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Sample records for ability measure faam

  1. Five Years Lidar Research on Board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, Franco

    2016-06-01

    I will present a summary of the results obtained with the backscatter lidar on-board the FAAM research aircraft. This simple instrument has been used in several campaigns, and has contributed successfully to the characterization of volcanic ash, mineral dust, biomass burning aerosols, clouds, and the boundary layer structure. Its datasets have been used in many applications, from numerical weather predictions to the validation of satellite remote sensing.

  2. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  3. Evidence of Validity for the Japanese Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Shinozuka, Nobuyuki; Sunagawa, Norihiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Context: The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. Objective: To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eighty-three collegiate athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. Conclusions: The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however

  4. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  5. Measuring creative imagery abilities.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Dorota M; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  6. Measuring Divergent Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefer, Jasmina

    The validity and reliability of the Yugoslavian (Beograd) version of the Hungarian adaptation of the Torrance Divergent Capacities Test (HAT-DAT) were tested, with a view toward improving the methodology of scoring the creative abilities test and determining standards for Yugoslavia. The test, based on the work of J. P. Guilford (1977), examines…

  7. Ability Measurement: Conventional or Adaptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.; Betz, Nancy E.

    Research to date on adaptive (sequential, branched, individualized, tailored, programmed, response-contingent) ability testing is reviewed and summarized, following a brief review of problems inherent in conventional individual and group approaches to ability measurement. Research reviewed includes empirical, simulation and theoretical studies of…

  8. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  9. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  10. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately one hundred flights executed over the course of two years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water; it is not susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II respond much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  11. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  12. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  13. The clinimetric qualities of patient-assessed instruments for measuring chronic ankle instability: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eechaute, Christophe; Vaes, Peter; Van Aerschot, Lieve; Asman, Sara; Duquet, William

    2007-01-01

    Background The assessment of outcomes from the patient's perspective becomes more recognized in health care. Also in patients with chronic ankle instability, the degree of present impairments, disabilities and participation problems should be documented from the perspective of the patient. The decision about which patient-assessed instrument is most appropriate for clinical practice should be based upon systematic reviews. Only rating scales constructed for patients with acute ligament injuries were systematically reviewed in the past. The aim of this study was to review systematically the clinimetric qualities of patient-assessed instruments designed for patients with chronic ankle instability. Methods A computerized literature search of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register was performed to identify eligible instruments. Two reviewers independently evaluated the clinimetric qualities of the selected instruments using a criteria list. The inter-observer reliability of both the selection procedure and the clinimetric evaluation was calculated using modified kappa coefficients. Results The inter-observer reliability of the selection procedure was excellent (k = .86). Four instruments met the eligibility criteria: the Ankle Joint Functional Assessment Tool (AJFAT), the Functional Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and the Functional Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). The inter-observer reliability of the quality assessment was substantial to excellent (k between .64 and .88). Test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the FAOS, the FADI and the FAAM but not for the AJFAT. The FAOS and the FAAM met the criteria for content validity and construct validity. For none of the studied instruments, the internal consistency was sufficiently demonstrated. The presence of floor- and ceiling effects was assessed for the FAOS but ceiling effects were present for all subscales

  14. Concurrent Adaptive Measurement of Multiple Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry A.; Davey, Tim C.

    An adaptive test can usually match or exceed the measurement precision of conventional tests several times its length. This increased efficiency is not without costs, however, as the models underlying adaptive testing make strong assumptions about examinees and items. Most troublesome is the assumption that item pools are unidimensional. Truly…

  15. The Use of Situation Tests as Measures of Communicative Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaldini, Tina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the ACTFL/ETS Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) in relation to current models of communicative skills and argues that the OPI fails to measure important aspects of communicative ability. Two Situation Tests, one written and one oral, are described as alternative measures of communicative ability. Examples are given in Appendices.…

  16. [Methodological challenges in measurements of functional ability in gerontological research].

    PubMed

    Avlund, E K

    1997-10-20

    This article addresses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods in measuring functional ability with its main focus on frame of reference, operationalization, practical procedure, validity, discriminatory power, and responsiveness. When measuring functional ability it is recommended: 1) Always to consider the theoretical frame of reference as part of the validation process. 2) Always to assess the content validity of items before they are combined into an index and before performing tests for construct validity. 3) Not to combine mobility, PADL and IADL in the same index/scale. 4) Not to use IADL as a health-related functional ability measure or, if used, to ask whether problems with IADL or non-performance of IADL are caused by health-related factors. 5) Always to analyse functional ability separately for men and women. 6) To exclude the dead in analyses of change in functional ability if the focus is on predictors of deterioration in functional ability. PMID:9411957

  17. Evaluating Measures of Global Coherence Ability in Stories in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Koutsoftas, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Discourse coherence is a reflection of the listener's ability to interpret the overall meaning conveyed by the speaker. Measuring global coherence (maintenance of thematic unity of the discourse) is useful for quantifying communication impairments at the discourse level in clinical populations and for measuring response to…

  18. Measuring Writing Ability with the Cloze Test is not Closed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Helmut; Yost, Carlson

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to examine the usefulness of the cloze test as an objective measure of a native speaker's writing ability. A modified version of the cloze test used by Oller and others to measure integrative language skills in non-native speakers was given to 100 freshman English students. The test…

  19. Abilities, skills and knowledge in measures of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163

  20. Psychometric analysis of five measures of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Thomas P

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzed psychometric properties of five measures of spatial ability on 96 young adults, with supplementary analysis for three of the measures on another sample of 71 young adults. Two measures were taken from the widely cited Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests and three other measures were taken from a relatively new source originally intended as laboratory demonstrations. Previous research provided limited information on the psychometric properties of the measures. All five measures yielded adequate reliability and loaded on a single factor. Three measures yielded markedly skewed distributions. Two measures showed clear sex differences with men scoring higher but this difference seemed contaminated by a speed factor; three measures did not show a sex difference. Recommendations for use of the measures in future studies are provided. PMID:22582677

  1. Measuring Spatial Ability with a Computer Managed Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    This study presents data augmenting the validity studies of the Wheatley Cube (McDaniel and Kroll, 1984), a computer managed test of spatial visualization. Twenty-one students in pilot training are administered several instruments designed to measure the ability to construct a cognitive three-dimensional space, including: (1) the Wheatley Cube,…

  2. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    PubMed

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested. PMID:19843352

  3. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Flores, Ranee A; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors ("Implementation" and "Learning") were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific-r = 0.26 and Writing-r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination ability

  4. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Flores, Ranee A.; Hunter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI). Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.79, and two factors (“Implementation” and “Learning”) were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientific—r = 0.26 and Writing—r = 0.31, respectively), suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe). The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus). We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination

  5. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  6. Perceived versus Measured Communication Ability of Deaf College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Barbara G.; And Others

    Approximately 290 deaf college freshmen participated in a study of the relationship between perceived and actual abilities in eight communication modes (including reading, writing, speech reading with and without sound, and reception of manual and simultaneous communication). Ss rated their abilities before and after a communication course. Actual…

  7. Measuring Infant Communicative Abilities: A Guide to Formal Test Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    This guide was prepared to facilitate the practitioner's selection of formal tests for evaluating communicative behavior in clinical infant populations during the first year of life. Clinical instruments with particular emphasis on communication and emerging language and speech abilities were identified in terms of publishers' recommended…

  8. Relationships between Direct and Indirect Measures of Writing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sybil B.; Camp, Roberta

    This paper reports on Educational Testing Service research studies investigating the parameters critical to reliability and validity in both the direct and indirect writing ability assessment of higher education applicants. The studies involved: (1) formulating an operational definition of writing competence; (2) designing and pretesting writing…

  9. Measuring Speed, Ability, or Motivation: A Comment on Goldhammer (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Ranger, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, Kuhn and Ranger hypothesize that most people are aware that talent does not guarantee success in case one is lazy. This is also true for the performance in achievement tests that depends on, among other factors, achievement potential (ability) and willingness to achieve (test-taking motivation) of the test taker. They add that…

  10. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597

  11. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  12. Attitude Measurement of Pupils with Varying Reading Abilities Semantic Differential Using Concepts Presented by Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francies, Hallie Davis

    Measurement of pupil attitudes can be influenced by the pupil's ability and motivation to read, particularly for those students whose ability is below average. To obtain a valid measure of sixth grade pupil attitudes as they related to Family Life education, the reading factor needed to be eliminated as much as possible. A test utilizing…

  13. Using Computerized Tests to Measure New Dimensions of Abilities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Charles H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A battery of Graphic Information Processing Tests (GRIP) was developed to utilize the display characteristics of computer terminals in measuring abilities important for processing visually presented information. The tests were found to be useful for measuring short-term memory and sequential reasoning abilities. (Author/RC)

  14. Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both? Challenges, Psychometric Solutions, and What Can Be Gained From Experimental Control

    PubMed Central

    Goldhammer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge of ability tests relates to the difficulty of items, whereas speed tests demand that test takers complete very easy items quickly. This article proposes a conceptual framework to represent how performance depends on both between-person differences in speed and ability and the speed-ability compromise within persons. Related measurement challenges and psychometric models that have been proposed to deal with the challenges are discussed. It is argued that addressing individual differences in the speed-ability trade-off requires the control of item response times. In this way, response behavior can be captured exclusively with the response variable remedying problems in traditional measurement approaches. PMID:26807063

  15. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  16. Ability of College Students to Simulate ADHD on Objective Measures of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booksh, Randee Lee; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Gouvier, William Drew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ability of college students to simulate ADHD symptoms on objective and self-report measures and the relationship between knowledge of ADHD and ability to simulate ADHD. Method: Undergraduate students were assigned to a control or a simulated ADHD malingering condition and compared with a clinical AD/HD group.…

  17. Some problems in the measurement of the frequency-resolving ability of hearing.

    PubMed

    Supin, A Ya

    2005-10-01

    Despite the detailed development of masking methods for measurement of the frequency selectivity of hearing, these measurements are hardly used for diagnostic purposes because they are time-consuming and because of the uncertain extrapolation of the results to the perception of complex spectral patterns. A method for the direct measurement of the spectral resolving ability of hearing using test signals with rippled spectra is proposed. These measurements showed 1) that the resolving ability of the auditory system in terms of discriminating complex spectra is greater than that suggested by the acuity of auditory frequency filters; 2) that changes in the acuity of frequency auditory filters associated with sound intensity hardly affect the ability to resolve complex spectra; 3) that the effects of interference on frequency-resolving ability do not lead to decreases in the spectral contrast of signals due to superimposition of noise. PMID:16132266

  18. Methodological challenges in measurements of functional ability in gerontological research. A review.

    PubMed

    Avlund, K

    1997-06-01

    This article addresses two important challenges in the measurement of functional ability in gerontological research: the first challenge is to connect measurements to a theoretical frame of reference which enhances our understanding and interpretation of the collected data; the second relates to validity in all stages of the research from operationalization to meaningful follow-up measurements in longitudinal studies. Advantages and disadvantages in different methods to do the measurements of functional ability are described with main focus on frame of reference, operationalization, practical procedure, validity, discriminatory power, and responsiveness. In measures of functional ability it is recommended: 1) always to consider the theoretical frame of reference as part of the validation process (e.g., the theory of "The Disablement Process"; 2) always to assess whether the included activities and categories are meaningful to all people in the study population before they are combined into an index and before tests for construct validity; 3) not to combine mobility, PADL and IADL in the same index/scale; 4) not to use IADL as a health-related functional ability measure or, if used, to ask whether problems with IADL or non-performance of IADL are caused by health-related factors; 5) always to make analyses of functional ability for men and women separately as patterns of functional ability and patterns of associations between other variables and functional ability often vary for men and women; and 6) to exclude the dead in analyses of change in functional ability if the focus is on predictors of deterioration in functional ability. PMID:9258374

  19. Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

  20. A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The abilities measured by the First Certificate of English (FCE) administered by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate are compared with the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) administered by the Educational Testing Service. The analyses suggest that the FCE and TOEFL appear to measure the same common aspect of language…

  1. Language Sample Measures and Language Ability in Spanish English Bilingual Kindergarteners

    PubMed Central

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity and sentence organization are useful metrics for quantifying language development and language impairments in monolingual and bilingual children. It is not yet known what measures within and across languages are most informative when evaluating the language skills of bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how measures of language productivity and organization in two languages converge with children’s measured language abilities on the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment (BESA), a standardized measure of language ability. 170 kindergarten age children who produced narrative language samples in Spanish and in English based on a wordless picture book were included in the analysis. Samples were analyzed for number of utterances, number of different words, mean length of utterance, and percentage of grammatical utterances. The best predictors of language ability as measured by the BESA scores were English MLU, English grammaticality, and Spanish grammaticality. Results are discussed in relationship to the nature of the measures in each of the languages and in regard to their potential utility for identifying low language ability in bilingual children. PMID:20955835

  2. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  3. Assessing Workplace Emotional Intelligence: Development and Validation of an Ability-based Measure.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup; Hopkins, Kay; Szmerekovsky, Joseph G; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Existing measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), defined as the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions for productive purposes, have displayed limitations in predicting workplace outcomes, likely in part because they do not target this context. Such considerations led to the development of an ability EI measure with work-related scenarios in which respondents infer the likely emotions (perception) and combinations of emotion (understanding) that would occur to protagonists while rating the effectiveness of ways of responding (management). Study 1 (n = 290 undergraduates) used item-total correlations to select scenarios from a larger pool and Study 2 (n = 578) reduced the measure-termed the NEAT-to 30 scenarios on the basis of structural equation modeling. Study 3 (n = 96) then showed that the NEAT had expected correlations with personality and cognitive ability and Study 4 (n = 85) demonstrated convergent validity with other ability EI measures. Last, study 5 (n = 91) established that the NEAT had predictive validity with respect to job satisfaction, job stress, and job performance. The findings affirm the importance of EI in the workplace in the context of a valid new instrument for assessing relevant skills. PMID:26176668

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Measurement Equivalence across 13 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales…

  5. The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

  6. Multidimensional Ability Tests and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Evidence of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability tests are used by teachers to provide additional context for interpreting student achievement and as a tool for differentiating instruction to the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of students. Tests that provide the most useful information for these purposes measure school-related content domains including verbal and quantitative…

  7. TOEFL and IELTS as Measures of Academic Reading Ability: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, James G.

    This paper discusses research conducted in the spring of 1991 that measured the relationship of reading subtest scores to teacher ratings of students' reading abilities. Sixty-eight advanced-level students in an intensive English program took an institutional version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and a specimen reading…

  8. New Measurement Methods of Network Robustness and Response Ability via Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chien-Ta; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2013-01-01

    “Robustness”, the network ability to maintain systematic performance in the face of intrinsic perturbations, and “response ability”, the network ability to respond to external stimuli or transduce them to downstream regulators, are two important complementary system characteristics that must be considered when discussing biological system performance. However, at present, these features cannot be measured directly for all network components in an experimental procedure. Therefore, we present two novel systematic measurement methods – Network Robustness Measurement (NRM) and Response Ability Measurement (RAM) – to estimate the network robustness and response ability of a gene regulatory network (GRN) or protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) based on the dynamic network model constructed by the corresponding microarray data. We demonstrate the efficiency of NRM and RAM in analyzing GRNs and PPINs, respectively, by considering aging- and cancer-related datasets. When applied to an aging-related GRN, our results indicate that such a network is more robust to intrinsic perturbations in the elderly than in the young, and is therefore less responsive to external stimuli. When applied to a PPIN of fibroblast and HeLa cells, we observe that the network of cancer cells possesses better robustness than that of normal cells. Moreover, the response ability of the PPIN calculated from the cancer cells is lower than that from healthy cells. Accordingly, we propose that generalized NRM and RAM methods represent effective tools for exploring and analyzing different systems-level dynamical properties via microarray data. Making use of such properties can facilitate prediction and application, providing useful information on clinical strategy, drug target selection, and design specifications of synthetic biology from a systems biology perspective. PMID:23383119

  9. A Comparison of Black and White Middle Class Children's Performance on Three Ability Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Marlene C.; Etheridge, George

    This study found no differences in the performance of middle class black and white children on three ability measures. The sample consisted of 15 pairs of black and white middle class children, aged 2.5 to 6.5 years, who attended the same mid-south child development center during 1987-88. Variables on which the children were match-paired were the…

  10. Measures to assess the prognostic ability of the stratified Cox proportional hazards model.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    Many measures have been proposed to summarize the prognostic ability of the Cox proportional hazards (CPH) survival model, although none is universally accepted for general use. By contrast, little work has been done to summarize the prognostic ability of the stratified CPH model; such measures would be useful in analyses of individual participant data from multiple studies, data from multi-centre studies, and in single study analysis where stratification is used to avoid making assumptions of proportional hazards. We have chosen three measures developed for the unstratified CPH model (Schemper and Henderson's V , Harrell's C-index and Royston and Sauerbrei's D), adapted them for use with the stratified CPH model and demonstrated how their values can be represented over time. Although each of these measures is promising in principle, we found the measure of explained variation V very difficult to apply when data are combined from several studies with differing durations of participant follow-up. The two other measures considered, D and the C-index, were more applicable under such circumstances. We illustrate the methods using individual participant data from several prospective epidemiological studies of chronic disease outcomes. PMID:18833567

  11. A new measurement of noise immunity and generalization ability for MLPs.

    PubMed

    Bernier, J L; Ortega, J; Ros, E; Rojas, I; Prieto, A

    1999-12-01

    This paper shows a quantitative relation between the regularization techniques, the generalization ability, and the sensitivity of the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to input noise. Although many studies about these topics have been presented, in most cases only one of the problems is addressed, and only experimentally obtained evidence is provided to illustrate some kind of correlation between generalization, noise immunity and the use of regularization techniques to obtain a set of weights after training that provides the corresponding MLP with generalization ability and noise immunity. Here, a new measurement of noise immunity for a MLP is presented. This measurement, which is termed Mean Squared Sensitivity (MSS), explicitly evaluates the Mean Squared Error (MSE) degradation of a MLP when it is perturbed by input noise, and can be computed from the statistical sensitivities (previously proposed) of the output neurons. The MSS provides an accurate evaluation of the MLP performance loss when its inputs are perturbed by noise and can also be considered a measurement of the smoothness of the error surface with respect to the inputs. Thus, as the MSS can be used to evaluate the noise immunity or the generalization ability, it gives a criterion to select among different weight configurations that present a similar MSE after training. PMID:10651334

  12. Measurement Invariance of Cognitive Abilities Across Ethnicity, Gender, and Time Among Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this research was to test the invariance of the cognitive variables in the Health and Retirement Study/Asset Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old studies (HRS/AHEAD) across ethnicity, gender, and time. Method. Analyses were conducted using a selected subsample of the HRS/AHEAD data set. The cognitive performance tests measuring episodic memory and mental status were used, and invariance of a two-factor structure was tested using confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel modeling for longitudinal data. Results. Results provided some support for “strict” factorial invariance of the episodic memory and mental status measures across ethnicity and gender. Further support of weak (“metric”) measurement invariance was found across time. Discussion. Results of the research further our understanding of invariance of the HRS/AHEAD cognitive ability measures. Further implications are discussed. PMID:24170715

  13. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure

    PubMed Central

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait–correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M–1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability. PMID:27247667

  14. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure.

    PubMed

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-08-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait-correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M-1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability. PMID:27247667

  15. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Filipe; dos Reis, Ivan; Ribeiro, Luiz; Martins, Luiz; Gobatto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s) completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p < 0.05). Pearson product-moment correlation measured the relationship between mechanical variables and free running performance. A total impulse, the rate of force development and maximum force did not show significant differences for most sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and −0.35). Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = −0.71 and −0.76, respectively; p < 0.001), followed by mean force (r = −0.61; p < 0.001) and total work (r = −0.50; p < 0.001). It was concluded that under a severe work-to-rest ratio condition, power variables were better suited to evaluating repeated sprint ability than the other studied variables. PMID:26839625

  16. Measuring Student Ability, Classifying Schools, and Detecting Item Bias at School Level, Based on Student-Level Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennink, Margot; Croon, Marcel A.; Keuning, Jos; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2014-01-01

    In educational measurement, responses of students on items are used not only to measure the ability of students, but also to evaluate and compare the performance of schools. Analysis should ideally account for the multilevel structure of the data, and school-level processes not related to ability, such as working climate and administration…

  17. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  18. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  19. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other Than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2016-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mindset, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so. We first address confusion over terminology, including the descriptor “non-cognitive.” We conclude that debate over the optimal name for this broad category of personal qualities obscures substantial agreement about the specific attributes worth measuring. Next, we discuss advantages and limitations of different measures. In particular, we compare self-report questionnaires, teacher-report questionnaires, and performance tasks, using self-control as an illustrative case study to make the general point that each approach is imperfect in its own way. Finally, we discuss how each measure’s imperfections can affect its suitability for program evaluation, accountability, individual diagnosis, and practice improvement. For example, we do not believe any available measure is suitable for between-school accountability judgments. In addition to urging caution among policymakers and practitioners, we highlight medium-term innovations that may make measures of these personal qualities more suitable for educational purposes. PMID:27134288

  20. Determinants and Validity of Self-Estimates of Abilities and Self-Concept Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Wolman, Stacey D.

    2007-01-01

    How accurate are self-estimates of cognitive abilities? An investigation of self-estimates of verbal, math, and spatial abilities is reported with a battery of parallel objective tests of abilities. Self-estimates were obtained prior to and after objective ability testing (without test feedback) in order to examine whether self-estimates change…

  1. Measuring anhedonia: impaired ability to pursue, experience, and learn about reward.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2015-01-01

    Ribot's (1896) long standing definition of anhedonia as "the inability to experience pleasure" has been challenged recently following progress in affective neuroscience. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests that reward consists of multiple subcomponents of wanting, liking and learning, as initially outlined by Berridge and Robinson (2003), and these processes have been proposed to relate to appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases of a pleasure cycle. Building on this work, we recently proposed to reconceptualize anhedonia as "impairments in the ability to pursue, experience, and/or learn about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness." (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald's (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders. Successful translations of animal models have led to strong evidence of impairments in the ability to pursue and learn about reward in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. It is of high importance that we continue to systematically target impairments in all phases of reward processing across disorders using behavioral testing in combination with neuroimaging techniques. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment, and is essential for the purposes of identifying the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here I review recent progress in the development and application of behavioral procedures that measure subcomponents of anhedonia across relevant patient groups, and discuss methodological caveats as

  2. Measuring anhedonia: impaired ability to pursue, experience, and learn about reward

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2015-01-01

    Ribot’s (1896) long standing definition of anhedonia as “the inability to experience pleasure” has been challenged recently following progress in affective neuroscience. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests that reward consists of multiple subcomponents of wanting, liking and learning, as initially outlined by Berridge and Robinson (2003), and these processes have been proposed to relate to appetitive, consummatory and satiety phases of a pleasure cycle. Building on this work, we recently proposed to reconceptualize anhedonia as “impairments in the ability to pursue, experience, and/or learn about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness.” (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald’s (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders. Successful translations of animal models have led to strong evidence of impairments in the ability to pursue and learn about reward in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. It is of high importance that we continue to systematically target impairments in all phases of reward processing across disorders using behavioral testing in combination with neuroimaging techniques. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment, and is essential for the purposes of identifying the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here I review recent progress in the development and application of behavioral procedures that measure subcomponents of anhedonia across relevant patient groups, and discuss

  3. Development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM): conceptualizing and measuring consumer ability to choose and use private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Paez, Kathryn A; Mallery, Coretta J; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E; Lucado, Jennifer L; Ganachari, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure. PMID:25315595

  4. Development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM): Conceptualizing and Measuring Consumer Ability to Choose and Use Private Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Paez, Kathryn A.; Mallery, Coretta J.; Noel, HarmoniJoie; Pugliese, Christopher; McSorley, Veronica E.; Lucado, Jennifer L.; Ganachari, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding health insurance is central to affording and accessing health care in the United States. Efforts to support consumers in making wise purchasing decisions and using health insurance to their advantage would benefit from the development of a valid and reliable measure to assess health insurance literacy. This article reports on the development of the Health Insurance Literacy Measure (HILM), a self-assessment measure of consumers' ability to select and use private health insurance. The authors developed a conceptual model of health insurance literacy based on formative research and stakeholder guidance. Survey items were drafted using the conceptual model as a guide then tested in two rounds of cognitive interviews. After a field test with 828 respondents, exploratory factor analysis revealed two HILM scales, choosing health insurance and using health insurance, each of which is divided into a confidence subscale and likelihood of behavior subscale. Correlations between the HILM scales and an objective measure of health insurance knowledge and skills were positive and statistically significant which supports the validity of the measure. PMID:25315595

  5. Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both? Challenges, Psychometric Solutions, and What Can Be Gained from Experimental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge of ability tests relates to the difficulty of items, whereas speed tests demand that test takers complete very easy items quickly. This article proposes a conceptual framework to represent how performance depends on both between-person differences in speed and ability and the speed-ability compromise within persons. Related…

  6. A Uniform Methodology for Measuring Parental Ability to Pay: Implications for the College Scholarship Service in 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James L.

