants 762 patients from six diagnostic groups: 103 CS adults, 113 CP children, 112 RA adults, 156 SSc adults, 124 NMD children and 124 NMD adults. Primary and secondary outcome measures Manual ability as measured by the ABILHAND disease-specific questionnaires, diagnosis and nature (ie, uni-manual or bi-manual involvement and proximal or distal joints involvement) of the ABILHAND manual activities. Results The difficulties of most manual activities were diagnosis dependent. A principal component analysis highlighted that 57% of the variance in the item difficulty between diagnoses was explained by the symmetric or asymmetric nature of the disorders. A generic scale was constructed, from a metric point of view, with 11 items sharing a common difficulty among diagnoses and 41 items displaying a category-specific location (asymmetric: CS, CP; and symmetric: RA, SSc, NMD). This generic scale showed that CP and NMD children had significantly less manual ability than RA patients, who had significantly less manual ability than CS, SSc and NMD adults. However, the generic scale was less discriminative and responsive to small deficits than disease-specific instruments. Conclusions Our finding that most of the manual item difficulties were disease-dependent emphasises the danger of using generic scales without prior investigation of item invariance across diagnostic groups. Nevertheless, a generic manual ability scale could be

  6. Age-Related Invariance of Abilities Measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Holdnack, James A.; Lloyd, Delyth

    2006-01-01

    Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of test scores is directly comparable across groups. The observation of measurement invariance provides fundamental evidence for the inference that scores on a test afford equivalent measurement of the same psychological traits among diverse groups. Groups…

  7. Correlations among measures of cognitive ability, creativity, and academic achievement for gifted minority children.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, G B; Lopez, E

    1988-10-01

    This study explored the correlations among nonverbal reasoning ability, creativity, and academic achievement in gifted minority children, 89 girls and 71 boys in Grades 1 through 8 in a program for gifted. A random half of students from all grade levels were tested at the beginning of the year and the remaining half after 7 mo. with Raven Progressive Matrices, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and the California Achievement Test. Pearson correlations reflected limited relations among these variables except for a significant positive value between creativity and reading achievement. Suggestions for further study and implications for identification procedures and program development were provided.

  8. Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test compared to measures of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, E C; Farenholtz, D W

    1992-09-01

    This study compared the Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test (POPAT) with selected field and laboratory tests of physical fitness. Ninety-eight volunteer police officers (73 men, 25 women) completed all aspects of the testing. Fifty-five (55)% of the total group passed the POPAT by bettering the 4 min 15 sec "cut" point. Only 16% of the women and 68% of the men passed the overall test. Laboratory tests revealed a rather unfit sample of subjects (mean VO2 max = 42.6 ml.kg.min-1; % body fat = 22.9). Stepwise multiple regression indicated that 55% of the variance on the run component of the test was accounted for by maximal aerobic power and anaerobic capacity. The fight component of POPAT did not correlate highly with standard field tests of strength. Pass/fail aspects of the test were not clearly delineated by selected lab and field tests. It was concluded that POPAT, being a valid, task-specific, job related test, consists of motor abilities and technique as much as generalized fitness parameters.

  9. The Measurement and Predictive Ability of Metacognition in Middle School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Rayne A.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Ramsay, Crystal M.; Klapp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relations among components of metacognition from varying theoretical perspectives, explored the psychometric characteristics of known measures of metacognition, and examined the predictive strength of measures of metacognition for both science and overall academic achievement in 97 seventh-grade students. Findings indicated…

  10. Language Sample Measures and Language Ability in Spanish-English Bilingual Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity and sentence organization are useful metrics for quantifying language development and language impairments in monolingual and bilingual children. It is not yet known what measures within and across languages are most informative when evaluating the language skills of bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Aircraft measurements over Fennoscandia during the MAMM project - highlights from 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant

    2015-04-01

    This paper will present highlights and conclusions from a 3-year campaign of summer airborne measurements across the Fennoscandian region and over the Barents Sea and Svalbard during the Methane in the Arctic Measurements and Modelling (MAMM) campaign. Beginning in July 2012, the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) Bae-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft has conducted more than 150 hours of sampling over this Arctic domain in a series of tailored process-driven case studies in the period July to September in each year between 2012 and 2014. High precision, continuous measurements of methane concentration and its isotopologues were collected on the FAAM aircraft along with measurements of a wide range of other gases (such as CO2, N2O, O3, CO, HCOOH), aerosol, and thermodynamic parameters. Together, such measurements provide a dataset from which to assess physico-chemical airmass history and specific local and regional emission processes. The FAAM platform complemented a longer term ground-based measurement deployment to collect data for measurement-led case studies, and regional and global model evaluation. In this study we will present highlights from case studies of regionally-averaged snapshots of Arctic wetland methane and formic acid net surface flux and we will present conclusions from airborne methane measurements over potential gas seepage areas on the continental shelf off the coast of Svalbard. We will also present the first airborne remote sensing measurements of methane over the region from the FAAM aircraft and we will present a summer climatology of greenhouse measurements across the MAMM campaign. We will conclude by discussing the next steps in completing the Arctic methane picture and what this might mean for the global methane conundrum.

  12. The Pillbox Test: an ecological measure of executive functioning and estimate of medication management abilities.

    PubMed

    Zartman, Andrea L; Hilsabeck, Robin C; Guarnaccia, Charles A; Houtz, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Studies indicate that executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of everyday function. However, assessment can be problematic as no single standardized instrument is known to measure all EF domains simultaneously. Thus, the Pillbox Test was developed as a new measure tapping four EF factors through the real-time assessment of medication management, a complex instrumental activity of daily living. The Pillbox Test showed good criterion-related validity and was effective in differentiating graduated levels of executive dysfunction between a mixed neurological group, medical control group, and healthy community control group. This test also showed good convergent validity as it correlated significantly in expected directions with established EF measures in all four of selected EF domains and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status. Finally, a receiver operator characteristic curve found a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 87.5%, suggesting that the Pillbox Test is a promising new ecological measure of EF.

  13. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  14. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy. PMID:27262445

  15. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy.

  16. Heritability of Cognitive Abilities as Measured by Mental Chronometric Tasks: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to meta-analyze the published studies that measure the performance differences in mental chronometric tasks using a behavioral genetic research design. Because chronometric tasks are so simple, individual differences in the time it takes to complete them are largely due to underlying biological and physiological…

  17. Validating Functional Measures of Physical Ability for Aging People with Intellectual Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Joyce R.; Costello, Ellen; Birkmeier, Marisa C.; Richards, Maggie; Alexander, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the aging population without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), few standardized performance measures exist to assess physical function and risk for adverse outcomes such as nonfatal, unintentional injuries. We modified 3 selected standardized performance tools in the areas of general fitness (2-Minute Walk Test), balance…

  18. Generic ABILHAND Questionnaire Can Measure Manual Ability across a Variety of Motor Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Anna; Rota, Viviana; Tesio, Luigi; Perucca, Laura

    2011-01-01

    ABILHAND is, in its original version, a 46-item, 4-level questionnaire. It measures the difficulty perceived by patients with rheumatoid arthritis as they do various daily manual tasks. ABILHAND was originally built through Rasch analysis. In a later study, it was simplified to a generic 23-item, three-level questionnaire, showing both…

  19. Pilot Searfoss in experiment measuring effects space flight and pilot ability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Richard A. Searfoss, pilot, participates in an experiment that measures the effects of space flight on pilot proficiency. Searfoss is conducting one of the first tests of the Portable Inflight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT), a laptop computer loaded with software designed to create landing simulations.

  20. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  1. Relationship of Physical Fitness Measures vs. Occupational Physical Ability in Campus Law Enforcement Officers.

    PubMed

    Beck, Annie Q; Clasey, Jody L; Yates, James W; Koebke, Nicole C; Palmer, Thomas G; Abel, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Law enforcement officers (LEOs) on university campuses are required to perform a variety of physical occupational tasks. Identifying which physical fitness characteristics are associated with these occupational tasks will assist in the development of appropriate exercise programs and physical fitness assessments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify physical fitness and demographic characteristics that were correlated with occupational tasks commonly performed by campus LEOs. The occupational assessment was conducted using an Officer Physical Ability Test (OPAT), which simulated a foot chase of a suspect. Sixteen male LEOs (age: 33.1 ± 8.7 years; body mass: 87.2 ± 11.2 kg; height: 179.0 ± 7.9 cm) performed the OPAT. A battery of physical fitness tests were used to assess aerobic capacity, muscular endurance, strength, power, flexibility, agility, and body composition. Bivariate correlations were performed to identify significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between physical fitness characteristics and OPAT time. The officers' age was significantly correlated to the majority of OPAT tasks, physical fitness, and anthropometric assessments. Therefore, partial correlations were used to control for the confounding effects of age. After controlling for the officers' age, the overall OPAT time was significantly correlated with agility (r = 0.57) and aerobic endurance (r = -0.65). Furthermore, push-up, curl-up, body mass, waist circumference, and abdominal circumference were significantly correlated to individual OPAT tasks. In conclusion, exercise programs and fitness assessments should be used for campus LEOs that address a variety of physical fitness characteristics associated with occupational performance. In addition, exercise programs should focus on body composition management and fitness for older LEOs.

  2. Ability of test measures to predict competitive performance in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Megan; Hopkins, Will; Roberts, Alan; Pyne, David

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between changes in test measures and changes in competition performance for individual elite swimmers. The 24 male and 16 female swimmers, who were monitored for 3.6 years (s = 2.5), raced in a major competition at the end of each 6-month season (3.6 competitions, s = 2.2). A 7 x 200-m incremental swimming step-test and anthropometry were conducted in up to four training phases each season. Correlations of changes in step-test and anthropometry measures between training phases and seasons with changes in competition performance between seasons were derived with repeated-measures mixed-modelling and linear regression. Changes in competition performance were best tracked by changes in test measures between taper phases. The best single predictor of competition performance was skinfolds for females (r = -0.53). The best predictor from the step-test was stroke rate at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x l(-1) (females: r = 0.46; males: r = 0.41); inclusion of the second-best step-test predictor in a multiple linear regression improved the correlations (females: r = 0.52 with speed in the seventh step included; males: r = 0.58 with peak lactate concentration included). In conclusion, a combination of fitness and technique factors is important for competitive performance. The step-test is a useful adjunct in a swimmer's training preparation for tracking large changes in performance. PMID:17852674

  3. Measuring novices' field mapping abilities using an in-class exercise based on expert task analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulkins, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We are interested in developing a model of expert-like behavior for improving the teaching methods of undergraduate field geology. Our aim is to assist students in mastering the process of field mapping more efficiently and effectively and to improve their ability to think creatively in the field. To examine expert-mapping behavior, a cognitive task analysis was conducted with expert geologic mappers in an attempt to define the process of geologic mapping (i.e. to understand how experts carry out geological mapping). The task analysis indicates that expert mappers have a wealth of geologic scenarios at their disposal that they compare against examples seen in the field, experiences that most undergraduate mappers will not have had. While presenting students with many geological examples in class may increase their understanding of geologic processes, novices still struggle when presented with a novel field situation. Based on the task analysis, a short (45-minute) paper-map-based exercise was designed and tested with 14 pairs of 3rd year geology students. The exercise asks students to generate probable geologic models based on a series of four (4) data sets. Each data set represents a day’s worth of data; after the first “day,” new sheets simply include current and previously collected data (e.g. “Day 2” data set includes data from “Day 1” plus the new “Day 2” data). As the geologic complexity increases, students must adapt, reject or generate new geologic models in order to fit the growing data set. Preliminary results of the exercise indicate that students who produced more probable geologic models, and produced higher ratios of probable to improbable models, tended to go on to do better on the mapping exercises at the 3rd year field school. These results suggest that those students with more cognitively available geologic models may be more able to use these models in field settings than those who are unable to draw on these models for whatever

  4. Experimentally measured morphology of biomass burning aerosol and its impacts on CCN ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M.; Espinoza, C.; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the morphological properties of freshly emitted and atmospherically aged aerosols from biomass burning. The impacts of particle morphology assumptions on hygroscopic predictions are examined. Chamber experiments were conducted at the UC-Riverside Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) Atmospheric Processes Lab using two biomass fuel sources, manzanita and chamise. Morphological data was obtained through the use of an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data from these instruments was used to calculate both a dynamic shape factor and a fractal-like dimension for the biomass burning emissions. This data was then used with κ-Köhler theory to adjust the calculated hygroscopicity for experimentally determined morphological characteristics of the aerosol. Laboratory measurement of biomass burning aerosol from two chaparral fuels show that particles are non-spherical with dynamic shape factors greater than 1.15 for aerosol sizes relevant to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation. Accounting for particle morphology can shift the hygroscopicity parameter κ by 0.15 or more. To our knowledge, this work provides the first laboratory chamber measurements of morphological characteristics for biomass burning cloud condensation nuclei and provides experimental particle shape evidence to support the variation in reported hygroscopicities of the complex aerosol.

  5. Experimentally measured morphology of biomass burning aerosol and its impacts on CCN ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M.; Espinoza, C.; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the morphological properties of freshly emitted and atmospherically aged aerosols from biomass burning. The impacts of particle morphology assumptions on hygroscopic predictions are examined. Chamber experiments were conducted at the University of California, Riverside, Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) atmospheric processes lab using two biomass fuel sources: manzanita and chamise. Morphological data was obtained through the use of an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Data from these instruments was used to calculate both a dynamic shape factor and a fractal-like dimension for the biomass burning emissions. This data was then used with κ-Köhler theory to adjust the calculated hygroscopicity for experimentally determined morphological characteristics of the aerosol. Laboratory measurement of biomass burning aerosol from two chaparral fuels show that particles are nonspherical with dynamic shape factors greater than 1.15 for aerosol sizes relevant to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation. Accounting for particle morphology can shift the hygroscopicity parameter by 0.15 or more. To our knowledge, this work provides the first laboratory chamber measurements of morphological characteristics for biomass burning cloud condensation nuclei and provides experimental particle shape evidence to support the variation in reported hygroscopicities of the complex aerosol.

  6. Project CHOICE: Validity of Interest and Ability Measures for Student Choice of Vocational Program. ACT Research Report Series 90-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.; Brandt, William E.

    A project was conducted to determine whether vocational interest and ability measures can help high school students identify vocational education programs in which they will experience satisfaction and success. Six Career Planning Program (CPP) interest measures and 15 ability measures were administered to 2,101 seniors in 19 area…

  7. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position.

  8. Measuring college sailing teams ability: an application of the many-facet Rasch model to ordinal data.

    PubMed

    Lang, William Steve; Wilkerson, Judy R

    2005-01-01

    For those who look at typical approaches to sports ranking, sailing seems an almost impossible challenge, thereby making the evidence supporting Rasch measurement in this study even more intriguing. This article describes our application of MFRM and the results from our analysis of one year's data from the North American college sailing competitions. We discuss the following issues for inclusion in the development of a Rasch model useful to college sailing team ability: 1. The level of data quality (as described by Stevens, 1946) 2. The connectedness of the contests 3. Empty cells (missing data) 4. Interpreting outliers, trends, or unusual results 5. Judges' or polls' bias Our results indicate the utility and precision of MFRM as a tool generally appropriate for ordinal ranking applications and sailing ability specifically.

  9. A simulation study of predictive ability measures in a survival model II: explained randomness and predictive accuracy.

    PubMed

    Choodari-Oskooei, B; Royston, P; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2012-10-15

    Several R(2) -type measures have been proposed to evaluate the predictive ability of a survival model. In Part I, we classified the measures into four categories and studied the measures in the explained variation category. In this paper, we study the remaining measures in a similar fashion, discussing their strengths and shortcomings. Simulation studies are used to examine the performance of the measures with respect to the criteria we set out in Part I. Our simulation studies showed that among the measures studied in this paper, the measures proposed by Kent and O'Quigley ρ(W)(2) (and its approximation ρ(W,A)(2)) and Schemper and Kaider R(SK)(2) perform better with respect to our criteria. However, our investigations showed that ρ(W)(2) is adversely affected by the distribution of covariate and the presence of influential observations. The results show that the other measures perform poorly, primarily because they are affected either by the degree of censoring or the follow-up period.

  10. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J.; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended. PMID:26664712

  11. Using classical and modern measurement theories to explore rater, domain, and gender influences on student writing ability.

    PubMed

    Gyagenda, Ismail S; Engelhard, George

    2009-01-01

    This study i) examined the rater, domain, and gender influences on the assessed quality of student's writing ability and ii) described and compared different approaches for examining these influences based on classical and modern measurement theories. Twenty raters were randomly selected from a group of 87 trained raters contracted to rate essays of the annual Georgia High School Writing Test. Each rater scored the entire set of 375 essays on a 1-4 rating scale (366 essays were used in the analyses because nine cases had missing values and were dropped). Two approaches, the classical approach and the item response theory-based Rasch model, were used to conduct psychometric measures of reliability and inter-rater reliability, and statistical analyses with rater and gender as the predictor variables and the total and domain scores as the dependent variables. To achieve the second purpose, the Classical Test Model and the Rasch model were compared and contrasted and their strengths and limitations discussed as they related to student writing assessment. Analyses from both approaches indicated statistically significant rater and gender effects on student writing. Using domain scores as the dependent variables, there was a statistically significant rater by gender interaction effect at the multivariate level, but not at the univariate level. The Rasch analysis indicated a statistically significant rater by gender effect. The comparison between the two approaches highlighted their strengths and limitations, their different measurement and statistical models, and their different procedures.

  12. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  13. Measuring Mathematical Ability Needed for "Non-Mathematical" Majors: The Construction of a Scale Applying IRT and Differential Item Functioning across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Silvia; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    Given that basic mathematical ability is a requirement to succeed in "non-mathematical" majors, e.g. degrees for Psychology, Education, and Health Sciences with compulsory introductory stats courses, assessing this ability can be useful to promote achievement. The aim of the present study was to develop a scale to measure the mathematical ability…

  14. A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

  15. A study of the ability of the D0 detector to measure the single jet inclusive cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Astur, R.V.

    1992-12-31

    The D0 experiment began accumulating data at the Fermilab Tevatron in May of 1992. Protons are collided with antiprotons at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and an expected peak luminosity of 5 {times} 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1}. The D0 detector is an all-purpose detector that will have exceptional jet reconstruction capabilities derived from superior calorimetry and nearly 4{pi} angular coverage. One of the many physics measurements that will be made at D0 is the inclusive jet cross section. Comparison of this cross section with theoretical predictions allows us to test the accuracy of the standard model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This comparison is usually in the form of a measurement of the differential cross section with respect to the transverse energy of the jet. The extended angular coverage of the D0 detector allows measurements of the differential cross section as a function of jet rapidity as well. Recently completed calculations of the next-to-leading-order contribution to the inclusive cross section result in predictions with reduced theoretical errors. In addition, recent fits to data from deep inelastic scattering and single photon experiments further restrict the quark and gluon structure functions of the proton which are necessary in the theoretical predictions of the cross section. It may be that an experimental measurement of the inclusive cross section would favor some of these fits over others. We have studied extensive computer simulations of both the Tevatron and the D0 detector in order to determine D0`s ability to reconstruct the inclusive cross section. We present a discussion of this analysis as presently understood.

