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Sample records for ability prior knowledge

  1. Prior knowledge and reading comprehension ability of deaf adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D; Paul, P; Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-one severely to profoundly deaf students (mean dB hearing loss = 89) were randomly assigned to two groups that differed by the type of probes (short or long) used to elicit prior knowledge (PK). PK scores were used to predict reading comprehension (RC), which was assessed by students' responses to three types of questions: test-explicit (TE), text-implicit (TI), and script-implicit (SI). Multiple regression models with PK scores and scores from a standardized achievement test (Stanford Achievement Test - Hearing Impaired Version, reading subtest) were also used to predict RC. The regression model showed that, for the group pretested with an in-depth, or long, probe of PK, the best predictor of RC was the ability to answer TE and SI questions. We present discussions of the observed differences in comprehension as a function of long and short knowledge probes and the use of three question types, together with implications for instruction.

  2. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  3. Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Wang, Yuh-Chao; Tai, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differential impacts of an inquiry-based instruction on conceptual changes across levels of prior knowledge and reading ability. The instrument emphasized four simultaneously important components: conceptual knowledge, reading ability, attitude toward science, and learning environment. Although the learning patterns and…

  4. The Effects of Prior-knowledge and Online Learning Approaches on Students' Inquiry and Argumentation Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Kai-Yi

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of students' prior science knowledge and online learning approaches (social and individual) on their learning with regard to three topics: science concepts, inquiry, and argumentation. Two science teachers and 118 students from 4 eighth-grade science classes were invited to participate in this research. Students in each class were divided into three groups according to their level of prior science knowledge; they then took either our social- or individual-based online science learning program. The results show that students in the social online argumentation group performed better in argumentation and online argumentation learning. Qualitative analysis indicated that the students' social interactions benefited the co-construction of sound arguments and the accurate understanding of science concepts. In constructing arguments, students in the individual online argumentation group were limited to knowledge recall and self-reflection. High prior-knowledge students significantly outperformed low prior-knowledge students in all three aspects of science learning. However, the difference in inquiry and argumentation performance between low and high prior-knowledge students decreased with the progression of online learning topics.

  5. The Effects of Prior-Knowledge and Online Learning Approaches on Students' Inquiry and Argumentation Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wen-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Kai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of students' prior science knowledge and online learning approaches (social and individual) on their learning with regard to three topics: science concepts, inquiry, and argumentation. Two science teachers and 118 students from 4 eighth-grade science classes were invited to participate in this research. Students…

  6. Age, ability, and the role of prior knowledge on the acquisition of new domain knowledge: promising results in a real-world learning environment.

    PubMed

    Beier, Margaret E; Ackerman, Phillip L

    2005-06-01

    Prior knowledge, fluid intelligence (Gf), and crystallized intelligence (Gc) were investigated as predictors of learning new information about cardiovascular disease and xerography with a sample of 199 adults (19 to 68 years). The learning environment included a laboratory multimedia presentation (high-constraint-maximal effort), and a self-directed at-home study component (low-constraint-typical performance). Results indicated that prior knowledge and ability were important predictors of knowledge acquisition for learning. Gc was directly related to learning from the video for both domains. Because the trajectory of Gc stays relatively stable throughout the life span, these findings provide a more optimistic perspective on the relationship between aging and learning than that offered by theories that focus on the role of fluid abilities in learning.

  7. Menarche: Prior Knowledge and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandhan, K. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Recorded menstruation information among 305 young women in India, assessing the differences between those who did and did not have knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. Those with prior knowledge considered menarche to be a normal physiological function and had a higher rate of regularity, lower rate of dysmenorrhea, and earlier onset of…

  8. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  9. Knowledge Modeling in Prior Art Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Erik; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Keith

    This study explores the benefits of integrating knowledge representations in prior art patent retrieval. Key to the introduced approach is the utilization of human judgment available in the form of classifications assigned to patent documents. The paper first outlines in detail how a methodology for the extraction of knowledge from such an hierarchical classification system can be established. Further potential ways of integrating this knowledge with existing Information Retrieval paradigms in a scalable and flexible manner are investigated. Finally based on these integration strategies the effectiveness in terms of recall and precision is evaluated in the context of a prior art search task for European patents. As a result of this evaluation it can be established that in general the proposed knowledge expansion techniques are particularly beneficial to recall and, with respect to optimizing field retrieval settings, further result in significant precision gains.