    The movement toward a uniform methodology of determining parental ability to pay to be used over time by all institutions and agencies awarding financial aid funds is consistent with the goals and objectives of the College Scholarship Service (CSS). This paper describes a proposed system for a uniform methodology for measuring parental ability to…

  7. Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Mathematics Achievement across the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Evans, Jeffrey J.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantly related to mathematics achievement in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Multiple regression analyses were used to…

  8. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  9. Can Simulation Measure Differences in Task-Switching Ability Between Junior and Senior Emergency Medicine Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dustin; Miller, Daniel G.; Cukor, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Work interruptions during patient care have been correlated with error. Task-switching is identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) as a core competency for emergency medicine (EM). Simulation has been suggested as a means of assessing EM core competencies. We assumed that senior EM residents had better task-switching abilities than junior EM residents. We hypothesized that this difference could be measured by observing the execution of patient care tasks in the simulation environment when a patient with a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interrupted the ongoing management of a septic shock case. Methods This was a multi-site, prospective, observational, cohort study. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of EM residents in their first three years of training. Each subject performed a standardized simulated encounter by evaluating and treating a patient in septic shock. At a predetermined point in every sepsis case, the subject was given a STEMI electrocardiogram (ECG) for a separate chest pain patient in triage and required to verbalize an interpretation and action. We scored learner performance using a dichotomous checklist of critical actions covering sepsis care, ECG interpretation and triaging of the STEMI patient. Results Ninety-one subjects participated (30 postgraduate year [PGY]1s, 32 PGY2s, and 29 PGY3s). Of those, 87 properly managed the patient with septic shock (90.0% PGY1s, 100% PGY2, 96.6% PGY 3s; p=0.22). Of the 87 who successfully managed the septic shock, 80 correctly identified STEMI on the simulated STEMI patient (86.7% PGY1s, 96.9% PGY2s, 93.1% PGY3s; p=0.35). Of the 80 who successfully managed the septic shock patient and correctly identified the STEMI, 79 provided appropriate interventions for the STEMI patient (73.3% PGY1s, 93.8% PGY2s, 93.8% PGY3s; p=0.07). Conclusion When management of a septic shock patient was interrupted with a STEMI ECG in a simulated

  10. Characteristic free volumes of bulk metallic glasses: Measurement and their correlation with glass-forming ability

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Qiang; Zeng Xierong; Fu, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    A convenient method is proposed for the measurement of the characteristic free volumes, viz., the amount of excess free volume annihilation in structural relaxation V{sub f-sr} and the amount of new free volume production in glass transition V{sub f-gt} of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by thermal dilation (DIL) test. Through the DIL tests, the characteristic free volumes are found to be sensitive to the change of glass forming ability (GFA). The Pd{sub 40}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} BMG has a quite small V{sub f-sr}. For a series of Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-(Er) BMGs, Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2} with the largest GFA is identified to have the largest V{sub f-gt} and smallest V{sub f-sr}. The correlation between V{sub f-sr} and the squares of critical diameters of these iron-based BMGs can be fitted as a negative exponential function with high accuracy.

  11. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  12. Measuring the Reading Ability of Incoming Freshmen: A Path Analysis Investigation into Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a complex process involving numerous skills and abilities contributing to acquiring meaning from text. Individuals without the requisite reading skills will have difficulty not only in school but throughout their lifetimes. The purpose of the study was to compare the reading ability of incoming college freshmen with that of adults with…

  13. Do Subjective Measures Improve the Ability to Identify Limited Health Literacy in a Clinical Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.; Griffey, Richard T.; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing health literacy assessments developed for research purposes have constraints that limit their utility for clinical practice, including time requirements and administration protocols. The Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) consists of 3 self-administered Single-Item Literacy Screener (SILS) questions and obviates these clinical barriers. We assessed whether the addition of SILS items or the BHLS to patient demographics readily available in ambulatory clinical settings reaching underserved patients improves the ability to identify limited health literacy. Methods We analyzed data from 2 cross-sectional convenience samples of patients from an urban academic emergency department (n = 425) and a primary care clinic (n = 486) in St. Louis, Missouri. Across samples, health literacy was assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the BHLS. Our analytic sample consisted of 911 adult patients, who were primarily female (62%), black (66%), and had at least a high school education (82%); 456 were randomly assigned to the estimation sample and 455 to the validation sample. Results The analysis showed that the best REALM-R estimation model contained age, sex, education, race, and 1 SILS item (difficulty understanding written information). In validation analysis this model had a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 81%, a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.26, and a negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of 0.47; there was a 28% misclassification rate. The best NVS estimation model contained the BHLS, age, sex, education and race; this model had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 72%, LR+ of 2.75, LR− of 0.32, and a misclassification rate of 25%. Conclusions Findings suggest that the BHLS and SILS items improve the ability to identify patients with limited health literacy compared with demographic predictors alone. However, despite being easier to administer in clinical settings, subjective

  14. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  15. Cognitive ability and continuous measures of relative hand skill: a note.

    PubMed

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is consistent with the idea that failure to develop dominance of one hemisphere is associated with various pathologies such as learning difficulties. Using the same data source but utilising additional data, evidence is found of a more complex relationship between cognitive ability and relative hand skill. PMID:18342341

  16. A Practical Testing Battery to Measure Neurobehavioral Ability among Children with FASD

    PubMed Central

    Kalberg, Wendy O.; May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Adnams, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS To determine a brief, practical battery of tests that discriminate between children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and unexposed controls. DESIGN Children received dysmorphology exams, a targeted battery of cognitive and behavioral tests, and their mothers were interviewed about maternal risk factors. Children diagnosed with an FASD and children unexposed to alcohol prenatally were compared on cognitive/behavioral test results. SETTING A community in The Western Cape Province of South Africa. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-one, first grade children with FASD and 52 matched normal controls. MEASURES Statistical analyses of maternal drinking behavior and their child's test performance. FINDINGS Self-reported maternal drinking patterns before during and after pregnancy were used to confirm prenatal exposures to alcohol in the group of children diagnosed with FASD. With this sample of children diagnosed with FASD and completely unexposed controls, the adverse effects of maternal drinking on children's performance are reported. Results of the battery of standardized cognitive and behavioral tests indicate highly significant differences (p ≤ .001) between groups on: intelligence, perceptual motor, planning, and logical, spatial, short term, long term, and working memory abilities. Furthermore, a binary logistical regression model of only 3 specific cognitive and behavioral tests, including Digit Span A+B (Wald = 4.10), Absurd Situation (Wald = 3.57), and Word Association (Wald = 4.30) correctly classified 79.1% of the child participants as FASD or controls. CONCLUSIONS A brief, practical set of tests can discriminate children with and without FASD and provide useful information for interventions for affected children. PMID:25258654

  17. Relationships among Selected Measures of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes. Interim Report, January 1979 through June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony; Landis, David B.

    This study, the fourth in a series conducted at the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics School for a computer managed instruction project, reports the relationships among selected measurements of student cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Measures of these characteristics for a sample of 166 graduates of BE/E were analyzed to…

  18. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  19. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  20. The ability of CryoSat-2 to measure Antarctic sea ice freeboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Daniel; Rack, Wolfgang; Beckers, Justin; Ricker, Robert; Kurtz, Nathan; Haas, Christian; Helm, Veit; Hendricks, Stefan; Leonard, Greg; Langhorne, Pat

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic sea ice cover has been routinely monitored since 1979 but sea ice thickness remains one of the least understood physical components of the global cryosphere. Quantification of thickness is of crucial importance, since when combined with areal data it allows the computation of sea ice volume providing insight into the heat budget of the Antarctic sea ice system and quantification of freshwater and saltwater fluxes in the Southern Ocean. The use of satellite altimetry for sea ice thickness estimation relies on the measurement of freeboard. Thickness can then be estimated based on the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium given densities of snow, ice, water, and snow thickness are known. Using in situ data for 2011 and 2013 we evaluate the ability of CryoSat-2 (CS-2) to retrieve sea ice freeboard over fast-ice in McMurdo Sound. European Space Agency Level 2 data (ESAL2) is compared with results of a Waveform Fitting procedure (WfF) and a Threshold-First-Maximum-Retracker-Algorithm employed at 40% (TFMRA40). A supervised freeboard retrieval procedure is used to reduce errors associated with sea surface height identification and radar velocity in snow. We find ESAL2 freeboards located between the ice and snow freeboard rather than the frequently assumed snow-ice interface. WfF is within 0.04 m of the ice freeboard but is influenced by variable snow conditions causing increased radar backscatter from the air/snow interface; in such conditions a positive bias of 0.14 m away from the ice freeboard is observed. TFMRA40 freeboards are within 0.03 m of the snow freeboard. The difference in freeboard estimates is primarily driven by different retracker assumptions, although waveform alteration by variations in snow properties and surface roughness is evident. Techniques were amended where necessary and automatic freeboard retrieval procedures for ESAL2, WfF and TFMRA40 were developed. CS-2 detects annual fast-ice freeboard trends in McMurdo Sound using all three

  1. Proprioceptive ability at the lips and jaw measured using the same psychophysical discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Ellie; Coulson, Susan; Adams, Roger; Croxson, Glen; Waddington, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    In the human face, the muscles and joints that generate movement have different properties. Whereas the jaw is a conventional condyle joint, the facial musculature has neither distinct origin nor insertion points, and the muscles do not contain muscle spindle proprioceptors. This current study aims to compare the proprioceptive ability at the orofacial muscles with that of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in 21 neuro-typical people aged between 18 and 65 years. A novel psychophysical task was devised for use with both structures that involved a fixed 30.5 mm start separation followed by closure onto stimuli of 5, 6, 7, 8 mm diameter. The mean proprioceptive score when using the lips was 0.84 compared to 0.79 at the jaw (p < 0.001), and response error was lower by 0.1 mm. The greater accuracy in discrimination of lip movement is significant because, unlike the muscles controlling the TMJ, the orbicularis oris muscle controlling the lips inserts on to connective tissue and other muscle, and contains no muscle spindles, implying a different more effective, proprioceptive mechanism. Additionally, unlike the lack of correlation previously observed between joints in the upper and lower limbs, at the face the scores from performing the task with the two different structures were significantly correlated (r = 0.5, p = 0.018). These data extend the understanding of proprioception being correlated for the same left and right joints and correlated within the same structure (e.g. ankle dorsiflexion and inversion), to include use-dependant proprioception, with performance in different structures being correlated through extended coordinated use. At the lips and jaw, it is likely that this arises from extensive coordinated use. This informs clinical assessment and suggests a potential for coordinated post-injury training of the lips and jaw, as well as having the potential to predict premorbid function via measurement of the uninjured structure, when monitoring

  2. Implicit measures of beliefs about sport ability in swimming and basketball.

    PubMed

    Mascret, Nicolas; Falconetti, Jean-Louis; Cury, François

    2016-04-01

    Sport ability may be seen as relatively stable, genetically determined and not easily modified by practice, or as increasable with training, work and effort. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the purpose of the present study is to examine whether the practice of a particular sport (swimming or basketball) can influence automatic beliefs about sport ability in these two sports. The IAT scores evidence that swimmers and basketball players automatically and implicitly associate their own sport with training rather than genetics, whereas non-sportspersons have no significant automatic association. This result is strengthened when perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in swimming or basketball are high. PMID:26360924

  3. Measuring the Effects of Reading Assistance Dogs on Reading Ability and Attitudes in Elementary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Dawn; McCobb, Emily; Diurba, Amanda; Linder, Deborah; Freeman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Reading assistance dogs can be incorporated into reading programs to increase a child's desire and ability to read. However, more data is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of such programs. A 5-week reading assistance dog program was implemented to assess feasibility and effectiveness. Participants included 18 children entering the 2nd grade…

  4. Measurement Invariance of Core Cognitive Abilities in Heterogeneous Neurological and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Cook, Mark J.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Shores, E. Arthur; Carstairs, Jane R.

    2004-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of…

  5. MEASURING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S ABILITY TO USE EVIDENCE FROM SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS IN DECISION-MAKING SITUATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MENEFEE, ROBERT WILLIAM

    ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS' ABILITY TO USE EVIDENCE FROM SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS WAS DETERMINED. THE 320 PUPILS FROM GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX WERE PLACED IN DECISION-MAKING SITUATIONS REQUIRING THEM TO USE EVIDENCE FROM A PLATFORM BALANCE OR GRADUATED CYLINDER. PUPILS WERE REQUIRED TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN MASSES OR VOLUMES OF PAIRS OF OBJECTS. THE…

  6. Heuristics and Biases as Measures of Critical Thinking: Associations with Cognitive Ability and Thinking Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that there are a range of effects usually studied within cognitive psychology that are legitimately thought of as aspects of critical thinking: the cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature. In a study of 793 student participants, the authors found that the ability to avoid these biases was…

  7. Measuring Attentional Ability in Older Adults: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of DriverScan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa; Yang, Xiangdong; Bovaird, James A.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Although deficits in visual attention are often postulated as an important component of many declines in cognitive processing and functional outcomes in older adults, surprisingly little emphasis has been placed on evaluating psychometric instruments with which individual differences in visual attention ability can be assessed. This article…

  8. Investigating the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of Phonological Abilities in a Sufficiently Transparent Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Spanoudis, George

    2012-01-01

    Theory-driven conceptualizations of phonological abilities in a sufficiently transparent language (Greek) were examined in children ages 5 years 8 months to 7 years 7 months, by comparing a set of a priori models. Specifically, the fit of 9 different models was evaluated, as defined by the Number of Factors (1 to 3; represented by rhymes,…

  9. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  10. Measuring intellectual ability in children with cerebral palsy: can we do better?

    PubMed

    Sherwell, Sarah; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Wrennall, Jacquie; Ong, Ben; Stargatt, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Standard intelligence tests such as the WPPSI-III have limitations when testing children with motor impairment. This study aimed to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy with sufficient verbal and motor skills to complete the WPPSI-III, to determine their comparative ability to complete tasks with and without a significant motor component, and to investigate short forms of the WPPSI-III as alternatives. Participants were 78 of 235 eligible 4-5 year old children with cerebral palsy resident in the Australian state of Victoria. Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) were determined using the WPPSI-III. Initial screening for pointing and verbal abilities determined which tests were attempted. The impact of speed was investigated by comparing scores on the Block Design subtest with and without an imposed time limit. FSIQ scores were calculated from two short forms of the WPPSI-III and compared to the full form. On screening, 16 children had inadequate pointing (14) and verbal abilities (2). FSIQ was obtained in 62 (82%) children. Strong associations were seen between completion of the entire test battery and topographical pattern, level of manual ability and level of gross motor function. Scores on subtests requiring manual ability were depressed relative to other scores. Children performed better using short forms of the WPPSI-III and, for a minority, when time limits were disregarded. In summary, children with cerebral palsy often lack the fine and gross motor skills necessary to complete the WPPSI-III, scoring relatively poorly on tasks requiring a fine motor response. Using short-form estimations of FSIQ comprised of subtests without a significant fine motor component has the potential to increase a child's FSIQ by approximately 5 points. These findings have important clinical implications when assessing a child with both motor and cognitive limitations. PMID:25005064

  11. The Direct Assessment of Functional Abilities (DAFA): a comparison to an indirect measure of instrumental activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Karagiozis, H; Gray, S; Sacco, J; Shapiro, M; Kawas, C

    1998-02-01

    The Direct Assessment of Functional Abilities (DAFA) was designed as a direct measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) that could be compared with an indirect assessment of IADLs by the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The DAFA (28 demented and 15 control subjects) and PFAQ (subjects and informants) were administered twice, together with a brief cognitive battery. Demented subjects performed significantly worse on direct assessment (DAFA) than predicted by self-report (PFAQ), and overestimation of abilities increased with severity of dementia. In contrast, informants tended to underestimate abilities of demented subjects, but not to a significant degree. Control (nondemented) subjects had comparable results with the two methods. The DAFA may provide a more objective measure of functional status in demented subjects than do indirect methods of assessment. PMID:9499659

  12. Individual Differences in Dynamic Measures of Verbal Learning Abilities in Young Twin Pairs and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Soelen, Inge L. C.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Dekker, Peter H.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the genetic background of individual differences in dynamic measures of verbal learning ability in children, using a Dutch version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Nine-year-old twin pairs (N = 112 pairs) were recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. When possible, an older sibling between 10 and 14 years old…

  13. Historical Increase in the Number of Factors Measured by Commercial Tests of Cognitive Ability: Are We Overfactoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A historical increase in the number of factors purportedly measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability may result from four distinct pressures including: increasingly complex models of intelligence, test publishers' desires to provide clinically useful assessment instruments with greater interpretive value, test publishers' desires to…

  14. The Direct Assessment of Functional Abilities (DAFA): A Comparison to an Indirect Measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiozis, Helen; Gray, Sarah; Sacco, Jane; Shapiro, Martha; Kawas, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of administering the Direct Awareness of Functional Abilities (DAFA) and the Pfeefer Activities Questionnaire to 28 demented, and 15 control subjects. Results show that the DAFA may provide a more objective measure of functional status in demented subjects than is provided by indirect methods of assessment. (MKA)

  15. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them. PMID:24914460

  16. A Response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study," the authors agree that assessments should seek parsimony in both theory and application wherever possible. Doing so allows maximal dissemination and implementation while minimizing costs. The Writing…

  17. Age-Related Invariance of Abilities Measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Holdnack, James A.; Lloyd, Delyth

    2006-01-01

    Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of test scores is directly comparable across groups. The observation of measurement invariance provides fundamental evidence for the inference that scores on a test afford equivalent measurement of the same psychological traits among diverse groups. Groups…

  18. Correlations among measures of cognitive ability, creativity, and academic achievement for gifted minority children.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, G B; Lopez, E

    1988-10-01

    This study explored the correlations among nonverbal reasoning ability, creativity, and academic achievement in gifted minority children, 89 girls and 71 boys in Grades 1 through 8 in a program for gifted. A random half of students from all grade levels were tested at the beginning of the year and the remaining half after 7 mo. with Raven Progressive Matrices, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and the California Achievement Test. Pearson correlations reflected limited relations among these variables except for a significant positive value between creativity and reading achievement. Suggestions for further study and implications for identification procedures and program development were provided. PMID:3217184

  19. Language Sample Measures and Language Ability in Spanish-English Bilingual Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity and sentence organization are useful metrics for quantifying language development and language impairments in monolingual and bilingual children. It is not yet known what measures within and across languages are most informative when evaluating the language skills of bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. The Measurement and Predictive Ability of Metacognition in Middle School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Rayne A.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Ramsay, Crystal M.; Klapp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relations among components of metacognition from varying theoretical perspectives, explored the psychometric characteristics of known measures of metacognition, and examined the predictive strength of measures of metacognition for both science and overall academic achievement in 97 seventh-grade students. Findings indicated…

  1. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  2. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy. PMID:27262445

  3. Generic ABILHAND Questionnaire Can Measure Manual Ability across a Variety of Motor Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Anna; Rota, Viviana; Tesio, Luigi; Perucca, Laura

    2011-01-01

    ABILHAND is, in its original version, a 46-item, 4-level questionnaire. It measures the difficulty perceived by patients with rheumatoid arthritis as they do various daily manual tasks. ABILHAND was originally built through Rasch analysis. In a later study, it was simplified to a generic 23-item, three-level questionnaire, showing both…

  4. Validating Functional Measures of Physical Ability for Aging People with Intellectual Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Joyce R.; Costello, Ellen; Birkmeier, Marisa C.; Richards, Maggie; Alexander, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the aging population without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), few standardized performance measures exist to assess physical function and risk for adverse outcomes such as nonfatal, unintentional injuries. We modified 3 selected standardized performance tools in the areas of general fitness (2-Minute Walk Test), balance…

  5. Heritability of Cognitive Abilities as Measured by Mental Chronometric Tasks: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to meta-analyze the published studies that measure the performance differences in mental chronometric tasks using a behavioral genetic research design. Because chronometric tasks are so simple, individual differences in the time it takes to complete them are largely due to underlying biological and physiological…

  6. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  7. Reproducibility and repeatability of measures of milk coagulation properties and predictive ability of mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dal Zotto, R; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Carnier, P; Gallo, L; Bittante, G

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate the reproducibility and repeatability of milk coagulation properties (MCP) measured by a computerized renneting meter (CRM) and to evaluate the predictive ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) as an innovative technology for the assessment of rennet coagulation time (RCT, min) and curd firmness (a(30), mm). Four samples without addition of preservative (NP) and 4 samples with Bronopol addition (PS) were collected from each of 83 Holstein-Friesian cows. Six hours after collection, 2 replicated measures of MCP were obtained with CRM using 1 NP and 1 PS sample from each cow. Mid-infrared spectra of the remaining NP and PS samples from each animal were recorded after 6 h, 4 d, and 8 d after sampling. Two groups of calibration equations were developed using MIRS spectra and CRM measures of MCP as reference data obtained from analysis of NP and PS, respectively. Reproducibility and repeatability of CRM measures were obtained from REML estimation of variance components on the basis of a linear model including the fixed effects of herd and days in milk class and the random effects of cows, sample treatment (addition or no addition of preservative), and the interaction between cow and sample treatment. Coefficient of reproducibility is an indicator of the agreement between 2 measurements of MCP for the same milk sample preserved with or without addition of Bronopol. Coefficient of repeatability is an indicator of the agreement between repeated measures of MCP. Pearson correlations between MCP measures for NP and PS were 0.97 and 0.83 for RCT and a(30), respectively. Reproducibility of CRM measures under different preserving conditions of milk was 93.5% for RCT and 64.6% for a(30). Repeatabilities of RCT and a(30) measures were 95.7 and 77.3%, respectively. Based on the estimated cross-validation standard errors and coefficients of determination and ratios of standard errors of cross-validation to standard deviation of

  8. Measuring novices' field mapping abilities using an in-class exercise based on expert task analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulkins, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We are interested in developing a model of expert-like behavior for improving the teaching methods of undergraduate field geology. Our aim is to assist students in mastering the process of field mapping more efficiently and effectively and to improve their ability to think creatively in the field. To examine expert-mapping behavior, a cognitive task analysis was conducted with expert geologic mappers in an attempt to define the process of geologic mapping (i.e. to understand how experts carry out geological mapping). The task analysis indicates that expert mappers have a wealth of geologic scenarios at their disposal that they compare against examples seen in the field, experiences that most undergraduate mappers will not have had. While presenting students with many geological examples in class may increase their understanding of geologic processes, novices still struggle when presented with a novel field situation. Based on the task analysis, a short (45-minute) paper-map-based exercise was designed and tested with 14 pairs of 3rd year geology students. The exercise asks students to generate probable geologic models based on a series of four (4) data sets. Each data set represents a day’s worth of data; after the first “day,” new sheets simply include current and previously collected data (e.g. “Day 2” data set includes data from “Day 1” plus the new “Day 2” data). As the geologic complexity increases, students must adapt, reject or generate new geologic models in order to fit the growing data set. Preliminary results of the exercise indicate that students who produced more probable geologic models, and produced higher ratios of probable to improbable models, tended to go on to do better on the mapping exercises at the 3rd year field school. These results suggest that those students with more cognitively available geologic models may be more able to use these models in field settings than those who are unable to draw on these models for whatever

  9. Experimentally measured morphology of biomass burning aerosol and its impacts on CCN ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M.; Espinoza, C.; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the morphological properties of freshly emitted and atmospherically aged aerosols from biomass burning. The impacts of particle morphology assumptions on hygroscopic predictions are examined. Chamber experiments were conducted at the University of California, Riverside, Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) atmospheric processes lab using two biomass fuel sources: manzanita and chamise. Morphological data was obtained through the use of an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Data from these instruments was used to calculate both a dynamic shape factor and a fractal-like dimension for the biomass burning emissions. This data was then used with κ-Köhler theory to adjust the calculated hygroscopicity for experimentally determined morphological characteristics of the aerosol. Laboratory measurement of biomass burning aerosol from two chaparral fuels show that particles are nonspherical with dynamic shape factors greater than 1.15 for aerosol sizes relevant to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation. Accounting for particle morphology can shift the hygroscopicity parameter by 0.15 or more. To our knowledge, this work provides the first laboratory chamber measurements of morphological characteristics for biomass burning cloud condensation nuclei and provides experimental particle shape evidence to support the variation in reported hygroscopicities of the complex aerosol.