  16. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Arigo, Danielle R.; Raggio, Greer A.; Kaufman, Alison I.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). Method The PAAQ was administered to three distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; one sample also wore accelerometers for seven days (at baseline and six months later). Results The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = 0.89) and two subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = 0.86, Behavioral Commitment α = 0.85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; ps < 0.05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over six months (p = 0.05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over one week (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults. PMID:25106049

  17. Measuring the CCN and IN ability of bacterial isolates: implications for the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdue, S.; Waters, S.; Konstantinidis, K.; Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation is an important process in the climate system as it influences global precipitation processes, and can affect the vertical distribution of clouds with effects that both cool and warm the atmosphere. Of the pathways to ice nucleation, immersion mode, which occurs when ice nuclei (IN) particles are surrounded by an aqueous phase that subsequently freezes, dominates primary ice production in mixed-phase clouds. A simple but effective method to study immersion freezing is to utilize a droplet freezing assay (DFA) that consists of an aluminum plate, precisely cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture. Using such a system we study the immersion IN characteristics of bacterial isolates (for temperatures ranging from -15oC to 0oC) isolated from rainwater and air collected in Atlanta, GA and Puerto Rico, over storms throughout the year. Despite their relatively large size and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the outer membranes of many bacteria, it is unclear if bacteria possess an inherent ability to nucleate an aqueous phase (a requirement for immersion freezing) for the wide range of supersaturations found in clouds. For this, we measure the cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity of each isolate (over the 0.05% to 0.6% supersaturation range) using a Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter. Initial results have shown certain isolates to be very efficient CCN, allowing them to form droplets even for the very low supersaturations found in radiation fogs. In combination, these experiments provide insight into the potential dual-ability of some bacteria, isolated from the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, to act as both efficient CCN and IN.

  18. Equilibrium versus kinetic measurements of aqueous solubility, and the ability of compounds to supersaturate in solution--a validation study.

    PubMed

    Box, Karl J; Völgyi, Gergely; Baka, Edit; Stuart, Martin; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Comer, John E A

    2006-06-01

    A novel potentiometric procedure has recently been described for rapid measurement of equilibrium aqueous solubility values of organic acids, bases, and ampholytes that form supersaturated solutions. In this procedure, the equilibrium solubility is actively sought by changing the concentration of the neutral form by adding HCl or KOH titrants and monitoring the rate of change of pH due to precipitation or dissolution in a process called Chasing Equilibrium. In this article, we seek to validate the procedure against a shake-flask protocol for solubility determination. A set of 16 small organic compounds, covering a wide range of solubilities was chosen for the study. Interestingly, while 10 compounds in the study were found to chase equilibrium, the others did not. Kinetic solubility data was also collected. It was noted that kinetic solubility was consistently higher than equilibrium solubility for chasers, but correlated well with equilibrium solubility for nonchasers. The ratio of kinetic to equilibrium solubility indicated a compound's ability to form supersaturated solutions. PMID:16552741

  19. Gambling in the Visual Periphery: A Conjoint-Measurement Analysis of Human Ability to Judge Visual Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Morvan, Camille; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in motor control demonstrates that humans take their own motor uncertainty into account, adjusting the timing and goals of movement so as to maximize expected gain. Visual sensitivity varies dramatically with retinal location and target, and models of optimal visual search typically assume that the visual system takes retinal inhomogeneity into account in planning eye movements. Such models can then use the entire retina rather than just the fovea to speed search. Using a simple decision task, we evaluated human ability to compensate for retinal inhomogeneity. We first measured observers' sensitivity for targets, varying contrast and eccentricity. Observers then repeatedly chose between targets differing in eccentricity and contrast, selecting the one they would prefer to attempt: e.g., a low contrast target at 2° versus a high contrast target at 10°. Observers knew they would later attempt some of their chosen targets and receive rewards for correct classifications. We evaluated performance in three ways. Equivalence: Do observers' judgments agree with their actual performance? Do they correctly trade off eccentricity and contrast and select the more discriminable target in each pair? Transitivity: Are observers' choices self-consistent? Dominance: Do observers understand that increased contrast improves performance? Decreased eccentricity? All observers exhibited patterned failures of equivalence, and seven out of eight observers failed transitivity. There were significant but small failures of dominance. All these failures together reduced their winnings by 10%–18%. PMID:21152007

  20. Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer-Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…

  1. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  2. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments

  3. Are DIT Scores Empirically Distinct from Measures of Political Identification and Intellectual Ability? A Test Using Post-9/11 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowson, H. Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Emler, Renwick, and Malone (1983) argued against a developmental interpretation of the Defining Issues Test (DIT), suggesting instead that it actually measures a social psychological phenomenon--political identification. On the other hand, Sanders, Lubinski, and Benbow (1995) have argued that DIT scores measure intellectual ability. In this study,…

  4. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities-defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them-have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are "mental rotation" (rotating mental models) and "visualisation" (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel "Bricks" test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  5. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L.; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities–defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them–have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are “mental rotation” (rotating mental models) and “visualisation” (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel “Bricks” test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  6. Confidence-More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burns, Karina M; Burns, Nicholas R; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as "online." Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor-derived from online measures-was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability. PMID:27148126

  7. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Shih, Chang-Ku

    2012-09-01

    This study developed a scale to measure 502 Taiwan traffic police officers' perceived ability to detect, detain, and intercept those vehicles whose drivers are driving while intoxicated (DWI) when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Through factor analysis, the officers' enforcement ability was found to consist of two component latent traits: detecting ability (DA) and detaining and intercepting ability (DIA). A multidimensional approach of Rasch models was then applied to measure the police officers' perceived abilities and particular difficulties in conducting sobriety checkpoints. The study results indicated that the majority of police officers performed well in detecting DWI vehicles, but half of the study participants lacked confidence in detaining DWI vehicles and intercepting escaping DWI vehicles. DWI with weaving was found to be the most aggressive and threatening behavior to traffic police when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Police officers over age 46 were found to have significantly lower DA and DIA, while branch captains were found to have significantly higher DA than their colleagues. Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers.

  8. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Shih, Chang-Ku

    2012-09-01

    This study developed a scale to measure 502 Taiwan traffic police officers' perceived ability to detect, detain, and intercept those vehicles whose drivers are driving while intoxicated (DWI) when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Through factor analysis, the officers' enforcement ability was found to consist of two component latent traits: detecting ability (DA) and detaining and intercepting ability (DIA). A multidimensional approach of Rasch models was then applied to measure the police officers' perceived abilities and particular difficulties in conducting sobriety checkpoints. The study results indicated that the majority of police officers performed well in detecting DWI vehicles, but half of the study participants lacked confidence in detaining DWI vehicles and intercepting escaping DWI vehicles. DWI with weaving was found to be the most aggressive and threatening behavior to traffic police when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Police officers over age 46 were found to have significantly lower DA and DIA, while branch captains were found to have significantly higher DA than their colleagues. Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers. PMID:22664717

  9. Confidence—More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Karina M.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as “online.” Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor—derived from online measures—was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability. PMID:27148126

  10. An overview of the flight campaign for the GAUGE project: airborne greenhouse gas (and other complementary trace gas) measurements around and over the UK between April 2014 and May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Percival, Carl; Bannan, Thomas; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair; Rigby, Matt; Gannesan, Anita; Mead, Mohammed; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Wenger, Angelina; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This work highlights data measured during flights by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) campaign. A total of 17 flights (85 flight-hours) have been conducted so far around the UK mainland and Ireland to sample precision in situ CH4, CO2, N2O (and other trace gas) concentrations and meteorological parameters at altitudes up to 9500m throughout the period April 2014 to May 2015. Airborne remote sensing retrievals of greenhouse gas total columns have also been calculated using the Manchester Airborne Retrieval Scheme for the UK Met Office ARIES high resolution FTIR instrument. This airborne dataset represents a mapped climatology and a series of case studies from which to assess top-down bulk-net-flux snapshots for regions of the UK, and provides for evaluation of inverse modelling approaches that challenge bottom-up inventories, satellite remote sensing measurements, and assessment of model transport uncertainty. In this paper, we shall describe the instrumentation on the FAAM aircraft and provide a diary of GAUGE FAAM flights (and data highlights) to date; and discuss selected flights of interest to studies such as those above with a focus of net mass flux evaluation.

  11. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  12. IRT-Based Measurement of Short-Term Changes of Ability, with an Application to Assessing the "Mozart Effect"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittler, Georg; Fischer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The article extends and applies previous approaches by Klauer and Fischer to the statistical evaluation of ability changes in tests conforming to the Rasch model (RM). Exact uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) hypothesis tests and uniformly most accurate (UMA) confidence intervals (CIs) for the amount of change can be constructed for each…

  13. A Theory-based Approach to the Measurement of Foreign Language Learning Ability: The CANAL-F Theory and Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Ehrman, Madeline E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rationale, description, and partial construct validation of a new theory of foreign language aptitude: CANAL-F--Cognitive Ability for Novelty in Acquisition of Language (foreign). The theory was applied and implemented in a test of foreign language aptitude (CANAL-FT). Outlines the CANAL-F theory and details of its instrumentation…

  14. The Student's Perception of Ability Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Academic Self-Concept in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, Frederic J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was developed for use with students in grades 3 to 6. The test was determined to have relatively high reliability and reasonably strong validity. Data showed SPAS clearly differentiates between learning disabled and non-learning-disabled students. (Author/CTM)

  15. Understanding Planning Ability Measured by the Tower of London: An Evaluation of Its Internal Structure by Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Boonstra, A. Marije

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) is a widely used instrument for assessing planning ability. Inhibition and (spatial) working memory are assumed to contribute to performance on the TOL, but findings about the relationship between these cognitive processes are often inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of specific properties of TOL problems on cognitive…

  16. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  17. The training measure and empirical study on using the product design theory to analyze the college students' employed ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhonghang; Liu, Wei; Shan, Hai; Bi, Hongliang

    2011-10-01

    Analyzes the employment difficulty phenomenon of the college student by the product design theory , regards the college student as the product of the school face the employer, and take social, enterprise's demand as the guidance to train students, from improving the college students' initial quality, strengthening the college students' standard quality and increasing the college students' interest quality aspect, to propose the countermeasure, that paying great attention to undertaking the college students' innovative education and practice development and will be helpful in sharpens college student's employment ability and the employment quality as well as the ability of dealing with the social work place competition, to further alleviate the college students' employment difficulty this social question.

  18. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  19. Technical Data on the Student's Perception of Ability Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Academic Self-Concept in Elementary School Children. Research and Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersma, Frederic J.; And Others

    The Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was developed in response to a need for a reliable and valid instrument to measure academic, rather than general, self-concept in elementary school children. This scale was designed for use with children in Grades 3 to 6. Descriptive data on the SPAS were discussed in terms of its substantive,…

  20. Role of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (G241R, K469E) in mediating its single-molecule binding ability: Atomic force microscopy measurements on living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Rui; Yi, Shaoqiong; Zhang, Xuejie; Liu, Huiliang; Fang, Xiaohong

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • We evaluated both single molecule binding ability and expression level of 4 ICAM-1 mutations. • AFM was used to measure single-molecule binding ability on living cells. • The SNP of ICAM-1 may induce changes in expressions rather than single-molecule binding ability. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis (As) is characterized by chronic inflammation and is a major cause of human mortality. ICAM-1-mediated adhesion of leukocytes in vessel walls plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), G241R and K469E, are associated with a number of inflammatory diseases. SNP induced changes in ICAM-1 function rely not only on the expression level but also on the single-molecule binding ability which may be affected by single molecule conformation variations such as protein splicing and folding. Previous studies have shown associations between G241R/K469E polymorphisms and ICAM-1 gene expression. Nevertheless, few studies have been done that focus on the single-molecule forces of the above SNPs and their ligands. In the current study, we evaluated both single molecule binding ability and expression level of 4 ICAM-1 mutations – GK (G241/K469), GE (G241/E469), RK (R241/K469) and RE (R241/E469). No difference in adhesion ability was observed via cell adhesion assay or atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement when comparing the GK, GE, RK, or RE genotypes of ICAM-1 to each other. On the other hand, flow cytometry suggested that there was significantly higher expression of GE genotype of ICAM-1 on transfected CHO cells. Thus, we concluded that genetic susceptibility to diseases related to ICAM-1 polymorphisms, G241R or K469E, might be due to the different expressions of ICAM-1 variants rather than to the single-molecule binding ability of ICAM-1.

  1. Equivalence of a Measurement Model of Cognitive Abilities in U.S. Standardization and Australian Neuroscience Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Holdnack, James A.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Cook, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    A psychological measurement model provides an explicit definition of (a) the theoretical and (b) the numerical relationships between observed scores and the latent variables that underlie the observed scores. Examination of the metric invariance of a measurement model involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the model relating…

  2. What Are You Measuring? Dimensionality and Reliability Analysis of Ability and Speed in Medical School Didactic Examinations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Summative didactic evaluation often involves multiple choice questions which are then aggregated into exam scores, course scores, and cumulative grade point averages. To be valid, each of these levels should have some relationship to the topic tested (dimensionality) and be sufficiently reproducible between persons (reliability) to justify student ranking. Evaluation of dimensionality is difficult and is complicated by the classic observation that didactic performance involves a generalized component (g) in addition to subtest specific factors. In this work, 183 students were analyzed over two academic years in 13 courses with 44 exams and 3352 questions for both accuracy and speed. Reliability at all levels was good (>0.95). Assessed by bifactor analysis, g effects dominated most levels resulting in essential unidimensionality. Effect sizes on predicted accuracy and speed due to nesting in exams and courses was small. There was little relationship between person ability and person speed. Thus, the hierarchical grading system appears warrented because of its g-dependence.

  3. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  4. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models.

  5. Estimation of potential abilities of middle atmosphere density measurements from a near-Earth orbit within the UV wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marichev, V. N.; Bochkovskii, D. A.; Sorokin, I. V.; Bychkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of errors in atmospheric density measurements by lidar on board the ISS is performed. It is shown that using as the lidar transmitter a Nd:YAG laser with moderate parameters of emission at a wavelength of 353 nm and a receiving mirror diameter of 0.4 m, it is possible to cover with a 10% measurement error a height range, on average, from 40-60 km and 30-40 km in the nighttime and daytime, respectively, down to the troposphere. Working with emission at 266 nm with a 10% error, it is possible to move to the heights of the mesosphere (70 km) and penetrate the atmosphere down to a height of 40 km. Thus, the use of two harmonics makes it possible to assimilate the height range of atmospheric density measurements from on board the ISS beginning from 70 km and down to the troposphere.

  6. Ability to Identify, Explain and Solve Problems in Everyday Tasks: Preliminary Validation of a Direct Video Measure of Practical Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Greenspan, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in the definitional literature on mental retardation emphasize the need to ground the concept of adaptive behavior in an expanded model of intelligence, which includes practical and social intelligence. Development of a direct measure of practical intelligence might increase the likelihood that an assessment of this domain…

  7. Measuring Social Studies Concept Attainment: Boys and Girls. Report from the Project on A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Margaret L.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    This paper describes test development efforts for measuring achievement of selected concepts in social studies. It includes descriptive item and test statistics for the tests developed. Twelve items were developed for each of 30 concepts. Subject specialists categorized the concepts into three major areas: Geographic Region, Man and Society, and…

  8. A Factorial Analysis of Timed and Untimed Measures of Mathematics and Reading Abilities in School Aged Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic relationship between fluency and non-fluency-based measures of reading and mathematics performance. Participants were drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Project, an ongoing longitudinal twin project of same-sex MZ and DZ twins from Ohio. The present analyses are based on…

  9. The Ability to Structure Acoustic Material as a Measure of Musical Aptitude: 3, Theoretical Refinements. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karma, Kai

    This report offers some general principles which are helpful for designing and constructing a test for measuring musical aptitude of persons from various age groups. A discussion attempts to clarify the concepts used within the psychology of music. The basic structuralist principles favored by Gestalt psychologists and structuralists are also…

  10. An assessment of the relationship between clinical utility and predictive ability measures and the impact of mean risk in the population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures of clinical utility (net benefit and event free life years) have been recommended in the assessment of a new predictor in a risk prediction model. However, it is not clear how they relate to the measures of predictive ability and reclassification, such as the c-statistic and Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI), or how these measures are affected by differences in mean risk between populations when a fixed cutpoint to define high risk is assumed. Methods We examined the relationship between measures of clinical utility (net benefit, event free life years) and predictive ability (c-statistic, binary c-statistic, continuous NRI(0), NRI with two cutpoints, binary NRI) using simulated data and the Framingham dataset. Results In the analysis of simulated data, the addition of a new predictor tended to result in more people being treated when the mean risk was less than the cutpoint, and fewer people being treated for mean risks beyond the cutpoint. The reclassification and clinical utility measures showed similar relationships with mean risk when the mean risk was less than the cutpoint and the baseline model was not strong. However, when the mean risk was greater than the cutpoint, or the baseline model was strong, the reclassification and clinical utility measures diverged in their relationship with mean risk. Although the risk of CVD was lower for women compared to men in the Framingham dataset, the measures of predictive ability, reclassification and clinical utility were both larger for women. The difference in these results was, in part, due to the larger hazard ratio associated with the additional risk predictor (systolic blood pressure) for women. Conclusion Measures such as the c-statistic and the measures of reclassification do not capture the consequences of implementing different prediction models. We do not recommend their use in evaluating which new predictors may be clinically useful in a particular population. We recommend that a

  11. Addressing the ice nucleating abilities of marine aerosol: A combination of deposition mode laboratory and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladino, L. A.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Miller, L. A.; Schiller, C. L.; Huffman, J. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2016-05-01

    This study addresses, through two types of experiments, the potential for the oceans to act as a source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INPs). The INP concentration via deposition mode nucleation was measured in situ at a coastal site in British Columbia in August 2013. The INP concentration at conditions relevant to cirrus clouds (i.e., -40 °C and relative humidity with respect to ice, RHice = 139%) ranged from 0.2 L-1 to 3.3 L-1. Correlations of the INP concentrations with levels of anthropogenic tracers (i.e., CO, SO2, NOx, and black carbon) and numbers of fluorescent particles do not indicate a significant influence from anthropogenic sources or submicron bioaerosols, respectively. Additionally, the INPs measured in the deposition mode showed a poor correlation with the concentration of particles with sizes larger than 500 nm, which is in contrast with observations made in the immersion freezing mode. To investigate the nature of particles that could have acted as deposition INP, laboratory experiments with potential marine aerosol particles were conducted under the ice-nucleating conditions used in the field. At -40 °C, no deposition activity was observed with salt aerosol particles (sodium chloride and two forms of commercial sea salt: Sigma-Aldrich and Instant Ocean), particles composed of a commercial source of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic material), or particle mixtures of sea salt and humic material. In contrast, exudates from three phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nanochloris atomus, and Emiliania huxleyi) and one marine bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) exhibited INP activity at low RHice values, down to below 110%. This suggests that the INPs measured at the field site were of marine biological origins, although we cannot rule out other sources, including mineral dust.