  10. Student Models for Prior Knowledge Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj; Pelánek, Radek; Rihák, Jirí

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent behavior of adaptive educational systems is based on student models. Most research in student modeling focuses on student learning (acquisition of skills). We focus on prior knowledge, which gets much less attention in modeling and yet can be highly varied and have important consequences for the use of educational systems. We describe…

  11. Understanding the Complexities of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the kinds of prior knowledge students bring with them from high school as it relates to the conventions of writing that they are expected to follow in ARTS 1110 Introduction to University. The research questions were "Can first-year students taking the Arts 1110 Introduction to…

  12. NMR spectral analysis using prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Takuma; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato; Kigawa, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    Signal assignment is a fundamental step for analyses of protein structure and dynamics with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Main-chain signal assignment is achieved with a sequential assignment method and/or an amino-acid selective stable isotope labeling (AASIL) method. Combinatorial selective labeling (CSL) methods, as well as our labeling strategy, stable isotope encoding (SiCode), were developed to reduce the required number of labeled samples, since one of the drawbacks of AASIL is that many samples are needed. Signal overlapping in NMR spectra interferes with amino-acid determination by CSL and SiCode. Since spectral deconvolution by peak fitting with a gradient method cannot resolve closely overlapped signals, we developed a new method to perform both peak fitting and amino acid determination simultaneously, with a replica exchange Monte Carlo method, incorporating prior knowledge of stable-isotope labeling ratios and the amino-acid sequence of the protein.

  13. Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brod, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    The encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of events and facts form the basis for acquiring new skills and knowledge. Prior knowledge can enhance those memory processes considerably and thus foster knowledge acquisition. But prior knowledge can also hinder knowledge acquisition, in particular when the to-be-learned information is inconsistent with…

  14. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on…

  15. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  16. Integrating New Information into Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielewski, Todd L.; Moreland, Jeremy L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    Because knowledge is constantly in flux, it is important for individuals to accurately incorporate new information into previously developed knowledge structures. Some of the issues surrounding this development of thought are explored in this paper. Although the phenomenon of knowledge integration is relatively common, very little empirical…

  17. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  18. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on decoding skill to children who did not know the topic so that the groups differed only on knowledge of the passage topic. Prior knowledge of the passage topic was found to significantly increase fluency and reduce reading errors, especially errors based on graphic information, in poor readers. Two possible mechanisms of how prior knowledge might operate to facilitate word identification were evaluated using the pattern of error types, as was the relationship of errors to comprehension. Implications of knowledge effects for assessment and educational policy are discussed. PMID:21799586

  19. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  20. Prior knowledge and correlational structure in unsupervised learning.

    PubMed

    Clapper, John P

    2007-06-01

    Prior knowledge has been shown to facilitate both supervised and unsupervised category learning, but questions remain about how this facilitation occurs. This article describes two experiments that investigate the effects of prior knowledge on unsupervised learning, using the exemplar-memory task of Clapper and Bower (2002). Experiment 1 demonstrates that prior knowledge facilitates learning in this task, as expected, and that this facilitation extends to both knowledge-relevant and knowledge-irrelevant features of the new categories. Experiment 2 shows that knowledge facilitates learning not only by increasing the probability that people will discover separate categories, but also by making the features of different categories seem less interchangeable, thereby reducing interference and confusion among them. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that prior knowledge has multiple effects on unsupervised learning and suggests that the exemplar-memory task may provide a useful procedure for disentangling and investigating these effects.

  1. Explanation and Prior Knowledge Interact to Guide Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joseph J.; Lombrozo, Tania

    2013-01-01

    How do explaining and prior knowledge contribute to learning? Four experiments explored the relationship between explanation and prior knowledge in category learning. The experiments independently manipulated whether participants were prompted to explain the category membership of study observations and whether category labels were informative in…

  2. Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks…

  3. Relations among conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and procedural flexibility in two samples differing in prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R

    2011-11-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of prior knowledge on the relations. To overcome these problems, we modeled the three constructs in the domain of equation solving as latent factors and tested (a) whether the predictive relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge were bidirectional, (b) whether these interrelations were moderated by prior knowledge, and (c) how both constructs contributed to procedural flexibility. We analyzed data from 2 measurement points each from two samples (Ns = 228 and 304) of middle school students who differed in prior knowledge. Conceptual and procedural knowledge had stable bidirectional relations that were not moderated by prior knowledge. Both kinds of knowledge contributed independently to procedural flexibility. The results demonstrate how changes in complex knowledge structures contribute to competence development.

  4. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults' memory?

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience - an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  5. Influences of prior knowledge on selective weighting of category members.

    PubMed

    Heit, E

    1998-05-01

    Three experiments addressed how prior theories affect categorization, comparing the influence of theory-congruent versus theory-incongruent category members. Subjects observed descriptions of persons, some congruent with prior knowledge and some incongruent, then made transfer judgments. In Experiment 1, subjects were given a relatively long time to study each description, whereas in Experiment 2 study time was manipulated between subjects. In Experiment 3, learning was self-paced by each subject. It was found that, with enough study time, prior knowledge had 2 distinct influences. First, prior knowledge provided an initial representation, subsequently revised in light of new observations. Second, incongruent observations had more impact than congruent observations on categorization. In comparison, when study time was more limited, revision proceeded in a Bayesian manner, in that congruent and incongruent observations had equal impacts.