  10. Can measures of prey availability improve our ability to predict the abundance of large marine predators?

    PubMed

    Wirsing, Aaron J; Heithaus, Michael R; Dill, Lawrence M

    2007-09-01

    Apex marine predators can structure marine communities, so factors underlying their abundance are of broad interest. However, such data are almost completely lacking for large sharks. We assessed the relationship between tiger shark abundance, water temperature, and the availability of a variety of known prey over 5 years in Western Australia. Abundance of sharks in four size categories and the density of prey (cormorants, dugongs, sea snakes, sea turtles) were indexed using daily catch rates and transects, respectively. Across all sizes, thermal conditions were a determinant of abundance, with numerical peaks coinciding with periods of high water temperature. However, for sharks exceeding 300 cm total length, the inclusion of dugong density significantly improved temperature-based models, suggesting that use of particular areas by large tiger sharks is influenced by availability of this sirenian. We conclude that large marine predator population models may benefit from the inclusion of measures of prey availability, but only if such measures consider prey types separately and account for ontogenetic shifts in the diet of the predator in question. PMID:17549522

  11. Project CHOICE: Validity of Interest and Ability Measures for Student Choice of Vocational Program. ACT Research Report Series 90-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.; Brandt, William E.

    A project was conducted to determine whether vocational interest and ability measures can help high school students identify vocational education programs in which they will experience satisfaction and success. Six Career Planning Program (CPP) interest measures and 15 ability measures were administered to 2,101 seniors in 19 area…

  12. Underreporting of patient safety incidents reduces health care's ability to quantify and accurately measure harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Noble, Douglas J; Pronovost, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Underreporting of patient safety incidents creates a reservoir of information that is plagued with epidemiological bias. These include systematic biases such as the practice of reporting minor incidents at the expense of more serious ones. This leads to inaccurate rates of errors and an inability to generalize results to whole patient populations. It leaves reporting incidents, in epidemiological terms, comparable to nonrandom samples from an unknown universe of events. These epidemiological problems lead to a situation where priorities are skewed toward what "we know we know." As "we know what we do not know," for example, gaps in knowledge about serious incidents due to low reporting rates, due caution must be applied in making policy based on biased underreporting. Barriers to reporting contribute to low participation rates and further bias information. Lack of feedback and fear of personal consequences are common barriers. Evaluation of reporting systems indicates reports can be used as tools for learning, but it is not yet possible to monitor improvement in patient safety or measurably prove reduction in harm. Mandatory reporting makes sense from an epidemiological point of view, but there are legitimate fears that it could further reduce reporting rates due to fear of reprisal. Underreporting and the associated biases are a significant problem in realizing the epidemiological potential of incident reporting in health care. PMID:21500613

  13. A study of two measures of spatial ability as predictors of success in different levels of general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Carolyn S.; Larussa, Mary A.; Bodner, George M.

    Preliminary data (Bodner and McMillen, 1986) suggested a correlation between spatial ability and performance in a general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. This correlation was seen not only on highly spatial tasks such as predicting the structures of ionic solids (r = 0.29), but also on tasks such as multiple-choice stoichiometry questions (r = 0.32) that might not be expected to involve spatial skills. To further investigate the relationship between spatial ability and performance in introductory chemistry courses, two spatial tests were given to 1648 students in a course for science and engineering majors (Carter, 1984) and 850 students in a course for students from nursing and agriculture (La-Russa, 1985) at Purdue. Scores on the spatial tests consistently contributed a small but significant amount to success on measures of performance in chemistry. Correlations were largest, however, for subscores that grouped questions that tested problem solving skills rather than rote memory or the application of simple algorithms, and correlations were also large for verbally complex questions thaty required the students to disembed and restructure relevant information.

  14. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J.; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended. PMID:26664712

  15. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended. PMID:26664712

  16. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  17. A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

  18. Measuring Mathematical Ability Needed for "Non-Mathematical" Majors: The Construction of a Scale Applying IRT and Differential Item Functioning across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Silvia; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    Given that basic mathematical ability is a requirement to succeed in "non-mathematical" majors, e.g. degrees for Psychology, Education, and Health Sciences with compulsory introductory stats courses, assessing this ability can be useful to promote achievement. The aim of the present study was to develop a scale to measure the mathematical ability…

  19. A study of the ability of the D0 detector to measure the single jet inclusive cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Astur, R.V.

    1992-12-31

    The D0 experiment began accumulating data at the Fermilab Tevatron in May of 1992. Protons are collided with antiprotons at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and an expected peak luminosity of 5 {times} 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1}. The D0 detector is an all-purpose detector that will have exceptional jet reconstruction capabilities derived from superior calorimetry and nearly 4{pi} angular coverage. One of the many physics measurements that will be made at D0 is the inclusive jet cross section. Comparison of this cross section with theoretical predictions allows us to test the accuracy of the standard model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This comparison is usually in the form of a measurement of the differential cross section with respect to the transverse energy of the jet. The extended angular coverage of the D0 detector allows measurements of the differential cross section as a function of jet rapidity as well. Recently completed calculations of the next-to-leading-order contribution to the inclusive cross section result in predictions with reduced theoretical errors. In addition, recent fits to data from deep inelastic scattering and single photon experiments further restrict the quark and gluon structure functions of the proton which are necessary in the theoretical predictions of the cross section. It may be that an experimental measurement of the inclusive cross section would favor some of these fits over others. We have studied extensive computer simulations of both the Tevatron and the D0 detector in order to determine D0`s ability to reconstruct the inclusive cross section. We present a discussion of this analysis as presently understood.

  20. Strength and pain are related to different measures of functional ability in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zeni, Joseph; Abujaber, Sumayah; Pozzi, Federico; Raisis, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Performance tests and self-reported questionnaires capture different domains of function in patients with lower extremity osteoarthritis, but the impairments related to each of these domains have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how strength and joint pain influence performance-based tests and self-reported questionnaires of functional ability of individuals with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. Methods Fifty-six patients scheduled to undergo unilateral total hip arthroplasty were included in this cross sectional analysis. Subjects completed the Hip Outcome Survey (HOS) and pain in the affected hip was quantified on a scale from 0–10. Performance-based tests included the Six Minute Walk (6MW), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Stair Climbing Test (SCT). Isometric strength of the hip abductors and knee extensors was collected. Hierarchical linear regressions were created to determine the contributions of pain, knee extensor strength, and hip strength for each outcome measure (TUG, 6MW, SCT, HOS). Height and BMI were entered first, followed by pain, then knee extensor strength, then hip abduction strength. Results Greater pain significantly predicted lower HOS scores, but hip strength did not significantly improve the model. Hip pain was also significantly related to TUG, SCT and 6MW values, but hip and knee strength explained additional variance for these performance-based measures. Conclusions Self-report and performance-based measures capture different aspects of disability and are influenced by different underlying impairments. Both types of outcome measures should be used in studies that evaluate functional changes in patients with hip osteoarthritis. PMID:24664893

  1. Measuring the CCN and IN ability of bacterial isolates: implications for the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdue, S.; Waters, S.; Konstantinidis, K.; Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation is an important process in the climate system as it influences global precipitation processes, and can affect the vertical distribution of clouds with effects that both cool and warm the atmosphere. Of the pathways to ice nucleation, immersion mode, which occurs when ice nuclei (IN) particles are surrounded by an aqueous phase that subsequently freezes, dominates primary ice production in mixed-phase clouds. A simple but effective method to study immersion freezing is to utilize a droplet freezing assay (DFA) that consists of an aluminum plate, precisely cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture. Using such a system we study the immersion IN characteristics of bacterial isolates (for temperatures ranging from -15oC to 0oC) isolated from rainwater and air collected in Atlanta, GA and Puerto Rico, over storms throughout the year. Despite their relatively large size and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the outer membranes of many bacteria, it is unclear if bacteria possess an inherent ability to nucleate an aqueous phase (a requirement for immersion freezing) for the wide range of supersaturations found in clouds. For this, we measure the cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity of each isolate (over the 0.05% to 0.6% supersaturation range) using a Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter. Initial results have shown certain isolates to be very efficient CCN, allowing them to form droplets even for the very low supersaturations found in radiation fogs. In combination, these experiments provide insight into the potential dual-ability of some bacteria, isolated from the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, to act as both efficient CCN and IN.

  2. The Design Organization Test: Further Demonstration of Reliability and Validity as a Brief Measure of Visuospatial Ability

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.; Gogel, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90–.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76–.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible. PMID:25265311

  3. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible. PMID:25265311

  4. Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer-Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…

  5. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  6. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments

  7. Are DIT Scores Empirically Distinct from Measures of Political Identification and Intellectual Ability? A Test Using Post-9/11 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowson, H. Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Emler, Renwick, and Malone (1983) argued against a developmental interpretation of the Defining Issues Test (DIT), suggesting instead that it actually measures a social psychological phenomenon--political identification. On the other hand, Sanders, Lubinski, and Benbow (1995) have argued that DIT scores measure intellectual ability. In this study,…

  8. Testing Elementary and Secondary School Students' Ability to Perform Historical Perspective Taking: The Constructing of Valid and Reliable Measure Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijgen, Tim; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim; Holthuis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Historical reasoning competencies play an important role in history education. However, valid and reliable large-scale measurement instruments to assess these competencies are scarce. This study considers two instruments for measuring students' ability to perform historical perspective taking (HPT) as a historical reasoning competency. The…

  9. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities-defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them-have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are "mental rotation" (rotating mental models) and "visualisation" (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel "Bricks" test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  10. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L.; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities–defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them–have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are “mental rotation” (rotating mental models) and “visualisation” (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel “Bricks” test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  11. Confidence-More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burns, Karina M; Burns, Nicholas R; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as "online." Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor-derived from online measures-was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability. PMID:27148126

  12. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Shih, Chang-Ku

    2012-09-01

    This study developed a scale to measure 502 Taiwan traffic police officers' perceived ability to detect, detain, and intercept those vehicles whose drivers are driving while intoxicated (DWI) when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Through factor analysis, the officers' enforcement ability was found to consist of two component latent traits: detecting ability (DA) and detaining and intercepting ability (DIA). A multidimensional approach of Rasch models was then applied to measure the police officers' perceived abilities and particular difficulties in conducting sobriety checkpoints. The study results indicated that the majority of police officers performed well in detecting DWI vehicles, but half of the study participants lacked confidence in detaining DWI vehicles and intercepting escaping DWI vehicles. DWI with weaving was found to be the most aggressive and threatening behavior to traffic police when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Police officers over age 46 were found to have significantly lower DA and DIA, while branch captains were found to have significantly higher DA than their colleagues. Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers. PMID:22664717

  13. A wearable system for measuring limb movements and balance control abilities based on a modular and low-cost inertial unit.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, A; Bertolotti, G M; Dainotti, M; Colagiorgio, P; Romano, F; Ramat, S

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring balance and movement has proven useful in many applications ranging from fall risk assessment, to quantifying exercise, studying people habits and monitoring the elderly. Here we present a versatile, wearable instrument capable of providing objective measurements of limb movements for the assessment of motor and balance control abilities. The proposed device allows measuring linear accelerations, angular velocities and heading either online, through wireless connection to a computer, or for long-term monitoring, thanks to its local storage abilities. One or more body parts may be simultaneously monitored in a single or multiple sensors configuration. PMID:25570744

  14. Confidence—More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Karina M.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as “online.” Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor—derived from online measures—was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability. PMID:27148126

  15. A Theory-based Approach to the Measurement of Foreign Language Learning Ability: The CANAL-F Theory and Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Ehrman, Madeline E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rationale, description, and partial construct validation of a new theory of foreign language aptitude: CANAL-F--Cognitive Ability for Novelty in Acquisition of Language (foreign). The theory was applied and implemented in a test of foreign language aptitude (CANAL-FT). Outlines the CANAL-F theory and details of its instrumentation…

  16. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  17. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  18. IRT-Based Measurement of Short-Term Changes of Ability, with an Application to Assessing the "Mozart Effect"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittler, Georg; Fischer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The article extends and applies previous approaches by Klauer and Fischer to the statistical evaluation of ability changes in tests conforming to the Rasch model (RM). Exact uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) hypothesis tests and uniformly most accurate (UMA) confidence intervals (CIs) for the amount of change can be constructed for each…

  19. Understanding Planning Ability Measured by the Tower of London: An Evaluation of Its Internal Structure by Latent Variable Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Boonstra, A. Marije

    2010-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) is a widely used instrument for assessing planning ability. Inhibition and (spatial) working memory are assumed to contribute to performance on the TOL, but findings about the relationship between these cognitive processes are often inconsistent. Moreover, the influence of specific properties of TOL problems on cognitive…

  20. Assessing motor imagery ability in younger and older adults by combining measures of vividness, controllability and timing of motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Saimpont, Arnaud; Malouin, Francine; Tousignant, Béatrice; Jackson, Philip L

    2015-02-01

    With the population aging, a large number of patients undergoing rehabilitation are older than 60 years. Also, since the use of motor imagery (MI) training in rehabilitation is becoming more popular, it is important to gain a better knowledge about the age-related changes in MI ability. The main goal of this study was to compare MI ability in younger and older adults as well as to propose a new procedure for testing this ability. Thirty healthy young subjects (mean age: 22.9±2.7 years) and 28 healthy elderly subjects (mean age: 72.4±5.5 years) participated in the experiment. They were administered three tests aimed at assessing three dimensions of MI: (1) the kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaire (KVIQ) to assess MI vividness; (2) a finger-thumb opposition task to assess MI controllability; and (3) a chronometric task to assess the timing of MI. On average, the younger and older groups showed similar results on the KVIQ and the chronometric task, but the younger group was more accurate at the finger-thumb opposition task. Interestingly, there was a large variability in the performance within both groups, emphasizing the importance of considering each person individually regarding MI ability, whatever his age. Finally, we propose two indexes of MI ability to identify the potential of persons to engage in MI training programs. Future studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of these MI indexes and define inclusion/exclusion thresholds for their use as a screening tool in both younger and older adults. PMID:25481412

  1. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality. PMID:8168360

  2. The training measure and empirical study on using the product design theory to analyze the college students' employed ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhonghang; Liu, Wei; Shan, Hai; Bi, Hongliang

    2011-10-01

    Analyzes the employment difficulty phenomenon of the college student by the product design theory , regards the college student as the product of the school face the employer, and take social, enterprise's demand as the guidance to train students, from improving the college students' initial quality, strengthening the college students' standard quality and increasing the college students' interest quality aspect, to propose the countermeasure, that paying great attention to undertaking the college students' innovative education and practice development and will be helpful in sharpens college student's employment ability and the employment quality as well as the ability of dealing with the social work place competition, to further alleviate the college students' employment difficulty this social question.

  3. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  4. Role of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (G241R, K469E) in mediating its single-molecule binding ability: Atomic force microscopy measurements on living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Rui; Yi, Shaoqiong; Zhang, Xuejie; Liu, Huiliang; Fang, Xiaohong

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • We evaluated both single molecule binding ability and expression level of 4 ICAM-1 mutations. • AFM was used to measure single-molecule binding ability on living cells. • The SNP of ICAM-1 may induce changes in expressions rather than single-molecule binding ability. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis (As) is characterized by chronic inflammation and is a major cause of human mortality. ICAM-1-mediated adhesion of leukocytes in vessel walls plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), G241R and K469E, are associated with a number of inflammatory diseases. SNP induced changes in ICAM-1 function rely not only on the expression level but also on the single-molecule binding ability which may be affected by single molecule conformation variations such as protein splicing and folding. Previous studies have shown associations between G241R/K469E polymorphisms and ICAM-1 gene expression. Nevertheless, few studies have been done that focus on the single-molecule forces of the above SNPs and their ligands. In the current study, we evaluated both single molecule binding ability and expression level of 4 ICAM-1 mutations – GK (G241/K469), GE (G241/E469), RK (R241/K469) and RE (R241/E469). No difference in adhesion ability was observed via cell adhesion assay or atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement when comparing the GK, GE, RK, or RE genotypes of ICAM-1 to each other. On the other hand, flow cytometry suggested that there was significantly higher expression of GE genotype of ICAM-1 on transfected CHO cells. Thus, we concluded that genetic susceptibility to diseases related to ICAM-1 polymorphisms, G241R or K469E, might be due to the different expressions of ICAM-1 variants rather than to the single-molecule binding ability of ICAM-1.

  5. Creation of an instrument to measure graduate student and postdoctoral mentoring abilities in engineering and science undergraduate research settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Benjamin

    Studies and national reports have shown numerous benefits for engineering and science undergraduate students who have successful research experiences. One of the most critical elements to having a successful undergraduate research (UR) experience is the interaction between a mentor and a UR student. Recent studies have shown that many UR students are mentored by graduate students or postdoctoral researchers, yet, there are very few studies examining the successful mentoring practices by these mentors and/or assessing their abilities in engineering and science UR settings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was (1) to identify instructively effective graduate students' and postdoc researchers' mentoring abilities in engineering and science UR settings, and (2) to develop a psychometrically sound survey that assesses these mentors' mentoring abilities in UR settings. In the first phase (Phase I) of the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with one postdoctoral researcher and 16 graduate students from engineering and science departments at a Midwestern university who were recognized as outstanding mentors by their UR students. From Phase I, the study determined the mentors' effective mentoring practices across various UR students' research activities (e.g., performing a literature review, conducting experiments, analyzing data) along with important mentoring knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSAs). In the second phase (Phase II) of the study, survey items for assessing graduate and postdoctoral mentors' KSAs were generated based on the results from Phase I. The survey items were administered to 101 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers who had mentoring experiences in UR settings. An exploratory factor analysis and an item analysis resulted in the creation of a 30-item survey assessing the most desirable abilities for UR mentors categorized into four factors: (1) Building a positive working relationship with the UR students, (2) Recognizing the

  6. Equivalence of a Measurement Model of Cognitive Abilities in U.S. Standardization and Australian Neuroscience Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Holdnack, James A.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Cook, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    A psychological measurement model provides an explicit definition of (a) the theoretical and (b) the numerical relationships between observed scores and the latent variables that underlie the observed scores. Examination of the metric invariance of a measurement model involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the model relating…

  7. What Are You Measuring? Dimensionality and Reliability Analysis of Ability and Speed in Medical School Didactic Examinations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Summative didactic evaluation often involves multiple choice questions which are then aggregated into exam scores, course scores, and cumulative grade point averages. To be valid, each of these levels should have some relationship to the topic tested (dimensionality) and be sufficiently reproducible between persons (reliability) to justify student ranking. Evaluation of dimensionality is difficult and is complicated by the classic observation that didactic performance involves a generalized component (g) in addition to subtest specific factors. In this work, 183 students were analyzed over two academic years in 13 courses with 44 exams and 3352 questions for both accuracy and speed. Reliability at all levels was good (>0.95). Assessed by bifactor analysis, g effects dominated most levels resulting in essential unidimensionality. Effect sizes on predicted accuracy and speed due to nesting in exams and courses was small. There was little relationship between person ability and person speed. Thus, the hierarchical grading system appears warrented because of its g-dependence. PMID:26784380

  8. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  9. Trending ability and limitations of transpulmonary thermodilution and pulse contour cardiac output measurement in cats as a model for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Annette P N; Bektas, Rima N; Hofer, Christoph K; Larenza Menzies, M Paula; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2015-06-01

    The present study evaluated transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and pulse contour cardiac output (PCCO) both measured by the PiCCO Plus™ monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) against pulmonary artery thermodilution (PATD) in cats as a hemodynamic model for small children. A wide range of cardiac outputs (CO) was simultaneously measured. Accuracy and trending abilities were critically evaluated. Three cats were studied under isoflurane anesthesia and 160 CO measurements were performed with 3 mL ice-cold 5 % dextrose with PATD and TPTD. The results were compared with the PCCO measurement before the bolus measurement. Cardiac output was manipulated from 32 to 224 mL/kg/min by dobutamine, dopamine, phenylephrine, medetomidine and increased concentrations of isoflurane. Bland-Altman analysis, concordance and polar plot analysis were performed to assess accuracy and trending ability. TPTD was measuring constantly higher than PATD with a mean bias of 73 mL/kg/min and limits of agreement of 34-112 mL/kg/min, a concordance rate of 94 % and a mean polar angle of -5° with radial limits of agreement (RLOA) of 33°. Concordance rate of the PCCO versus PATD was 82 % with a mean polar angle of -10° and RLOA of 46° and versus TPTD 90 % with a mean polar angle of -6° and RLOA of 46°. Both tested methods constantly overestimated simultaneous PATD measurements. The small size, low flows and the relative short catheter not reaching the abdominal aorta may explain that. However TPTD tracked changes accurately opposed to a poor trending ability of the PCCO measurement. PMID:25228023

  10. A factorial analysis of timed and untimed measures of mathematics and reading abilities in school aged twins.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic relationship between fluency and non-fluency-based measures of reading and mathematics performance. Participants were drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Project, an ongoing longitudinal twin project of same-sex MZ and DZ twins from Ohio. The present analyses are based on tester-administered measures available from 228 twin pairs (age M=9.86 years). Measurement models suggested that four factors represent the data, namely Decoding, Fluency, Comprehension, and Math. Subsequent quantitative genetic analyses of these latent factors suggested that a single genetic factor accounted for the covariance among these four latent factors. However, there were also unique genetic effects on Fluency and Math, independent from the common genetic factor. Thus, although there is a significant genetic overlap among different reading and math skills, there may be independent genetic sources of variation related to measures of decoding fluency and mathematics. PMID:20161680

  11. Estimation of potential abilities of middle atmosphere density measurements from a near-Earth orbit within the UV wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marichev, V. N.; Bochkovskii, D. A.; Sorokin, I. V.; Bychkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of errors in atmospheric density measurements by lidar on board the ISS is performed. It is shown that using as the lidar transmitter a Nd:YAG laser with moderate parameters of emission at a wavelength of 353 nm and a receiving mirror diameter of 0.4 m, it is possible to cover with a 10% measurement error a height range, on average, from 40-60 km and 30-40 km in the nighttime and daytime, respectively, down to the troposphere. Working with emission at 266 nm with a 10% error, it is possible to move to the heights of the mesosphere (70 km) and penetrate the atmosphere down to a height of 40 km. Thus, the use of two harmonics makes it possible to assimilate the height range of atmospheric density measurements from on board the ISS beginning from 70 km and down to the troposphere.