  12. Measuring the ability to interpret medical information among the Japanese public and the relationship with inappropriate purchasing attitudes of health-related goods.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sakai, Michi; Fukui, Tsuguya; Shimbo, Takuro

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the relationship with uncritical purchasing attitudes toward health-related goods, the authors devised a test for ability to interpret medical information (TAIMI) among the Japanese public, designed to measure numeracy, literacy, and also critical appraising skills. An online survey was conducted, and 6047 participants were randomly chosen from the Japanese public and 36 physicians. TAIMI score for the public was 3.9±1.7 (mean±standard deviation); the physicians' was higher at 6.2±1.3 (P<.01). The lower TAIMI scoring group was more prone to purchasing health-related goods in response to exaggerated advertising than the higher-scoring one (P<.01). Factor analysis indicated that TAIMI included 2 factors related to the ability to critically appraise the validity and impact of evidence. In conclusion, TAIMI successfully measured the ability to interpret medical information, including the critical aspect of appraising validity and impact of the information. People competent in the interpretation tended to have more critical purchasing attitudes.

  13. Volume Expansion Measurements in Metallic Liquids and Their Relation to Fragility and Glass Forming Ability: An Energy Landscape Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendert, J. C.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies of Cu-Zr glasses have reported a rapid variation in the amorphous phase density near the optimal glass forming compositions, supporting the belief that the densest liquids are also the best glass formers. Here, we show that the measured densities of the Cu-Zr liquids at higher temperatures are not peaked sharply near these compositions, but the volume expansivities are. Theoretical studies have shown that the expansivity correlates with fragility near Tg; the experimental results presented here show that at high temperature they become anticorrelated. From energy landscape arguments, this indicates the existence of a crossover temperature for the expansivity-fragility correlation that scales inversely with the liquid fragility. These results lead to an improved understanding of the high temperature properties of liquids that form glasses and suggest a new method for identifying the best glass forming compositions within an alloy system from the properties of the equilibrium liquids.

  14. Volume expansion measurements in metallic liquids and their relation to fragility and glass forming ability: an energy landscape interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bendert, J C; Gangopadhyay, A K; Mauro, N A; Kelton, K F

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies of Cu-Zr glasses have reported a rapid variation in the amorphous phase density near the optimal glass forming compositions, supporting the belief that the densest liquids are also the best glass formers. Here, we show that the measured densities of the Cu-Zr liquids at higher temperatures are not peaked sharply near these compositions, but the volume expansivities are. Theoretical studies have shown that the expansivity correlates with fragility near T(g); the experimental results presented here show that at high temperature they become anticorrelated. From energy landscape arguments, this indicates the existence of a crossover temperature for the expansivity-fragility correlation that scales inversely with the liquid fragility. These results lead to an improved understanding of the high temperature properties of liquids that form glasses and suggest a new method for identifying the best glass forming compositions within an alloy system from the properties of the equilibrium liquids. PMID:23215298

  15. Measurements of some parameters of thermal sparks with respect to their ability to ignite aviation fuel/air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, S. J.; Hardwick, C. J.; Baldwin, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.

  16. Relationship between DHI production values and Myers-Briggs type indicator as a measure of management ability.

    PubMed

    Young, A J; Walters, J L

    2002-08-01

    Associations between owners' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences (E = extraversion vs. I = introversion; S = sensing vs. N = intuition; T = thinking vs F = feeling; J = judging vs. P = perceiving) and 21 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) production variables were determined on 60 farms. Of 60 dairy farmers participating, 51 were from Holstein farms (85%) and nine from farms with other breeds, primarily Jersey. Cows were milked either twice (n = 44 herds, 73%) or three times (n = 16) per day. Farmers were evenly split between the "E" and "I" dimension, whereas 93% of the farmers were "S," 75% "T," and 62% "J.". Individuals with a preference for the "I" dimension were associated with higher peak and mature equivalent milk yield than those individuals with a preference for the "E" dimension. The "T" and "J" dimensions had a significantly higher percentage of the herd with records usable by USDA and a lower percentage of animals pregnant by the goal set by the dairy producer than the "F" and "P" dimensions. Herds managed by individuals with a combination preference of "E" and "P" produced 7 to 10 kg of 3.5% FCM/cow per day less or 1,820 to 2,752 kg/ cow RHA ECM less than other combinations of the "E-I" and "J-P" dimensions. Those herds also had longer days dry and a lower percentage of records usable by USDA, suggesting that the "E-P" preference is less favorably associated to those measures of herd performance. The MBTI had limited association with many DHI production variables, but relationships to measures of labor and business management should be examined. PMID:12214998

  17. Relationship between DHI production values and Myers-Briggs type indicator as a measure of management ability.

    PubMed

    Young, A J; Walters, J L

    2002-08-01

    Associations between owners' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences (E = extraversion vs. I = introversion; S = sensing vs. N = intuition; T = thinking vs F = feeling; J = judging vs. P = perceiving) and 21 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) production variables were determined on 60 farms. Of 60 dairy farmers participating, 51 were from Holstein farms (85%) and nine from farms with other breeds, primarily Jersey. Cows were milked either twice (n = 44 herds, 73%) or three times (n = 16) per day. Farmers were evenly split between the "E" and "I" dimension, whereas 93% of the farmers were "S," 75% "T," and 62% "J.". Individuals with a preference for the "I" dimension were associated with higher peak and mature equivalent milk yield than those individuals with a preference for the "E" dimension. The "T" and "J" dimensions had a significantly higher percentage of the herd with records usable by USDA and a lower percentage of animals pregnant by the goal set by the dairy producer than the "F" and "P" dimensions. Herds managed by individuals with a combination preference of "E" and "P" produced 7 to 10 kg of 3.5% FCM/cow per day less or 1,820 to 2,752 kg/ cow RHA ECM less than other combinations of the "E-I" and "J-P" dimensions. Those herds also had longer days dry and a lower percentage of records usable by USDA, suggesting that the "E-P" preference is less favorably associated to those measures of herd performance. The MBTI had limited association with many DHI production variables, but relationships to measures of labor and business management should be examined.

  18. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Nijhof, Annabel D.; Brass, Marcel; Bardi, Lara; Wiersema, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they mentalized explicitly or

  19. Epidemiologic studies of behavioral health following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: limited impact or limited ability to measure?

    PubMed

    Teich, Judith L; Pemberton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Two large-scale epidemiologic federal surveys conducted in the Gulf Coast following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and intended to measure its impact on mental disorders and substance use found less dramatic results than had been anticipated. However, several smaller-scale studies conducted shortly after the spill did find increases in the prevalence of certain psychological problems among individuals surveyed. Previous federal studies conducted following two disasters-the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita-found few statistically significant changes in behavioral disorders in the wake of those events, except for individuals displaced from their homes by Katrina for 2 weeks or more. In this commentary, the authors discuss questions raised by these mixed results regarding the limitations of such studies, the behavioral health impact of the Deepwater Horizon spill compared to disasters causing more widespread loss of life and destruction of property, and the ways in which data collection following disasters might be improved to benefit public health planners.

  20. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    PubMed

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  1. Verbal Ability: An Obsolete Measure!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, S.A.

    1968-01-01

    Enrollment figures indicate that American colleges and universities are still segregated institutions. One-half of Negro college students are attending predominantly Negro colleges and most of the rest are attending junior colleges or other "open door" schools. Although there are a number of reasons for this academic qualifications for admission…

  2. Improved self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of medical students through structured improvement measures in an internal medicine bedside course

    PubMed Central

    Fünger, S. M.; Lesevic, H.; Rosner, S.; Ott, I.; Berberat, P.; Nikendei, C.; Sonne, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bedside courses are of outstanding importance when training medical students. The fact that less and less teaching is taking place nowadays at the patient's bedside makes it all the more important that the available time be put to effective use. The aim of this study was to check whether structured improvement measures in the course (scripts, lecturer briefing, e-learning cases) would improve the abilities of the students on the basis of a subjective self-assessment as well as an external assessment by the lecturers with respect to clinical abilities. Methods: Bedside teaching takes place in the fourth study year in the Medical Clinics of the TU Munich. Both students and lecturers had the chance to hand in an anonymous, quantitative self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of the students (German grading system) after every course date. This assessment took place online in the three categories "Medical history & examination", "Diagnosis" and "Therapy". An overall period of four semesters, each with 6 course dates, was investigated. After two of the total of four semesters in the study, the course was changed by introducing scripts, lecturer briefing as well as interactive e-learning cases. The self- and external assessment was compared both within the semester (date 1-3: A; date 4-6: B), during the course as well as before and after introducing the improvement measures ("before" (T0): SS 2012, SS 2013, "after" (T1): WS 2013/2014, SS 2014). Results: There was a significant improvement in one's own abilities on the basis of the self-assessment within each semester when comparing the first (A) and the last (B) course dates. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in the performances in all three categories when T0 was compared with T1, from both the point of view of the students ("Medical history & examination": T0 =2.5±0.9, T1=2.2±0.7, pp<0.001; "Diagnosis" T0=3.1±1.0, T1=2.8 ±0.9, pp<0.001; "Therapy": T0=3.8±1.3, T1=3.5±1.2, pp

  3. Selective Ability of Some CANTAB Battery Test Measures to Detect Cognitive Response to a Single Dose of Donepezil in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2015-01-01

    Background The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was used to explore which tests and their measures are able to detect cognitive change after a single dose of donepezil in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to establish the ability of CANTAB tests and their measures to detect cognitive change after a single 5-mg dose of donepezil in treatment-naïve AD patients. Material/Methods We enrolled 62 treatment-naïve AD patients and 30 healthy controls in this prospective, randomized, rater-blinded study. AD patients were randomized to 2 groups: the AD+ group received donepezil after the first CANTAB testing and the AD− group remained treatment-naïve at second testing. The time period between repeated testing was 4 hours. Parallel versions of CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM, and PRM tests were used. Results All groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression (p>0.05). AD+ and AD− groups did not differ according to MMSE. SOC, PAL, PRM, and SWM tests distinguished AD from controls. Eight measures of PAL and PRM had a strong correlation with MMSE (r>0.7). Repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test showed the difference of change in AD+ and AD− groups between first and second CANTAB testing in 7 PAL measures. AD+ and AD− groups differed in the second testing by 7 PAL measures. Four PAL measures differed in first and second testing within the AD+ group. Conclusions The CANTAB PAL test measures, able to detect cognitive change after a single dose of donepezil in AD patients, are: PAL mean trials to success, total errors (adjusted), total errors (6 shapes, adjusted), and total trials (adjusted). PMID:26336931

  4. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement.

  5. Evaluation of the running-based anaerobic sprint test as a measure of repeated sprint ability in collegiate-level soccer players.

    PubMed

    Keir, Daniel A; Thériault, Francis; Serresse, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) refers to an individual's ability to perform maximal sprints of short duration in succession with little recovery between sprints. The running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) has been adapted from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) protocol as a tool to assess RSA and anaerobic power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between performance variables and physiological responses obtained during the RAST and the WAnT using 8 collegiate-level soccer players. Participants performed a single trial of both the WAnT and the RAST. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was monitored throughout each trial, and blood lactate (BL) measures were recorded postexercise. The oxygen uptake (VO2) profile suggested that the RAST required greater contributions from aerobic metabolism although there was no difference in VO2peak (p < 0.05). Peak BL values were also similar between the RAST and the WAnT (p < 0.05). Neither peak physiological values nor performance variables (peak and mean power) were significantly correlated between protocols. The weak association in physiological responses indicates that different combinations of metabolic contributions exist between protocols, suggesting that individual performances on each test are not related in collegiate soccer players. Further studies on these relationships with players of other competitive levels and team sport athletes are warranted.

  6. Diagnostic Ability of Macular Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Measurements in Glaucoma Using Swept Source and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tatham, Andrew J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Liu, Ting; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer measurements in glaucoma, obtained using swept source (SS) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare to circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurements. Methods The study included 106 glaucomatous eyes of 80 subjects and 41 eyes of 22 healthy subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL), macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) and cpRNFL thickness were assessed using SS-OCT and SD-OCT, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to determine ability to differentiate glaucomatous and healthy eyes and between early glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Results Mean (± standard deviation) mGCIPL and mGCC thickness were thinner in both healthy and glaucomatous eyes using SS-OCT compared to using SD-OCT. Fixed and proportional biases were detected between SS-OCT and SD-OCT measures. Diagnostic accuracy (AUCs) for differentiating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes for average and sectoral mGCIPL was similar in SS-OCT (0.65 to 0.81) and SD-OCT (0.63 to 0.83). AUCs for average cpRNFL acquired using SS-OCT and SD-OCT tended to be higher (0.83 and 0.85, respectively) than for average mGCC (0.82 and 0.78, respectively), and mGCIPL (0.73 and 0.75, respectively) but these differences did not consistently reach statistical significance. Minimum SD-OCT mGCIPL and mGCC thickness (unavailable in SS-OCT) had the highest AUC (0.86) among macular measurements. Conclusion Assessment of mGCIPL thickness using SS-OCT or SD-OCT is useful for detecting glaucomatous damage, but measurements are not interchangeable for patient management decisions. Diagnostic accuracies of mGCIPL and mGCC from both SS-OCT and SD-OCT were similar to that of cpRNFL for glaucoma detection. PMID:25978420

  7. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  8. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  9. Low-dose paroxetine exposure causes lifetime declines in male mouse body weight, reproduction and competitive ability as measured by the novel organismal performance assay

    PubMed Central

    Gaukler, Shannon M.; Ruff, James S.; Galland, Tessa; Kandaris, Kirstie A.; Underwood, Tristan K.; Liu, Nicole M.; Young, Elizabeth L.; Morrison, Linda C.; Yost, Garold S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2014-01-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is currently available on the market and is suspected of causing congenital malformations in babies born to mothers who take the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy. We utilized organismal performance assays (OPAs), a novel toxicity assessment method, to assess the safety of paroxetine during pregnancy in a rodent model. OPAs utilize genetically diverse wild mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate competitive performance between experimental and control animals as they compete amongst each other for limited resources in semi-natural enclosures. Performance measures included reproductive success, male competitive ability and survivorship. Paroxetine-exposed males weighed 13% less, had 44% fewer offspring, dominated 53% fewer territories and experienced a 2.5-fold increased trend in mortality, when compared with controls. Paroxetine-exposed females had 65% fewer offspring early in the study, but rebounded at later time points. In cages, paroxetine-exposed breeders took 2.3 times longer to produce their first litter and pups of both sexes experienced reduced weight when compared with controls. Low-dose paroxetine-induced health declines detected in this study were undetected in preclinical trials with dose 2.5-8 times higher than human therapeutic doses. These data indicate that OPAs detect phenotypic adversity and provide unique information that could useful towards safety testing during pharmaceutical development. PMID:25446017

  10. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... anniversary throughout 2016... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 5 days ago AgrAbility's ...

  11. [Japanese adults' general beliefs about changes in the ability to remember from childhood to old age as measured by the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI)].

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examined and compared beliefs about the ability to remember of three groups of adults: 99 young, 97 middle-aged, and 104 older adults. The beliefs were assessed by asking participants to indicate the expected trajectory over the lifespan on a graphic rating scale, the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI) (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998). The results showed the following. Although all age groups expect a decline in the ability to remember with age with the peak around 20-30 years old, older adults perceive an age-related sharp decline later in life than the other age groups do. All age groups perceive that remembering names is more affected by age than any other memory abilities. The trajectory of age decline in remembering in general coincides with that in remembering trivia. All age groups believe that the ability to remember at the age of 10 is as good as at the age of 40. All age groups responded to the scales based mainly on the abilities based on their experiences.

  12. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike. PMID:20515456

  13. New Measures of Masked Text Recognition in Relation to Speech-in-Noise Perception and Their Associations with Age and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Jana; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Ronnberg, Jerker; Festen, Joost M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors aimed to increase the analogy between Text Reception Threshold (TRT; Zekveld, George, Kramer, Goverts, & Houtgast, 2007) and Speech Reception Threshold (SRT; Plomp & Mimpen, 1979) and to examine the TRT's value in estimating cognitive abilities that are important for speech comprehension in noise. Method: The…

  14. Experimental polyethylene-hydroxyapatite carrier-based endodontic system: an in vitro study on dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and measurements of micro-computed tomography voids.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad A; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and voids formation of an experimental obturation hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene (HA/PE) composite/carrier system were investigated and compared with those of a commercial system [GuttaCore (GC)]. The HA/PE system was specifically designed using a melt-extrusion process. The viscoelastic properties of HA/PE were determined using a dynamic thermomechanical analyser. Human single-rooted teeth were endodontically instrumented and obturated using HA/PE or GC systems, and then sealing ability was assessed using a fluid filtration system. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify apparent voids within the root-canal space. The data were statistically analysed using one-way anova and post hoc tests. The HA/PE composite exhibited important modulus and damping changes with an increase of temperature. The HA/PE system was more flexible than GC as the modulus of GC appeared to be significantly higher than that of HA/PE as a result of the high positive glass transition temperature (Tg ). However, HA/PE and GC presented similar sealing abilities. In conclusion, because sealing ability and voids formation were comparable between the tested materials, the experimental HA/PE system may be considered a suitable alternative material for root-canal obturation. Moreover, HA/PE possesses specific viscoelastic behaviour and lower melting points, which may facilitate root-canal retreatments.