  6. Prior Knowledge Moderates Instructional Effects on Conceptual Understanding of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppink, Jimmie; Broers, Nick J.; Imbos, Tjaart; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching and learning methods for statistics for 2 levels of prior knowledge on cognitive load, propositional knowledge, and conceptual understanding. Teaching methods were whether or not to provide students with propositional information, and learning strategies were self-explaining the learning…

  7. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    PubMed Central

    Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638

  8. Improved estimation of reflectance spectra by utilizing prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dierl, Marcel; Eckhard, Timo; Frei, Bernhard; Klammer, Maximilian; Eichstädt, Sascha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-07-01

    Estimating spectral reflectance has attracted extensive research efforts in color science and machine learning, motivated through a wide range of applications. In many practical situations, prior knowledge is available that ought to be used. Here, we have developed a general Bayesian method that allows the incorporation of prior knowledge from previous monochromator and spectrophotometer measurements. The approach yields analytical expressions for fast and efficient estimation of spectral reflectance. In addition to point estimates, probability distributions are also obtained, which completely characterize the uncertainty associated with the reconstructed spectrum. We demonstrate that, through the incorporation of prior knowledge, our approach yields improved reconstruction results compared with methods that resort to training data only. Our method is particularly useful when the spectral reflectance to be recovered resides beyond the scope of the training data. PMID:27409695

  9. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Ji, Q.; Miller, K. J.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to convey a user’s intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (e.g., hand velocity or finger flexion). The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS). Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation. PMID:22144944

  10. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  11. Effects of Students' Prior Knowledge on Scientific Reasoning in Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Il-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Ju; Kim, Young-Shin; Jang, Myoung-Duk; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Kuk-Tae

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of students' prior knowledge on the scientific reasoning processes of performing the task of controlling variables with computer simulation and identifies a number of problems that students encounter in scientific discovery. Involves (n=27) 5th grade students and (n=33) 7th grade students. Indicates that students' prior…

  12. Composing Knowledge: Writing, Rhetoric, and Reflection in Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaker, Cathy; Ostman, Heather

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we argue that prior learning assessment (PLA) essays manifest a series of issues central to composition research and practice: they foreground the "contact zone" between the unauthorized writer, institutional power, and the articulation of knowledge claims; they reinforce the central role of a multifaceted approach to writing…

  13. Hypermedia Learning and Prior Knowledge: Domain Expertise vs. System Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Timothy J. F.; Chen, Sherry Y.; Macredie, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Prior knowledge is often argued to be an important determinant in hypermedia learning, and may be thought of as including two important elements: domain expertise and system expertise. However, there has been a lack of research considering these issues together. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, this paper presents a study that examines…

  14. Children's ability to impute inferentially based knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rai, Roshan; Mitchell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Do young children appreciate the importance of access to premises when judging what another person knows? In Experiment 1, 5-year-olds (N=31) were sensitive to another person's access to premises when predicting that person's ability to point to a target after eliminating alternatives in a set of 3 cartoon characters. Experiment 2 replicated the finding when 5- to 6-year-olds (N=102) judged who the other person thought the target was, and whether the other person knew who the target was. Experiment 3 demonstrated that children aged 5-7 years (N=107) more successfully imputed inference by elimination than syllogistical inferential knowledge. Findings suggest that an early understanding of inference by elimination offers a route into understanding that people can sometimes gain knowledge without direct perceptual access.

  15. Knowing Better: The Role of Prior Knowledge and Culture in Trust in Testimony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Cheri C. Y.; Tardif, Twila

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the ability of young children to adapt their trust in testimony in relation to the strength of their prior knowledge across 2 cultures and 2 age groups. Kindergartners and second graders in the United States and Hong Kong (N = 128) viewed pictures of objects and made category judgments about each object: first, in the…

  16. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Interactive Overviews During Hypermedia-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy M.

    1999-01-01

    Uses interactive overviews (IOs), a type of advance organizer, to explore the effect of interaction between organizer structure and prior knowledge on novices' ability to meet learning goals. Participants were assigned to learn about ecosystems with a hypermedia program. Results indicated that the ecosystem IO aided learners in meeting an…

  17. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated. PMID:26520339

  18. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated.

  19. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839

  20. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839

  1. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage.