  12. A Factorial Analysis of Timed and Untimed Measures of Mathematics and Reading Abilities in School Aged Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic relationship between fluency and non-fluency-based measures of reading and mathematics performance. Participants were drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Project, an ongoing longitudinal twin project of same-sex MZ and DZ twins from Ohio. The present analyses are based on…

  13. The Ability to Structure Acoustic Material as a Measure of Musical Aptitude: 3, Theoretical Refinements. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karma, Kai

    This report offers some general principles which are helpful for designing and constructing a test for measuring musical aptitude of persons from various age groups. A discussion attempts to clarify the concepts used within the psychology of music. The basic structuralist principles favored by Gestalt psychologists and structuralists are also…

  14. Ability to Identify, Explain and Solve Problems in Everyday Tasks: Preliminary Validation of a Direct Video Measure of Practical Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Greenspan, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in the definitional literature on mental retardation emphasize the need to ground the concept of adaptive behavior in an expanded model of intelligence, which includes practical and social intelligence. Development of a direct measure of practical intelligence might increase the likelihood that an assessment of this domain…

  15. The Medical Symptom Validity Test Measures Effort Not Ability in Children: A Comparison Between Mild TBI and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Samples.

    PubMed

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C; Flaro, Lloyd; Peterson, Robin L; Connery, Amy K; Baker, David A; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate effort during neuropsychological examination results in inaccurate representations of an individual's true abilities and difficulties. As such, performance validity tests (PVTs) are strongly recommended as standard practice during adult-based evaluations. One concern with using PVTs with children is that failure reflects immature cognitive ability rather than non-credible effort. The current study examined performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) in two large pediatric clinical samples with strikingly different neuropsychological profiles: (1) mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; n = 510) and (2) fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD; n = 120). Despite higher IQ scores and reading ability, the mTBI group performed significantly worse than the FASD group on all effort indices. Sixteen percent of the mTBI group failed the MSVT, whereas only 5% of the FASD group did. Our findings support the idea that the MSVT measures effort, not ability, in most cases and help to justify incorporating PVTs into pediatric neuropsychological batteries. PMID:25787156

  16. Human abilities.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J; Kaufman, J C

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments. PMID:9496630

  17. Addressing the ice nucleating abilities of marine aerosol: A combination of deposition mode laboratory and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladino, L. A.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Miller, L. A.; Schiller, C. L.; Huffman, J. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2016-05-01

    This study addresses, through two types of experiments, the potential for the oceans to act as a source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INPs). The INP concentration via deposition mode nucleation was measured in situ at a coastal site in British Columbia in August 2013. The INP concentration at conditions relevant to cirrus clouds (i.e., -40 °C and relative humidity with respect to ice, RHice = 139%) ranged from 0.2 L-1 to 3.3 L-1. Correlations of the INP concentrations with levels of anthropogenic tracers (i.e., CO, SO2, NOx, and black carbon) and numbers of fluorescent particles do not indicate a significant influence from anthropogenic sources or submicron bioaerosols, respectively. Additionally, the INPs measured in the deposition mode showed a poor correlation with the concentration of particles with sizes larger than 500 nm, which is in contrast with observations made in the immersion freezing mode. To investigate the nature of particles that could have acted as deposition INP, laboratory experiments with potential marine aerosol particles were conducted under the ice-nucleating conditions used in the field. At -40 °C, no deposition activity was observed with salt aerosol particles (sodium chloride and two forms of commercial sea salt: Sigma-Aldrich and Instant Ocean), particles composed of a commercial source of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic material), or particle mixtures of sea salt and humic material. In contrast, exudates from three phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nanochloris atomus, and Emiliania huxleyi) and one marine bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) exhibited INP activity at low RHice values, down to below 110%. This suggests that the INPs measured at the field site were of marine biological origins, although we cannot rule out other sources, including mineral dust.

  18. Addressing the ice nucleating abilities of marine aerosol: A combination of deposition mode laboratory and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladino, L. A.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Miller, L. A.; Schiller, C. L.; Huffman, J. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2016-05-01

    This study addresses, through two types of experiments, the potential for the oceans to act as a source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INPs). The INP concentration via deposition mode nucleation was measured in situ at a coastal site in British Columbia in August 2013. The INP concentration at conditions relevant to cirrus clouds (i.e., -40 °C and relative humidity with respect to ice, RHice = 139%) ranged from 0.2 L-1 to 3.3 L-1. Correlations of the INP concentrations with levels of anthropogenic tracers (i.e., CO, SO2, NOx, and black carbon) and numbers of fluorescent particles do not indicate a significant influence from anthropogenic sources or submicron bioaerosols, respectively. Additionally, the INPs measured in the deposition mode showed a poor correlation with the concentration of particles with sizes larger than 500 nm, which is in contrast with observations made in the immersion freezing mode. To investigate the nature of particles that could have acted as deposition INP, laboratory experiments with potential marine aerosol particles were conducted under the ice-nucleating conditions used in the field. At -40 °C, no deposition activity was observed with salt aerosol particles (sodium chloride and two forms of commercial sea salt: Sigma-Aldrich and Instant Ocean), particles composed of a commercial source of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic material), or particle mixtures of sea salt and humic material. In contrast, exudates from three phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nanochloris atomus, and Emiliania huxleyi) and one marine bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) exhibited INP activity at low RHice values, down to below 110%. This suggests that the INPs measured at the field site were of marine biological origins, although we cannot rule out other sources, including mineral dust.

  19. Effects of the 5-HT2A Antagonist Sarpogrelate on Walking Ability in Patients with Intermittent Claudication as Measured Using the Walking Impairment Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) measures walking ability in daily life in patients with peripheral arterial disease causing intermittent claudication. We investigated the efficacy of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, in improving walking ability, as measured using new Japanese version of the WIQ. Patients and Methods: A nationwide multicenter study was conducted at 80 institutions in Japan involving 586 patients with stable symptoms of intermittent claudication. Patients received open-label sarpogrelate 300 mg/day. A total of 419 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set (FAS) following the intention to treat principle, and 354 patients were evaluated in the per-protocol set (PPS). The FAS data are emphasized here. Results: The mean follow-up was 27.7 ± 10.1 weeks. Each subscale of the WIQ score showed improvement after sarpogrelate treatment (p < 0.0001), and the resting ankle-brachial index increased significantly (p < 0.0001). The incidence of adverse reactions of the entire series of 559 patients was 4.83% (27 patients), but there were no clinically significant safety concerns. Conclusions: We have for the first time demonstrated that sarpogrelate may improve walking ability in daily life in Japanese patients with intermittent claudication. The drug had a good safety profile. PMID:23555346

  20. An overview of the flight campaign for the GAUGE project: airborne greenhouse gas (and other complementary trace gas) measurements around and over the UK between April 2014 and May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Percival, Carl; Bannan, Thomas; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair; Rigby, Matt; Gannesan, Anita; Mead, Mohammed; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Wenger, Angelina; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This work highlights data measured during flights by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) campaign. A total of 17 flights (85 flight-hours) have been conducted so far around the UK mainland and Ireland to sample precision in situ CH4, CO2, N2O (and other trace gas) concentrations and meteorological parameters at altitudes up to 9500m throughout the period April 2014 to May 2015. Airborne remote sensing retrievals of greenhouse gas total columns have also been calculated using the Manchester Airborne Retrieval Scheme for the UK Met Office ARIES high resolution FTIR instrument. This airborne dataset represents a mapped climatology and a series of case studies from which to assess top-down bulk-net-flux snapshots for regions of the UK, and provides for evaluation of inverse modelling approaches that challenge bottom-up inventories, satellite remote sensing measurements, and assessment of model transport uncertainty. In this paper, we shall describe the instrumentation on the FAAM aircraft and provide a diary of GAUGE FAAM flights (and data highlights) to date; and discuss selected flights of interest to studies such as those above with a focus of net mass flux evaluation.

  1. Knowing more by fewer measurements: about the (In)ability of bioelectric impedance to enhance obesity research in children.

    PubMed

    Gelbrich, G; Reich, A; Müller, G; Kiess, W

    2005-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. The implications for human health can already be observed in children. Consequently, it is desirable to provide good quantitative descriptions of the relationship of body fat and health risks, such as hypertension. Bioelectric impedance analysis has been frequently praised to be useful for assessing body fat. Devices to analyse body composition based on this technique seem to be selling well, while the real gain in information they provide is unclear. Here we show in a cohort of 2,218 schoolchildren that the body mass index (which is more easily and less costly to determine) is a better predictor of hypertension than the data delivered by impedance analysis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the output of a random number generator is competitive with impedance measurement for this purpose. It is explained by simple arguments from physics why the formulas for the computation of body fat from bioelectric impedance obliterate rather than clarify the relationship of obesity and hypertension. As a consequence, we suggest questioning the opinion propagated by others that bioelectric impedance analysis is a useful tool in field studies on body fat in children. Measurements requiring more effort (compared to simpler methods) should be proved to add worthwhile information, otherwise they should be avoided. PMID:15813605

  2. Au Foil Activation Measurement and Simulation of the Concrete Neutron Shielding Ability for the Proposed New SANRAD Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebe, M. J.; Korochinsky, S.; Strydom, W. J.; De Beer, F. C.

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effective neutron shielding characteristics of the new shielding material designed and manufactured to be used for the construction of the new SANRAD facility at Necsa, South Africa, through Au foil activation as well as MCNP simulations. The shielding capability of the high density shielding material was investigated in the worst case region (the neutron beam axis) of the experimental chamber for two operational modes. The everyday operational mode includes the 15 cm thick poly crystalline Bismuth filter at room temperature (assumed) to filter gamma-rays and some neutron spectrum energies. The second mode, dynamic imaging, will be conducted without the Bi-filter. The objective was achieved through a foil activation measurement at the current SANRAD facility and MCNP calculations. Several Au foilswere imbedded at different thicknesses(two at each position) of shielding material up to 80 cm thick to track the attenuation of the neutron beam over distance within the shielding material. The neutron flux and subsequently the associated dose rates were calculated from the activation levels of the Au foils. The concrete shielding material was found to provide adequate shielding for all energies of neutrons emerging from beam port no-2 of the SAFARI-1 research reactorwithin a thickness of 40 cm of concrete.

  3. Measurements of some parameters of thermal sparks with respect to their ability to ignite aviation fuel/air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, S. J.; Hardwick, C. J.; Baldwin, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.

  4. A diagnostic-ratio approach to measuring beliefs about the leadership abilities of male and female managers.

    PubMed

    Martell, R F; Desmet, A L

    2001-12-01

    This study departed from previous research on gender stereotyping in the leadership domain by adopting a more comprehensive view of leadership and using a diagnostic-ratio measurement strategy. One hundred and fifty-one managers (95 men and 56 women) judged the leadership effectiveness of male and female middle managers by providing likelihood ratings for 14 categories of leader behavior. As expected, the likelihood ratings for some leader behaviors were greater for male managers, whereas for other leader behaviors, the likelihood ratings were greater for female managers or were no different. Leadership ratings revealed some evidence of a same-gender bias. Providing explicit verification of managerial success had only a modest effect on gender stereotyping. The merits of adopting a probabilistic approach in examining the perception and treatment of stigmatized groups are discussed. PMID:11768063

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Megan N.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Hoch, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have reported decreased global and regional function. Despite the identification of functional deficits in those with CAI, more research is required to determine the extent to which CAI influences the multidimensional profile of health-related quality of life. Objective: To determine whether global, regional, and psychological health-related outcomes differ between individuals with and without CAI. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five participants with CAI (age = 21.9 ± 2.5 years, height = 170.8 ± 8.6 cm, mass = 69.8.0 ± 11.7 kg) were sex- and limb-matched to 25 healthy participants (age = 22.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 167.4 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 64.8 ± 11.2 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Both groups completed the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale, the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the FAAM-Sport, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11, and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Dependent variables were scores on these instruments, and the independent variable was group. Results: Compared with healthy individuals, those with CAI reported decreased function on the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale, FAAM, and FAAM-Sport (P < .001) and increased fear of reinjury on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11 and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (P < .001). In the CAI group, the FAAM and FAAM-Sport demonstrated a significant relationship (r = 0.774, P < .01). Conclusions: Individuals with CAI reported decreased function and increased fear of reinjury compared with healthy control participants. Also, within the CAI group, there was a strong relationship between FAAM and FAAM-Sport scores but not between any other instruments. These findings suggest that health-related quality of life should be examined during the rehabilitation process of individuals with CAI. PMID:25299444

  6. Improved self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of medical students through structured improvement measures in an internal medicine bedside course

    PubMed Central

    Fünger, S. M.; Lesevic, H.; Rosner, S.; Ott, I.; Berberat, P.; Nikendei, C.; Sonne, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bedside courses are of outstanding importance when training medical students. The fact that less and less teaching is taking place nowadays at the patient's bedside makes it all the more important that the available time be put to effective use. The aim of this study was to check whether structured improvement measures in the course (scripts, lecturer briefing, e-learning cases) would improve the abilities of the students on the basis of a subjective self-assessment as well as an external assessment by the lecturers with respect to clinical abilities. Methods: Bedside teaching takes place in the fourth study year in the Medical Clinics of the TU Munich. Both students and lecturers had the chance to hand in an anonymous, quantitative self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of the students (German grading system) after every course date. This assessment took place online in the three categories "Medical history & examination", "Diagnosis" and "Therapy". An overall period of four semesters, each with 6 course dates, was investigated. After two of the total of four semesters in the study, the course was changed by introducing scripts, lecturer briefing as well as interactive e-learning cases. The self- and external assessment was compared both within the semester (date 1-3: A; date 4-6: B), during the course as well as before and after introducing the improvement measures ("before" (T0): SS 2012, SS 2013, "after" (T1): WS 2013/2014, SS 2014). Results: There was a significant improvement in one's own abilities on the basis of the self-assessment within each semester when comparing the first (A) and the last (B) course dates. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in the performances in all three categories when T0 was compared with T1, from both the point of view of the students ("Medical history & examination": T0 =2.5±0.9, T1=2.2±0.7, pp<0.001; "Diagnosis" T0=3.1±1.0, T1=2.8 ±0.9, pp<0.001; "Therapy": T0=3.8±1.3, T1=3.5±1.2, pp

  7. Selective Ability of Some CANTAB Battery Test Measures to Detect Cognitive Response to a Single Dose of Donepezil in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2015-01-01

    Background The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was used to explore which tests and their measures are able to detect cognitive change after a single dose of donepezil in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to establish the ability of CANTAB tests and their measures to detect cognitive change after a single 5-mg dose of donepezil in treatment-naïve AD patients. Material/Methods We enrolled 62 treatment-naïve AD patients and 30 healthy controls in this prospective, randomized, rater-blinded study. AD patients were randomized to 2 groups: the AD+ group received donepezil after the first CANTAB testing and the AD− group remained treatment-naïve at second testing. The time period between repeated testing was 4 hours. Parallel versions of CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM, and PRM tests were used. Results All groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression (p>0.05). AD+ and AD− groups did not differ according to MMSE. SOC, PAL, PRM, and SWM tests distinguished AD from controls. Eight measures of PAL and PRM had a strong correlation with MMSE (r>0.7). Repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test showed the difference of change in AD+ and AD− groups between first and second CANTAB testing in 7 PAL measures. AD+ and AD− groups differed in the second testing by 7 PAL measures. Four PAL measures differed in first and second testing within the AD+ group. Conclusions The CANTAB PAL test measures, able to detect cognitive change after a single dose of donepezil in AD patients, are: PAL mean trials to success, total errors (adjusted), total errors (6 shapes, adjusted), and total trials (adjusted). PMID:26336931

  8. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement. PMID:26227511

  9. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  10. Diagnostic Ability of Macular Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Measurements in Glaucoma Using Swept Source and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tatham, Andrew J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Liu, Ting; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer measurements in glaucoma, obtained using swept source (SS) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare to circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurements. Methods The study included 106 glaucomatous eyes of 80 subjects and 41 eyes of 22 healthy subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL), macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) and cpRNFL thickness were assessed using SS-OCT and SD-OCT, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to determine ability to differentiate glaucomatous and healthy eyes and between early glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Results Mean (± standard deviation) mGCIPL and mGCC thickness were thinner in both healthy and glaucomatous eyes using SS-OCT compared to using SD-OCT. Fixed and proportional biases were detected between SS-OCT and SD-OCT measures. Diagnostic accuracy (AUCs) for differentiating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes for average and sectoral mGCIPL was similar in SS-OCT (0.65 to 0.81) and SD-OCT (0.63 to 0.83). AUCs for average cpRNFL acquired using SS-OCT and SD-OCT tended to be higher (0.83 and 0.85, respectively) than for average mGCC (0.82 and 0.78, respectively), and mGCIPL (0.73 and 0.75, respectively) but these differences did not consistently reach statistical significance. Minimum SD-OCT mGCIPL and mGCC thickness (unavailable in SS-OCT) had the highest AUC (0.86) among macular measurements. Conclusion Assessment of mGCIPL thickness using SS-OCT or SD-OCT is useful for detecting glaucomatous damage, but measurements are not interchangeable for patient management decisions. Diagnostic accuracies of mGCIPL and mGCC from both SS-OCT and SD-OCT were similar to that of cpRNFL for glaucoma detection. PMID:25978420

  11. Low-dose paroxetine exposure causes lifetime declines in male mouse body weight, reproduction and competitive ability as measured by the novel organismal performance assay

    PubMed Central

    Gaukler, Shannon M.; Ruff, James S.; Galland, Tessa; Kandaris, Kirstie A.; Underwood, Tristan K.; Liu, Nicole M.; Young, Elizabeth L.; Morrison, Linda C.; Yost, Garold S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2014-01-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is currently available on the market and is suspected of causing congenital malformations in babies born to mothers who take the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy. We utilized organismal performance assays (OPAs), a novel toxicity assessment method, to assess the safety of paroxetine during pregnancy in a rodent model. OPAs utilize genetically diverse wild mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate competitive performance between experimental and control animals as they compete amongst each other for limited resources in semi-natural enclosures. Performance measures included reproductive success, male competitive ability and survivorship. Paroxetine-exposed males weighed 13% less, had 44% fewer offspring, dominated 53% fewer territories and experienced a 2.5-fold increased trend in mortality, when compared with controls. Paroxetine-exposed females had 65% fewer offspring early in the study, but rebounded at later time points. In cages, paroxetine-exposed breeders took 2.3 times longer to produce their first litter and pups of both sexes experienced reduced weight when compared with controls. Low-dose paroxetine-induced health declines detected in this study were undetected in preclinical trials with dose 2.5-8 times higher than human therapeutic doses. These data indicate that OPAs detect phenotypic adversity and provide unique information that could useful towards safety testing during pharmaceutical development. PMID:25446017

  12. The ability of stroke volume variation measured by a noninvasive cardiac output monitor to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Chang Hyu; Kim, Hong Soon; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2014-02-01

    Continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) is a clinically useful tool in the pediatric setting. This study compared the ability of stroke volume variation (SVV) measured by NICOM with that of respiratory variations in the velocity of aortic blood flow (△Vpeak) and central venous pressure (CVP) to predict of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated children after ventricular septal defect repair. The study investigated 26 mechanically ventilated children after the completion of surgery. At 30 min after their arrival in an intensive care unit, a colloid solution of 10 ml/kg was administrated for volume expansion. Hemodynamic variables, including CVP, stroke volume, and △Vpeak in addition to cardiac output and SVV in NICOM were measured before and 10 min after volume expansion. The patients with a stroke volume increase of more than 15 % after volume expansion were defined as responders. The 26 patients in the study consisted of 13 responders and 13 nonresponders. Before volume expansion, △Vpeak and SVV were higher in the responders (both p values <0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of △Vpeak, SVV, and CVP were respectively 0.956 (95 % CI 0.885-1.00), 0.888 (95 % CI 0.764-1.00), and 0.331 (95 % CI 0.123-0.540). This study showed that SVV by NICOM and △Vpeak by echocardiography, but not CVP, reliably predicted fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation after ventricular septal defect repair in children. PMID:23963186

  13. The “Immunocrit,” a Simple Measure of Passive Transfer, is a Useful Predictor of Nursing Ability and Preweaning Mortality of Piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of lactation and newborn piglet nursing ability are two factors that can influence preweaning mortality. We have developed the “immunocrit” that can assess both lactation initiation and neonatal piglet nursing ability based on the transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from the sow to the pig...

  14. Measurements of trace gases above the tropical forests....

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of trace gases above the tropical forests; A comparison between ozone levels in the forest and the oil palm plantation areas using the BAe -146 aircraft. The atmospheric composition of Sabah region (Borneo) was sampled using the FAAM BAE-146 instrumented aircraft during July 2008 as part of the OP3 (Oxidant particle photochemical processes above a South East Asia tropical rain forest) project. Tropical forests play an important role in the carbon and energy balance of the Earth (which determine global climate) and are themselves vulnerable to climate change. The tropical biosphere is one of the main sources of reactive trace gas emissions into the global atmosphere, and understanding the role of ozone in these areas is of major importance given the rapid changes in land-use in the tropics. This poster presents preliminary ozone concentrations results collected using the FAAM BAE 146 instrumented aircraft over some of Malaysia most extended oil palm plantations; comparing these with the results recorded when flying over forest areas. Oil palm is becoming one of the most widespread tropical crops; in Malaysia 13% of the land area (4.3Mha) is now oil palm plantations (MPOCP, 2008) compared with 1% in 1974 (FAO, 2005). This poster is expected to show very significant ozone concentrations over the two different landscapes. The set-up of the instruments, the specific sampling sites, as well as the land cover areas will be described.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOGMATISM AND PERFORMANCE AS MEASURES OF PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY AMONG PROFESSIONAL ADULT EDUCATORS (COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS). PAPER PRESENTED AT THE NATIONAL SEMINAR ON ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH (CHICAGO, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, G.L., JR.; FUNK, C. DENNIS

    TO DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOGMATISM AND PERFORMANCE AS MEASURES OF PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY IN EXTENSION AGENTS, A STUDY WAS MADE OF 486 AGENTS AND 23 SUPERVISORS IN FIVE STATES. AGENTS RESPONDED TO MAILED QUESTIONNAIRES AND THEIR SUPERVISORS RETURNED PERFORMANCE RATINGS. THE DEGREE OF OPEN-MINDEDNESS WAS MEASURED ON THE ROKEACH…

  16. [Japanese adults' general beliefs about changes in the ability to remember from childhood to old age as measured by the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI)].