  15. Relationships among Measures of Learning Orientation, Reasoning Ability, and Conceptual Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants for Grade 8 Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekkaya, Ceren; Yenilmez, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of students' reasoning ability and meaningful learning orientation to their understanding of the photosynthesis and respiration in plants concepts. Data were gathered through the use of the Test of Logical Thinking (Tobin & Capie, 1981), the Learning Approach Questionnaire (Cavallo, 1996), and the Two-Tier…

  16. Experimental polyethylene-hydroxyapatite carrier-based endodontic system: an in vitro study on dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and measurements of micro-computed tomography voids.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad A; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and voids formation of an experimental obturation hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene (HA/PE) composite/carrier system were investigated and compared with those of a commercial system [GuttaCore (GC)]. The HA/PE system was specifically designed using a melt-extrusion process. The viscoelastic properties of HA/PE were determined using a dynamic thermomechanical analyser. Human single-rooted teeth were endodontically instrumented and obturated using HA/PE or GC systems, and then sealing ability was assessed using a fluid filtration system. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify apparent voids within the root-canal space. The data were statistically analysed using one-way anova and post hoc tests. The HA/PE composite exhibited important modulus and damping changes with an increase of temperature. The HA/PE system was more flexible than GC as the modulus of GC appeared to be significantly higher than that of HA/PE as a result of the high positive glass transition temperature (Tg ). However, HA/PE and GC presented similar sealing abilities. In conclusion, because sealing ability and voids formation were comparable between the tested materials, the experimental HA/PE system may be considered a suitable alternative material for root-canal obturation. Moreover, HA/PE possesses specific viscoelastic behaviour and lower melting points, which may facilitate root-canal retreatments. PMID:27041355

  17. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  18. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  19. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Cognitive Abilities of Children 1 to 4 Years Old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Higgins, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency in problem solving is an important outcome in early childhood necessary for cognitive and emotional development. The development of an individual growth and development indicator of problem solving for children 1 to 4 years of age is described. Based on the general outcome measurement approach (Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for…

  20. Studies related to ocean dynamics. Task 3.2: Aircraft Field Test Program to investigate the ability of remote sensing methods to measure current/wind-wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.; Flood, W. A.; Brown, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of remote sensing of current flows in the ocean and the remote sensing of ocean currents by backscattering cross section techniques was studied. It was established that for capillary waves, small scale currents could be accurately measured through observation of wave kinematics. Drastic modifications of waves by changing currents were noted. The development of new methods for the measurement of capillary waves are discussed. Improvement methods to resolve data processing problems are suggested.

  1. Cognitive Correlates of Functional Abilities in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of Questionnaire, Direct Observation and Performance-based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between and the cognitive correlates of several proxy measures of functional status were studied in a population with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants were 51 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 51 cognitively healthy older adults (OA). Participants completed performance-based functional status tests, standardized neuropsychological tests, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., watered plants, filled medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. An informant interview about everyday functioning was also conducted. Compared to the OA control group, the MCI group performed more poorly on all proxy measures of everyday functioning. The informant-report of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) did not correlate with the two performance-based measures; however, both the informant-report IADL and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test correlated with the direct observation measure. After controlling for age and education, cognitive predictors did not explain a significant amount of variance in the performance-based measures; however, performance on a delayed memory task was a unique predictor for the informant-report IADL, and processing speed predicted unique variance for the direct observation score. These findings indicate that differing methods for evaluating functional status are not assessing completely overlapping aspects of everyday functioning in the MCI population. PMID:24766574

  2. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  3. New Tests to Measure Individual Differences in Matching and Labelling Facial Expressions of Emotion, and Their Association with Ability to Recognise Vocal Emotions and Facial Identity

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Romina; O’Connor, Kirsty B.; Davis, Joshua M.; Irons, Jessica; McKone, Elinor

    2013-01-01

    Although good tests are available for diagnosing clinical impairments in face expression processing, there is a lack of strong tests for assessing “individual differences” – that is, differences in ability between individuals within the typical, nonclinical, range. Here, we develop two new tests, one for expression perception (an odd-man-out matching task in which participants select which one of three faces displays a different expression) and one additionally requiring explicit identification of the emotion (a labelling task in which participants select one of six verbal labels). We demonstrate validity (careful check of individual items, large inversion effects, independence from nonverbal IQ, convergent validity with a previous labelling task), reliability (Cronbach’s alphas of.77 and.76 respectively), and wide individual differences across the typical population. We then demonstrate the usefulness of the tests by addressing theoretical questions regarding the structure of face processing, specifically the extent to which the following processes are common or distinct: (a) perceptual matching and explicit labelling of expression (modest correlation between matching and labelling supported partial independence); (b) judgement of expressions from faces and voices (results argued labelling tasks tap into a multi-modal system, while matching tasks tap distinct perceptual processes); and (c) expression and identity processing (results argued for a common first step of perceptual processing for expression and identity). PMID:23840821

  4. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  5. Outcome Measure of L2 Writing as a Mediator of the Effects of Corrective Feedback on Students' Ability to Write Accurately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazantseva, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data and a pre-post test design to examine the effect of the outcome measure of L2 writing on the accuracy rates of thirty-two international graduate students enrolled in a semester-long content-based EAP course. As part of the coursework, the students completed weekly written assignments on which they received weekly…

  6. Psychological and Physiological Processes in Figure-Tracing Abilities Measured Using a Tablet Computer: A Study with 7 and 9 Years Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Giammarco, Enrico; Di Sano, Sergio; Aureli, Tiziana; Cerratti, Paola; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Pietrangelo, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of a tablet computer to assess figure-tracing skills and their relationships with psychological (visual–perceptual processes, cognitive processes, handwriting skills) and physiological (body mass index, isometric strength of arms) parameters with school-children of second (7–8-year-olds) and fourth (9–10-year-olds) grades. We were also interested in gender differences. The task required tracing of geometric figures on a template, shown on a tablet screen in light gray, for the segments that make up the target figure, one at a time. This figure-tracing tablet test allows acquisition and automated analysis of four parameters: number of strokes (pen lift) for each segment; oscillations of lines drawn with respect to reference lines; pressure of pen on tablet; and average speed of tracing. The results show a trade-off between speed and quality for the tablet parameters, with higher speed associated with more oscillations with respect to the reference lines, and lower number of strokes for each segment, in both male and female children. The involvement of visual–motor integration on the ability to reduce the oscillations in this tablet test was only seen for the male children, while both the male and female children showed a relationship between oscillations and more general/abstract visual–spatial processes. These data confirm the role of visual–motor processes in this figure-tracing tablet test only for male children, while more general visual–spatial processes influence the performance in the tablet test for both sexes. We conclude that the test proposed is useful to screen for grapho-motor difficulties. PMID:27803678

  7. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  8. Parents' Perceptions of Children's Reading Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianatasio, Deborah

    This study investigated parents' perceptions of their child's reading abilities. Parents of 92 fourth grade students completed questionnaires to measure the perception parents held of their child's reading ability in relation to the ability of their child based on standardized test scores. Correlations between the Terra Nova Standardized Test and…

  9. Performance Equals Ability and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.

    The results of several research studies designed to evaluate different theories of work motivation are presented. Graen (1967), through hiring 169 high school girls to do a clerical task, showed that ability measures can account for far more performance variance than motivation variables such as expectancy and instrumentality. Similar results were…

  10. Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Fralley, Jacqueline S.

    1976-01-01

    The fact that males outperform females on specific spatial tests is not generally disputed, but the explanations for these differences are controversial. This paper highlights unresolved issues, such as definitions of space and measurement of abilities, and illustrates problems of interpretation of research regarding sex differences. (Author/HS)

  11. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  12. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  13. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  14. Validation and test-retest reliability of a health measure, health as ability of acting, based on the welfare theory of health.

    PubMed

    Snellman, Ingrid; Jonsson, Bosse; Wikblad, Karin

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a validation and assess the test-retest reliability of the health questionnaire based on Nordenfelt's Welfare Theory of Health (WTH). The study used a questionnaire on health together with the Short Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire, and 490 pupils at colleges for adult education participated. The results of the study are in accordance with Nordenfelt's WTH. Three hypotheses were stated, and the first was confirmed: People who were satisfied with life rated higher levels than those who were dissatisfied with life concerning both mental and physical health, measured with the SF-12. The second hypothesis was partially confirmed: People with high education were more often satisfied with life than those with low education, but they were not healthier. The third hypothesis, that women are unhealthy more often than men, was not confirmed. The questionnaire on health showed acceptable stability. PMID:21930655

  15. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  16. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  17. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  18. The ability of the high-throughput comet assay to measure the sensitivity of five cell lines toward methyl methanesulfonate, hydrogen peroxide, and pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Stang, Andre; Witte, Irene

    2010-08-30

    A new, high-throughput version of the comet assay was developed using human fibroblasts (Stang and Witte, 2009). The present study examines the suitability of other adherent and non-adherent cell types in this high-throughput assay. We found that in addition to V79 human fibroblasts, HeLa cells, Hep-G2 cells, and lymphocytes can be used. The time intervals needed for attachment on the agarose-coated 96-well multi-chamber plate (MCP, specially developed for the high-throughput comet assay) differed for all adherent cell lines mentioned. V79 cells needed 6h for attachment, fibroblasts 2-4h, Hep-G2 required 18 h, and HeLa cells 16 h. After this period, chemical treatment could occur. Non-adherent lymphocytes could be treated with the chemicals directly after they had been pipetted into the wells of the MCP and centrifuged. We compared the sensitivities of these five cell types toward the directly DNA-damaging compounds methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and toward the indirectly acting agent pentachlorophenol (PCP). Except for Hep-G2 cells, exposure to PCP was conducted in the presence of an S9 microsome fraction. DNA damage, measured as an increase in the percentage of DNA in the tail region of the comets, occurred in a concentration-dependent manner. Under the test conditions used in this study, human lymphocytes were the most sensitive cells toward the three chemicals tested, fibroblasts showed a similar sensitivity toward the directly acting MMS and H(2)O(2), but were less sensitive toward PCP. HeLa, V79, and Hep-G2 cells reacted with similar sensitivity. PMID:20399888

  19. Assessing the Ability of Instantaneous Aircraft and Sonde Measurements to Characterize Climatological Means and Long-Term Trends in Tropospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Over four decades of measurements exist that sample the 3-D composition of reactive trace gases in the troposphere from approximately weekly ozone sondes, instrumentation on civil aircraft, and individual comprehensive aircraft field campaigns. An obstacle to using these data to evaluate coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs)the models used to project future changes in atmospheric composition and climateis that exact space-time matching between model fields and observations cannot be done, as CCMs generate their own meteorology. Evaluation typically involves averaging over large spatiotemporal regions, which may not reflect a true average due to limited or biased sampling. This averaging approach generally loses information regarding specific processes. Here we aim to identify where discrete sampling may be indicative of long-term mean conditions, using the GEOS-Chem global chemical-transport model (CTM) driven by the MERRA reanalysis to reflect historical meteorology from 2003 to 2012 at 2o by 2.5o resolution. The model has been sampled at the time and location of every ozone sonde profile available from the Would Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), along the flight tracks of the IAGOSMOZAICCARABIC civil aircraft campaigns, as well as those from over 20 individual field campaigns performed by NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF, NERC (UK), and DLR (Germany) during the simulation period. Focusing on ozone, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen species, we assess where aggregates of the in situ data are representative of the decadal mean vertical, spatial and temporal distributions that would be appropriate for evaluating CCMs. Next, we identically sample a series of parallel sensitivity simulations in which individual emission sources (e.g., lightning, biogenic VOCs, wildfires, US anthropogenic) have been removed one by one, to assess where and when the aggregated observations may offer constraints on these processes within CCMs. Lastly, we show results of an

  20. Assessing the Ability of Instantaneous Aircraft and Sonde Measurements to Characterize Climatological Means and Long-Term Trends in Tropospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, L. T.; Fiore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Over four decades of measurements exist that sample the 3-D composition of reactive trace gases in the troposphere from approximately weekly ozone sondes, instrumentation on civil aircraft, and individual comprehensive aircraft field campaigns. An obstacle to using these data to evaluate coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs)—the models used to project future changes in atmospheric composition and climate—is that exact space-time matching between model fields and observations cannot be done, as CCMs generate their own meteorology. Evaluation typically involves averaging over large spatiotemporal regions, which may not reflect a true average due to limited or biased sampling. This averaging approach generally loses information regarding specific processes. Here we aim to identify where discrete sampling may be indicative of long-term mean conditions, using the GEOS-Chem global chemical-transport model (CTM) driven by the MERRA reanalysis to reflect historical meteorology from 2003 to 2012 at 2o by 2.5o resolution. The model has been sampled at the time and location of every ozone sonde profile available from the Would Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), along the flight tracks of the IAGOS/MOZAIC/CARABIC civil aircraft campaigns, as well as those from over 20 individual field campaigns performed by NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF, NERC (UK), and DLR (Germany) during the simulation period. Focusing on ozone, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen species, we assess where aggregates of the in situ data are representative of the decadal mean vertical, spatial and temporal distributions that would be appropriate for evaluating CCMs. Next, we identically sample a series of parallel sensitivity simulations in which individual emission sources (e.g., lightning, biogenic VOCs, wildfires, US anthropogenic) have been removed one by one, to assess where and when the aggregated observations may offer constraints on these processes within CCMs. Lastly, we show results

  1. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno and James Essex

    2007-04-30

    satellite. Once inside the FRMAC, this information is transferred to the pertinent divisions for review, data storage, and eventual display on map products. The internet is also a powerful communications tool being utilized by the FRMAC. Using a secure internet connection, field team location and data collection can be viewed live-time by any computer attached to the internet. Similarly, survey information from our fixed-wing aircraft can be viewed while the mission is being flown. All accumulated data and maps generated in the FRMAC are disseminated on a web page through the secure FRMAC web site. Several new data communication processes are being investigated to aid the FRMAC. Each of these provides an important tool to efficiently collect, record and disseminate environmental measurements to FRMAC scientists and decision makers. The ultimate goal of these processes is to improve the flow of protection decisions and information to the public.

  2. Linking Abilities, Interests, and Sex via Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The few studies that have examined associations between measured interests and abilities have suffered from small sample sizes, restricted ranges of ability and background, preconceived groupings of interests, and measures of ability that confound general and specific cognitive abilities. In this study of 425 adults from diverse backgrounds, the…

  3. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  4. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  5. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  6. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  7. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  8. Coarse mode aerosol measurement using a Low Turbulence Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, J.; Bart, M.; Trembath, J.; McQuaid, J. B.; Brooks, B. J.; Osborne, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahara desert is a major natural source of global mineral dust emissions (Forster et al., 2007) through the mobilisation and lifting of dust particles into the atmosphere from dust storms. A significant fraction of this dust is in the aerosol coarse mode (Weinzierl et al., 2009). It is highlighted of the difficulty in making accurate and reliable measurements from an aircraft platform, particularly that of coarse mode aerosol (Wendisch et al., 2004). To achieve the measurement of a representative aerosol sample an aerosol inlet, on an aircraft, is required for the delivery of the sample to the instruments making the measurements. Inlet design can modify aerosol size distribution through either underestimating due to aerosol losses or overestimation due to enhancements. The Low Turbulence Inlet (LTI) was designed to improve inlet efficiency. This is achieved by reducing turbulence flow within the tip of the inlet, reducing impaction of particles to the walls of the inlet (Wilson et al., 2004). The LTI further maintains isokinetic sampling flow (free stream velocity, U0 and sampling velocity, U are equal to 1). Dust aerosol over the Sahara desert provides an excellent environment to test and quantify the capabilities of the LTI on the FAAM BAe 146, whilst enabling in-situ dust measurement. The LTI was operated during the Fennec field campaign in June 2011 with 11 flights during the campaign over Mauritania and Mali. We are using the LTI to provide critical information on the sampling characteristics of the inlet used by nearly all aerosol instruments inside the aircraft (AMS, Nephelometer, PSAP, and CCN). Inlet experiments were performed with identical Optical Particle Counters (OPC) connected to the rosemount and LTI with size distribution for each inlet measured and Rosemount enhancements determined. Rosemount inlet enhancements were determined to be 2 to 4 times for particles up to 2.5 µm. A key parameter in aerosol measurement is size distribution, in which

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S ABILITY TO COORDINATE PERSPECTIVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JACK W.

    THE PERSPECTIVE ABILITY TEST INVOLVED 285 CHILDREN BETWEEN 66 AND 155 MONTHS OF AGE. TO MEASURE ABILITY TO COORDINATE PERSPECTIVE, THE RESEARCHER BUILT A CIRCULAR TABLE WITH AN ISLAND DISC MODELED AND PAINTED TO REPRESENT WATERS AND MOUNTAINOUS LAND. TWENTY COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS WERE TAKEN FROM DIFFERENT EQUALLY SPACED VANTAGE POINTS. THE SUBJECTS…

  10. General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

  11. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  12. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  13. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  14. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  15. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  16. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  17. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  18. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  19. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  20. Different Dimensions of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Hauptman, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that spatial ability describes a variety of different behaviors and briefly reviews efforts to define intelligence factors and identify processes involved in solving tasks requiring spatial ability. (DS)

  1. Narrative Fiction and Expository Nonfiction Differentially Predict Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Rain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Although reading is known to be an important contributor to language abilities, it is not yet well established whether different text genres are uniquely associated with verbal abilities. We examined how exposure to narrative fiction and expository nonfiction predict language ability among university students. Exposure was measured both with…

  2. Team effectiveness: beyond skills and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Neuman, G A; Wright, J

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance. At the individual level of analysis, measures of personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted peer ratings of team member performance beyond measures of job-specific skills and general cognitive ability. Similarly, at the group level of analysis, both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted supervisor ratings of work team performance, objective measures of work team accuracy, and work completed. At both the individual and group levels, the trait of Agreeableness predicted Interpersonal Skills. PMID:10380418

  3. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  4. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  5. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  6. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  7. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  8. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  9. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  10. [Work ability: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to present a literature review on work ability and functional ageing. An extensive search of publications from 1966 to 2006 was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Several aspects of work ability are presented in this manuscript: the historical context when the theme emerged, the theoretical framework, the determinant factors and an explanatory model, the current methodology to evaluate and monitor the work ability, the importance of its promotion. Highlights of the current situation about the research, practice and future perspectives regarding the theme are also discussed. In the context of the workforce aging, the work ability became an important indicator because their consequences to the worker's health, well-being and employability, with impacts to the individuals, organizations and society. In spite of their relevance, there is a lack of attention to the issues about work ability and functional ageing.

  11. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  12. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    PubMed

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  13. Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = −0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

  14. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  15. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  16. Further Explorations of Perceptual Speed Abilities in the Context of Assessment Methods, Cognitive Abilities, and Individual Differences during Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of perceptual speed ability have been shown to be an important part of assessment batteries for predicting performance on tasks and jobs that require a high level of speed and accuracy. However, traditional measures of perceptual speed ability sometimes have limited cost-effectiveness because of the requirements for administration and…

  17. A snapshot of the UK net greenhouse gas flux using a mass balance approach with aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; Pitt, J. R.; Palmer, P. I.; Percival, C.; Mead, M. I.; Lee, J. D.; Le Breton, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne observations of high-precision in-situ and remotely sensed CO2, CH4 and other trace gases made from the NERC Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft during Spring and Summer months in 2014 and 2015. Measurements were recorded during the GAUGE (Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions) aircraft field campaign, based out of Cranfield, UK, with sampling around and over the UK Mainland and Ireland. We derive Lagrangian mass-balanced net surface fluxes of CO2, CH4, CO, and N2O from a large surface footprint of England based on data collected during a flight in May 2015 by combining in-situ and remote-sensed concentration measurements and measured boundary layer thermodynamic profiles. By employing an advective box model for the volume enclosed by the flight-tracks and combining aircraft-measured winds and along-track Lagrangian back-trajectory modelling, we examine the sensitivity of total flux uncertainty to atmospheric transport and measurement errors using error propagation implicit in the mass balancing method. Finally, we compare the measured snapshot net fluxes to those reported in the current UK emissions inventory (weighted for surface footprint) and to previous UK-regional greenhouse gas top-down assessments.