  2. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  3. Gene Network Reconstruction by Integration of Prior Biological Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A

    2015-03-30

    With the development of high-throughput genomic technologies, large, genome-wide datasets have been collected, and the integration of these datasets should provide large-scale, multidimensional, and insightful views of biological systems. We developed a method for gene association network construction based on gene expression data that integrate a variety of biological resources. Assuming gene expression data are from a multivariate Gaussian distribution, a graphical lasso (glasso) algorithm is able to estimate the sparse inverse covariance matrix by a lasso (L1) penalty. The inverse covariance matrix can be seen as direct correlation between gene pairs in the gene association network. In our work, instead of using a single penalty, different penalty values were applied for gene pairs based on a priori knowledge as to whether the two genes should be connected. The a priori information can be calculated or retrieved from other biological data, e.g., Gene Ontology similarity, protein-protein interaction, gene regulatory network. By incorporating prior knowledge, the weighted graphical lasso (wglasso) outperforms the original glasso both on simulations and on data from Arabidopsis. Simulation studies show that even when some prior knowledge is not correct, the overall quality of the wglasso network was still greater than when not incorporating that information, e.g., glasso.

  4. Knowledge-based segmentation of SAR data with learned priors.

    PubMed

    Haker, S; Sapiro, G; Tannenbaum, A

    2000-01-01

    An approach for the segmentation of still and video synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is described. A priori knowledge about the objects present in the image, e.g., target, shadow and background terrain, is introduced via Bayes' rule. Posterior probabilities obtained in this way are then anisotropically smoothed, and the image segmentation is obtained via MAP classifications of the smoothed data. When segmenting sequences of images, the smoothed posterior probabilities of past frames are used to learn the prior distributions in the succeeding frame. We show with examples from public data sets that this method provides an efficient and fast technique for addressing the segmentation of SAR data. PMID:18255401

  5. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  6. Age differences in suggestibility to contradictions of demonstrated knowledge: the influence of prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Sharda

    2016-11-01

    People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge. Older adults consistently demonstrated more prior knowledge than younger adults but also gained access to even more across time. Additionally, they did not show a reduction in new learning from the stories, indicating lesser involvement of episodic memory failures. Critically, when knowledge was stably accessible, older adults relied more heavily on that knowledge compared to younger adults, resulting in reduced suggestibility. Implications for the broader role of knowledge in aging are discussed. PMID:27045461

  7. How Prior Knowledge and Colour Contrast Interfere Visual Search Processes in Novice Learners: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Duygu; Altun, Arif; Mazman, Sacide Guzin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how prior content knowledge and prior exposure to microscope slides on the phases of mitosis effect students' visual search strategies and their ability to differentiate cells that are going through any phases of mitosis. Two different sets of microscope slide views were used for this purpose; with high and low colour…

  8. Effects of High and Low Prior Knowledge on Construction of a Joint Problem Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo, Cindy E.; Nagarajan, Anandi; Day, Roger S.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the collaborative strategies used in an experimental design task by 24 high- and low-prior knowledge of medical students in groups of 4. The high prior knowledge group used knowledge to help construct plans, evaluate actions, and stay focused. The low prior knowledge group was less systematic and worked at mapping the connections between…

  9. The Roles of Ability, Personality, and Interests in Acquiring Current Events Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…

  10. Cognitive Theories, Prior Knowledge, and Anchored Instruction on Mathematical Problem Solving and Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…

  11. How to Diagnose At-Risk Students in Chemistry: The Case of Prior Knowledge Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailikari, Telle Katriina; Nevgi, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between different types of prior knowledge and student achievement in an introductory chemistry course. Student achievement was regarded as the pace of completing the course as well as the final grade. A model of prior knowledge is proposed; this distinguishes between different types of prior knowledge and…

  12. Brief Report: Teachers' Awareness of the Relationship between Prior Knowledge and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The author examined the degree to which experienced teachers are aware of the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning. Interviews with teachers revealed that they were explicitly aware of when students made connections between prior knowledge and new learning, when they applied their prior knowledge to new contexts, and when they…

  13. "Dare I Ask?": Eliciting Prior Knowledge and Its Implications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This article examines high school teachers' engagement of newcomer English learner students' prior knowledge. Three central research questions guided this study: 1) To what extent do teachers function as mediators of their students' prior knowledge? 2) What goes into teachers' thinking about how and when to elicit prior knowledge? and 3) How do…

  14. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  15. The Extension-Reduction Strategy: Activating Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloyer, Cliff W.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical problem is solved using the extension-reduction or build it up-tear it down tactic. This technique is implemented in reviving students' earlier knowledge to enable them to apply this knowledge to solving new problems.