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examined and compared beliefs about the ability to remember of three groups of adults: 99 young, 97 middle-aged, and 104 older adults. The beliefs were assessed by asking participants to indicate the expected trajectory over the lifespan on a graphic rating scale, the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI) (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998). The results showed the following. Although all age groups expect a decline in the ability to remember with age with the peak around 20-30 years old, older adults perceive an age-related sharp decline later in life than the other age groups do. All age groups perceive that remembering names is more affected by age than any other memory abilities. The trajectory of age decline in remembering in general coincides with that in remembering trivia. All age groups believe that the ability to remember at the age of 10 is as good as at the age of 40. All age groups responded to the scales based mainly on the abilities based on their experiences. PMID:23379080

  17. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike. PMID:20515456

  18. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  19. New Measures of Masked Text Recognition in Relation to Speech-in-Noise Perception and Their Associations with Age and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Jana; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Ronnberg, Jerker; Festen, Joost M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors aimed to increase the analogy between Text Reception Threshold (TRT; Zekveld, George, Kramer, Goverts, & Houtgast, 2007) and Speech Reception Threshold (SRT; Plomp & Mimpen, 1979) and to examine the TRT's value in estimating cognitive abilities that are important for speech comprehension in noise. Method: The…

  20. Experimental polyethylene-hydroxyapatite carrier-based endodontic system: an in vitro study on dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and measurements of micro-computed tomography voids.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad A; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and voids formation of an experimental obturation hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene (HA/PE) composite/carrier system were investigated and compared with those of a commercial system [GuttaCore (GC)]. The HA/PE system was specifically designed using a melt-extrusion process. The viscoelastic properties of HA/PE were determined using a dynamic thermomechanical analyser. Human single-rooted teeth were endodontically instrumented and obturated using HA/PE or GC systems, and then sealing ability was assessed using a fluid filtration system. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify apparent voids within the root-canal space. The data were statistically analysed using one-way anova and post hoc tests. The HA/PE composite exhibited important modulus and damping changes with an increase of temperature. The HA/PE system was more flexible than GC as the modulus of GC appeared to be significantly higher than that of HA/PE as a result of the high positive glass transition temperature (Tg ). However, HA/PE and GC presented similar sealing abilities. In conclusion, because sealing ability and voids formation were comparable between the tested materials, the experimental HA/PE system may be considered a suitable alternative material for root-canal obturation. Moreover, HA/PE possesses specific viscoelastic behaviour and lower melting points, which may facilitate root-canal retreatments. PMID:27041355

  1. Relationships among Measures of Learning Orientation, Reasoning Ability, and Conceptual Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants for Grade 8 Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekkaya, Ceren; Yenilmez, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of students' reasoning ability and meaningful learning orientation to their understanding of the photosynthesis and respiration in plants concepts. Data were gathered through the use of the Test of Logical Thinking (Tobin & Capie, 1981), the Learning Approach Questionnaire (Cavallo, 1996), and the Two-Tier…

  2. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    About Us Search Search for: AgrAbility Assisting farmers and ranchers with disabilities. Menu Skip to content Home About AgrAbility Newsletters (old) AT Resources AT Database Staff Development Archive Contact Us We ...

  3. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  4. Competence and ability.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2014-06-01

    It is nearly universally thought that the kind of decision-making competence that gives one a strong prima facie right to make one's own medical decisions essentially involves having an ability (or abilities) of some sort, or having a certain level or degree of ability (or abilities). When put under philosophical scrutiny, however, this kind of theory does not hold up. I will argue that being competent does not essentially involve abilities, and I will propose and defend a theory of decision-making competence according to which one is competent only if one possesses a certain kind of rationality in making treatment decisions. PMID:22845798

  5. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Cognitive Abilities of Children 1 to 4 Years Old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Higgins, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency in problem solving is an important outcome in early childhood necessary for cognitive and emotional development. The development of an individual growth and development indicator of problem solving for children 1 to 4 years of age is described. Based on the general outcome measurement approach (Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for…

  6. Studies related to ocean dynamics. Task 3.2: Aircraft Field Test Program to investigate the ability of remote sensing methods to measure current/wind-wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.; Flood, W. A.; Brown, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of remote sensing of current flows in the ocean and the remote sensing of ocean currents by backscattering cross section techniques was studied. It was established that for capillary waves, small scale currents could be accurately measured through observation of wave kinematics. Drastic modifications of waves by changing currents were noted. The development of new methods for the measurement of capillary waves are discussed. Improvement methods to resolve data processing problems are suggested.

  7. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  8. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  9. Performance Equals Ability and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.

    The results of several research studies designed to evaluate different theories of work motivation are presented. Graen (1967), through hiring 169 high school girls to do a clerical task, showed that ability measures can account for far more performance variance than motivation variables such as expectancy and instrumentality. Similar results were…

  10. Community Influences on Cognitive Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Hilary; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Associations between community environment and cognitive ability were studied in 167 adoptive and 175 nonadoptive Colorado families. Seven families were omitted. A proposed model, tested by census measures, finds several aspects of communities showing environmental relationships with child IQ over parental influences. Rural communities have a…

  11. Cognitive Correlates of Functional Abilities in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of Questionnaire, Direct Observation and Performance-based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between and the cognitive correlates of several proxy measures of functional status were studied in a population with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants were 51 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 51 cognitively healthy older adults (OA). Participants completed performance-based functional status tests, standardized neuropsychological tests, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., watered plants, filled medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. An informant interview about everyday functioning was also conducted. Compared to the OA control group, the MCI group performed more poorly on all proxy measures of everyday functioning. The informant-report of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) did not correlate with the two performance-based measures; however, both the informant-report IADL and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test correlated with the direct observation measure. After controlling for age and education, cognitive predictors did not explain a significant amount of variance in the performance-based measures; however, performance on a delayed memory task was a unique predictor for the informant-report IADL, and processing speed predicted unique variance for the direct observation score. These findings indicate that differing methods for evaluating functional status are not assessing completely overlapping aspects of everyday functioning in the MCI population. PMID:24766574

  12. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  13. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  14. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  15. Validation and test-retest reliability of a health measure, health as ability of acting, based on the welfare theory of health.

    PubMed

    Snellman, Ingrid; Jonsson, Bosse; Wikblad, Karin

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a validation and assess the test-retest reliability of the health questionnaire based on Nordenfelt's Welfare Theory of Health (WTH). The study used a questionnaire on health together with the Short Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire, and 490 pupils at colleges for adult education participated. The results of the study are in accordance with Nordenfelt's WTH. Three hypotheses were stated, and the first was confirmed: People who were satisfied with life rated higher levels than those who were dissatisfied with life concerning both mental and physical health, measured with the SF-12. The second hypothesis was partially confirmed: People with high education were more often satisfied with life than those with low education, but they were not healthier. The third hypothesis, that women are unhealthy more often than men, was not confirmed. The questionnaire on health showed acceptable stability. PMID:21930655

  16. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  17. Communication-Related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Studies relationships among four measures of communication abilities, and between these abilities and job level and upward mobility in a selected insurance company. Concludes that communication abilities are important to the success of individuals in organizations. (MS)

  18. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  19. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2005-03-18

    Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

  20. An Inducible Cell-Cell Fusion System with Integrated Ability to Measure the Efficiency and Specificity of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herschhorn, Alon; Finzi, Andres; Jones, David M.; Courter, Joel R.; Sugawara, Akihiro; Smith, Amos B.; Sodroski, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) mediate virus entry by fusing the viral and target cell membranes, a multi-step process that represents an attractive target for inhibition. Entry inhibitors with broad-range activity against diverse isolates of HIV-1 may be extremely useful as lead compounds for the development of therapies or prophylactic microbicides. To facilitate the identification of such inhibitors, we have constructed a cell-cell fusion system capable of simultaneously monitoring inhibition efficiency and specificity. In this system, effector cells stably express a tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) that enables tightly inducible expression of both HIV-1 Env and the Renilla luciferase (R-Luc) reporter protein. Target cells express the HIV-1 receptors, CD4 and CCR5, and carry the firefly luciferase (F-Luc) reporter gene under the control of a tTA-responsive promoter. Thus, Env-mediated fusion of these two cell types allows the tTA to diffuse to the target cell and activate the expression of the F-Luc protein. The efficiency with which an inhibitor blocks cell-cell fusion is measured by a decrease in the F-Luc activity, while the specificity of the inhibitor is evaluated by its effect on the R-Luc activity. The system exhibited a high dynamic range and high Z'-factor values. The assay was validated with a reference panel of inhibitors that target different steps in HIV-1 entry, yielding inhibitory concentrations comparable to published virus inhibition data. Our system is suitable for large-scale screening of chemical libraries and can also be used for detailed characterization of inhibitory and cytotoxic properties of known entry inhibitors. PMID:22069466

  1. Assessing the Ability of Instantaneous Aircraft and Sonde Measurements to Characterize Climatological Means and Long-Term Trends in Tropospheric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Over four decades of measurements exist that sample the 3-D composition of reactive trace gases in the troposphere from approximately weekly ozone sondes, instrumentation on civil aircraft, and individual comprehensive aircraft field campaigns. An obstacle to using these data to evaluate coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs)the models used to project future changes in atmospheric composition and climateis that exact space-time matching between model fields and observations cannot be done, as CCMs generate their own meteorology. Evaluation typically involves averaging over large spatiotemporal regions, which may not reflect a true average due to limited or biased sampling. This averaging approach generally loses information regarding specific processes. Here we aim to identify where discrete sampling may be indicative of long-term mean conditions, using the GEOS-Chem global chemical-transport model (CTM) driven by the MERRA reanalysis to reflect historical meteorology from 2003 to 2012 at 2o by 2.5o resolution. The model has been sampled at the time and location of every ozone sonde profile available from the Would Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), along the flight tracks of the IAGOSMOZAICCARABIC civil aircraft campaigns, as well as those from over 20 individual field campaigns performed by NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF, NERC (UK), and DLR (Germany) during the simulation period. Focusing on ozone, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen species, we assess where aggregates of the in situ data are representative of the decadal mean vertical, spatial and temporal distributions that would be appropriate for evaluating CCMs. Next, we identically sample a series of parallel sensitivity simulations in which individual emission sources (e.g., lightning, biogenic VOCs, wildfires, US anthropogenic) have been removed one by one, to assess where and when the aggregated observations may offer constraints on these processes within CCMs. Lastly, we show results of an

  2. Evidence for Novel Atmospheric Organic Aerosol Measured in a Bornean Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Hamilton, J. F.; Allan, J. D.; Langford, B.; Oram, D. E.; Chen, Q.; Ward, M. W.; Hewitt, C. N.; Martin, S. T.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G. B.

    2009-12-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth’s atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Off line analysis of filter samples was performed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS). This technique provide a more detailed chemical characterisation of the SOA, allowing direct links back to gas phase precursors. The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS) measurements of VOCs were made at the ground site and from the FAAM aircraft. Novel organic aerosol was measured by both AMSs, and identified by GCxGC/ToFMS analysis. The aerosol component was

  3. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno and James Essex

    2007-04-30

    satellite. Once inside the FRMAC, this information is transferred to the pertinent divisions for review, data storage, and eventual display on map products. The internet is also a powerful communications tool being utilized by the FRMAC. Using a secure internet connection, field team location and data collection can be viewed live-time by any computer attached to the internet. Similarly, survey information from our fixed-wing aircraft can be viewed while the mission is being flown. All accumulated data and maps generated in the FRMAC are disseminated on a web page through the secure FRMAC web site. Several new data communication processes are being investigated to aid the FRMAC. Each of these provides an important tool to efficiently collect, record and disseminate environmental measurements to FRMAC scientists and decision makers. The ultimate goal of these processes is to improve the flow of protection decisions and information to the public.

  4. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  5. Linking Abilities, Interests, and Sex via Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The few studies that have examined associations between measured interests and abilities have suffered from small sample sizes, restricted ranges of ability and background, preconceived groupings of interests, and measures of ability that confound general and specific cognitive abilities. In this study of 425 adults from diverse backgrounds, the…

  6. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  7. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  8. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  9. Measuring Cognitive Ability with the Overclaiming Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Harms, P. D.

    2004-01-01

    The overclaiming technique requires respondents to rate their familiarity with a list of general knowledge items (persons, places, things). Because 20[percent] of the items are foils (i.e., do not exist), the response pattern can be analyzed with signal detection methods to yield the accuracy and bias scores for each respondent. In Study 1, the…

  10. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  11. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  12. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  13. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree. PMID:26493482

  14. Music and nonmusical abilities.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E G

    2001-06-01

    Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive. PMID:11458841

  15. Ability Requirement Implications of Job Design: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Measured multiple approaches to job design and examined relationships with ability requirements, using two distinctly different samples (total N=213 jobs), different measures of job design, and ability requirements. Found that motivational attributes of jobs related positively to mental ability requirements; other approaches to job design related…

  16. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices. PMID:24723880

  17. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    PubMed Central

    Redick, Thomas S.; Webster, Sean B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices. PMID:24723880

  18. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  19. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  20. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  1. Different Dimensions of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Hauptman, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that spatial ability describes a variety of different behaviors and briefly reviews efforts to define intelligence factors and identify processes involved in solving tasks requiring spatial ability. (DS)

  2. Aircraft simultaneous measurements of NO2, total peroxy nitrate, total alkyl nitrate, and HNO3: observations and main results from UK, Boreal forest and Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Giammaria, Franco; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Biancofiore, Fabio; Visconti, Guido; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Reeves, Claire C.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Forster, Grant; Jones, Roderic; Ouyang, Bin; Palmer, Paul I.; Parrington, Mark; McQuaid, Jim; Krejci, Radek

    2013-04-01

    A four-channel thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) instrument for simultaneous measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total peroxy nitrate, total alkyl nitrate and nitric acid, was installed three years ago on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe 146-301 atmospheric research aircraft. Since summer 2010 the TD-LIF has successfully flown in five field campaigns: RONOCO I (summer 2010, UK), SeptEx (summer 2010, UK), RONOCO II (winter 2011, UK), BORTAS (summer 2012, Canada) and SONATA (summer 2012, Italy). In this presentation will be show the main characteristics of the TD-LIF and the observations collected during the five campaigns above. The main results achieved in each campaign will be reported and emphasis will be given to the role of NOx, total peroxy and total alkyl nitrates in the different environments observed to date.

  3. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  4. Coarse mode aerosol measurement using a Low Turbulence Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, J.; Bart, M.; Trembath, J.; McQuaid, J. B.; Brooks, B. J.; Osborne, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahara desert is a major natural source of global mineral dust emissions (Forster et al., 2007) through the mobilisation and lifting of dust particles into the atmosphere from dust storms. A significant fraction of this dust is in the aerosol coarse mode (Weinzierl et al., 2009). It is highlighted of the difficulty in making accurate and reliable measurements from an aircraft platform, particularly that of coarse mode aerosol (Wendisch et al., 2004). To achieve the measurement of a representative aerosol sample an aerosol inlet, on an aircraft, is required for the delivery of the sample to the instruments making the measurements. Inlet design can modify aerosol size distribution through either underestimating due to aerosol losses or overestimation due to enhancements. The Low Turbulence Inlet (LTI) was designed to improve inlet efficiency. This is achieved by reducing turbulence flow within the tip of the inlet, reducing impaction of particles to the walls of the inlet (Wilson et al., 2004). The LTI further maintains isokinetic sampling flow (free stream velocity, U0 and sampling velocity, U are equal to 1). Dust aerosol over the Sahara desert provides an excellent environment to test and quantify the capabilities of the LTI on the FAAM BAe 146, whilst enabling in-situ dust measurement. The LTI was operated during the Fennec field campaign in June 2011 with 11 flights during the campaign over Mauritania and Mali. We are using the LTI to provide critical information on the sampling characteristics of the inlet used by nearly all aerosol instruments inside the aircraft (AMS, Nephelometer, PSAP, and CCN). Inlet experiments were performed with identical Optical Particle Counters (OPC) connected to the rosemount and LTI with size distribution for each inlet measured and Rosemount enhancements determined. Rosemount inlet enhancements were determined to be 2 to 4 times for particles up to 2.5 µm. A key parameter in aerosol measurement is size distribution, in which

  5. Narrative Fiction and Expository Nonfiction Differentially Predict Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Rain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Although reading is known to be an important contributor to language abilities, it is not yet well established whether different text genres are uniquely associated with verbal abilities. We examined how exposure to narrative fiction and expository nonfiction predict language ability among university students. Exposure was measured both with…

  6. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  7. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  8. The Development of Symbol Processing Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham-Diggory, Sylvia

    Visual and auditory stimuli were presented to children to measure symbol processing abilities. Slides which required matching the similarities in two objects in a group of three were presented. At times the matching criteria varied between function, color, and form. Reaction time was quicker when matching by color than by function, which was…

  9. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links with Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…

  10. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  11. Assessing Highly-Creative Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdroy, Rob; de Graaff, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a psychological perspective of the educational dilemma of assessing highly (high-level) creative ability (with some connections to contemporary philosophical debate). Assessment of highly-creative ability is a topic of longstanding debate involving questions of what constitutes creativity; whether the creative mental process is…

  12. Diver First Class Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, E. C., III; Berghage, T. E.

    The Nelson-Denny reading test was administered to thirty Navy first class diver candidates to evaluate the group's vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rate and over-all reading ability. Reading rate and comprehension were at the twelfth grade level, while vocabulary ability was equal to the college freshman norm. (Author)

  13. Egocentrism and Map Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, John O.

    Egocentrism was investigated as an influencing factor in the development of the perceptual abilities needed to understand and interpret topographic maps. Attainment of an adequate concept of space, and the ability to accurately perceive spatial relationships (perspectives) are considered fundamental. Piaget and Inhelder identified three stages of…

  14. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  15. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  16. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  17. The Perceptual Abilities Project. Technical Report No. 1988-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, Janine K.

    An experimental test battery designed to measure several perceptual abilities was administered to 1,368 (51.8% male) paying clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) in an effort to identify and measure three perceptual abilities: (1) flexibility of closure; (2) speed of closure; and (3) spatial scanning. Subjects, who ranged in…

  18. Cognitive Ability and the Demand for Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution. PMID:25343713

  19. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability. PMID:23462757

  20. Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = −0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

  1. Further Explorations of Perceptual Speed Abilities in the Context of Assessment Methods, Cognitive Abilities, and Individual Differences during Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of perceptual speed ability have been shown to be an important part of assessment batteries for predicting performance on tasks and jobs that require a high level of speed and accuracy. However, traditional measures of perceptual speed ability sometimes have limited cost-effectiveness because of the requirements for administration and…

  2. Aircraft Remote Sensing Measurements of Arctic Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bower, K.; Muller, J.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Vance, A.; Newman, S.; Kent, J.; Harlow, C.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of aircraft in-situ measurements of Arctic methane (CH4) concentrations is well understood, providing not only spatially resolved and accurate concentration data, but also essential validation for ground-based and satellite remote sensing instrumentation. The role of airborne remote sensing instruments is equally important in building up an accurate quantitative and process-driven understanding of atmospheric CH4, where the added benefit of a larger spatial coverage and potential for near surface measurements results in a better characterization of potential localized emission sources. As part of the Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling (MAMM) campaign, the Manchester Airborne Retrieval Scheme (MARS) has been developed to produce well-characterized retrievals of atmospheric CH4 from spectra measured by the UK Met Office Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES), a Fourier transform spectrometer that is mounted on the NERC Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft. Data retrieved from ARIES spectra for methane (and other greenhouse gas) concentration profiles measured during MAMM will be presented, highlighting the utility of airborne nadir FTIR sensing for near-surface and partial-column mapping over local emission sources and in climatological sampling over wide areas. We shall demonstrate the validation of ARIES profile results against in-situ measurements, with error characterization suggesting that the retrieval bias is of the order of 1-2%. Because of the relative sensitivity to the surface when flying at low altitudes, these retrievals can be used to better characterize both the natural and industrial sources of Arctic CH4 and long-range inputs to the area, as well as being used to detect potential seabed CH4 seepage events.

  3. Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability. PMID:22033667

  4. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  5. Learning ability in children with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elefant, Cochavit; Wigram, Tony

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present results of a research study examining learning ability in individuals with Rett syndrome. The material for this article was drawn from a more extensive doctoral study, designed to investigate intentional communication in this population, through the use of songs in music therapy. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from an X-linked mutation, affecting mainly females, and found across racial and ethnic groups worldwide. One of the main areas affecting functioning in individuals with Rett syndrome is a severe impairment of receptive and expressive communication. This creates difficulties when attempting to reveal their potential learning abilities. This population has been observed as very responsive to music hence music therapy intervention has been advocated in promoting and motivating them to communicate and to learn. Seven girls with Rett syndrome, between ages 4 and 10 participated in the study. A single subject, multiple probe design was applied during 30-min trials, three times per week and lasted 8 months. During the trials the participants were asked to choose from a selection of 18 familiar and unfamiliar songs, while their ability to learn was observed and measured. Findings revealed that all seven girls demonstrated an ability to learn and to sustain learning over time. This intervention demonstrated that individuals with Rett syndrome could be promoted and motivated to communicate and learn when therapeutically employed by a trained music therapists. PMID:16182495

  6. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects. PMID:14681172

  7. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

    2006-01-01

    While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

  9. The Structure of Mathematical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneaux, W. D.; Rees, Ruth

    1978-01-01

    A mathematics test and the Thurstone PMA Battery were administered to 225 technical students. The item/item correlations were analyzed using both a principal components and a maximum-likelihood method. After varimax rotation, the same structure emerged from both. Results suggest a "mathematical ability" factor independent of "g." (Author/SJL)

  10. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  11. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  12. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  13. The Assessment of Mathematical Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Herbert H.

    1983-01-01

    A test was given to 322 secondary students to develop a profile of mathematical ability based on four components: computation, pattern recognition, logical reasoning, and symbolic manipulation. These profiles were compared to mathematics test scores; the results verified hypotheses about individual differences in mental processes and knowledge…

  14. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  15. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  16. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  17. Preschoolers' Dot Enumeration Abilities Are Markers of Their Arithmetic Competence

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah A.; Reeve, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The abilities to enumerate small sets of items (e.g., dots) and to compare magnitudes are claimed to be indexes of core numerical competences that scaffold early math development. Insofar as this is correct, these abilities may be diagnostic markers of math competence in preschoolers. However, unlike magnitude comparison abilities, little research has examined preschoolers' ability to enumerate small sets, or its significance for emerging math abilities; which is surprising since dot enumeration is a marker of school-aged children's math competence. It is nevertheless possible that general cognitive functions (working memory, response inhibition in particular) are associated with preschoolers' math abilities and underlie nascent dot enumeration abilities. We investigated whether preschoolers' dot enumeration abilities predict their non-verbal arithmetic ability, over and above the influence of working memory and response inhibition. Two measures of dot enumeration ability were examined—inverse efficiency and paradigm specific (response time profiles) measures—to determine which has the better diagnostic utility as a marker of math competence. Seventy-eight 42-to-57 month-olds completed dot enumeration, working memory, response inhibition, and non-verbal addition and subtraction tasks. Dot enumeration efficiency predicted arithmetic ability over and above the influence of general cognitive functions. While dot enumeration efficiency was a better predictor of arithmetic ability than paradigm specific response time profiles; the response time profile displaying the smallest subitizing range and steepest subitizing slope, also displayed poor addition abilities, suggesting a weak subitizing profile may have diagnostic significance in preschoolers. Overall, the findings support the claim that dot enumeration abilities and general cognitive functions are markers of preschoolers' math ability. PMID:24714052

  18. Prevalence and correlates of adequate performance on a measure of abilities related to decisional capacity: differences among three standards for the MacCAT-CR in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Laura B; Palmer, Barton W; Appelbaum, Paul S; Saks, Elyn R; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2007-01-01

    Despite the availability of structured decision-making capacity assessment tools, insufficient guidance exists for applying their results. Investigators often use cutpoints on these instruments to identify potential subjects in need of further assessment or education. Yet, information is lacking regarding the effects of different cutpoints on the proportion and characteristics of individuals categorized as possessing adequate or impaired decisional abilities for consent to research. To demonstrate the potential impact of different standards, we informed 91 individuals, aged 50 or older with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, about a hypothetical clinical trial, and assessed their decisional abilities with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR). Three published MacCAT-CR-based standards were applied to participants' scores to examine the rates and correlates of categorical determinations of adequate performance. The three standards ranged in stringency: the most stringent incorporated cutpoints on all three of the major MacCAT-CR subscales (Understanding, Appreciation, and Reasoning); the other two standards required threshold performance only on the Understanding subscale. The most stringent standard resulted in a 57% rate of impaired performance; the intermediate standard, 19%; and the least stringent standard, 8%. Nearly half of the participants (n=45) were classified as having performed adequately by the least stringent standard yet inadequately by the most stringent. The majority of these 45 were impaired on the Appreciation subscale (n=9), Reasoning (n=15), or both (n=18). Cognitive functioning was correlated with performance status for the more stringent standards. These findings underscore the need for refinement of capacity assessment procedures and for improvements in the use of capacity assessment tools for screening purposes and to assist in categorical capacity determinations. PMID:17020803

  19. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  20. Tolerance for error and computational estimation ability.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Thomas P; Wyckoff, Laurie A; Krebs, Paul; Jones, William; Fitzgerald, Mark P

    2004-06-01

    Previous investigators have suggested that the personality variable tolerance for error is related to success in computational estimation. However, this suggestion has not been tested directly. This study examined the relationship between performance on a computational estimation test and scores on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, a measure of the Big Five personality traits, including Openness, an index of tolerance for ambiguity. Other variables included SAT-I Verbal and Mathematics scores and self-rated mathematics ability. Participants were 65 college students. There was no significant relationship between the tolerance variable and computational estimation performance. There was a modest negative relationship between Agreeableness and estimation performance. The skepticism associated with the negative pole of the Agreeableness dimension may be important to pursue in further understanding of estimation ability. PMID:15362423

  1. Cognitive Modeling of Learning Abilities: A Status Report of LAMP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Christal, Raymond E.