  18. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  19. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  20. Learning ability in children with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elefant, Cochavit; Wigram, Tony

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present results of a research study examining learning ability in individuals with Rett syndrome. The material for this article was drawn from a more extensive doctoral study, designed to investigate intentional communication in this population, through the use of songs in music therapy. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from an X-linked mutation, affecting mainly females, and found across racial and ethnic groups worldwide. One of the main areas affecting functioning in individuals with Rett syndrome is a severe impairment of receptive and expressive communication. This creates difficulties when attempting to reveal their potential learning abilities. This population has been observed as very responsive to music hence music therapy intervention has been advocated in promoting and motivating them to communicate and to learn. Seven girls with Rett syndrome, between ages 4 and 10 participated in the study. A single subject, multiple probe design was applied during 30-min trials, three times per week and lasted 8 months. During the trials the participants were asked to choose from a selection of 18 familiar and unfamiliar songs, while their ability to learn was observed and measured. Findings revealed that all seven girls demonstrated an ability to learn and to sustain learning over time. This intervention demonstrated that individuals with Rett syndrome could be promoted and motivated to communicate and learn when therapeutically employed by a trained music therapists.

  1. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability.

    PubMed

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control.

  2. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  3. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  4. Recent advances in measurement of the water vapour continuum in the far-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul D; Newman, Stuart M; Beeby, Ralph J; Murray, Jonathan E; Pickering, Juliet C; Harries, John E

    2012-06-13

    We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm(-1)) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) far-IR spectro-radiometer instrument onboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft; and compare this new derivation with those recently published in the literature in this spectral band. This new dataset validates the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) 2.5 model parametrization above 300 cm(-1), but indicates the need to strengthen the parametrization below 300 cm(-1), by up to 50 per cent at 100 cm(-1). Data recorded at a number of flight altitudes have allowed measurements within a wide range of column water vapour environments, greatly increasing the sensitivity of this analysis to the continuum strength.

  5. The role of placekeeping ability in fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Altmann, Erik M

    2015-08-01

    The question of what underlies individual differences in general intelligence has never been satisfactorily answered. The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of an executive function that we term placekeeping ability-the ability to perform the steps of a complex task in a prescribed order without skipping or repeating steps. Participants completed a newly developed test of placekeeping ability, called the UNRAVEL task. The measure of placekeeping ability from this task (error rate) predicted a measure of fluid intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices score), above and beyond measures of working memory capacity, task switching, and multitasking. An existing model of Raven's performance suggests that placekeeping ability supports the systematic exploration of hypotheses under problem-solving conditions.

  6. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  7. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  8. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  9. The Structure of Mathematical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneaux, W. D.; Rees, Ruth

    1978-01-01

    A mathematics test and the Thurstone PMA Battery were administered to 225 technical students. The item/item correlations were analyzed using both a principal components and a maximum-likelihood method. After varimax rotation, the same structure emerged from both. Results suggest a "mathematical ability" factor independent of "g." (Author/SJL)

  10. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  11. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  12. Algebra Readiness Outcomes of Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Measured Math Ability Compared to Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Teachers' Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The first pretest-posttest hypothesis was tested using the dependent t test. Null hypotheses for test score improvement over time were rejected for the end of fifth-grade pretest compared to ending sixth-grade posttest math Essential Learner Outcome scores converted to standard scores for randomly selected sixth-grade girls meeting measured test…

  13. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  14. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  15. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  16. Understanding the Female Adolescent's Self Perceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Constance L.

    1985-01-01

    Self-perceptions of math ability and four social abilities reported by 284 gifted and talented female adolescents on the Self Directed Search were examined to test two sets of hypotheses. Results supported the second set of hypotheses, that the Personal Attributes Questionnaire M and F scales are measures of socioaffective instrumental and…

  17. Interpretation of the 1961 Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara D.

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) is treated in terms of the ability measured, hints for administration and scoring, and questions often asked for each of the nine subtests. Typical profiles are described and analyzed for mentally retarded, kindergarteners, slow learners, culturally disadvantaged, Negroes, good and poor…

  18. Differential V-Q Ability: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, S. Viterbo

    1975-01-01

    The initial portion of this paper addresses itself to some of the methodological concerns associated with Verbal-Quantitative (V-Q) research. The second section focuses on studies using differential V-Q ability as an independent variable. The final section focuses on reasearch using V-Q ability measures as dependent variables. (Author/BJG)

  19. Indicators of Teacher Ability to Relate to Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dene R.

    The purpose of this study was to find teacher behaviors which correlate significantly with a criterion measure of teacher ability to relate to students. Videotapes of 50 teacher interns were shown to 100 high school students of three different ethnic backgrounds--white, black and oriental. Teachers were rated on ability to relate to students.…

  20. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  1. Hearing ability decreases in ageing locusts.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shira D; Windmill, James F C

    2015-07-01

    Insects display signs of ageing, despite their short lifespan. However, the limited studies on senescence emphasize longevity or reproduction. We focused on the hearing ability of ageing adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. Our results indicate that the youngest adults (2 weeks post-maturity) have a greater overall neurophysiological response to sound, especially for low frequencies (<10 kHz), as well as a shorter latency to this neural response. Interestingly, when measuring displacement of the tympanal membrane that the receptor neurons directly attach to, we found movement is not directly correlated with neural response. Therefore, we suggest the enhanced response in younger animals is due to the condition of their tissues (e.g. elasticity). Secondly, we found the sexes do not have the same responses, particularly at 4 weeks post-adult moult. We propose female reproductive condition reduces their ability to receive sounds. Overall our results indicate older animals, especially females, are less sensitive to sounds.

  2. The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Stephen R.

    The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability.…

  3. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h(2) = .00 -.63) and shared (c(2) = .15-.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences.

  4. Visual Discriminatory Ability Among Prereaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.

    The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…

  5. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M.; Bacak, A.; Muller, J. B. A.; O'Shea, S. J.; Xiao, P.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Batt, R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    A chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from biomass burning events in Canada using I- reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB) marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume-defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6-sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR) of 3.68 ± 0.149 pptv ppbv-1 was calculated, which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011). The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work, the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N) yr-1.

  6. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M.; Bacak, A.; Muller, J. B. A.; O'Shea, S. J.; Xiao, P.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Batt, R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-02-01

    A Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from biomass burning events in Canada using I- reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB) marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6 sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A Normalised Excess Mixing Ratio (NEMR) of 3.76 ± 0.022 pptv ppbv-1 was calculated which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011). The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N) yr-1.

  7. Mathematics, Spatial Ability and the Sexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    This report defines spatial ability operationally (consisting of three components) and reviews possible sex differences in this ability as reported in the literature. The relationship between mathematical ability and spatial ability is discussed. Researchable hypotheses about how differential spatial ability may effect mathematics achievement are…

  8. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  9. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  10. Comparing masticatory performance and mixing ability.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Mojet, J; Tekamp, F A; Abbink, J H

    2010-02-01

    Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been used as test foods for the quantification of the mixing ability. The aim of our study was to compare the results obtained with the comminution of an artificial test food and the results obtained from mixing of a two-coloured chewing gum. The degree of mixing of the colours of the chewing gum was quantified with an optical method. Twenty young subjects with a natural dentition (average age 24 years) and twenty elderly subjects, mostly with complete dentures (average age 72 years), participated in the study. Significant differences in masticatory performance between the two groups were detected with both methods. However, the comminution test was better in discriminating the masticatory performance of the two groups. The mixing ability test with the two-coloured chewing gum proofed to be a good method to determine masticatory function in subjects with a compromised masticatory performance (elderly subjects). However, the method appeared to be less suitable for subjects with a good masticatory performance (young subjects).

  11. Language Ability Predicts the Development of Behavior Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children’s schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children. PMID:23713507

  12. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered.

  13. ACT and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Katherine A.; Frey, Meredith C.; Detterman, Douglas K.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the SAT has shown a substantial correlation with measures of "g" such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). Another widely administered test for college admission is the American College Test (ACT). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, measures of "g" were derived from the ASVAB and correlated with…

  14. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed. PMID:25603581

  15. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  16. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  17. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  18. Children's Human Figure Drawings Do Not Measure Intellectual Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcock, Emma; Imuta, Kana; Hayne, Harlene

    2011-01-01

    Children typically follow a well-defined series of stages as they learn to draw, but the rate at which they progress through these stages varies from child to child. Some experts have argued that these individual differences in drawing development reflect individual differences in intelligence. Here we assessed the validity of a drawing test that…

  19. Measuring up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…

  20. Why You Should Measure Your Students' Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers administer a force concept test such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to their students in an effort to evaluate and improve their instructional practices. It has been commonly assumed that looking at class normalized gains allows teachers to compare their courses with other courses. In this paper we present evidence to suggest…

  1. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…

  2. Are abilities abnormally interdependent in children with autism?

    PubMed

    Dyck, Murray J; Piek, Jan P; Hay, David; Smith, Leigh; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2006-02-01

    We propose that stronger than usual correlations between abilities indicate which cognitive processes are impaired in autism. Study 1 compared partial correlations (controlling age) between intelligence and social cognition in children with autism (n = 18), mental retardation (MR; n = 34), or no psychological disorder (n = 37). Correlations were stronger in the autism group. Study 2 compared correlations between measures of perceptual organization and verbal comprehension, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor coordination, and theory of mind, emotion recognition, and emotion understanding abilities in children with autism (n = 30) or MR (n = 24) and in a large representative sample of children (n = 449). Results indicate that autism is marked by stronger correlations between all ability domains, and MR is marked by stronger correlations between motor coordination tasks and other ability measures.

  3. Is playing video games related to cognitive abilities?

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies.

  4. Are abilities abnormally interdependent in children with autism?

    PubMed

    Dyck, Murray J; Piek, Jan P; Hay, David; Smith, Leigh; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2006-02-01

    We propose that stronger than usual correlations between abilities indicate which cognitive processes are impaired in autism. Study 1 compared partial correlations (controlling age) between intelligence and social cognition in children with autism (n = 18), mental retardation (MR; n = 34), or no psychological disorder (n = 37). Correlations were stronger in the autism group. Study 2 compared correlations between measures of perceptual organization and verbal comprehension, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor coordination, and theory of mind, emotion recognition, and emotion understanding abilities in children with autism (n = 30) or MR (n = 24) and in a large representative sample of children (n = 449). Results indicate that autism is marked by stronger correlations between all ability domains, and MR is marked by stronger correlations between motor coordination tasks and other ability measures. PMID:16390300

  5. Boundary lubricating ability of synovial fluid in degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, W H; Lee, S L; Sokoloff, L

    1978-01-01

    The boundary lubricating ability of eleven synovial fluids was measured in a miniaturized latex--glass test system. The specimens were obtained at necropsy from knees in which the degree of degenerative joint disease varied from none to very severe. The lubricating ability of the fluid was independent of the viscosity over a wide range of shear rates. It was not diminished even in advanced lesions. In two additional fluids, the mucin clot was poor; the lubricating ability of one of these was compromised. Thus, although degenerative joint disease, during its quiescent stages, is not associated with defective synovial lubrication, the possibility that transient defects might lead to cartilage wear during life has not been excluded. The measurements are believed to be valid indicators of boundary lubricating ability under physiological conditions despite the fact that the test surfaces were not cartilaginous and the loading was relatively low (up to 47 pounds per square inch).

  6. The First Simultaneous Airborne Measurements of BrO, BrCl HOBr in the Tropics: An Assessment on the HOx Budget and O3 Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Shallcross, D. E.; Evans, M. J.; Carpenter, L.; Andrews, S.; Lidster, R. T.; Harris, N. R. P.; Percival, C.

    2014-12-01

    This study represents the first simultaneous airborne measurements of BrO, BrCl, Br2 and HOBr in the tropics using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS). The results suggest that inorganic halogen chemistry has a more significant impact on O3 depletion and oxidising capacity of the troposphere than previously thought. The CIMS instrument was operated on-board the BAe-146 FAAM research aircraft across 20 flights, as part of the CAST (Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign based on Guam, Micronesia and was supported by measurements of O3 and NOx from core instruments and bromocarbons from Whole Air Samples (WAS). The mean tropospheric BrO concentration over 20 flights was calculated to be 0.69 ppt; a factor of 4 times greater than that predicted by GEOS-Chem running with a tropospheric bromine simulation. An underestimation of HOBr, Br2 and BrCl in the model, when compared to the CIMS data, will contribute to this discrepancy, thus increasing the availability of atomic Br through photolysis, however this does not compensate for the bias currently observed. The magnitude of this discrepancy and subsequent effect on O3 depletion in the tropics is assessed and possible mechanisms are proposed. The measurements of these halogenated species are further used to assess their impact on the HOx budget in the tropics via steady state estimations.

  7. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only. PMID:21336738

  8. Change in Cognitive Abilities in Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Marquez, David X; Amofa, Priscilla; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cognitive decline in older Latinos and non-Latinos. At annual intervals for a mean of 5.7 years, older Latino (n=104) and non-Latino (n=104) persons of equivalent age, education, and race completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which previously established composite measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability were derived. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education, performance declined over time in each cognitive domain, but there were no ethnic group differences in initial level of function or annual rate of decline. There was evidence of retest learning following the baseline evaluation, but neither the magnitude nor duration of the effect was related to Latino ethnicity, and eliminating the first two evaluations, during which much of retest learning occurred, did not affect ethnic group comparisons. Compared to the non-Latino group, the Latino group had more diabetes (38.5% vs. 25.0; χ2[1]=4.4; p=.037), fewer histories of smoking (24.0% vs. 39.4%, χ2[1]=5.7; p=.017), and lower childhood household socioeconomic level (-0.410 vs. -0.045, t[185.0]=3.1; p=.002), but controlling for these factors did not affect results. Trajectories of cognitive aging in different abilities are similar in Latino and non-Latino individuals of equivalent age, education, and race. (JINS, 2016, 22, 58-65).

  9. AbilityOne Improvements Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2011-05-19

    05/19/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3179) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  11. Improvement of Speaking Ability through Interrelated Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.

  12. Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159988.html Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain People with ... 20, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alzheimer's disease may affect people's ability to recognize when ...

  13. Children with Williams Syndrome: Developmental Trajectories for Intellectual Abilities, Vocabulary Abilities, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Pitts, C. Holley

    2016-01-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4 – 15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (> 7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (< 7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  14. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  15. Dynamic Spatial Ability and Psychomotor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Chaiken, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic spatial ability is one's ability to estimate when a moving object will reach a destination, or one's skill in making time-to-contact (TTC) judgments. In 2 studies, we investigated the nature of dynamic spatial ability and its role in psychomotor (PM) task performance. In the first study, 405 basic military trainees were given both spatial…

  16. Innovative Allies: Spatial and Creative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steve V.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and creative abilities are important for innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but talents are rarely developed from these abilities by schools, including among gifted children and adolescents who have a high potential to become STEM innovators. This article provides an overview of each ability and makes…

  17. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. PMID:22663773

  18. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed.

  19. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  20. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Feng; Nan, Wenya; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the brain activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity can predict the learning ability in alpha neurofeedback. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback and the learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback. PMID:25071528

  1. Assessing Student's Ability to Solve Textbook Style Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Can We Really Measure Problem Solving Ability? The answer to this question may depend on how we define problem solving ability. But, if we care about students' ability to solve novel textbook style problems, the answer to this question seems to be ``yes.'' In this talk I will discuss a pre-/post- instruction assessment that was recently developed to assess students' ability to solve fairly standard textbook style problems within the domains of Newton's second law, conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. The instrument is designed for large-scale use in typical university classrooms, has already been used in a variety of institutions and appears to be both valid and robust. Data collected with this instrument can help guide curricular improvements and provide important insights relevant to most departments for program review.

  2. Working memory, worry, and algebraic ability.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    Math anxiety (MA)-working memory (WM) relationships have typically been examined in the context of arithmetic problem solving, and little research has examined the relationship in other math domains (e.g., algebra). Moreover, researchers have tended to examine MA/worry separate from math problem solving activities and have used general WM tasks rather than domain-relevant WM measures. Furthermore, it seems to have been assumed that MA affects all areas of math. It is possible, however, that MA is restricted to particular math domains. To examine these issues, the current research assessed claims about the impact on algebraic problem solving of differences in WM and algebraic worry. A sample of 80 14-year-old female students completed algebraic worry, algebraic WM, algebraic problem solving, nonverbal IQ, and general math ability tasks. Latent profile analysis of worry and WM measures identified four performance profiles (subgroups) that differed in worry level and WM capacity. Consistent with expectations, subgroup membership was associated with algebraic problem solving performance: high WM/low worry>moderate WM/low worry=moderate WM/high worry>low WM/high worry. Findings are discussed in terms of the conceptual relationship between emotion and cognition in mathematics and implications for the MA-WM-performance relationship.

  3. Inspection Time in the Structure of Cognitive Abilities: Where Does IT Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Nicholas R.; Nettelbeck, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Results of a battery of psychometric and chronometric tests administered to 90 adults show that inspection time (IT) and decision time measured different processes, and that Wechsler performance IQ does not measure fluid ability. Findings suggest that IT does not measure fluid ability, but whether information processing speed is common to all…

  4. Association between near occlusal contact areas and mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Hama, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship between occlusal contact and near contact areas defined by clenching intensity using electromyograms (EMGs) and mixing ability assessed with colour-changeable chewing gum. Participants comprised 44 dentate adults (24 men, 20 women) with a mean age of 28·2 ± 6·8 years. Silicone material was used to measure the occlusal contact and near contact areas (the area of each type of tooth, the total area of the first molar and second molar, the second premolar to the second molar and the first premolar to the second molar) defined by clenching intensity at 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Colour-changeable chewing gum was used to assess mixing ability. A colorimeter was used to measure colour changes, and the calculated colour difference (ΔE) was used as a measure of mixing ability. Correlation analysis of ΔE and occlusal contact and near contact areas revealed a significant positive correlation of 0·47 at 0-160 μm thicknesses of the silicone registration material of the second molar (P < 0·01). The near contact area with a thickness up to 200 μm was correlated with mixing ability, with the correlation strengthening as the interocclusal distance increased up to 160 μm. Notably, occlusal contact and near contact areas of the second molar were strongly correlated with mixing ability in dentate adults. PMID:25155067

  5. Association between near occlusal contact areas and mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Hama, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship between occlusal contact and near contact areas defined by clenching intensity using electromyograms (EMGs) and mixing ability assessed with colour-changeable chewing gum. Participants comprised 44 dentate adults (24 men, 20 women) with a mean age of 28·2 ± 6·8 years. Silicone material was used to measure the occlusal contact and near contact areas (the area of each type of tooth, the total area of the first molar and second molar, the second premolar to the second molar and the first premolar to the second molar) defined by clenching intensity at 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Colour-changeable chewing gum was used to assess mixing ability. A colorimeter was used to measure colour changes, and the calculated colour difference (ΔE) was used as a measure of mixing ability. Correlation analysis of ΔE and occlusal contact and near contact areas revealed a significant positive correlation of 0·47 at 0-160 μm thicknesses of the silicone registration material of the second molar (P < 0·01). The near contact area with a thickness up to 200 μm was correlated with mixing ability, with the correlation strengthening as the interocclusal distance increased up to 160 μm. Notably, occlusal contact and near contact areas of the second molar were strongly correlated with mixing ability in dentate adults.