  16. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  17. What are they up to? The role of sensory evidence and prior knowledge in action understanding.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Domenech, Philippe; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Koechlin, Etienne; Baraduc, Pierre; Farrer, Chlöé

    2011-01-01

    Explaining or predicting the behaviour of our conspecifics requires the ability to infer the intentions that motivate it. Such inferences are assumed to rely on two types of information: (1) the sensory information conveyed by movement kinematics and (2) the observer's prior expectations--acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. However, the respective contribution of these two sources of information is still controversial. This controversy stems in part from the fact that "intention" is an umbrella term that may embrace various sub-types each being assigned different scopes and targets. We hypothesized that variations in the scope and target of intentions may account for variations in the contribution of visual kinematics and prior knowledge to the intention inference process. To test this hypothesis, we conducted four behavioural experiments in which participants were instructed to identify different types of intention: basic intentions (i.e. simple goal of a motor act), superordinate intentions (i.e. general goal of a sequence of motor acts), or social intentions (i.e. intentions accomplished in a context of reciprocal interaction). For each of the above-mentioned intentions, we varied (1) the amount of visual information available from the action scene and (2) participant's prior expectations concerning the intention that was more likely to be accomplished. First, we showed that intentional judgments depend on a consistent interaction between visual information and participant's prior expectations. Moreover, we demonstrated that this interaction varied according to the type of intention to be inferred, with participant's priors rather than perceptual evidence exerting a greater effect on the inference of social and superordinate intentions. The results are discussed by appealing to the specific properties of each type of intention considered and further interpreted in the light of a hierarchical model of action representation. PMID

  18. The Interaction of Knowledge and Text Structure on the Ability to Identify Main Ideas in Texts. Content Knowledge and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jeanne D.; Engelhardt, Jean

    Two studies examined how the factors of content-relevant knowledge and text organization influence students' abilities to study and to remember text information. The first experiment examined the effect of prior content knowledge on students' ability to identify important information in the text. Forty 7th- and forty 11th-grade students, experts…

  19. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Agricultural Science Teachers: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlin, Julie F.; Roberts, T. Grady; Dooley, Kim E.; Murphrey, Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies (knowledge, skills, and abilities) required of effective Agricultural Science teachers both inside and outside the classroom as perceived by preservice and inservice teachers and to suggest ways that preservice teachers can gain those competencies prior to entering the teaching…

  20. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  1. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with…

  2. Time course of recovery and heat acclimation ability of prior exertional heatstroke patients.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, L E; De Luca, J P; Hubbard, R W

    1990-02-01

    Our understanding of the time course of recovery from exertional heatstroke (EH) and the heat acclimation ability of prior EH patients is limited. This manuscript reviews previous findings regarding recovery from EH and presents original research involving the heat acclimation ability of 10 prior EH patients (PH) and 5 control subjects. Heat acclimation, by definition, distinguishes heat-intolerant from heat-tolerant prior heatstroke patients. Nine PH exhibited normal heat acclimation adaptations (40.1 degrees C, 7 d, 90 min.d-1), thermoregulation, sweat gland function, whole-body sodium and potassium balance, and blood values at 61 +/- 7 d after EH. One PH (subject A) did not adapt to exercise in the heat, was defined heat intolerant, but subsequently was declared heat tolerant (11.5 months post-EH). Three PH exhibited large, unexpected increases in serum CPK levels, which resolved upon subsequent testing, and were probably related to their detrained state and the exercise which they performed. It was concluded that: 1) sleep loss and generalized fatigue were the most common predisposing factors for PH; 2) recovery from EH was idiosyncratic and may require up to 1 year in severe cases; 3) PH were not hereditarily heat intolerant, prior to EH; 4) no measured variable predicted recovery from EH, or heat acclimation responses; 5) heat intolerance occurs in a small percentage of prior heatstroke patients, and may be transient or persistent.

  3. Time course of recovery and heat acclimation ability of prior exertional heatstroke patients.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, L E; De Luca, J P; Hubbard, R W

    1990-02-01

    Our understanding of the time course of recovery from exertional heatstroke (EH) and the heat acclimation ability of prior EH patients is limited. This manuscript reviews previous findings regarding recovery from EH and presents original research involving the heat acclimation ability of 10 prior EH patients (PH) and 5 control subjects. Heat acclimation, by definition, distinguishes heat-intolerant from heat-tolerant prior heatstroke patients. Nine PH exhibited normal heat acclimation adaptations (40.1 degrees C, 7 d, 90 min.d-1), thermoregulation, sweat gland function, whole-body sodium and potassium balance, and blood values at 61 +/- 7 d after EH. One PH (subject A) did not adapt to exercise in the heat, was defined heat intolerant, but subsequently was declared heat tolerant (11.5 months post-EH). Three PH exhibited large, unexpected increases in serum CPK levels, which resolved upon subsequent testing, and were probably related to their detrained state and the exercise which they performed. It was concluded that: 1) sleep loss and generalized fatigue were the most common predisposing factors for PH; 2) recovery from EH was idiosyncratic and may require up to 1 year in severe cases; 3) PH were not hereditarily heat intolerant, prior to EH; 4) no measured variable predicted recovery from EH, or heat acclimation responses; 5) heat intolerance occurs in a small percentage of prior heatstroke patients, and may be transient or persistent. PMID:2406545