    Research activities underway as part of the Air Force's Learning Abilities Measurement Program (LAMP) are described. A major objective of the program is to devise new models of the nature and organization of human abilities, that could be applied to improve personnel selection and classification systems. The activities of the project have been…

  2. Map Skills Instruction and the Child's Developing Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Judith M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A hierarchial sequence for map skills instruction is proposed and related to existing programs. Emphasis in this sequential structure is placed on gradual development of the student's ability to use grid reference systems and orient himself satisfactorily on maps, as well as the gradual acquisition of certain measurement abilities. (SM)

  3. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  4. Indicators of Teacher Ability to Relate to Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dene R.

    The purpose of this study was to find teacher behaviors which correlate significantly with a criterion measure of teacher ability to relate to students. Videotapes of 50 teacher interns were shown to 100 high school students of three different ethnic backgrounds--white, black and oriental. Teachers were rated on ability to relate to students.…

  5. Differential V-Q Ability: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, S. Viterbo

    1975-01-01

    The initial portion of this paper addresses itself to some of the methodological concerns associated with Verbal-Quantitative (V-Q) research. The second section focuses on studies using differential V-Q ability as an independent variable. The final section focuses on reasearch using V-Q ability measures as dependent variables. (Author/BJG)

  6. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  7. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  8. The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Stephen R.

    The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability.…

  9. Visual Discriminatory Ability Among Prereaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.

    The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…

  10. Algebra Readiness Outcomes of Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Measured Math Ability Compared to Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Teachers' Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The first pretest-posttest hypothesis was tested using the dependent t test. Null hypotheses for test score improvement over time were rejected for the end of fifth-grade pretest compared to ending sixth-grade posttest math Essential Learner Outcome scores converted to standard scores for randomly selected sixth-grade girls meeting measured test…

  11. Familial aggregation patterns in mathematical ability.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Ellen M; Robinson, Nancy M; Ainsworth, Kathryn H; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Holzman, Ted; Raskind, Wendy H

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical talent is an asset in modern society both at an individual and a societal level. Environmental factors such as quality of mathematics education undoubtedly affect an individual's performance, and there is some evidence that genetic factors also may play a role. The current study was performed to investigate the feasibility of undertaking genetics studies on mathematical ability. Because the etiology of low ability in mathematics is likely to be multifactorial and heterogeneous, we evaluated families ascertained through a proband with high mathematical performance in grade 7 on the SAT to eliminate, to some degree, adverse environmental factors. Families of sex-matched probands, selected for high verbal performance on the SAT, served as the comparison group. We evaluated a number of proxy measures for their usefulness in the study of clustering of mathematical talent. Given the difficulty of testing mathematics performance across developmental ages, especially with the added complexity of decreasing exposure to formal mathematics concepts post schooling, we also devised a semiquantitative scale that incorporated educational, occupational, and avocational information as a surrogate for an academic mathematics measure. Whereas several proxy measures showed no evidence of a genetic basis, we found that the semiquantitative scale of mathematical talent showed strong evidence of a genetic basis, with a differential response as a function of the performance measure used to select the proband. This observation suggests that there may be a genetic basis to specific mathematical talent, and that specific, as opposed to proxy, investigative measures that are designed to measure such talent in family members could be of benefit for this purpose. PMID:14739696

  12. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  13. [Rheumatic diseases and work ability].

    PubMed

    Minisola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases are tile most frequent cause of pain in the working population. Rheumatic diseases are chronic illnesses, cause of functional impairnment, relevant working disability and absence from work; however, affected patients maintain a significant functional ability. In this context, the "Fit for work" project, operating in Italy since 2012, promotes the management of chronic musculoskeletal conditions through the realization, also in our country, of a rheumatic medical assistance network in behalf of workers affected by rheumatic diseases and other musculoskeletal disabiliting conditions. PMID:25558722

  14. Spatial Ability Development in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, T. K.; Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    We designed an experiment to evaluate change in students' spatial skills as a result of completing an earth science course. Our test subjects included high school students in earth science classes, college level non-science majors enrolled in large enrollment introductory geoscience courses and introductory level geoscience majors. They also varied as to whether their course had a hand-on laboratory experience or used supplemental Geographic Information System (GIS) based activities. We measured all students' ability to mentally rotate three-dimensional objects and to construct a three-dimensional object from a two-dimensional representation before and after taking the earth science course. Results show an improvement in spatial skills for all groups after completing the science course. We also observed a consistent improvement in spatial skills overall from high school level science to courses for majors, which is possibly related to their increased exposure to science. A subgroup of the test subjects among both high school and the college non-science majors completed supplementary GIS activities. The GIS implementation at the high school level was more extensive and resulted in significant improvements in both categories of spatial ability. At the college level, the non-science majors that used the GIS curriculum showed no significant difference from those that did not, probably because the time spent on the curriculum was too short. At the college level, the geoscience majors had nearly three times the improvement of non-science majors in both categories of spatial ability. This can most likely be attributed to hands-on, weekly laboratory experiences, which were not part of the course for non-science majors. Students choosing science majors typically have much higher spatial skills than the average first or second year non-science major, however there were large variations in spatial ability within all groups. These results suggest that we evaluate teaching

  15. Low intelligence and special abilities.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1988-07-01

    In summary, our research enables us to conclude that specific talents are found in people who differ widely in general intelligence levels and such talents should therefore be regarded as at least partly intelligence-independent. However, between normal and mentally handicapped populations and even within the idiot savant group, general cognitive capacity plays some part in determining the manner in which talents manifest themselves. Idiot savant special abilities can neither be regarded as the sole consequence of practice and training, nor are such skills based only on an efficient rote memory. Instead, idiots savants use strategies which are founded on the deduction and application of rules governing the material upon which their special ability operates. They also generate novel or new examples of such rule based structures just as we do in our use of language. Because of the much greater prevalence of idiots savants in the autistic than in the mentally handicapped population, some characteristic common to both autism and specific giftedness might be assumed. An obsessional pre-occupation with a limited section of the environment might be a common factor to both. It may be this rather than autism itself which is relevant to the idiot savant phenomenon. PMID:3063716

  16. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  17. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  18. Language Ability Predicts the Development of Behavior Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children’s schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children. PMID:23713507

  19. ACT and General Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Katherine A.; Frey, Meredith C.; Detterman, Douglas K.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the SAT has shown a substantial correlation with measures of "g" such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). Another widely administered test for college admission is the American College Test (ACT). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, measures of "g" were derived from the ASVAB and correlated with…

  20. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed. PMID:25603581

  1. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  2. Elliott, C. D. (2007). "Differential Ability Scales" (2nd Ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2007-01-01

    "Differential Ability Scales," Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007), was developed to measure the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents from age 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. The test is designed to be individually administered, measuring general conceptual and reasoning ability ("g") as well as specific and diverse…

  3. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration. PMID:23732878

  4. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant. PMID:12074987

  5. Is playing video games related to cognitive abilities?

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25896420

  6. Latent ability: grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students.

    PubMed

    Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    Past research has assumed that group differences in academic performance entirely reflect genuine differences in ability. In contrast, extending research on stereotype threat, we suggest that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and against women in quantitative fields. This bias results not from the content of performance measures, but from the context in which they are assessed-from psychological threats in common academic environments, which depress the performances of people targeted by negative intellectual stereotypes. Like the time of a track star running into a stiff headwind, such performances underestimate the true ability of stereotyped students. Two meta-analyses, combining data from 18,976 students in five countries, tested this latent-ability hypothesis. Both meta-analyses found that, under conditions that reduce psychological threat, stereotyped students performed better than nonstereotyped students at the same level of past performance. We discuss implications for the interpretation of and remedies for achievement gaps. PMID:19656335

  7. Emotion Recognition Ability: A Multimethod-Multitrait Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Margie; And Others

    A common paradigm in measuring the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion is to present photographs of facial expressions and to ask subjects to identify the emotion. The Affect Blend Test (ABT) uses this method of assessment and is scored for accuracy on specific affects as well as total accuracy. Another method of measuring affect…

  8. Hearing ability decreases in ageing locusts.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shira D; Windmill, James F C

    2015-07-01

    Insects display signs of ageing, despite their short lifespan. However, the limited studies on senescence emphasize longevity or reproduction. We focused on the hearing ability of ageing adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. Our results indicate that the youngest adults (2 weeks post-maturity) have a greater overall neurophysiological response to sound, especially for low frequencies (<10 kHz), as well as a shorter latency to this neural response. Interestingly, when measuring displacement of the tympanal membrane that the receptor neurons directly attach to, we found movement is not directly correlated with neural response. Therefore, we suggest the enhanced response in younger animals is due to the condition of their tissues (e.g. elasticity). Secondly, we found the sexes do not have the same responses, particularly at 4 weeks post-adult moult. We propose female reproductive condition reduces their ability to receive sounds. Overall our results indicate older animals, especially females, are less sensitive to sounds. PMID:25944922

  9. AbilityOne Improvements Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2011-05-19

    05/19/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3179) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Death Anxiety and Mental Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.; Salter, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    Measures of death anxiety, the Thrustone Interest Inventory, the A-B Scale, and the SAT and ACT aptitude tests, were taken among college students. The implications are discussed in terms of a theoretical five-component biosocial model and its relationship to death anxiety. (Author)

  11. Preseason and midseason balance ability of professional Australian footballers.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2008-01-01

    Balance ability has been shown to be important for sports performance and injury prevention. It is unclear whether balance ability changes due to sports participation and regular training without specific balance training. It has not been shown whether certain sports such as the various football codes that often involve single limb stance and balance as part of kicking, running, rapid changes of direction, jumping, and landing actually influence balance ability. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in balance ability measured at preseason and during the competitive season for elite footballer. Twenty-eight professional Australian footballers who did not undertake any specific balance training took part in this study. Postural sway from single limb balance on a force platform was measured for both limbs 1 week before the start and midway through a 22-week competitive season. The subjects were required to step onto a balance mat on top of the force platform and maintain balance for 20 seconds. The maximum sway of the center of pressure in the mediolateral direction was used as the balance score. It was found that there was not a significant difference in the balance ability measurement at the start and during the competitive season. Sports participation and regular training did not influence balance ability in this cohort of athletes. PMID:18296977

  12. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  13. Recent advances in measurement of the water vapour continuum in the far-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul D; Newman, Stuart M; Beeby, Ralph J; Murray, Jonathan E; Pickering, Juliet C; Harries, John E

    2012-06-13

    We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm(-1)) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) far-IR spectro-radiometer instrument onboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft; and compare this new derivation with those recently published in the literature in this spectral band. This new dataset validates the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) 2.5 model parametrization above 300 cm(-1), but indicates the need to strengthen the parametrization below 300 cm(-1), by up to 50 per cent at 100 cm(-1). Data recorded at a number of flight altitudes have allowed measurements within a wide range of column water vapour environments, greatly increasing the sensitivity of this analysis to the continuum strength. PMID:22547236

  14. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  15. Measuring Mastery across Grades: An Application to Spelling Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nijlen, Daniel; Janssen, Rianne

    2011-01-01

    The distinction between quantitative and qualitative differences in mastery is essential when monitoring student progress and is crucial for instructional interventions to deal with learning difficulties. Mixture item response theory (IRT) models can provide a convenient way to make the distinction between quantitative and qualitative differences…

  16. Measuring up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…

  17. Why You Should Measure Your Students' Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers administer a force concept test such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to their students in an effort to evaluate and improve their instructional practices. It has been commonly assumed that looking at class normalized gains allows teachers to compare their courses with other courses. In this paper we present evidence to suggest…

  18. Young Children's Performance on Three Measures of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    The Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were administered in counterbalanced order followed by the Cognitive Domain of the Battelle Developmental Inventory to a sample of 30 nonhandicapped, preschool children (13 males and 17 females). Correlations (corrected for restriction in range) among the three…

  19. Innovative Allies: Spatial and Creative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steve V.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and creative abilities are important for innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but talents are rarely developed from these abilities by schools, including among gifted children and adolescents who have a high potential to become STEM innovators. This article provides an overview of each ability and makes…

  20. A Structural Theory of Spatial Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Ruth; And Others

    1990-01-01

    After a brief review of the contributions of factor analysis and regional analysis to the elaboration of the structures of spatial abilities, a facet design and regional model for spatial abilities are presented. A cylindrical-wedge model is proposed to represent the correlational structure of spatial ability tests. (SLD)

  1. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  2. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  3. Combining event scores to estimate the ability of competitors.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Green, J R

    1995-04-01

    Simulation was used to investigate the validities of nine measures of ability derived from scores of two or more competitive events. The measures were: raw means and least-squares means of raw scores, z scores, and normal scores; two measures derived from ranked scores; and the "personal-best" raw score. Simulations were performed for different numbers of competitors, events, and event entries, each for a range of validity of performance in a single event. A complete set of simulations was repeated for each of the following conditions: normal distribution of competitors' ability; skewed distribution of ability; event validity related to ability; validity, ability, and spread of scores differing between events; and events differing in difficulty. The raw mean of raw scores was generally the most valid measure. The personal best was comparable to the mean only when the number of entries approached one per competitor. The least-squares mean of raw scores had highest validity when events differed substantially in difficulty; it should therefore be used when events differ in length, or when event scores are affected by environmental conditions, judging bias, or by uneven matching of competitors in match-play sports. PMID:7791592

  4. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  5. Children with Williams Syndrome: Developmental Trajectories for Intellectual Abilities, Vocabulary Abilities, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Pitts, C. Holley

    2016-01-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4 – 15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (> 7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (< 7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  6. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. PMID:22663773

  7. Do People Have Insight Into Their Abilities? A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2014-03-01

    Having insight into one's abilities is essential, yet it remains unclear whether people generally perceive their skills accurately or inaccurately. In the present analysis, we examined the overall correspondence between self-evaluations of ability (e.g., academic ability, intelligence, language competence, medical skills, sports ability, and vocational skills) and objective performance measures (e.g., standardized test scores, grades, and supervisor evaluations) across 22 meta-analyses, in addition to considering factors that moderate this relationship. Although individual meta-analytic effects ranged from .09 to .63, the mean correlation between ability self-evaluations and performance outcomes across meta-analyses was moderate (M = .29, SD = .11). Further, the relation was stronger when self-evaluations were specific to a given domain rather than broad and when performance tasks were objective, familiar, or low in complexity. Taken together, these findings indicate that people have only moderate insight into their abilities but also underscore the contextual factors that enable accurate self-perception of ability. PMID:26173249

  8. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences. PMID:23846718

  9. Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Byford, M; Kuh, D; Richards, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive ability is an important contributor to life chances, with implications for cycles of advantage or disadvantage across generations. Parenting practices are known to influence offspring cognitive development, but the extent to which these mediate intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in cognitive ability has not been adequately studied. Methods We used factor analysis to derive summary measures of parenting practices, and regression analyses and path modelling to test associations between these and cognitive function at age 8 years in 1690 first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort. Analyses allowed for direct and indirect effects of parental original and achieved social circumstances, educational attainment and own childhood cognitive ability. Additional covariates were provided by indicators of parental physical and mental health. Results Regression analyses revealed that three aspects of parenting, intellectual home environment, parental aspiration and cognitive stimulation, were positively and independently associated with offspring childhood cognitive ability, whereas coercive discipline was negatively and independently associated. Path modelling was appropriate for intellectual environment, which also revealed direct and indirect effects of parental cognitive ability and educational and occupational attainment on offspring cognitive ability. Conclusion Parenting practices, particularly provision of an intellectual environment, were directly associated with offspring cognitive development. These data add to the relatively few studies that examine intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability. PMID:22422461

  10. Predicting psychological symptoms: the role of perceived thought control ability.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Rachel D; Klein, Jenny; Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The suppression of intrusive thoughts, which have been related significantly to depressive and anxious symptoms (Blumberg, 2000), has become an area of interest for those treating individuals with psychological disorders. The current study sought to extend the findings of Luciano, Algarabel, Tomas, and Martínez (2005), who developed the Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and found that scores on this measure were predictive of psychopathology. In particular, this study examined the relationship between scores on the TCAQ and the Personality Assessment Inventory. Findings suggested that individuals' perceived thought control ability correlated significantly with several dimensions of commonly-occurring psychological symptoms (e.g. anxiety) and more severe and persistent psychological symptoms (e.g. schizophrenia). Regression analyses also showed that perceived thought control ability predicted significantly a range of psychological symptoms over and above individuals' sex and perceived stress. Findings suggested that thought control ability may be an important future research area in psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:19235599

  11. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional source of variance in language ability. Results demonstrated emergent dimensionality of language across development with distinct factors of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse skills by third grade, confirming that discourse skills are an important source of variance in children's language ability and represent an important additional dimension to be accounted for in studying growth in language skills over the course of childhood. PMID:26509742

  12. Assessing Student's Ability to Solve Textbook Style Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Can We Really Measure Problem Solving Ability? The answer to this question may depend on how we define problem solving ability. But, if we care about students' ability to solve novel textbook style problems, the answer to this question seems to be ``yes.'' In this talk I will discuss a pre-/post- instruction assessment that was recently developed to assess students' ability to solve fairly standard textbook style problems within the domains of Newton's second law, conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. The instrument is designed for large-scale use in typical university classrooms, has already been used in a variety of institutions and appears to be both valid and robust. Data collected with this instrument can help guide curricular improvements and provide important insights relevant to most departments for program review.

  13. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M.; Bacak, A.; Muller, J. B. A.; O'Shea, S. J.; Xiao, P.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Batt, R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    A chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from biomass burning events in Canada using I- reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB) marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume-defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6-sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR) of 3.68 ± 0.149 pptv ppbv-1 was calculated, which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011). The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work, the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N) yr-1.

  14. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M.; Bacak, A.; Muller, J. B. A.; O'Shea, S. J.; Xiao, P.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Batt, R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-02-01

    A Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from biomass burning events in Canada using I- reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB) marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6 sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A Normalised Excess Mixing Ratio (NEMR) of 3.76 ± 0.022 pptv ppbv-1 was calculated which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011). The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N) yr-1.

  15. Change in Cognitive Abilities in Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Marquez, David X; Amofa, Priscilla; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cognitive decline in older Latinos and non-Latinos. At annual intervals for a mean of 5.7 years, older Latino (n=104) and non-Latino (n=104) persons of equivalent age, education, and race completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which previously established composite measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability were derived. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education, performance declined over time in each cognitive domain, but there were no ethnic group differences in initial level of function or annual rate of decline. There was evidence of retest learning following the baseline evaluation, but neither the magnitude nor duration of the effect was related to Latino ethnicity, and eliminating the first two evaluations, during which much of retest learning occurred, did not affect ethnic group comparisons. Compared to the non-Latino group, the Latino group had more diabetes (38.5% vs. 25.0; χ2[1]=4.4; p=.037), fewer histories of smoking (24.0% vs. 39.4%, χ2[1]=5.7; p=.017), and lower childhood household socioeconomic level (-0.410 vs. -0.045, t[185.0]=3.1; p=.002), but controlling for these factors did not affect results. Trajectories of cognitive aging in different abilities are similar in Latino and non-Latino individuals of equivalent age, education, and race. (JINS, 2016, 22, 58-65). PMID:26553103

  16. Neural correlates of cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    The challenge to neuroscientists working on intelligence is to discover what neural structures and mechanisms are at the basis of such a complex and variegated capability. Several psychologists agree on the view that behavioral flexibility is a good measure of intelligence, resulting in the appearance of novel solutions that are not part of the animal's normal behavior. This article tries to indicate how the supposed differences in intelligence between species can be related to brain properties and suggests that the best neural indicators may be the ones that convey more information processing capacity to the brain, i.e., high conduction velocity of fibers and small distances between neurons, associated with a high number of neurons and an adequate level of connectivity. The neural bases of human intelligence have been investigated by means of anatomical, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological methods. These investigations have led to two important findings that are briefly discussed: the parietofrontal integration theory of intelligence, which assumes that a distributed network of cortical areas having its main nodes in the frontal and parietal lobes constitutes a probable substrate for smart behavior, and the neural efficiency hypothesis, according to which intelligent people process information more efficiently, showing weaker neural activations in a smaller number of areas than less intelligent people. PMID:22422612

  17. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  18. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  19. The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline M.; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation and number representation have both been studied widely, but although mental rotation has been linked to higher-level mathematical skills, to date it has not been shown whether mental rotation ability is linked to the most basic mental representation and processing of numbers. To investigate the possible connection between mental rotation abilities and numerical representation, 43 participants completed four tasks: 1) a standard pen-and-paper mental rotation task; 2) a multi-digit number magnitude comparison task assessing the compatibility effect, which indicates separate processing of decade and unit digits; 3) a number-line mapping task, which measures precision of number magnitude representation; and 4) a random number generation task, which yields measures both of executive control and of spatial number representations. Results show that mental rotation ability correlated significantly with both size of the compatibility effect and with number mapping accuracy, but not with any measures from the random number generation task. Together, these results suggest that higher mental rotation abilities are linked to more developed number representation, and also provide further evidence for the connection between spatial and numerical abilities. PMID:23933002

  20. Research and Exploration into the Development of Students' Practical and Innovative Abilities in Engineering Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiumei

    2008-01-01

    Practical teaching plays an important role in developing students' practical and innovative abilities. Starting from the idea of "emphasis on practice and ability", this article proposes to take a series of measures to improve students' practical ability in undergraduate teaching. In addition, a platform should be built to develop…

  1. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  2. The Effect of Concurrent Music Reading and Performance on the Ability to Detect Tempo Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark Carlton

    1989-01-01

    Measures the ability of three groups of musicians to detect tempo change while reading and performing music. Compares this ability with that of the same musicians to detect tempo change while listening only. Found that for all groups the ability to detect tempo changes was inhibited by the playing task, although to different degrees for each…

  3. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  4. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability. PMID:27512260

  5. From Each According to His Abilities: The Role of Effort in a Moral Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, B.