  6. Neural correlates of cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    The challenge to neuroscientists working on intelligence is to discover what neural structures and mechanisms are at the basis of such a complex and variegated capability. Several psychologists agree on the view that behavioral flexibility is a good measure of intelligence, resulting in the appearance of novel solutions that are not part of the animal's normal behavior. This article tries to indicate how the supposed differences in intelligence between species can be related to brain properties and suggests that the best neural indicators may be the ones that convey more information processing capacity to the brain, i.e., high conduction velocity of fibers and small distances between neurons, associated with a high number of neurons and an adequate level of connectivity. The neural bases of human intelligence have been investigated by means of anatomical, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological methods. These investigations have led to two important findings that are briefly discussed: the parietofrontal integration theory of intelligence, which assumes that a distributed network of cortical areas having its main nodes in the frontal and parietal lobes constitutes a probable substrate for smart behavior, and the neural efficiency hypothesis, according to which intelligent people process information more efficiently, showing weaker neural activations in a smaller number of areas than less intelligent people. PMID:22422612

  7. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  8. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  9. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability. PMID:27512260

  10. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability.

  11. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  12. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  13. Deficits in Social Attribution Ability in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of mental retardation, involves a myriad of physical and behavioral problems. Poor social adjustment has been reported, but the origin of this difficulty is unknown. The Social Attribution Task, a measure of one's ability to make appropriate social attributions from an ambiguous visual display [Klin…

  14. Competitive Behavior: A Manifestation of Motivation for Ability Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conolley, Edward S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Social comparison theory predicts that when the person is uncertain about the level of his ability, he may seek comparison information through competitive behavior. An experiment is reported in which the level of the subject's uncertainty about his competence was manipulated and subsequent measures of his competitive motivation and behavior were…

  15. The Relationships Between Cerebral Dominance and Different Mental Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl; Bartek, Elmer

    Using a sample of 77 10th grade boys, the researchers studied the relationships between the mental abilities measured by the Differential Aptitude Tests and cerebral dominance (CD: the extent to which one hemisphere of the brain dominates the other for control of behavior). The surprise finding was that CD was negatively related to spatial…

  16. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  17. Imagining the Music: Methods for Assessing Musical Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terry; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Timing profiles of live and imagined performances were compared with the aim of creating a context-specific measure of musicians' imagery ability. Thirty-two advanced musicians completed imagery use and vividness surveys, and then gave two live and two mental performances of a two-minute musical excerpt, tapping along with the beat of the mental…

  18. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  19. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial intelligence, and…

  20. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  1. Ability of oral bacteria to degrade fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, M; Linde, A

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-degrading ability of 116, mainly oral, strains was assayed by using plasma-derived fibronectin adsorbed to a polystyrene surface. Ability to degrade fibronectin was revealed in strains of Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius, Bacteroides loeschii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Peptococcus prevotii, Clostridium sporogenes, and Propionibacterium acnes. The fibronectinolytic activity of subgingival bacteriological samples was found to be related to the presence of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius. In addition, strains of the nonoral Bacteroides species B. asaccharolyticus and B. fragilis showed fibronectin-degrading ability. No such ability was detected in the oral strains tested of Streptococcus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, or Haemophilus species. PMID:3943910

  2. Knowing how to look predicts the ability to draw realistically.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer E

    2014-11-01

    Some young children are able to create stunningly realistic drawings resembling those of adult artists. What perceptual abilities underlie this talent? This study examined two candidate skills on which adult artists excel: the ability to segment a complex form mentally (measured by the Block Design Task) and the ability to see hidden forms (measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test). Sixty-seven 6- to 13-year-olds with a wide range of drawing abilities completed these tasks as well as an IQ test and an observational drawing task. While children who scored high on drawing realism outperformed those who scored low in drawing realism on both perceptual tasks, only detection of embedded figures predicted drawing realism. This occurred independently of age, gender, years of training, and verbal and non-verbal IQ. There are certainly many contributors to this complex ability, but one component appears to be the tendency to see things more as they really are and thereby recognize the continuous contour of an object despite interference from other overlapping objects.

  3. Anomalous dominance, immune parameters, and spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1993-02-01

    In a sample of male and female subjects in late adolescence, we investigated the relationship of spatial abilities to anomalous dominance and immune parameters as suggested by Geschwind's model of cerebral lateralization (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1985) In addition to the behavioral markers asthma/allergies, migraine, and myopia, we measured IgE and Ig total in blood serum. Atypical handedness, atypical language dominance, and atypical visuospatial dominance were found to be connected with spatial giftedness, and atypical handedness was related to immune vulnerability in males. This outcome provided some support for the Geschwind model in men. In women, spatial giftedness was related to immune vulnerability, but no indicator of anomalous dominance was connected with either giftedness, or immune parameters. Thus, the central thesis of the Geschwind model, i.e., elevated prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain cause anomalous dominance and, as side effects, spatial giftedness and immune vulnerability, and all these consequences should be related to each other, was not confirmed by our data for females.

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  5. Longitudinal stability of cognitive ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; DeFries, J C; Fulker, D W

    1983-04-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in 1- and 2-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability. Although significant genetic influences were found at both 1 and 2 years of age, no significant environmental influences shared by parents and children were observed at these ages. Short-term stability of mental ability between the 2 ages was relatively independent of both between-family genetic and environmental influences. However, genetic factors may contribute importantly to long-term stability.

  6. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  7. Ability Explorer: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Anne

    The Ability Explorer (AE) is a newly developed self-report inventory of abilities that is appropriate for group or individual administration. There are machine-scorable and hand-scorable versions of the test, and there are two levels. Level 1 is for students from junior high to high school, and Level 2 is for high school students and adults.…

  8. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  9. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  10. Linguistic Ability: Some Myths and Some Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gail L.

    "Linguistic ability" is a widely misused term in foreign language literature. This confusion prompted an investigation into language aptitude testing, the specific goals of which included determining: the distribution of language aptitude across ability range; the validity of Pimsleur's suggestions of combined verbal and auditory scores; and…

  11. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  12. Purpose in Life among High Ability Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; Finch, W. Holmes; Talib, Tasneem L.

    2010-01-01

    Leading high ability scholars have proposed theories that suggest a purpose in life may be particularly prevalent among high ability youth; however, the prevalence of purpose has not been empirically assessed among this population. Therefore using in-depth interviews the present study established the prevalence of purpose among a sample of high…

  13. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  14. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  15. Developing the Ability for Making Evaluative Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that a more specific emphasis should be placed in undergraduate education on the explicit development of the ability to make evaluative judgements. This higher level cognitive ability is highlighted as the foundation for much sound and successful personal and professional development throughout education, and in lifelong…

  16. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  17. Japanese College Students' English Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    A series of six studies of the reading ability of Japanese high school and college students investigated the ability of students to process various literary forms and the types of questions students have difficulty with at different levels of reading proficiency. Over 25,000 students completed various versions of an English reading comprehension…

  18. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  19. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  20. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  1. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  2. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  3. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that...

  4. Does Spatial Training Improve Children's Mathematics Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The authors' primary aim was to investigate a potential causal relationship between spatial ability and math ability. To do so, they used a pretest-training-posttest experimental design in which children received short-term spatial training and were tested on problem solving in math. They focused on first and second graders because earlier studies…

  5. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  6. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem. PMID:26811470

  7. An effective method for incoherent scattering radar's detecting ability evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ziqing; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Ionospheric incoherent scatter radar (ISR), which is used to detect ionospheric electrons and ions, generally, has megawatt class transmission power and hundred meter level antenna aperture. The crucial purpose of this detecting technology is to get ionospheric parameters by acquiring the autocorrelation function and power spectrum of the target ionospheric plasma echoes. Whereas the ISR's echoes are very weak because of the small radar cross section of its target, estimating detecting ability will be significantly instructive and meaningful for ISR system design. In this paper, we evaluate the detecting ability through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The soft-target radar equation is deduced to be applicable to ISR, through which we use data from International Reference Ionosphere model to simulate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of echoes, and then comparing the measured SNR from European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association and Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar with the simulation. The simulation results show good consistency with the measured SNR. For ISR, the topic of this paper is the first comparison between the calculated SNR and radar measurements; the detecting ability can be improved through increasing SNR. The effective method for ISR's detecting ability evaluation provides basis for design of radar system.

  8. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem.

  9. Development of a cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Gallagher, M. W.; Lowry, D.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    High-resolution CH4 and CO2 measurements were made on board the FAAM BAe-146 UK (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, British Aerospace-146) atmospheric research aircraft during a number of field campaigns. The system was based on an infrared spectrometer using the cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. Correction functions to convert the mole fractions retrieved from the spectroscopy to dry-air mole fractions were derived using laboratory experiments and over a 3 month period showed good stability. Long-term performance of the system was monitored using WMO (World Meteorological Office) traceable calibration gases. During the first year of operation (29 flights) analysis of the system's in-flight calibrations suggest that its measurements are accurate to 1.28 ppb (1σ repeatability at 1 Hz = 2.48 ppb) for CH4 and 0.17 ppm (1σ repeatability at 1 Hz = 0.66 ppm) for CO2. The system was found to be robust, no major motion or altitude dependency could be detected in the measurements. An inter-comparison between whole-air samples that were analysed post-flight for CH4 and CO2 by cavity ring-down spectroscopy showed a mean difference between the two techniques of -2.4 ppb (1σ = 2.3 ppb) for CH4 and -0.22 ppm (1σ = 0.45 ppm) for CO2. In September 2012, the system was used to sample biomass-burning plumes in Brazil as part of the SAMBBA project (South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis). From these and simultaneous CO measurements, emission factors for savannah fires were calculated. These were found to be 2.2 ± 0.2 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CH4 and 1710 ± 171 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CO2, which are in excellent agreement with previous estimates in the literature.

  10. Cognitive abilities in reading-disabled children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; Decker, S N; DeFries, J C

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (9.4 +/- 1.3 and 14.8 +/- 1.2 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results of a two-factor (GROUP X TIME), mixed-model, multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed and spatial reasoning abilities at both ages. Although both reading-disabled and control children were found to improve significantly between the two testing sessions, the lack of a significant GROUP X TIME interaction on measures of academic achievement and spatial reasoning abilities indicated that the rate of development was similar for the two groups. For measures of symbolic processing speed, however, differences between reading-disabled and control children were somewhat greater at the later age.

  11. Effects of opioids on driving ability.

    PubMed

    Galski, T; Williams, J B; Ehle, H T

    2000-03-01

    Driving has been regarded as an activity of daily living that is important in maintaining a person's independence in the community, access to employment, and social activities. Many patients, however, using opioid medications on a regular basis (Chronic Opioid Analgesic Therapy: COAT) to ameliorate their intractable pain have been restricted from driving out of concern that skills would be impaired and driving safety compromised by these medications. Yet there are no driving studies which have explored the effects of using opioid analgesics for an extended period of time. This pilot study was designed to determine the effects of medically prescribed, stable opioid use on the driving abilities of patients with persistent, nonmalignant pain. Sixteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain on COAT, who met criteria for participation in the study, underwent a comprehensive off-road driving evaluation using measures which have been shown to be sensitive in predicting on-road driving performance. The evaluation consisted of a pre-driver evaluation (PDE), a simulator evaluation (SDE), and behavioral observation during simulator performance. Patients in the COAT group were compared to a historical control group of 327 cerebrally compromised patients (CComp) who had undergone the same evaluation and then passed an on-road, behind-the-wheel evaluation (BTW Pass; n = 162) or failed (BTW Fail; n = 165). Results revealed that COAT patients generally outperformed the CComp patients as a group by equaling or exceeding PDE and SDE scores of the BTW Fail patients as well as the BTW Pass patients on all measures that differentiated the groups. Notably, COAT patients had a relatively poorer performance than CComp patients on specific neuropsychometric tests in the PDE; however, the differences were not statistically significant and did not imply a systematic pattern of scores that reflected domain-specific deficits. Behaviorally, COAT patients were generally superior to CComp

  12. A Study of the Relationship between Kindergarten Nonverbal Ability and Third-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased scrutiny of educational proficiency targets has intensified the urgency for educators to identify measurements that indicate students' likelihood of eventual achievement in reading. This regression analysis explored the relationship between nonverbal ability in kindergarten as measured by the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)…

  13. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  14. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  15. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  16. Cultural differences in neuropsychological abilities required to perform intelligence tasks.

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that culture has a basic role in intelligence tests performance. Nevertheless, the specific neuropsychological abilities used by different cultures to perform an intelligence test have never been explored. In this study, we examine the differences between Spaniards and Moroccans in the neuropsychological abilities utilized to perform the Beta III as a non-verbal intelligence test. The results showed that the Spaniard group obtained a higher IQ than the Moroccan group in the Beta III. Moreover, the neuropsychological abilities that predicted scores for the Beta III were dependent on the country of origin and were different for each subtest. Besides showing the cultural effect on non-verbal intelligence test performance, our results suggest that a single test may measure different functions, depending on the subject's cultural background. PMID:24055883

  17. Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Ankney, C. Davison

    2009-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between whole brain size and general mental ability (GMA) both within and between species. Among humans, in 28 samples using brain imaging techniques, the mean brain size/GMA correlation is 0.40 (N = 1,389; p < 10−10); in 59 samples using external head size measures it is 0.20 (N = 63,405; p < 10−10). In 6 samples using the method of correlated vectors to distill g, the general factor of mental ability, the mean r is 0.63. We also describe the brain size/GMA correlations with age, socioeconomic position, sex, and ancestral population groups, which also provide information about brain–behavior relationships. Finally, we examine brain size and mental ability from an evolutionary and behavior genetic perspective. PMID:19283594

  18. Why do spatial abilities predict mathematical performance?

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Petrill, Stephen A; Dale, Philip S; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship. PMID:24410830

  19. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  20. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  2. [Work ability in hospital housekeeping services and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Marlize Tatsch; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Kirchhof, Ana Lúcia Cardoso; Marconato, Cintia da Silva; Moraise, Bruna Xavier

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to measure the Work Ability Index of workers of a hospital housekeeping staff and identify the associated factors. Cross-sectional study conducted in 201 with 157 workers of the housekeeping staff of a university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A questionnaire containing sociodemographic, labor and health variables and the Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index was used. As a result, 79.6% of the workers were classified as having good/great work capacity. Mild mental (31.8%) and musculoskeletal disorders (15.9%) were the most prevalent medical diagnoses. After some adjustments, the workers that did not have time for leisure showed a 2.67 times higher prevalence of having the work ability reduced (CI95%=1.23-5.82). The other variables lost their association with the outcome. Measures aimed at the maintenance of work ability and the practice of physical activity and training for postural care are indicated. PMID:25842780

  3. On the Scientific Basis of Ability Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Horn, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that despite aberrations, false starts, misapplications, and unfortunate crystallizations of methods and interpretations, the differential psychology of cognitive abilities is an important part of psychological knowledge about human beings. (Author/GC)

  4. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  5. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  6. Incorporating Spatial Ability Instruction in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Sue E.; Goodman, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a picture of the learning environment that is created for the preservice mathematics teacher and how development of spatial abilities can be incorporated into courses for these students. (Contains 3 figures.)

  7. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  8. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Ability Settings.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason; Filson Moses, Jennifer; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that one person's expectations can influence the behavior of another person, thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This study examined the effects of ability-based expectations in an experiment in which some participants ("coaches") were assigned false expectations of the basketball free-throw shooting ability of other participants ("players"). Coaches allocated more opportunities to players for whom the false expectation was positive, and fewer shots to players for whom the false expectation was negative. In turn, players who were allocated more shots made a higher percentage of them, thereby confirming their coaches' expectations about their shooting ability, and were more confident in their shooting ability following the task, than players who were allocated fewer shots.

  9. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy

    PubMed Central

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish an ability from a propensity to empathize. We argue that (a) this ability-propensity distinction is critical to characterize empathy in psychiatric disorders such as psychopathy and autism, (b) that costly helping might be best predicted by the propensity for empathy and (c) suggest how social neuroscientists can start exploring this distinction. PMID:24484764

  10. Structured exercise in older adults with limited functional ability.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Topp, Robert; McNevin, Nancy; Morgan, Amy L; Boardley, Debra J

    2007-06-01

    The authors of this study examined the effects of a 16-week exercise program designed to increase aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in older adults who reported and exhibited limited functional ability. Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=39) or a control (n=34) group. Dependent variables tested included measures of fitness (aerobic exercise capacity and isokinetic strength testing of the legs and arms) and measures of functional capacity (time to and off the floor, stair test, chair stand, and bicep curl). At the end of the program, there were significant differences between the exercise and control groups in arm strength, chair stand, and biceps curl. The results of this study indicate functionally limited older adults who maintain a structured exercise program for 16 weeks exhibit increased functional ability.