  4. Prior knowledge and subtyping effects in children's category learning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brett K; Foster, Katrina; Gadd, Naomi

    2003-06-01

    Two experiments examined how 5- and 10-year-old children revise their category representations when exposed to exemplars that are congruent or incongruent with existing knowledge. During training children were presented with exemplars containing features that were congruent or incongruent with children's social stereotypes together with a stereotype-neutral feature. In the knowledge-subtyping condition this neutral feature predicted the stereotype-congruence of the other features. In the knowledge-standard condition the neutral feature was uncorrelated with stereotype-congruence. At test children made judgements about feature co-occurrence within the learned category. In each experiment these judgements were influenced by both stereotypical beliefs and exemplar observation. Stereotypical beliefs, however, had a greater influence on co-occurrence judgements in the knowledge-subtyping than in the standard conditions. In Experiment 2 these effects were shown to generalize to judgements about features that were not presented during training. These results challenge current models of knowledge-based categorization by showing that exemplar structure determines whether novel exemplar features are incorporated into category representations.

  5. The locus of adult intelligence: knowledge, abilities, and nonability traits.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, P L; Rolfhus, E L

    1999-06-01

    Some intelligence theorists (e.g., R. B. Cattell, 1943; D. O. Hebb, 1942) have suggested that knowledge is one aspect of human intelligence that is well preserved or increases during adult development. Very little is known about knowledge structures across different domains or about how individual differences in knowledge relate to other traits. Twenty academic and technology-oriented tests were administered to 135 middle-aged adults. In comparison with younger college students, the middle-aged adults knew more about nearly all of the various knowledge domains. Knowledge was partly predicted by general intelligence, by crystallized abilities, and by personality, interest, and self-concept. Implications of this work are discussed in the context of a developmental theory that focuses on the acquisition and maintenance of intelligence-as-knowledge, as well as the role of knowledge for predicting the vocational and avocational task performance of adults.

  6. The locus of adult intelligence: knowledge, abilities, and nonability traits.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, P L; Rolfhus, E L

    1999-06-01

    Some intelligence theorists (e.g., R. B. Cattell, 1943; D. O. Hebb, 1942) have suggested that knowledge is one aspect of human intelligence that is well preserved or increases during adult development. Very little is known about knowledge structures across different domains or about how individual differences in knowledge relate to other traits. Twenty academic and technology-oriented tests were administered to 135 middle-aged adults. In comparison with younger college students, the middle-aged adults knew more about nearly all of the various knowledge domains. Knowledge was partly predicted by general intelligence, by crystallized abilities, and by personality, interest, and self-concept. Implications of this work are discussed in the context of a developmental theory that focuses on the acquisition and maintenance of intelligence-as-knowledge, as well as the role of knowledge for predicting the vocational and avocational task performance of adults. PMID:10403718

  7. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  8. Memory integration in amnesia: Prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J.; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM–LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM–LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM–LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit

  9. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  10. A Fuzzy-Based Prior Knowledge Diagnostic Model with Multiple Attribute Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2013-01-01

    Prior knowledge is a very important part of teaching and learning, as it affects how instructors and students interact with the learning materials. In general, tests are used to assess students' prior knowledge. Nevertheless, conventional testing approaches usually assign only an overall score to each student, and this may mean that students…

  11. Understanding the Role of Prior Knowledge in a Multimedia Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rias, Riaza Mohd; Zaman, Halimah Badioze

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effects that individual differences in prior knowledge have on student understanding in learning with multimedia in a computer science subject. Students were identified as having either low or high prior knowledge from a series of questions asked in a survey conducted at the Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences at…

  12. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  13. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.; Hewson, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    One of the factors affecting students' learning in science is their existing knowledge prior to instruction. The students' prior knowledge provides an indication of the alternative conceptions as well as the scientific conceptions possessed by the students. This study is concerned primarily with students' alternative conceptions and with…

  14. The Impact of Cross-Curricular Competences and Prior Knowledge on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenhaus, Nora; Artelt, Cordula; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This review begins by outlining the historical discussion about the relative importance of fostering cross-curricular competencies versus domain-specific prior knowledge as central goals of education. Metacognition and prior knowledge are then introduced as constructs representing these two goals; their development and effects on learning outcomes…

  15. Previewing Pictures: A Means of Activating Prior Knowledge in Content Area Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance prior knowledge plays in learning in the content areas. Discusses previewing pictures as a prereading activity and presents a picture analysis activity which can be used to activate prior knowledge to use as a foundation for good bridge building. (MG)

  16. The Role of Prior Knowledge in Learning from Analogies in Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braasch, Jason L. G.; Goldman, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether inconsistent effects of analogies in promoting new content learning from text are related to prior knowledge of the analogy "per se." In Experiment 1, college students who demonstrated little understanding of weather systems and different levels of prior knowledge (more vs. less) of an analogous everyday situation…