    1973-01-01

    Psychologists have stressed the measurement of ability and neglected the subjective determinants of achievement striving and achievement evaluation. The moral aspects of achievement should be considered. (ST)

  6. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial intelligence, and…

  7. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  8. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  9. The Relationships Between Cerebral Dominance and Different Mental Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl; Bartek, Elmer

    Using a sample of 77 10th grade boys, the researchers studied the relationships between the mental abilities measured by the Differential Aptitude Tests and cerebral dominance (CD: the extent to which one hemisphere of the brain dominates the other for control of behavior). The surprise finding was that CD was negatively related to spatial…

  10. Ability Self-Estimates and Self-Efficacy: Meaningfully Distinct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubany, Shawn T.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual differences between self-efficacy and ability self-estimate scores, used in vocational psychology and career counseling, were examined with confirmatory factor analysis, discriminate relations, and reliability analysis. Results suggest that empirical differences may be due to measurement error or scale content, rather than due to the…

  11. Deficits in Social Attribution Ability in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of mental retardation, involves a myriad of physical and behavioral problems. Poor social adjustment has been reported, but the origin of this difficulty is unknown. The Social Attribution Task, a measure of one's ability to make appropriate social attributions from an ambiguous visual display [Klin…

  12. The Relationship between Reading Ability and Lateralized Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Scott A.; Zaidel, Eran

    2004-01-01

    Although lexical decision remains one of the most extensively studied cognitive tasks, very little is known about its relationship to broader linguistic performance such as reading ability. In a correlational study, several aspects of lateralized lexical decision performance were related to vocabulary and reading comprehension measures, as…

  13. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AUDITORY AND VISUAL PERCEPTUAL ABILITY AND READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUSBY, WALTER A.; HURD, DONALD E.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER AUDIOVISUAL PERCEPTUAL ABILITY CAN ACCOUNT FOR READING ACHIEVEMENT. SUBJECTS WERE 120 PUPILS SELECTED RANDOMLY FROM 38 SCHOOLS IN ILLINOIS. PUPILS WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6. MEASURES OF VISUAL PERCEPTION, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL-AUDITORY SHIFTING PERCEPTION, INTELLIGENCE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND…

  14. Imagining the Music: Methods for Assessing Musical Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terry; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Timing profiles of live and imagined performances were compared with the aim of creating a context-specific measure of musicians' imagery ability. Thirty-two advanced musicians completed imagery use and vividness surveys, and then gave two live and two mental performances of a two-minute musical excerpt, tapping along with the beat of the mental…

  15. Domestic Violence and Longitudinal Associations with Children's Physiological Regulation Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigterink, Tami; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of domestic violence (DV) on children's emotion regulation abilities measured via baseline vagal tone (VT). Specifically, the authors examined the relationship between DV exposure and children's regulatory functioning over time, investigating whether DV exposure was related to the trajectory of children's…

  16. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  17. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  18. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  19. Sex Differences in College Students' Elementary Arithmetic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    From adolescence, data show that males outperform females on math tests and tests of math reasoning. These tests are usually age appropriate (i.e., SAT-M and the ACT). The current data with college students and a simple test of arithmetic ability show that males still score higher than females (N = 235) even when performance is measured using a…

  20. The contributions of memory and attention processes to cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, S; Schweizer, K

    2001-01-01

    In two experiments, the contributions of memory and attention processes to the cognitive abilities of reasoning and perceptual speed were investigated. Two measures of speed of information retrieval from long-term and short-term memory (Posner paradigm, Sternberg paradigm) and two attention measures (continuous attention test, attention switching test) were included in the first experiment (N = 220). The memory tests led to correlations with the measures of cognitive abilities, whereas the attention test did not. The same tests as well as one additional memory test and one attention test (working memory test, test of covert orientation) were administered in the second experiment (N = 116). Again, the memory tests led to the larger correlations with the measures of cognitive abilities. Two components were obtained in components analysis, of which the first was characterized by high loadings of the memory tests and the second by high loadings of the attention tests. Only the memory component contributed to the prediction of cognitive abilities. PMID:11277445

  1. Chewing ability, nutritional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Yang, Y-H; Ho, P-S; Lee, I-C

    2014-02-01

    In the literature, most researchers evaluate individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability by types of foods chosen or blood test. However, most of previous researches enrolled small sample size and the results might be influenced by personal preference of foods as well as the individuals' response to invasive examination. In this study, researchers assessed individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability with non-invasive test and excluded the personal preference of foods. This study had two aims: first, to explore associations between chewing ability, edentulous or dentulous, self-perceived oral health and individuals' nutritional status and quality of life; second, to assess whether the association proposed by Locker's model is valid. This study used the database of Phase I 'Publicly-funded Denture Installation Plan for the Elderly' of Kaohsiung City Government. Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects aged 65 years and older completed the questionnaires for data analysis. The research results supported and verified the theoretical model proposed by Locker. Individual's chewing ability associated significantly with his/her nutritional status and quality of life. The results demonstrated that better chewing ability of the elderly leads to better nutritional status and quality of life. The appropriateness of the indicators and measurements of individual's chewing ability and nutritional status used in this study has been evaluated and presented. These indicators and measurements are suggested to be generally used for clinical or research application on future-related issues. Consequently, the maintenance or improvement in the chewing ability of the elderly is extremely beneficial to healthy ageing. PMID:24289210

  2. Motor planning ability is not related to lesion side or functional manual ability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, E V; Pearse, J E; Eyre, J A; Basu, A P

    2013-11-01

    Optimal task performance requires anticipatory planning to select the most appropriate movement strategy. There is conflicting evidence for hemispheric specialisation of motor planning, with some suggesting left hemisphere dominance, claiming that children with right hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are therefore disproportionally affected. An alternative view is that there is a positive relationship between functional ability (rather than side of lesion) and motor planning skill. We aimed to compare children with right and left HCP on motor planning ability and to explore its relationship with functional manual ability. Participants were 76 children with HCP (40 left HCP; 30 female), aged 4-15 years (Mean 9.09, SD 2.94). Motor planning was assessed using a measure of end-state comfort, which involved turning a hexagonal handle 180° without readjusting grasp. This is difficult, or in some cases impossible, to achieve unless an appropriate initial grasp is adopted. Children completed 24 turns (12 clockwise), which were video recorded for offline scoring. Functional manual ability was assessed with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, completed by parents. Contrary to the existing literature, no differences were observed between right and left HCP. However, a significant interaction between direction of turn and side of hemiplegia indicated a preferential bias for turns in the medial direction, consistent with the "medial over lateral advantage". There was no relationship between functional ability and motor planning. Therefore, motor planning may not be a priority for therapeutic intervention to improve functional ability in HCP. PMID:23995565

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  4. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  5. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  6. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  7. The Learning Effect of Modeling Ability Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the goal of scientific literacy, besides conveying science and technology concepts, cultivating students' modeling ability has become important. However, in-service teachers face the difficulty that their teaching load increases while they are still bound by limited teaching hours. Teachers may know of modeling ability, life related…

  8. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  9. Ability Explorer: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Anne

    The Ability Explorer (AE) is a newly developed self-report inventory of abilities that is appropriate for group or individual administration. There are machine-scorable and hand-scorable versions of the test, and there are two levels. Level 1 is for students from junior high to high school, and Level 2 is for high school students and adults.…

  10. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  11. Developing the Ability for Making Evaluative Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that a more specific emphasis should be placed in undergraduate education on the explicit development of the ability to make evaluative judgements. This higher level cognitive ability is highlighted as the foundation for much sound and successful personal and professional development throughout education, and in lifelong…

  12. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  13. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  14. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  15. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  16. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a...

  17. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  18. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  19. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  20. Does Spatial Training Improve Children's Mathematics Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The authors' primary aim was to investigate a potential causal relationship between spatial ability and math ability. To do so, they used a pretest-training-posttest experimental design in which children received short-term spatial training and were tested on problem solving in math. They focused on first and second graders because earlier studies…

  1. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that...

  2. Overview of Research on Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Nasus

    Although over 77 percent of American school districts use ability grouping, or tracking, research overwhelmingly indicates that the practice benefits only the gifted. High schools commonly have two or three tracks. Regardless of the methods used to place students, the effects of ability grouping are uniform; furthermore, placement in low ability…

  3. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gases in the Arctic - Measurements, Process Studies and Modelling (MAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. A.; Warwick, N. J.; Cain, M.; Hayman, G.; Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.; Dinsmore, K.; George, C.; Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Brownlow, R. B.; Allen, G.; Bower, K.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Illingworth, S. M.; Jones, B.; Muller, J.; O'Shea, S.; Manning, A. C.; Kozlova, E.; Manning, A. J.; Smith, M.; Anderson, D.; Bauguitte, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Arctic greenhouse gas sources need to be quantified, by strength, geographic location, character (e.g. wetlands, gas fields, hydrates), and by temporal variation (daily, seasonally and annually), and their vulnerability to change assessed. To this end, the MAMM project was commissioned as part of the UK NERC Arctic Research Programme. It involves an integrated series of measurement and modelling activities. Analysis of atmospheric gas concentrations, isotopic character, and source fluxes, are being made from both the ground and from the NERC FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) aircraft. The measurements (historic and new) are being interpreted using a suite of models (trajectory, forward and inverse) to improve the understanding of the local/regional scale, placing the role of Arctic emissions in the context of large-scale global atmospheric change. The first measurement campaign was held in August 2012. Surface flux measurements were made at the Sodankylä research station in Finland, together with in-situ surface and aircraft measurements over a wider area. In addition to flights over the Sodankylä wetlands, the aircraft also flew out to Svalbard, Norway to investigate marine sources of methane. Further campaigns are taking place in Sweden in August and September 2013. The initial measurements have been used to infer wetland emission fluxes and confirm that Scandinavian wetlands are a major source of methane in this region (see posters by Fisher et al, O'Shea et al). The aircraft also measured a high-methane plume over the sea between mainland Norway and Svalbard, which was likely advected from mainland wetland sources (see poster by France et al). Results from the field campaigns will be presented, alongside results from the NAME model (the UK Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) to help

  4. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem. PMID:26811470

  5. An effective method for incoherent scattering radar's detecting ability evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ziqing; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Ionospheric incoherent scatter radar (ISR), which is used to detect ionospheric electrons and ions, generally, has megawatt class transmission power and hundred meter level antenna aperture. The crucial purpose of this detecting technology is to get ionospheric parameters by acquiring the autocorrelation function and power spectrum of the target ionospheric plasma echoes. Whereas the ISR's echoes are very weak because of the small radar cross section of its target, estimating detecting ability will be significantly instructive and meaningful for ISR system design. In this paper, we evaluate the detecting ability through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The soft-target radar equation is deduced to be applicable to ISR, through which we use data from International Reference Ionosphere model to simulate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of echoes, and then comparing the measured SNR from European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association and Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar with the simulation. The simulation results show good consistency with the measured SNR. For ISR, the topic of this paper is the first comparison between the calculated SNR and radar measurements; the detecting ability can be improved through increasing SNR. The effective method for ISR's detecting ability evaluation provides basis for design of radar system.

  6. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem. PMID:26811470

  7. Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Differential Ability Scales and the "Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities--Third Edition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Sarah; McIntosh, David E.; Dunham, Mardis; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, Holmes

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the "Differential Ability Scales" ("DAS"; C.D. Elliott, 1990a) as they relate to the "Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory" (K.S. McGrew, 1997) of cognitive abilities. The "DAS" and "Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities" ("WJ-III COG"; R.W.Woodcock, K.S. McGrew, & N. Mather, 2001)…

  8. Education and Health: the Role of Cognitive Ability*

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert; Veenman, Justus

    2015-01-01

    We aim to disentangle the relative impact of (i) cognitive ability, and (ii) education on health and mortality using a structural equation model suggested by Conti et al. (2010). We extend their model by allowing for a duration dependent variable (mortality), and an ordinal educational variable. Data come from a Dutch cohort born between 1937 and 1941, including detailed measures of cognitive ability and family background in the final grade of primary school. The data are linked to the mortality register 1995–2011, such that we observe mortality between ages 55 and 75. The results suggest that at least half of the unconditional survival differences between educational groups are due to a ‘selection effect’, primarily on the basis of cognitive ability. Conditional survival differences across those having finished just primary school and those entering secondary education are still substantial, and amount to a 4 years gain in life expectancy, on average. PMID:25912224

  9. Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Ankney, C. Davison

    2009-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between whole brain size and general mental ability (GMA) both within and between species. Among humans, in 28 samples using brain imaging techniques, the mean brain size/GMA correlation is 0.40 (N = 1,389; p < 10−10); in 59 samples using external head size measures it is 0.20 (N = 63,405; p < 10−10). In 6 samples using the method of correlated vectors to distill g, the general factor of mental ability, the mean r is 0.63. We also describe the brain size/GMA correlations with age, socioeconomic position, sex, and ancestral population groups, which also provide information about brain–behavior relationships. Finally, we examine brain size and mental ability from an evolutionary and behavior genetic perspective. PMID:19283594

  10. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  11. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  12. Why do spatial abilities predict mathematical performance?

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Petrill, Stephen A; Dale, Philip S; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship. PMID:24410830

  13. Simultaneous airborne nitric acid and formic acid measurements using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer around the UK: Analysis of primary and secondary production pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, Michael; Bacak, Asan; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Xiao, Ping; Shallcross, Beth M. A.; Batt, Rory; Cooke, Michael C.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, Carl J.

    2014-02-01

    The first simultaneous measurements of formic and nitric acid mixing ratios around the United Kingdom were measured on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using I- reagent ions at 0.8 Hz. Analysis of the whole dataset shows that formic acid and nitric acid are positively correlated as illustrated by other studies (e.g. Veres et al., 2011). However, initial evidence indicates a prominent direct source of formic acid and also a significant source when O3 levels are high, suggesting the importance of the ozonolysis of 1-alkenes. A trajectory model was able to reproduce the formic acid concentrations by both the inclusion of a primary vehicle source and production via ozonolysis of propene equivalent 1-alkene levels. Inspection of data archives implies these levels of 1-alkene are possible after 11 am, but formic acid and nitric acid plumes early in the flight are too high for the model to replicate. These data show the relationship between nitric acid and formic acid cannot solely be attributed to related photochemical production. The simultaneous measurement of HCOOH and HNO3 has been implemented to estimate OH levels along the flight track assuming a relationship between formic and nitric acid in photochemical plumes and a constant source of 1-alkene.

  14. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  15. Influence of Gender and Ability on the Performance of College Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Noel; Ferri, Beth; Hoy, Cheri; Stennett, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 172 male and 120 female college students with learning disabilities investigated interaction of gender and ability on cognitive, language, and achievement variables. Most measures were strongly related to general cognitive ability. Gender differences were found for general short-term memory on one cognitive measure and the…

  16. The role of cognitive abilities in laparoscopic simulator training.

    PubMed

    Groenier, M; Schraagen, J M C; Miedema, H A T; Broeders, I A J M

    2014-05-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general reasoning ability, in addition to VSA, and performance on a MIS simulator is examined. Fifty-three laparoscopic novices were tested for cognitive aptitude. Laparoscopic performance was assessed with the LapSim simulator (Surgical Science Ltd., Gothenburg, Sweden). Participants trained multiple sessions on the simulator until proficiency was reached. Participants showed significant improvement on the time to complete the task and efficiency of movement. Performance was related to different cognitive abilities, depending on the performance measure and type of cognitive ability. No relationship between cognitive aptitude and duration of training or steepness of the learning curve was found. Cognitive aptitude mediates certain aspects of performance during training on a laparoscopic simulator. Based on the current study, we conclude that cognitive aptitude tests cannot be used for resident selection but are potentially useful for developing individualized training programs. More research will be performed to examine how cognitive aptitude testing can be used to design training programs. PMID:23568181

  17. Spatial Abilities of Expert Clinical Anatomists: Comparison of Abilities between Novices, Intermediates, and Experts in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Ruth; Dror, Itiel E.; Smith, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Spatial ability has been found to be a good predictor of success in learning anatomy. However, little research has explored whether spatial ability can be improved through anatomy education and experience. This study had two aims: (1) to determine if spatial ability is a learned or inherent facet in learning anatomy and (2) to ascertain if there…

  18. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  19. Adults' ability to detect children's lying.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Angela M; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Adults are poor deception detectors when examining lies told by adults, on average. However, there are some adults who are better at detecting lies than others. Children learn to lie at a very young age, a behavior that is socialized by parents. Yet, less is known about the ability to detect children's lies, particularly with regard to individual differences in the ability to detect this deception. The current study explored adult raters' ability to discern honesty in children who lied or told the truth about committing a misdeed. Results showed that adults are no better at detecting children's lies than they are with adult lies. In particular, adults were very poor at identifying children's honest statements. However, individual differences did emerge, suggesting that the ability to detect lying in children might be facilitated by relevant experience working with children. Implications for legal and mental health contexts are discussed. PMID:17016813

  20. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Ability Settings.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason; Filson Moses, Jennifer; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that one person's expectations can influence the behavior of another person, thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This study examined the effects of ability-based expectations in an experiment in which some participants ("coaches") were assigned false expectations of the basketball free-throw shooting ability of other participants ("players"). Coaches allocated more opportunities to players for whom the false expectation was positive, and fewer shots to players for whom the false expectation was negative. In turn, players who were allocated more shots made a higher percentage of them, thereby confirming their coaches' expectations about their shooting ability, and were more confident in their shooting ability following the task, than players who were allocated fewer shots. PMID:26214717

  1. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  2. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the location of the incident. How can I contact someone for help? If you are interested in ... as price, shipping costs, etc. Who do I contact? AgrAbility provides resources to farmers and ranchers with ...

  3. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy.

    PubMed

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish the ability from the propensity to empathize. We argue that (i) this ability-propensity distinction is crucial to characterizing empathy in psychiatric disorders such as psychopathy and autism, (ii) that costly helping might be best predicted by the propensity for empathy, and (iii) suggest how social neuroscientists can start exploring this distinction. PMID:24484764

  4. Bias in Adolescents' Everyday Reasoning and Its Relationship with Intellectual Ability, Personal Theories, and Self-Serving Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    Ninth and 12th graders completed intellectual ability measures and engaged in reasoning about hypothetical arguments that were either consistent or inconsistent with their own theories. Results indicated that intellectual and verbal ability predicted each of several reasoning indexes. Neither ability measures nor age were related to reasoning…

  5. Examination of Personality-Ability Relationships in the Elderly: The Role of the Contextual (Interface) Assessment Mode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachman, Margie E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined personality-ability relationships in old age using two modes of assessment. One measured intellectual abilities and personality with established instruments. The second assessed interface between cognitive abilities and personality. Results support continuation of a measurement approach to the study of interdomain relationships. (Author)

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  7. Infants' Emerging Ability to Represent Occluded Object Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Kerstin; von Hofsten, Claes

    2004-01-01

    The emerging ability to represent an oscillating moving object over occlusions was studied in 7-21-week-old infants. The object moved at 0.25 Hz and was either occluded at the center of the trajectory (for 0.3 s) or at one turning point (for 0.7 s). Each trial lasted for 20 s. Both eye and head movements were measured. By using two kinds of…

  8. White matter microstructural properties correlate with sensorimotor synchronization abilities.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Tal; Tal, Idan; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) to an external auditory rhythm is a developed ability in humans, particularly evident in dancing and singing. This ability is typically measured in the lab via a simple task of finger tapping to an auditory beat. While simplistic, there is some evidence that poor performance on this task could be related to impaired phonological and reading abilities in children. Auditory-motor synchronization is hypothesized to rely on a tight coupling between auditory and motor neural systems, but the specific pathways that mediate this coupling have not been identified yet. In this study, we test this hypothesis and examine the contribution of fronto-temporal and callosal connections to specific measures of rhythmic synchronization. Twenty participants went through SMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements. We quantified the mean asynchrony between an auditory beat and participants' finger taps, as well as the time to resynchronize (TTR) with an altered meter, and examined the correlations between these behavioral measures and diffusivity in a small set of predefined pathways. We found significant correlations between asynchrony and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left (but not right) arcuate fasciculus and in the temporal segment of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, TTR correlated with FA in the precentral segment of the callosum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that relates these particular white matter tracts with performance on an auditory-motor rhythmic synchronization task. We propose that left fronto-temporal and temporal-callosal fibers are involved in prediction and constant comparison between auditory inputs and motor commands, while inter-hemispheric connections between the motor/premotor cortices contribute to successful resynchronization of motor responses with a new external rhythm, perhaps via inhibition of tapping to the previous rhythm. Our results indicate that auditory

  9. Visuo-spatial Ability in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Is it Really a Strength?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities – visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. PMID:24755229

  10. Visuo-spatial ability in individuals with Down syndrome: is it really a strength?

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A; Merrill, Edward C

    2014-07-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities - visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. PMID:24755229

  11. Spatial ability in radiologists: a necessary prerequisite?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial ability is fundamental to the cognitive understanding of the three-dimensional environment and is widely recognized as an important skill in the performance of challenging visuospatial tasks. Its contribution to attainment and performance in a variety of professional disciplines is recognized, but there is relatively little known in relation to its relevance in radiological practice. On the basis of a review of the existing cognitive psychological literature and on the basis of the author's own observations, and on the assumption that spatial ability is of increasing and fundamental importance to high-level performance as a radiologist, it is proposed that consideration should be given to the testing of visuospatial ability as part of the selection process for prospective applicants to radiology training programmes. PMID:25756868

  12. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors. PMID:22269574

  13. Aging effects on the structure underlying balance abilities tests.

    PubMed

    Urushihata, Toshiya; Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as 'Static'. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as 'Static and Reactive'. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were acceptable (young group, GFI

  14. Aging Effects on the Structure Underlying Balance Abilities Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as ‘Static’. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as ‘Static and Reactive’. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were

  15. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  16. Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoko; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were filled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non-immersed end and the set area was determined by subtracting the unset area from the sample thickness. To evaluate sealing ability, materials were filled into glass tubes and divided into four groups based on different immersion times. Thermal cycling and dye penetration were performed. At 7 days, the setting depths of HY-Seal and Caviton were almost equivalent to full sample thickness, while that of Lumicon was only half of full sample thickness (p < 0.01). On sealing ability, Lumicon ranked the highest followed by Caviton, whereas HY-Seal was unstable (p < 0.01). These results suggested that there was no correlation between setting progress and sealing ability. PMID:18972791

  17. Does verbal and gestural expression ability predict comprehension ability in cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Roser; Ariza, Mar; Narberhaus, Ana; Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Junqué, Carme; Vendrell, Pere

    2013-04-01

    Some people with cerebral palsy have motor and associated impairments that may hinder verbal and gestural expression to various extents. This study explores whether the ability to produce verbal or gestural expressions may be related to the comprehension of verbal communications and gestures. The influence of severity of motor impairment, general cognitive performance, and age on comprehension ability was also explored. Forty people with cerebral palsy were assigned to different groups according to their verbal and gestural expression abilities. A neuropsychological assessment of comprehension abilities and general cognitive performance was carried out. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify the possible influence of expression abilities on comprehension abilities and also to detect the possible contribution of severity of motor impairment, general cognitive performance, and age. Results indicate that verbal and gestural comprehension was mainly predicted by general cognitive performance. Severity of motor impairment and age did not contribute to predicting comprehension abilities. Only verbal grammar comprehension was significantly predicted by verbal expression ability. Verbal expression ability may be an important marker for cerebral palsy therapies. In non-ambulant patients with bilateral cerebral palsy, impaired gestural expression should not be taken as an indicator of impaired gestural comprehension. PMID:24032327

  18. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool. PMID:20433337

  19. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  20. Basic Structure of Work-Relevant Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.

    This study sought to determine whether the dimensions underlying a comprehensive set of 15 work-relevant abilities were similar to the Data/Ideas and Things/People Work Task Dimensions (D. J. Prediger, 1996) underlying J. L. Holland's (1997) hexagonal model of interest and occupational types. The work task dimensions and a general ability…

  1. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  2. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  3. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  4. 21st Century Conceptions of Musical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored conceptions of musical ability using an inventory derived from previous qualitative research. Participants included 102 musicians, 95 educators, 132 adult amateur musicians, 60 adults who were not actively engaged in making music, 193 children actively engaged in making music in addition to their engagement with the school…

  5. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  6. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  7. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  8. Spatial Ability and Cerebral Sensory Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To provide converging support that the proper integration of analog and propositional representational systems is associated with spatial ability, the visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potentials were recorded from 50 right-handed Caucasian males. Sensory interaction indices were derived for these subjects who had taken the Surface…

  9. Nine Actions to Build Students' Mathematics Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    The author was asked to develop a list of actions that teachers could take to build students' mathematics abilities. Too many students fail to graduate and fail to pass state assessments as a result of weak mathematics skills. Even many students who do graduate leave high school lacking sufficient understanding of mathematics to pass college…

  10. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  11. Informal Assessment of Older Readers' Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedow, Mary Dunn

    1991-01-01

    Explores the utility of an informal reading inventory for assessing the reading abilities of college students. Determines the amount and kinds of information that can be learned from an informal reading inventory. Determines whether information gained from the Advanced Reading Inventory differed qualitatively from that obtained from the Nelson…

  12. Adaptive Assessment of Spatial Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejar, Isaac I.

    This report summarizes the results of research designed to study the psychometric and technological feasibility of adaptive testing to assess spatial ability. Data was collected from high school students on two types of spatial items: three-dimensional cubes and hidden figure items. The analysis of the three-dimensional cubes focused on the fit of…

  13. Young Children's Time and Intellectual Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Cooper, Catherine R.

    1980-01-01

    Examines assumptions of the confluence model of the effects of family structure on children's intelligence. Subjects were 24 preschool children. Findings indicate that individual differences in intellectual ability are associated with the amount of time children spend in certain activities and with certain people. (Author/RH)

  14. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  15. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  16. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  17. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  18. Psycholinguistic Abilities in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Isser, Aldine

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities was administered to 22 children (mean age=90 months) with petit mal epilepsy and 28 children (mean age=85 months) evidencing mixed seizures to determine whether any differences would be found when these two groups were compared either with each other or with a randomly selected group of nonepileptic…

  19. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  20. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  1. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  2. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  3. Enhancing Readers' Analysis-by-Synthesis Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    A variety of techniques for improving readers' analysis-by-synthesis abilities (rapid, efficient reading typical of highly skilled readers) are presented in this paper. The techniques discussed in the first part emphasize improving reading comprehension and include the following: (1) modifications of the cloze procedure (encouraging readers to use…

  4. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  5. Children's Abilities in Topographic Map Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, Ronald J. B.