  11. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  12. White matter microstructural properties correlate with sensorimotor synchronization abilities.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Tal; Tal, Idan; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) to an external auditory rhythm is a developed ability in humans, particularly evident in dancing and singing. This ability is typically measured in the lab via a simple task of finger tapping to an auditory beat. While simplistic, there is some evidence that poor performance on this task could be related to impaired phonological and reading abilities in children. Auditory-motor synchronization is hypothesized to rely on a tight coupling between auditory and motor neural systems, but the specific pathways that mediate this coupling have not been identified yet. In this study, we test this hypothesis and examine the contribution of fronto-temporal and callosal connections to specific measures of rhythmic synchronization. Twenty participants went through SMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements. We quantified the mean asynchrony between an auditory beat and participants' finger taps, as well as the time to resynchronize (TTR) with an altered meter, and examined the correlations between these behavioral measures and diffusivity in a small set of predefined pathways. We found significant correlations between asynchrony and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left (but not right) arcuate fasciculus and in the temporal segment of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, TTR correlated with FA in the precentral segment of the callosum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that relates these particular white matter tracts with performance on an auditory-motor rhythmic synchronization task. We propose that left fronto-temporal and temporal-callosal fibers are involved in prediction and constant comparison between auditory inputs and motor commands, while inter-hemispheric connections between the motor/premotor cortices contribute to successful resynchronization of motor responses with a new external rhythm, perhaps via inhibition of tapping to the previous rhythm. Our results indicate that auditory

  13. Aircraft trace gas measurements during the London 2012 Olympics: Air quality and emission fluxes derived from sampling upwind and downwind of a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Lee, J. D.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Barratt, B.; McQuaid, J. B.; Illingworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements recorded during July and August 2012, across the period of the London 2012 Summer Olympics and simultaneous with the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) ground-based measurement and modelling campaign. Through long-term (2-year) and intensive observation periods (Winter 2011 and Summer 2012), the ClearfLo programme aims to better understand emissions, as well as the chemical, dynamical and micro-meteorological processes which modulate air quality in the London urban environment - an important risk factor for both acute and chronic health effects. The work presented here focuses on two contrasting case studies within the summer ClearfLo period: 30 July 2012 and 9 August 2012, representing relatively clean background and polluted background cases, respectively, and characterised by well-mixed Atlantic westerly maritime inflow in the former and stagnant air (high pressure) in the latter. Measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, HCN, and other gases measured on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft will be presented and interpreted, with emphasis on observed concentration gradients and tracer-tracer correlations as well as airmass vertical structure and airmass history upwind and downwind of central London in each case. By applying a simple advective model and making use of vertically resolved thermodynamic and composition data, we are able to derive emission strengths for these gases that are representative of the total enclosed surface area. Example emissions for these two cases range between 6x105 kg(C)/hr and 9x105 kg(C)/hr for CO2, and ~0.6x105 kg(C)/hr for CH4. This airborne sampling methodology highlights the unique utility of aircraft measurements to routinely and climatologically characterise emissions from area sources such as cities, and points to future missions to target localised hotspots and distributed point sources.

  14. Visuo-spatial Ability in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Is it Really a Strength?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities – visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. PMID:24755229

  15. Exploring the general motor ability construct.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Halijah; Heard, N Paul; Blanksby, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Malaysian students ages 12 to 15 years (N = 330; 165 girls, 165 boys) took the Australian Institute of Sport Talent Identification Test (AIST) and the Balance and Movement Coordination Test (BMC), developed specifically to identify sport talent in Malaysian adolescents. To investigate evidence for general aptitude ("g") in motor ability, a higher-order factor analysis was applied to the motor skills subtests from the AIST and BMC. First-order principal components analysis indicated that scores for the adolescent boys and girls could be described by similar sets of specific motor abilities. In particular, sets of skills identified as Movement Coordination and Postural Control were found, with Balancing Ability also emerging. For the girls, a factor labeled Static Balance was indicated. However, for the boys a more general balance ability labeled Kinesthetic Integration was found, along with an ability labeled Explosive Power. These first-order analyses accounted for 45% to 60% of the variance in the scores on the motor skills tests for the boys and girls, respectively. Separate second-order factor analyses for the boys and girls extracted a single higher-order factor, which was consistent with the existence of a motoric "g". PMID:22185064

  16. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  17. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors. PMID:22269574

  18. Correlations among ambiguous figures, curiosity, and spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Beer, J

    1990-12-01

    For 29 college students (6 men, 23 women) who passively viewed in each of 6 blocks both the Schroeder stair and the Necker cube for 3 min. apiece with one 3-min. rest between viewings, their frequency of reversals, sex, GPA, scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Information subtest, the two-dimensional Test 8, and the three-dimensional Test 9 of the Multiple Aptitude Test, measuring spatial ability, and three curiosity measures--the Which-to-Discuss Test, the Maze test, and the Ontario Test of Intrinsic Motivation--were not significantly correlated by Pearson's method with the number of ambiguous figure reversals.

  19. Aging effects on the structure underlying balance abilities tests.

    PubMed

    Urushihata, Toshiya; Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as 'Static'. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as 'Static and Reactive'. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were acceptable (young group, GFI

  20. Aging Effects on the Structure Underlying Balance Abilities Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as ‘Static’. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as ‘Static and Reactive’. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were

  1. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  2. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  3. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  4. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  5. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  6. Memory for Words and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Ruth

    This paper examines the relationship between strategies for recall of verbal material and the reading ability of 10-to-13-year-old children. Sixty-five fifth and sixth graders, whose reading levels were determined by the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Test (1964), were given an orally presented word-string repetition task. While performance on…

  7. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than... assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  8. Cognitive Correlates of Map-Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholl, M. Jeanne; Egeth, Howard E.

    1982-01-01

    When the mathematics and extended range vocabulary subtests on the Relief Format Assessment Test were factor analyzed, altitude estimation (predicted by mathematics aptitude) and terrain analysis (predicted by vocabulary skills) were found to underly map-reading performance. Solutions were found to be dependent on verbal-analytic ability more than…

  9. Assessment of Problem-Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, J.

    1977-01-01

    Problem-solving ability has been assessed within the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners through the use of patient management problems (PMPs) in both medical and surgical areas. It is shown that the highest marks in PMPs are being achieved by students who arrive at the correct diagnosis without accumulating excessive information and…

  10. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  11. Basic Structure of Work-Relevant Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.

    This study sought to determine whether the dimensions underlying a comprehensive set of 15 work-relevant abilities were similar to the Data/Ideas and Things/People Work Task Dimensions (D. J. Prediger, 1996) underlying J. L. Holland's (1997) hexagonal model of interest and occupational types. The work task dimensions and a general ability…

  12. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  13. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  14. Brain iron deposits and lifespan cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Ritchie, Stuart; Glatz, Andreas; Allerhand, Mike; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Gow, Alan J; Royle, Natalie A; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have reported associations between brain iron deposits and cognitive status, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases in older individuals, but the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We explored the associations between regional brain iron deposits and different factors of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence, speed and memory) in a large sample (n = 662) of individuals with a mean age of 73 years. Brain iron deposits in the corpus striatum were extracted automatically. Iron deposits in other parts of the brain (i.e., white matter, thalamus, brainstem and cortex), brain tissue volume and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed separately and semi-automatically. Overall, 72.8 % of the sample had iron deposits. The total volume of iron deposits had a small but significant negative association with all three cognitive ability factors in later life (mean r = -0.165), but no relation to intelligence in childhood (r = 0.043, p = 0.282). Regression models showed that these iron deposit associations were still present after control for a variety of vascular health factors, and were separable from the association of WMH with cognitive ability. Iron deposits were also associated with cognition across the lifespan, indicating that they are relevant for cognitive ability only at older ages. Iron deposits might be an indicator of small vessel disease that affects the neuronal networks underlying higher cognitive functioning.

  15. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  16. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  17. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  18. Development of Calculation Abilities in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan Cohen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Children aged four through six years were given identical addition and subtraction calculations presented in three problem-type formats: nonverbal problems, story problems, and number-fact problems. Results suggest that children's earliest calculation ability is based on experiences combining and separating sets of objects. Contains 34 references.…

  19. Spatial Ability and Cerebral Sensory Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To provide converging support that the proper integration of analog and propositional representational systems is associated with spatial ability, the visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potentials were recorded from 50 right-handed Caucasian males. Sensory interaction indices were derived for these subjects who had taken the Surface…

  20. Psycholinguistic Abilities in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Isser, Aldine

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities was administered to 22 children (mean age=90 months) with petit mal epilepsy and 28 children (mean age=85 months) evidencing mixed seizures to determine whether any differences would be found when these two groups were compared either with each other or with a randomly selected group of nonepileptic…

  1. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  2. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  3. Improving Spatial Ability with Mentored Sketching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.; Miller, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    As the result of a qualitative investigation into spatial ability, a teaching technique called mentored sketching was found to be effective for teaching visualization skills to freshman engineering students. This contribution describes the technique, how it evolved, and comments made by students as to its effectiveness. While mentored sketching…

  4. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  5. Teacher Approval and Disapproval by Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Marc Stephen

    This study investigated teachers' use of verbal approval and disapproval as a function of subject matter (mathematics, social studies) and class ability; the use of these behaviors in instructional versus managerial contexts was studied. Five mathematics and five social studies teachers in an inner-city junior high school were observed for 6…

  6. Enhancing Readers' Analysis-by-Synthesis Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    A variety of techniques for improving readers' analysis-by-synthesis abilities (rapid, efficient reading typical of highly skilled readers) are presented in this paper. The techniques discussed in the first part emphasize improving reading comprehension and include the following: (1) modifications of the cloze procedure (encouraging readers to use…

  7. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  8. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  9. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  10. STUDENT ABILITIES, GROUPING PATTERNS, AND CLASSROOM INTERACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREWS, ELIZABETH M.

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF HETEROGENEOUS AND HOMOGENEOUS GROUPING IN NINTH-GRADE ENGLISH CLASSES. ON THE BASES OF IQ AND READING LANGUAGE SKILLS, STUDENTS WERE GROUPED AT THREE ABILITY LEVELS AND PLACE IN HETEROGENEOUS, HOMOGENEOUS SUPERIOR, HOMOGENEOUS SLOW, AND HOMOGENEOUS AVERAGE CLASSES. TEACHER VARIABLES WERE REDUCED BY…

  11. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  12. Designing Playgrounds for Children of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltsman, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Provides performance criteria for creating accessibility for and integration of children of all abilities within school playgrounds. Included are recommendations for accessible route designs; play equipment; sand and water play; gathering places and outdoor classrooms; entrances and signage; and fences, enclosures, and barriers. Proposed changes…

  13. Math Ability: Proof of Sexual Parity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, W.

    1982-01-01

    A test of 1,366 high school students revealed no significant sex differences in the ability to perform geometrical proofs. Boys did outscore girls on overall achievement in geometry, but the results are believed to reflect differential exposure to mathematics outside the classroom. (MP)

  14. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  15. Evaluating Business School Undergraduates' Situation Analytical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ghee-Soon

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to test students' ability to analyze business situations was administered to 120 undergraduates. Level of study, achievement in business curriculum, and stress resilience were associated with test performance. Gender, age, family income, and high school results were not related to performance. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  16. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  17. 21st Century Conceptions of Musical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored conceptions of musical ability using an inventory derived from previous qualitative research. Participants included 102 musicians, 95 educators, 132 adult amateur musicians, 60 adults who were not actively engaged in making music, 193 children actively engaged in making music in addition to their engagement with the school…

  18. Models of Problem Solving Processes and Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; Guthrie, Virginia A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews current models of problem solving to identify results relevant to teachers or instructional developers. Four areas are covered: information processing models, approaches stressing human abilities and factors, creative problem solving models, and other aspects of problem solving. Part of a theme issue on intelligence. (Author/SJL)

  19. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities.

    PubMed

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities.

  20. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  1. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  2. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  3. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  4. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  5. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants. PMID:25252674

  6. Relationships among abilities in elderly adults: a time lag analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Brookshire, R G

    1985-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that relationships among primary abilities said to measure crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligences remain the same across cohorts if age is held constant, despite generational changes in the levels of abilities. The present study assessed differences in relationship among several components of Gf/Gc in two independent samples of elderly adults, tested in 1975 and 1979 by the same investigator. The 1975 sample consisted of 54 elderly adults aged 59 to 76 years (M = 67.7); the 1979 sample of 50 elderly adults was aged 55 to 82 (M = 69.4). Time-lagged differences in relationships among abilities measuring Gf and Gc (induction, figural relations, and verbal comprehension) were investigated using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. Although a two factor (Gf, Gc) model was common to both the 1975 and 1979 samples, significant differences in unique variances were observed across samples. Some, albeit weaker, evidence was found suggesting time-lagged differences in factor covariances. These data, for the most part, support previous research with younger individuals, suggesting consistency in factor structure across time and cohort.

  7. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  8. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  9. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  10. Spatial abilities of medical graduates and choice of residency programs.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency program is related to spatial abilities. A cohort of 210 medical graduates was enrolled in a prospective study in a 5-year experiment. Spatial abilities were measured with a redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in two (MRTA) and three (MRTC) dimensions. Medical graduates were enrolled in Family Medicine (n = 76, 36.2%), Internal Medicine (64, 30.5%), Surgery (52, 24.8%), and Anesthesia (18, 8.6%). The assumption was that the level of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills content was higher in Surgery and Anesthesia compared to Family Medicine and Internal Medicine. Mean MRTA score of 12.4 (±SD 4.6), 12.0 (±4.3), 14.1 (±4.3), and 14.6 (±4.0) was obtained in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Anesthesia, respectively (P = 0.0176). Similarly, mean MRTC score of 8.0 (±4.4), 7.5 (±3.6), 8.5 (±3.9), and 7.9 (±4.1) was obtained (P = 0.5647). Although there was a tendency for lower MRTA score in Family Medicine and Internal Medicine compared to Surgery and Anesthesia, no statistically significant main effect of residency, year, sex, or the interactions were observed for the MRTA and MRTC. Studied sample of medical graduates was not found to choose their residency programs based on their innate spatial abilities.

  11. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164

  12. Childhood Cognitive Ability: Relationship to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poorer cognitive ability in children born to mothers with GDM compared to children born to non-GDM mothers in India. Methods During 1997-98 maternal GDM status was assessed at 30±2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007-2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32-offspring of GDM mothers (ODM’s); 483-offspring of non-GDM mothers (controls)) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-second edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results Compared to controls, ODM’S scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p=0.008), reasoning (p=0.02), verbal ability (p=0.01) and attention and concentration (p=0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child’s age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity, BMI, parent’s socio-economic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (β=0.4SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.75); p=0.042) and verbal ability (β=0.5SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.83); p=0.015) and not with other test scores. Conclusions/interpretation In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM’s. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM’s. PMID:20614102

  13. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.

  14. The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

  15. Linking Brain Growth with the Development of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Conceptual Change during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lawson, Anton E.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that an early adolescent brain growth plateau and spurt exists, and that this plateau and spurt influence students' ability to reason scientifically and to learn theoretical science concepts. Finds that measures of students' (n=210) prefrontal lobe activity correlated highly with scientific reasoning ability, and that these…

  16. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  17. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  18. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  19. Numerosity but Not Texture-Density Discrimination Correlates with Math Ability in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anobile, Giovanni; Castaldi, Elisa; Turi, Marco; Tinelli, Francesca; Burr, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable recent work suggests that mathematical abilities in children correlate with the ability to estimate numerosity. Does math correlate only with numerosity estimation, or also with other similar tasks? We measured discrimination thresholds of school-age (6- to 12.5-years-old) children in 3 tasks: numerosity of patterns of relatively…

  20. Right-Hemispheric Cortical Contributions to Language Ability in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Ragnehed, Mattias; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Engstrom, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between individual linguistic ability based on performance levels and their engagement of typical and atypical language areas in the brain. Eighteen healthy subjects between 21 and 64 years participated in language ability tests, and subsequent functional MRI scans measuring brain activity in response…

  1. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  2. Human Figure Drawing Ability and Vestibular Processing Dysfunction in Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenbacher, Kenneth; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationship between vestibular function as measured by duration of postrotary nystagmus and human figure drawing ability in children (N=40) labeled as learning disabled. Results supported the assertion that some learning-disabled children evidence deficits in vestibular processing ability and that these deficits may affect…

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  4. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math…

  5. Investigating the Impact of Uncertainty about Item Parameters on Ability Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Xie, Minge; Song, Xiaolan; Lu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic expansions of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of an examinee's ability are derived while item parameter estimators are treated as covariates measured with error. The asymptotic formulae present the amount of bias of the ability estimators due to the uncertainty of item parameter estimators.…

  6. Mental Ability and the Effect of Pattern Violation Discrimination on P300 and Mismatch Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sculthorpe, Lauren D.; Stelmack, Robert M.; Campbell, Kenneth B.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect auditory pattern violations was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN). Thirty female volunteers were presented with a two tone alternating pattern containing infrequent repetition violations in passive (ignore) then active…

  7. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  8. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g" measured by a…

  9. Relationships among Preservice Primary Mathematics Teachers' Gender, Academic Success and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate relationships among pre-service primary mathematics teachers' gender, academic success and spatial ability. The study was conducted in Izmir with 193 pre-service primary mathematics teachers of Dokuz Eylul University. In the work, spatial ability test, which consists of two main sub-tests measuring spatial…

  10. Do Interests and Cognitive Abilities Help Explain College Major Choice Equally Well for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether vocational interests, measured by Holland's RIASEC model, and objectively assessed cognitive abilities, were useful in discriminating among various major categories for a sample of 1990 German university students. Interests and specific abilities, in combination, significantly discriminated among major categories…

  11. Locus of Control, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Dishonesty among High Ability College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States…

  12. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  13. On the Primary Factors Affecting Linguistic Ability in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alahuhta, Eila

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with weaker speech ability have greater difficulties in perception, powers of reasoning and spatial orientation than children with better speech ability, and assessed the value of Apgar scores as a predictive measure of later linguistic disorders. Subjects were 100 children born in 1970 who attended…

  14. Immune stimulation reduces sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Akram; Holdbrook, Robert T.K.; Rosato, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We demonstrate the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidoglycan receptor protein (PGRP) expression, thereby stimulating the immune system in the absence of infection. Geneswitch was activated by feeding the steroid RU486, to the flies. We used an aversive classical conditioning paradigm to quantify memory and measures of activity to infer sleep. Immune stimulated flies exhibited reduced levels of sleep, which could not be explained by a generalised increase in waking activity. Immune stimulated flies also showed a reduction in memory abilities. These results lend support to Drosophila as a model for immune–neural interactions and provide a possible role for sleep in the interplay between the immune response and memory. PMID:24949247

  15. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  16. [Health surveillance and suitability: the role of the company physician in maintaining work ability].

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Di Lello, Matteo; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    The ageing workforce is one of the major issues in Europe. Ageing has an important effect on work ability, especially in manual jobs where physical demand is high. Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common health problems among European workers and are able to affect work ability. In order to increase the employment rate of people aged 45-65, measures to sustain work ability and proper age management should be promoted: return to work strategies include adjustment of the job to the worker's health conditions and abilities. The contribution of health surveillance.programs in the management of workers affected by musculoskeletal disorders is discussed.