  17. Activation of Inaccurate Prior Knowledge Affects Primary-School Students' Metacognitive Judgments and Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loon, Mariette H.; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether activation of inaccurate prior knowledge before study contributes to primary-school children's commission errors and overconfidence in these errors when learning new concepts. Findings indicate that inaccurate prior knowledge affects children's learning and calibration. The level of children's judgments of learning…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia: The Role of Prior Domain Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Think-aloud and pre-test data were collected from 49 undergraduates with varying levels of prior domain knowledge to examine the relationship between prior domain knowledge and self-regulated learning with hypermedia. During the experimental session, each participant individually completed a pretest on the circulatory system, and then one 40-min…

  19. Exploring Alternative Ways of Assessing Prior Knowledge, Its Components and Their Relation to Student Achievement: A Mathematics Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailikari, Telle; Nevgi, Anne; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates how different types of prior knowledge influence student achievement and how different assessment measures influence the observed effect of prior knowledge. We introduce a model of prior knowledge that distinguishes between different types of prior knowledge and uses different assessment measures to assess different types…

  20. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  1. Exploiting prior knowledge in compressed sensing wireless ECG systems.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Recent results in telecardiology show that compressed sensing (CS) is a promising tool to lower energy consumption in wireless body area networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, the performance of current CS-based algorithms, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality of the ECG, still falls short of the performance attained by state-of-the-art wavelet-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose to exploit the structure of the wavelet representation of the ECG signal to boost the performance of CS-based methods for compression and reconstruction of ECG signals. More precisely, we incorporate prior information about the wavelet dependencies across scales into the reconstruction algorithms and exploit the high fraction of common support of the wavelet coefficients of consecutive ECG segments. Experimental results utilizing the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show that significant performance gains, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality, can be obtained by the proposed algorithms compared to current CS-based methods. PMID:24846672

  2. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low.

  3. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low. PMID:26416000

  4. Enhancing Interpretability of Gene Signatures with Prior Biological Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Squillario, Margherita; Barbieri, Matteo; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Biological interpretability is a key requirement for the output of microarray data analysis pipelines. The most used pipeline first identifies a gene signature from the acquired measurements and then uses gene enrichment analysis as a tool for functionally characterizing the obtained results. Recently Knowledge Driven Variable Selection (KDVS), an alternative approach which performs both steps at the same time, has been proposed. In this paper, we assess the effectiveness of KDVS against standard approaches on a Parkinson's Disease (PD) dataset. The presented quantitative analysis is made possible by the construction of a reference list of genes and gene groups associated to PD. Our work shows that KDVS is much more effective than the standard approach in enhancing the interpretability of the obtained results.

  5. Enhancing Interpretability of Gene Signatures with Prior Biological Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Squillario, Margherita; Barbieri, Matteo; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Biological interpretability is a key requirement for the output of microarray data analysis pipelines. The most used pipeline first identifies a gene signature from the acquired measurements and then uses gene enrichment analysis as a tool for functionally characterizing the obtained results. Recently Knowledge Driven Variable Selection (KDVS), an alternative approach which performs both steps at the same time, has been proposed. In this paper, we assess the effectiveness of KDVS against standard approaches on a Parkinson’s Disease (PD) dataset. The presented quantitative analysis is made possible by the construction of a reference list of genes and gene groups associated to PD. Our work shows that KDVS is much more effective than the standard approach in enhancing the interpretability of the obtained results.

  6. Enhancing Interpretability of Gene Signatures with Prior Biological Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Squillario, Margherita; Barbieri, Matteo; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Biological interpretability is a key requirement for the output of microarray data analysis pipelines. The most used pipeline first identifies a gene signature from the acquired measurements and then uses gene enrichment analysis as a tool for functionally characterizing the obtained results. Recently Knowledge Driven Variable Selection (KDVS), an alternative approach which performs both steps at the same time, has been proposed. In this paper, we assess the effectiveness of KDVS against standard approaches on a Parkinson’s Disease (PD) dataset. The presented quantitative analysis is made possible by the construction of a reference list of genes and gene groups associated to PD. Our work shows that KDVS is much more effective than the standard approach in enhancing the interpretability of the obtained results. PMID:27600081

  7. Enhancing Interpretability of Gene Signatures with Prior Biological Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Squillario, Margherita; Barbieri, Matteo; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Biological interpretability is a key requirement for the output of microarray data analysis pipelines. The most used pipeline first identifies a gene signature from the acquired measurements and then uses gene enrichment analysis as a tool for functionally characterizing the obtained results. Recently Knowledge Driven Variable Selection (KDVS), an alternative approach which performs both steps at the same time, has been proposed. In this paper, we assess the effectiveness of KDVS against standard approaches on a Parkinson's Disease (PD) dataset. The presented quantitative analysis is made possible by the construction of a reference list of genes and gene groups associated to PD. Our work shows that KDVS is much more effective than the standard approach in enhancing the interpretability of the obtained results. PMID:27600081