    Although over 40 studies have been done since 1925 on map reading, there is little understanding of children's ability to comprehend maps or the mental processes involved. Children's inability to read maps is well document, as are their improved skills after instruction. Yet map skills are part of the elementary curriculum. Success in teaching map…

  6. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  7. Improving Spatial Ability with Mentored Sketching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.; Miller, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    As the result of a qualitative investigation into spatial ability, a teaching technique called mentored sketching was found to be effective for teaching visualization skills to freshman engineering students. This contribution describes the technique, how it evolved, and comments made by students as to its effectiveness. While mentored sketching…

  8. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities.

    PubMed

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities. PMID:26401810

  9. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  10. ABILITY, FAMILY SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL, AND ADVANCED EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOENFELDT, LYLE F.

    TWO GROUPS OF NURSES OF COMPARABLE ABILITY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT WERE STUDIED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON DECISIONS TO CONTINUE EDUCATION AFTER HIGH SCHOOL. BECAUSE FUTURE NURSES MAY ENROLL IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF TRAINING PROGRAMS, IT WAS FELT THAT USING THESE STUDENTS AS SUBJECTS WOULD ENABLE MORE POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF…

  11. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  12. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  13. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  14. A multimodal approach to ankle instability: Interrelations between subjective and objective assessments of ankle status in athletes.

    PubMed

    Golditz, Tobias; Welsch, Goetz H; Pachowsky, Milena; Hennig, Friedrich F; Pfeifer, Klaus; Steib, Simon

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to investigate the association between different subjective and objective assessments of ankle function in a population of athletes with or without functional ankle instability (FAI). 29 athletes with a history of ankle spraining were divided into two groups according to their ankle status: 16 with FAI (initial ankle sprain with residual functional instability) (age 24.6 ± 3.1 years), and 13 COPERS (initial ankle sprain without residual instability) (age 25.3 ± 4.4 years). The assessment of each individual's ankle function was based on three approaches: The "functional-ankle-ability-measure" (FAAM) assessing subjective ankle functionality, measures of sensorimotor control as objective functional measurements and MRI-based T2-mapping as a quantitative marker of compositional joint status. Pearson's product-moment-correlation coefficient, student's t-test and analysis-of-variance were used for statistical analysis. Significant group differences existed for subjective ankle function (FAAM, p = 0.04) and MRI-data mainly in the medial compartment of the ankle joint (p ≤ 0.05). We found unique associations between T2-mapping results and sensorimotor scores in the COPER (r = -0.756-0.849), and "FAI"-group (r = 0.630-0.657). The location and magnitude differed between groups. No correlations existed between these measures and the FAAM. This exploratory study provides preliminary evidence for potential interrelations between various diagnostic measures of ankle function and structure in individuals with and without FAI. We found associations between MRI-results and selected measures of sensorimotor control, indicating a potential link between loss of ankle function and early joint degeneration. Despite these interrelations, each of the different assessment options appears to contain unique information on ankle functionality important in a clinical assessment. PMID:26309042

  15. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  16. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  17. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants. PMID:25252674

  18. Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Chiodera, P; Volta, E; Gobbi, G; Milioli, M A; Mirandola, P; Bonetti, A; Delsignore, R; Bernasconi, S; Anedda, A; Vitale, M

    2008-04-01

    Physical activity in schools is declining in many countries and inactivity in childhood has become a recognized risk factor. Data from a program of professionally guided physical exercise in primary school children were collected before and after the academic year of training. Four thousand five hundred children (6-10 years) were enrolled, and conditional and coordinative motor abilities (speed, trunk flexibility, long jumping, somersault, Harre circuit test) were measured. Anthropometric measurements were focused on body mass index (BMI), weight and height. Females never showed a significant variation of BMI, whereas males in the first and fourth grades showed significant differences. On the contrary, when considering the motor abilities studied, all the comparisons were highly significant. At the end of training, both males and females did better than at the beginning, and males were constantly faster than females. Our data, generated on a large number of children, show that professionally guided programs of physical education in the primary school lead to significant progresses in the development of conditional and coordinative abilities, without altering BMI values, thus not interfering with the balanced progression of body weight and height. PMID:17490452

  19. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164

  20. Childhood Cognitive Ability: Relationship to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poorer cognitive ability in children born to mothers with GDM compared to children born to non-GDM mothers in India. Methods During 1997-98 maternal GDM status was assessed at 30±2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007-2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32-offspring of GDM mothers (ODM’s); 483-offspring of non-GDM mothers (controls)) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-second edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results Compared to controls, ODM’S scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p=0.008), reasoning (p=0.02), verbal ability (p=0.01) and attention and concentration (p=0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child’s age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity, BMI, parent’s socio-economic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (β=0.4SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.75); p=0.042) and verbal ability (β=0.5SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.83); p=0.015) and not with other test scores. Conclusions/interpretation In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM’s. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM’s. PMID:20614102

  1. The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

  2. Spatial abilities of medical graduates and choice of residency programs.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency program is related to spatial abilities. A cohort of 210 medical graduates was enrolled in a prospective study in a 5-year experiment. Spatial abilities were measured with a redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in two (MRTA) and three (MRTC) dimensions. Medical graduates were enrolled in Family Medicine (n = 76, 36.2%), Internal Medicine (64, 30.5%), Surgery (52, 24.8%), and Anesthesia (18, 8.6%). The assumption was that the level of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills content was higher in Surgery and Anesthesia compared to Family Medicine and Internal Medicine. Mean MRTA score of 12.4 (±SD 4.6), 12.0 (±4.3), 14.1 (±4.3), and 14.6 (±4.0) was obtained in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Anesthesia, respectively (P = 0.0176). Similarly, mean MRTC score of 8.0 (±4.4), 7.5 (±3.6), 8.5 (±3.9), and 7.9 (±4.1) was obtained (P = 0.5647). Although there was a tendency for lower MRTA score in Family Medicine and Internal Medicine compared to Surgery and Anesthesia, no statistically significant main effect of residency, year, sex, or the interactions were observed for the MRTA and MRTC. Studied sample of medical graduates was not found to choose their residency programs based on their innate spatial abilities. PMID:24953052

  3. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  4. Predicting Student Performance in Sonographic Scanning Using Spatial Ability as an Ability Determinent of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and…

  5. Predicting student performance in sonographic scanning using spatial ability as an ability determinent of skill acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and interpretation of these medical images. Using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance as a conceptual framework, this study explored the relationship of spatial ability and learning sonographic scanning. Beginning first year sonography students from four different educational institutions were administered a spatial abilities test prior to their initial scanning lab coursework. The students' spatial test scores were compared with their scanning competency performance scores. A significant relationship between the students' spatial ability scores and their scanning performance scores was found. This result suggests that the use of spatial ability tests for admission to sonography programs may improve candidate selection, as well as assist programs in adjusting instruction and curriculum for students who demonstrate low spatial ability.

  6. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  7. On the Primary Factors Affecting Linguistic Ability in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alahuhta, Eila

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with weaker speech ability have greater difficulties in perception, powers of reasoning and spatial orientation than children with better speech ability, and assessed the value of Apgar scores as a predictive measure of later linguistic disorders. Subjects were 100 children born in 1970 who attended…

  8. Right-Hemispheric Cortical Contributions to Language Ability in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Ragnehed, Mattias; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Engstrom, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between individual linguistic ability based on performance levels and their engagement of typical and atypical language areas in the brain. Eighteen healthy subjects between 21 and 64 years participated in language ability tests, and subsequent functional MRI scans measuring brain activity in response…

  9. Investigating the Impact of Uncertainty about Item Parameters on Ability Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming; Xie, Minge; Song, Xiaolan; Lu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic expansions of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of an examinee's ability are derived while item parameter estimators are treated as covariates measured with error. The asymptotic formulae present the amount of bias of the ability estimators due to the uncertainty of item parameter estimators.…

  10. Components of Reading Ability: Multivariate Evidence for a Convergent Skills Model of Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vellutino, Frank R.; Tunmer, William E.; Jaccard, James J.; Chen, RuSan

    2007-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children were given a large battery of tests evaluating reading subskills and reading-related cognitive abilities. These measures were used to define latent representing skills and abilities believed to be important components of reading comprehension. Hypothesized relationships among these constructs were specified…

  11. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  12. Human Figure Drawing Ability and Vestibular Processing Dysfunction in Learning-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenbacher, Kenneth; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationship between vestibular function as measured by duration of postrotary nystagmus and human figure drawing ability in children (N=40) labeled as learning disabled. Results supported the assertion that some learning-disabled children evidence deficits in vestibular processing ability and that these deficits may affect…

  13. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  14. Linking Brain Growth with the Development of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Conceptual Change during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lawson, Anton E.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that an early adolescent brain growth plateau and spurt exists, and that this plateau and spurt influence students' ability to reason scientifically and to learn theoretical science concepts. Finds that measures of students' (n=210) prefrontal lobe activity correlated highly with scientific reasoning ability, and that these…

  15. Relationships among Preservice Primary Mathematics Teachers' Gender, Academic Success and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate relationships among pre-service primary mathematics teachers' gender, academic success and spatial ability. The study was conducted in Izmir with 193 pre-service primary mathematics teachers of Dokuz Eylul University. In the work, spatial ability test, which consists of two main sub-tests measuring spatial…

  16. Gender Differences in Spatial Ability: "Relationship to Spatial Experience among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial ability based on measures of mental rotation, and spatial experience based on self-reported participation in visual-arts as well as spatial-orientation activities were assessed in a sample of 337 Chinese, gifted students. Consistent with past findings for the general population, there were gender differences in spatial ability favoring…

  17. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  18. Academic Self-Concepts in Adolescence: Relations with Achievement and Ability Grouping in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ability grouping in schools on students' self-concept were examined in a sample of 23 secondary schools with a range of structured ability groupings. Measures of general self-concept, academic self-concept, and achievement were collected from over 1600 students aged 14-15 years and again two years later. Students' academic…

  19. Visual-Spatial Ability: Important in Stem, Ignored in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Visual-spatial ability is a multifaceted component of intelligence that has predictive validity for future achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. Although identification and development of STEM talent is a national priority, visual-spatial ability is rarely measured and relatively neglected in gifted…

  20. Investigating the Effect of School Ability on Self-Efficacy, Learning Approaches, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    The relations among school ability, self-efficacy, learning approach, and metacognition were examined in a path model. Questionnaires measuring these constructs were administered to 194 Filipino college students. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of school ability on self-efficacy and learning approaches, and in turn, the effects of…

  1. A Theory-Based Framework for Assessing Domain-Specific Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugrue, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    A more fragmented approach to assessment of global ability concepts than is generally advocated is suggested, based on the assumption that decomposing a complex ability into cognitive components and tracking performance across multiple measures will yield valid and instructionally useful information. Specifications are suggested for designing…

  2. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  3. Predicting Science Achievement: The Role of Developmental Level, Disembedding Ability, Mental Capacity, Prior Knowledge, and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1983-01-01

    Ability of five cognitive characteristics to predict students' (N=96) achievement of evolution and natural selection concepts was measured. Results, among others, indicate that disembedding ability, prior knowledge, and evolutionary belief were significantly related to achievement while developmental level and mental capacity were not. (JN)

  4. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  5. The Structure of Cognitive Abilities in Youths with Manic Symptoms: A Factorial Invariance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Freeman, Megan Joseph; Youngstrom, Eric; Carlson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the structure of cognitive ability (specifically, verbal/crystallized ["Gc"] and visual-spatial ability ["Gv"]), as measured in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, in youth with manic symptoms with a nationally representative group of similarly aged youth. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis found the majority of…

  6. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  8. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g" measured by a…

  9. Do Interests and Cognitive Abilities Help Explain College Major Choice Equally Well for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether vocational interests, measured by Holland's RIASEC model, and objectively assessed cognitive abilities, were useful in discriminating among various major categories for a sample of 1990 German university students. Interests and specific abilities, in combination, significantly discriminated among major categories…

  10. Sex Differences in Verbal Reasoning Are Mediated by Sex Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Contreras, Ma Jose; Arend, Isabel; Leal, Oscar Garcia; Santacreu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown that males outperform females in overall spatial ability, while females outperform males in some verbal ability tests, but not in others. The present article measures sex differences in two computerized tests, one thought to reflect verbal reasoning and one thought to reflect dynamic spatial performance. The sample…

  11. Locus of Control, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Dishonesty among High Ability College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States…

  12. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math…

  13. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  14. Valued life abilities among veteran cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Karel, Michele J.; Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Walder, Annette; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Naik, Aanand D.

    2016-01-01

    Background When patients have multiple chronic illnesses, it is not feasible to provide disease-based care when treatments for one condition adversely affect another. Instead, health-care delivery requires a broader person-centred treatment plan based on collaborative, patient-oriented values and goals. Objective We examined the individual variability, thematic content, and sociodemographic correlates of valued life abilities and activities among multimorbid veterans diagnosed with life-altering cancer. Setting and participants Participants were 144 veterans in the ‘Vet-Cares’ study who completed a health-care values and goals scale 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, gastro-oesophageal, or colorectal cancer. They had mean age of 65 years and one quarter identified as Hispanic and/or African American. Design At twelve months post-diagnosis, participants rated 16 life abilities/activities in their importance to quality of life on a 10-point Likert scale, during an in-person interview. Scale themes were validated via exploratory factor analysis and examining associations with sociodemographic variables. Results Participants rated most life abilities/activities as extremely important. Variability in responses was sufficient to identify three underlying values themes in exploratory factor analysis: self-sufficiency, enjoyment/comfort, and connection to family, friends and spirituality. Veterans with a spouse/partner rated self-sufficiency as less important. African American veterans rated connection as more important than did White veterans. Conclusions It is feasible yet challenging to ask older, multimorbid patients to rate relative importance of values associated with life abilities/activities. Themes related to self-sufficiency, enjoyment/comfort in daily life and connection are salient and logically consistent with sociodemographic traits. Future studies should explore their role in goal-directed health care. PMID:25645124

  15. [Health surveillance and suitability: the role of the company physician in maintaining work ability].

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Di Lello, Matteo; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    The ageing workforce is one of the major issues in Europe. Ageing has an important effect on work ability, especially in manual jobs where physical demand is high. Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common health problems among European workers and are able to affect work ability. In order to increase the employment rate of people aged 45-65, measures to sustain work ability and proper age management should be promoted: return to work strategies include adjustment of the job to the worker's health conditions and abilities. The contribution of health surveillance.programs in the management of workers affected by musculoskeletal disorders is discussed. PMID:25558720

  16. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  17. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  18. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction. PMID:26328685

  19. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  20. Test Review: C. D. Elliott "Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition." San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephanie; McGoey, Kara E.; Moschos, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II), an individually administered cognitive test battery, designed to evaluate children ages 2 years 6 months to 17 years 11 months. It purports to measure a hierarchy of cognitive abilities, including broad abilities contributing to a single cognitive factor…

  1. From specialist to generalist: Developmental transformations in the genetic structure of early child abilities.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amanda K; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    The heritability of abilities increases substantially over development, and much of heritable variation in abilities is shared with other abilities. No study, however, has formally tested the extent to which developmental increases in heritability occur on shared versus unique variation in child abilities. A transactional perspective predicts that the relative proportion of shared to total genetic variance will increase with age, whereas an endogenous perspective predicts that such proportion will be invariant with age. We tested these competing predictions using data from a sample of 292 twins providing a total of 578 cross-sectional and longitudinal observations between ages 0 and 6 years on measures of Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem-Solving, and Personal-Social abilities. Consistent with predictions of the transactional perspective, developmental increases in heritability were localized to variance shared across abilities. PMID:25975938

  2. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging. PMID:19413434

  3. Children's intellectual ability is associated with structural network integrity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A; Sporns, Olaf; O'Donnell, Brian F; Buss, Claudia; Hetrick, William P

    2016-01-01

    Recent structural and functional neuroimaging studies of adults suggest that efficient patterns of brain connectivity are fundamental to human intelligence. Specifically, whole brain networks with an efficient small-world organization, along with specific brain regions (i.e., Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory, P-FIT) appear related to intellectual ability. However, these relationships have not been studied in children using structural network measures. This cross-sectional study examined the relation between non-verbal intellectual ability and structural network organization in 99 typically developing healthy preadolescent children. We showed a strong positive association between the network's global efficiency and intelligence, in which a subtest for visuo-spatial motor processing (Block Design, BD) was prominent in both global brain structure and local regions included within P-FIT as well as temporal regions involved with pattern and form processing. BD was also associated with rich club organization, which encompassed frontal, occipital, temporal, hippocampal, and neostriatal regions. This suggests that children's visual construction ability is significantly related to how efficiently children's brains are globally and locally integrated. Our findings indicate that visual construction and reasoning may make general demands on globally integrated processing by the brain. PMID:26385010

  4. Memory styles and related abilities in presentation of self.

    PubMed

    Sehulster, J R

    1995-01-01

    The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles. PMID:7733413

  5. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity. PMID:26223507

  6. Visuospatial, visuoperceptual, and visuoconstructive abilities in congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Simic, Nevena; Khan, Sarah; Rovet, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Individuals with congenital hypothyroidism (CH), even those diagnosed and treated early, experience selective cognitive deficits, the most striking of which involves the visuocognitive domain. However, the range and nature of their visuocognitive disturbances is not fully understood. We assessed a range of higher-order visuocognitive abilities in 19 children and adolescents with CH and 19 age- and sex-matched typically developing peers (TD) using a battery of neuropsychological tests and a novel self-report measure of sense of direction. CH scored lower than TD on direct tests of visuocognitive function (judging line orientation, parts-to-whole localization, copying three-dimensional block towers, discriminating designs, and matching unfamiliar faces in ¾ profile-view) as well as on self-reported problems in spatial ability. Visuocognitive problems were not global as CH and TD did not differ at copying two-dimensional block designs, mentally rotating and matching abstract shapes, or at matching unfamiliar front-view faces, design features, or designs that engaged either figure-ground segregation, visual constancy, or closure. Early and concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were associated with visuocognitive ability, although attention and working memory were not. Individuals with CH exhibit selective visuocognitive weaknesses, some of which are related to early and concurrent TSH levels. PMID:24124766

  7. Interoceptive ability and body awareness in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schauder, Kimberly B; Mash, Lisa E; Bryant, Lauren K; Cascio, Carissa J

    2015-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with various sensory atypicalities across multiple domains. Interoception, the ability to detect and attend to internal bodily sensations, has been found to moderate the experience of body ownership, a known difference in ASD that may affect social function. However, interoception has not been empirically examined in ASD. In the current study, 45 children (21 with ASD and 24 controls) ages 8 to 17 years completed a heartbeat perception paradigm as a measure of interoceptive ability. A subset of these children also completed the rubber hand illusion task, a multisensory paradigm probing the malleability of perceived body ownership. Although the heartbeat perception paradigm yielded comparable interoceptive awareness (IA) overall across both groups, children with ASD were superior at mentally tracking their heartbeats over longer intervals, suggesting increased sustained attention to internal cues in ASD. In addition, IA was negatively correlated with rubber hand illusion susceptibility in both groups, supporting a previously demonstrated inverse relationship between internal awareness and one's ability to incorporate external stimuli into one's perception of self. We propose a trade-off between attention to internal cues and attention to external cues, whereby attentional resources are disproportionately allocated to internal, rather than external, sensory cues in ASD. PMID:25498876

  8. Scottish country dance: benefits to functional ability in older women.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Susan; Nelson, Norah; Dougall, Paul K; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term participation in Scottish country dance on body composition, functional ability, and balance in healthy older females were examined. Participants were grouped into dancers and physically active nondancers (ages 60-70 and 70-80 for both groups). Physical activity, body composition (body-mass index, skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio), functional ability (6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, 8-ft up-and-go time, lower body flexibility, shoulder flexibility), and static balance were measured. Younger dancers and physically active nondancers had similar 6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, and 8-ft up-and-go time results; however, while older dancers performed similarly to younger dancers, older physically active nondancers performed poorer than their younger counterparts (p < .05). Body composition and static balance were the same for all groups. Regular physical activity can maintain body composition and postural stability with advancing age; however, Scottish country dance can delay the effects of aging on locomotion-related functional abilities. PMID:23538484

  9. Commentary: The Development of Creativity--Ability, Motivation, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Christensen, Alexander P; Cotter, Katherine N

    2016-01-01

    A major question for research on the development of creativity is whether it is interested in creative potential (a prospective approach that uses measures early in life to predict adult creativity) or in children's creativity for its own sake. We suggest that a focus on potential for future creativity diminishes the fascinating creative world of childhood. The contributions to this issue can be organized in light of an ability × motivation framework, which offers a fruitful way for thinking about the many factors that foster and impede creativity. The contributions reflect a renewed interest in the development of creativity and highlight how this area can illuminate broader problems in creativity studies. PMID:26994729

  10. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  11. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  12. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  13. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival. PMID:1191157

  14. Language Experience Changes Language and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Poarch, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of two languages by bilinguals has been shown to induce broad changes in language and cognitive abilities across the lifespan. The largest changes are seen as advantages in executive control, a set of processes responsible for controlled attention, inhibition, and shifting. Moreover, there is evidence that these executive control advantages mitigate cognitive decline in older age and contribute to cognitive reserve. In this paper, we examine some of the evidence for these findings and explain their relation to bilingual language use. These effects are considered in terms of their implications for our understanding of cognitive and brain plasticity. Some implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:25435805

  15. Relationship between Work Ability Index and Cognitive Failure among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Kolahdouzi, Malihe; Mehri, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequent nursing errors are considered as factors that affect the quality of healthcare of patients. Capable nurses who are compatible with work conditions are more focused on their tasks, and this reduces their errors and cognitive failures. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between work ability index (WAI) and cognitive failures (CFs) as well as some factors that affect them in nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards. Methods This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with 750 nurses at educational hospitals affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A questionnaire of work ability index and cognitive failures was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, chi-squared, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Using the Pearson correlation test, the results of this study showed that there is a significant, inverse relationship between WAI, personal prognosis of work ability, and mental resources with CFs along with all its subscales in nurses (p < 0.05). In addition, there was an inverse and significant relationship between the total score of CFs and the estimated work impairment due to diseases (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation of CFs with age and experience, while WAI was inversely related to age, work experience, and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). WAI and CFs were related significantly to working units (p < 0.05). Conclusion Considering the results obtained in this study, WAI and the cognitive status of nurses were lower than the specified limit. It is suggested that the work ability of nurses be improved and that their CFs be reduced through various measures, including pre-employment examinations, proper management of work-shift conditions, and using engineering and administrative strategies to ensure the safety of hospitalized patients

  16. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. PMID:27287074

  17. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  18. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  19. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  20. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364