  17. Test Review: C. D. Elliott "Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition." San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephanie; McGoey, Kara E.; Moschos, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II), an individually administered cognitive test battery, designed to evaluate children ages 2 years 6 months to 17 years 11 months. It purports to measure a hierarchy of cognitive abilities, including broad abilities contributing to a single cognitive factor…

  18. Level I--Level II Abilities as They Affect Performance of Three Races in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreth, Langdon E.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that multiple-choice exams load higher on Level II ability than on Level I ability was confirmed by correlating multiple choice tests with the Cognitive Abilities Test Nonverbal Battery, the forward digit span test, and essay measures. Differences in scores among Asian, black, white, and Mexican American students are discussed in…

  19. Investigating the relationship between trait and ability emotional intelligence and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria S

    2011-09-01

    Theoretical links between emotional knowledge and theory of mind (ToM) have previously been proposed. This study investigates this relationship using measures of both ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI). Our sample comprised 194 children, divided into two age groups (5-7 years and 8-10 years). Children participated in measures of false belief understanding, advanced tests of ToM, ability EI and trait EI, and a standardized language assessment. For both age groups, we found that only ability EI was related to false belief understanding. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the understanding and managing branches of ability EI predicted unique variance in false belief understanding once controlling for age, language, and the other ability EI branches. Trait EI failed to display any association with false belief understanding. Ability and trait EI were associated with more advanced ToM tasks undertaken only by the older sample. These results offer support for previous research that has found a relationship between emotion perception and labelling and ToM. They also provide new knowledge: (1) higher order emotional knowledge, measured by ability EI, is associated with advanced ToM; and (2) emotional self efficacy, as measured by trait EI, is also important in advanced ToM. Furthermore, they provide the first account of associations between standardized EI measures and ToM.

  20. Investigating the relationship between trait and ability emotional intelligence and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria S

    2011-09-01

    Theoretical links between emotional knowledge and theory of mind (ToM) have previously been proposed. This study investigates this relationship using measures of both ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI). Our sample comprised 194 children, divided into two age groups (5-7 years and 8-10 years). Children participated in measures of false belief understanding, advanced tests of ToM, ability EI and trait EI, and a standardized language assessment. For both age groups, we found that only ability EI was related to false belief understanding. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the understanding and managing branches of ability EI predicted unique variance in false belief understanding once controlling for age, language, and the other ability EI branches. Trait EI failed to display any association with false belief understanding. Ability and trait EI were associated with more advanced ToM tasks undertaken only by the older sample. These results offer support for previous research that has found a relationship between emotion perception and labelling and ToM. They also provide new knowledge: (1) higher order emotional knowledge, measured by ability EI, is associated with advanced ToM; and (2) emotional self efficacy, as measured by trait EI, is also important in advanced ToM. Furthermore, they provide the first account of associations between standardized EI measures and ToM. PMID:21848740

  1. [Do neural networks revolutionize our predictive abilities?].

    PubMed

    Brause, R W

    1999-01-01

    This paper claims for a rational treatment of patient data. It investigates data analysis with the aid of artificial neural networks. Successful example applications show that human diagnosis abilities are significantly worse than those of neural diagnosis systems. For the example of a newer architecture using RBF nets the basic functionality is explained and it is shown how human and neural expertise can be coupled. Finally, the applications and problems of this kind of systems are discussed.

  2. Changing Reasoning Ability in College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Data from several years and several different classes have shown that student scores on the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning don't change much over the course of a single semester, and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

  3. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  4. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  5. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  6. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  7. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  8. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging. PMID:19413434

  9. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  10. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  11. Effect of Monophasic Pulsed Current on Heel Pain and Functional Activities caused by Plantar Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah K.; Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Daher, Noha S.; Lohman, Everett; Laymon, Michael; Syed, Hasan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a soft tissue disorder considered to be one of the most common causes of inferior heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of monophasic pulsed current (MPC) and MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises (SE) on the treatment of PF. Material/Methods Forty-four participants (22 women and 22 men, with a mean age of 49 years) diagnosed with PF were randomly assigned to receive MPC (n=22) or MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific SE (n=22). Prior to and after 4 weeks of treatment, participants underwent baseline evaluation; heel pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), heel tenderness threshold was quantified using a handheld pressure algometer (PA), and functional activities level was assessed using the Activities of Daily Living subscale of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (ADL/FAAM). Results Heel pain scores showed a significant reduction in both groups compared to baseline VAS scores (P<0.001). Heel tenderness improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline PA scores (P<0.001). Functional activity level improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline (ADL/FAAM) scores (P<0.001). However, no significant differences existed between the 2 treatment groups in all post-intervention outcome measures. Conclusions This trial showed that MPC is useful in treating inferior heel symptoms caused by PF. PMID:25791231

  12. Commentary: The Development of Creativity--Ability, Motivation, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Christensen, Alexander P; Cotter, Katherine N

    2016-01-01

    A major question for research on the development of creativity is whether it is interested in creative potential (a prospective approach that uses measures early in life to predict adult creativity) or in children's creativity for its own sake. We suggest that a focus on potential for future creativity diminishes the fascinating creative world of childhood. The contributions to this issue can be organized in light of an ability × motivation framework, which offers a fruitful way for thinking about the many factors that foster and impede creativity. The contributions reflect a renewed interest in the development of creativity and highlight how this area can illuminate broader problems in creativity studies. PMID:26994729

  13. Assessment of Abilities and Comorbidities in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Tsubary, Netta Misgav; Leon, Odelia; Ashkenasi, Arie; Shefer, Shahar

    2015-10-01

    This study examines major comorbidities in children with severe cerebral palsy and the feasibility of psychological tests for measuring abilities in a more impaired population. Eighty psychological evaluations of children with cerebral palsy aged 1.8 to 15.4 years (mean = 5.6) were analyzed. Major comorbid disorders were correlated with severity of motor disability. More than half of the cohort were diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Multiple subtests were combined in order to assess the intellectual level. Normal intelligence was found in 22.5%, and 41.3% had moderate or severe intellectual impairment. Epilepsy occurred in 32.5% and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 22.5%. Intellectual disability correlated with motor ability and with epilepsy. In a logistic regression model, epilepsy and motor ability score predicted 29.9% of IQ score variance. Intellectual impairment and epilepsy are common comorbidities. Subtests from different scales should be applied and interpreted with caution.

  14. Thinking around the corner: the development of planning abilities.

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Rahm, Benjamin; Spreer, Joachim; Mader, Irina; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2008-08-01

    The ability to plan and search ahead is essential for problem solving in most situations in everyday life. To investigate the development of planning and related processes, a sample of four- and five-year-old children was examined in a variant of the Tower of London, a frequently used neuropsychological assessment tool of planning abilities. The applied problems either required searching ahead for optimal solution or were solvable by pure step-by-step forward processing. Furthermore, the ambiguity of subgoal ordering was varied. Results revealed an age-related effect of search depth: the four-year olds' planning accuracy was particularly decreased in problems demanding search ahead, while five-year olds mastered both problem types equally well. Interestingly, this interaction between age and search depth could not be accounted for by measures of working memory and inhibition. Differential effects of age were also found for subgoal ordering with respect to initial planning and movement execution times. In sum, planning abilities showed considerable development during late kindergarten age that appeared to be specifically associated with the integration and back-validation of the anticipated consequences of internally modeled actions. The present study demonstrates that a careful consideration of problem structure may greatly enhance the insights gained from the application of a routinely used assessment tool, the Tower of London. This may be especially advantageous when addressing specific subpopulations such as children or clinical samples. PMID:18440114

  15. Memory styles and related abilities in presentation of self.

    PubMed

    Sehulster, J R

    1995-01-01

    The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles.

  16. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  17. Scottish country dance: benefits to functional ability in older women.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Susan; Nelson, Norah; Dougall, Paul K; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term participation in Scottish country dance on body composition, functional ability, and balance in healthy older females were examined. Participants were grouped into dancers and physically active nondancers (ages 60-70 and 70-80 for both groups). Physical activity, body composition (body-mass index, skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio), functional ability (6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, 8-ft up-and-go time, lower body flexibility, shoulder flexibility), and static balance were measured. Younger dancers and physically active nondancers had similar 6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, and 8-ft up-and-go time results; however, while older dancers performed similarly to younger dancers, older physically active nondancers performed poorer than their younger counterparts (p < .05). Body composition and static balance were the same for all groups. Regular physical activity can maintain body composition and postural stability with advancing age; however, Scottish country dance can delay the effects of aging on locomotion-related functional abilities.

  18. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity. PMID:26223507

  19. Between Domain Cognitive Dispersion and Functional Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Robert P.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Within-person variability in cognitive performance is related to neurological integrity, but the association with functional abilities is less clear. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between cognitive dispersion, or within-person variability, and everyday multitasking and the way in which these variables may influence performance on a naturalistic assessment of functional abilities. Method Participants were 156 community-dwelling adults, age 50 or older. Cognitive dispersion was calculated by measuring within-person variability in cognitive domains, established through principal components analysis. Path analysis was used to determine the independent contribution of cognitive dispersion to functional ability, mediated by multitasking. Results Results of the path analysis revealed that the number of subtasks interweaved (i.e., multitasked) mediated the association between cognitive dispersion and task sequencing and accuracy. Although increased multitasking was associated with worse task performance in the path model, secondary analyses revealed that for individuals with low cognitive dispersion, increased multitasking was associated with better task performance, whereas for those with higher levels of dispersion multitasking was negatively correlated with task performance. Conclusion These results suggest that cognitive dispersion between domains may be a useful indicator of multitasking and daily living skills among older adults. PMID:26300441

  20. Memory styles and related abilities in presentation of self.

    PubMed

    Sehulster, J R

    1995-01-01

    The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles. PMID:7733413

  1. Self-reported Cognitive Concerns and Abilities: Two sides of one coin?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Wagner, Lynne I.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patient-reported cognitive function can be measured using negatively-worded items (Concerns) and positively-worded (Abilities) items. It is possible reporting Abilities is less subject to the influence of emotional states. This study evaluated the relationship between cognitive concerns and cognitive abilities. METHODS Cancer patients (N = 509; mean age=61 years; 50% males; 86% White) completed Concerns and Abilities items developed by the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the extent to which items loaded on one single factor (unidimensionality). Multidimensionality was evaluated using bi-factor analysis (local factors: Concerns and Abilities). Slope parameters from multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) and unidimensional IRT (UIRT) were compared to evaluate which factor solution fit best. RESULTS Acceptable fit indices were found in both one-factor CFA (CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.062) and bi-factor analysis (CFI=0.98; RMSEA=0.043). Thus, Abilities and Concerns could be considered as a single dimension. Yet high loadings on the local factor in bi-factor analysis and slope discrepancies between UIRT and MIRT indicate that Abilities should be considered as a separate factor from Concerns. CONCLUSIONS Concerns and Abilities could be measured using one unidimensional item bank. Results also support measuring each construct separately. We recommend a conservative approach by measuring and reporting Concerns and Abilities separately. We therefore recommend two separate but co-calibrated item banks in the PROMIS network: Cognitive Function Item Bank - Concerns, and Cognitive Function Item Bank - Abilities. Both item banks showed good psychometric properties and are available for research and clinical purposes. PMID:24700645

  2. Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

    1982-01-01

    Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

  3. Relationship between Work Ability Index and Cognitive Failure among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Kolahdouzi, Malihe; Mehri, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequent nursing errors are considered as factors that affect the quality of healthcare of patients. Capable nurses who are compatible with work conditions are more focused on their tasks, and this reduces their errors and cognitive failures. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between work ability index (WAI) and cognitive failures (CFs) as well as some factors that affect them in nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards. Methods This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with 750 nurses at educational hospitals affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A questionnaire of work ability index and cognitive failures was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, chi-squared, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Using the Pearson correlation test, the results of this study showed that there is a significant, inverse relationship between WAI, personal prognosis of work ability, and mental resources with CFs along with all its subscales in nurses (p < 0.05). In addition, there was an inverse and significant relationship between the total score of CFs and the estimated work impairment due to diseases (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation of CFs with age and experience, while WAI was inversely related to age, work experience, and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). WAI and CFs were related significantly to working units (p < 0.05). Conclusion Considering the results obtained in this study, WAI and the cognitive status of nurses were lower than the specified limit. It is suggested that the work ability of nurses be improved and that their CFs be reduced through various measures, including pre-employment examinations, proper management of work-shift conditions, and using engineering and administrative strategies to ensure the safety of hospitalized patients

  4. Wheelchair propulsion: functional ability dependent factors in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Y C; Spaepen, A J; Lysens, R J

    1994-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the user-related parameters, 1) force generation 2) maximal aerobic power and 3) propulsion technique, in respect to functional ability level [ISMWSF] wheelchair basketball classification: groups 1, 2 and 3) of 40 elite wheelchair basketball players. Isometric (position on the handrims = -30, 0 degrees, +30 degrees and +60 degrees) and dynamic force application (velocities = 0.56, 0.83 and 1.11 m.s-1) on the handrims (test 1) was measured by means of a computerised wheelchair simulator, with the subjects sitting in a standardised position. Each subject performed a maximal exercise test (test 2) on a motor driven treadmill at 1.67 m.s-1 and four subsequent submaximal tests (test 3) at two exercise levels (60 and 80% of individual VO2) and two velocities (1.11 and 2.22 m.s-1) with constant power output. In tests 2 and 3, cardiorespiratory and kinematic data were recorded simultaneously. Although no significant differences between functional ability groups were found in relation to force application on the handrims, three different force application strategies were observed (test 1). Maximal aerobic capacity and power output (test 2) differed significantly (p < 0.05) between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 1 and 3. No differences in mechanical efficiency were observed between the three functional ability groups, irrespective of changes in wheelchair velocity and external load (test 3). Propulsion technique was not proven to be functional ability dependent although remarkable differences in movement pattern were observed, especially during the recovery phase.

  5. Estimation abilities of large numerosities in Kindergartners.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Sandrine; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education). The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5-6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children's early number competence as well as schools' socio-economic index (SEI). This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8-64). In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1-12) at the end of the 2nd (N = 42) and the 3rd (N = 32) Kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on) extending far beyond children's symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd Kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd Kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children's estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from preschool on. PMID:24009591

  6. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  7. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  8. Sex, handedness, mathematical ability, and biological causation.

    PubMed

    Peters, M

    1991-09-01

    An important part of Benbow's (1988) assertion that sex differences in mathematical ability are primarily due to biological factors is the link between a trait that is assumed to reflect differences in brain organization (left-handedness) and mathematical giftedness. It is shown that the link between mathematical giftedness and an increased prevalence of left-handedness is not convincing. However, Benbow's (1986) data do show a convincing link between strong right-handedness and the lack of mathematical giftedness, in agreement with Annett and Manning's (1990a, 1990b) recent work.

  9. Belief in psychic ability and the misattribution hypothesis: a qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline

    2006-08-01

    This paper explores the notion that people who believe in psychic ability possess various psychological attributes that increase the likelihood of them misattributing paranormal causation to experiences that have a normal explanation. The paper discusses the structure and measurement of belief in psychic ability, then reviews the considerable body of work exploring the relationship between belief in psychic ability, and academic performance, intelligence, critical thinking, probability misjudgement and reasoning, measures of fantasy proneness and the propensity to find correspondences in distantly related material. Finally, the paper proposes several possible directions for future research, including: the need to build a multi-causal model of belief; to address the issue of correlation versus causation; to resolve the inconsistent pattern of findings present in many areas; and to develop a more valid, reliable and fine-grained measure of belief in psychic ability.

  10. The development of perceptual motor sequencing ability.

    PubMed

    Zaichkowsky, L D

    1974-12-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to investigate the possibility that short-term memory may be a limiting factor in the development of perceptual-motor sequencing ability, (b) to determine whether sex differences exist in sequencing ability, (c) to determine whether organized information facilitates serial recall, and (d) to ascertain whether the recall of serial perceptual-motor responses results in a bow-shaped serial-position curve. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design was used to analyze the independent variables of age, sex, and pattern organization. Further, an age × serial position ANOVA was performed to investigate the serial-position curve. Serial recall improved with age; however young children experienced difficulty in recalling a complex task. The poor recall performance of 5-yr.-old children was discussed in terms of the possibility that young children fail to use labeling strategies to facilitate recall. No sex differences were found. A primacy effect was obtained on the complex task.

  11. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. PMID:27287074

  12. [Can specialized sperm analysis predict fertilization ability?].

    PubMed

    Hakima, N; Sermondade, N; Sifer, C

    2012-09-01

    Conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF) is an assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedure, which requires both a sufficient number of motile sperm to be inseminated around the oocyte but also an optimal fertilizing ability of the inseminated sperm. Thus, the frequency of the risk that this method leads to a failure of fertilization varies depending on the cIVF indication and is enhanced if no factor of infertility was found in the first-line examination, suggesting a "qualitative" incapacity of the sperm to fertilize. Thus, many secondary sperm tests have been studied to know whether they could predict such fertilization failure The aim of this review is then to analyze the literature interested on these secondary specialized explorations sperm and their ability to predict the fertilization rate following cIVF, especially when an idiopathic (normal conventional sperm examination, including normal pelvic laparoscopy) or a pseudo-idiopathic infertility (normal conventional sperm examination, but non-done pelvic laparoscopy) are suspected.

  13. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  14. [Psychotropic drugs and driving ability--fundamentals].

    PubMed

    Schaumann, Hans H

    2011-05-01

    Drug therapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of mental disorders. Analogously, driving a motor vehicle plays a key factor in full reintegration into occupational and social life. In a professional assessment of driving ability, the specific drug involved is less important than as comprehensive an evaluation as possible of all traffic-medicine-relevant factors. Among others, the individual's driving history, the impact of the underlying psychiatric condition, effects and side effects in different stages of therapy, possible effects of combination with other drugs, and possible substance use need to be taken into account. Experience shows, however, that a positive appraisal of driving ability is almost always possible thanks to use of an appropriate, safe medication. As only a few specific studies have been conducted, in the individual assessment, the extensive experience and opportunities of a recognized traffic medicine institute should be drawn upon, in order to obtain additional legal coverage and to safeguard the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:21506088

  15. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors.

  16. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  17. Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto

    2015-07-27

    The purpose of this study was to describe the design and characterization of a new opto-mechanical artificial eye (OMAE) with accommodative ability. The OMAE design is based on a second-pass configuration where a small source of light is used at the artificial retina plane. A lens whose focal length can be changed electronically was used to add the accommodation capability. The changes in the OMAE's aberrations with the lens focal length, which effectively changes the accommodative state of the OMAE, were measured with a commercial aberrometer. Changes in power and aberrations with room temperature were also measured. The OMAE's higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were similar to the ones of the human eye, including the rate at which fourth-order spherical aberration decreased with accommodation. The OMAE design proposed here is simple, and it can be implemented in an optical system to mimic the optics of the human eye.

  18. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  19. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability.

  20. Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-01

    Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy. PMID:20712172