  8. Prior-knowledge-based feedforward network simulation of true boiling point curve of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Chen, D Z

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical results and practical experience indicate that feedforward networks can approximate a wide class of functional relationships very well. This property is exploited in modeling chemical processes. Given finite and noisy training data, it is important to encode the prior knowledge in neural networks to improve the fit precision and the prediction ability of the model. In this paper, as to the three-layer feedforward networks and the monotonic constraint, the unconstrained method, Joerding's penalty function method, the interpolation method, and the constrained optimization method are analyzed first. Then two novel methods, the exponential weight method and the adaptive method, are proposed. These methods are applied in simulating the true boiling point curve of a crude oil with the condition of increasing monotonicity. The simulation experimental results show that the network models trained by the novel methods are good at approximating the actual process. Finally, all these methods are discussed and compared with each other.

  9. Abilities, skills and knowledge in measures of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163

  10. The impact of different types of prior knowledge on science text comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Mary Kristen

    Science presents many challenging topics, and incorrect prior knowledge of them often interferes with learning. Research has demonstrated that refutation texts promote conceptual change learning by helping readers abandon scientific misconceptions. Little is known about the factors that influence knowledge enrichment, the learning that ensues when students have incomplete knowledge of a topic. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of these two types of prior knowledge on science text comprehension. Participants were 28 high school students (14 to 15 years) who completed assessments of vocabulary, reading comprehension, epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy, interest, and prior knowledge of 4 science topics (2 misconception, 2 incomplete prior knowledge) on Day 1. On Day 2, participants read 4 science texts (2 refutation, 2 expository) and completed tests of comprehension. Results demonstrated that epistemological beliefs moderated the increase between pre- and posttest scores regardless of the type of prior knowledge. Knowledge enrichment was more than 2 times as likely as conceptual change, which required a minimum level of epistemological understandings. Although refutation texts rarely led to conceptual change, they contributed to knowledge enrichment more often than traditional expository texts did. Future studies should investigate the impact of non-textual factors on conceptual change and knowledge enrichment in science.

  11. Coherence Marking, Prior Knowledge, and Comprehension of Informative and Persuasive Texts: Sorting Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalski, Judith; Sanders, Ted; Lentz, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Coherence plays a central role when readers construct meaning from a text. Previous research has shown how coherence marking affects text processing and representation. However, this effect seems to depend on reader's prior knowledge of the text content: Low knowledge readers benefit from coherence marking, whereas high knowledge readers benefit…

  12. Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

  13. Predictive top-down integration of prior knowledge during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Sohoglu, Ediz; Peelle, Jonathan E; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-06-20

    A striking feature of human perception is that our subjective experience depends not only on sensory information from the environment but also on our prior knowledge or expectations. The precise mechanisms by which sensory information and prior knowledge are integrated remain unclear, with longstanding disagreement concerning whether integration is strictly feedforward or whether higher-level knowledge influences sensory processing through feedback connections. Here we used concurrent EEG and MEG recordings to determine how sensory information and prior knowledge are integrated in the brain during speech perception. We manipulated listeners' prior knowledge of speech content by presenting matching, mismatching, or neutral written text before a degraded (noise-vocoded) spoken word. When speech conformed to prior knowledge, subjective perceptual clarity was enhanced. This enhancement in clarity was associated with a spatiotemporal profile of brain activity uniquely consistent with a feedback process: activity in the inferior frontal gyrus was modulated by prior knowledge before activity in lower-level sensory regions of the superior temporal gyrus. In parallel, we parametrically varied the level of speech degradation, and therefore the amount of sensory detail, so that changes in neural responses attributable to sensory information and prior knowledge could be directly compared. Although sensory detail and prior knowledge both enhanced speech clarity, they had an opposite influence on the evoked response in the superior temporal gyrus. We argue that these data are best explained within the framework of predictive coding in which sensory activity is compared with top-down predictions and only unexplained activity propagated through the cortical hierarchy.

  14. The Impact of Learner's Prior Knowledge on Their Use of Chemistry Computer Simulations: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han-Chin; Andre, Thomas; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    It is complicated to design a computer simulation that adapts to students with different characteristics. This study documented cases that show how college students' prior chemistry knowledge level affected their interaction with peers and their approach to solving problems with the use of computer simulations that were designed to learn electrochemistry. Students with different prior knowledge levels were found to use different approaches to solving problems with the use of computer simulations. In particular, the cases showed that students with a high level of prior knowledge tended to use the equations and formulas to accomplish the learning tasks and then use the computer simulations to confirm their predictions. Students with a low level of prior chemistry knowledge used the computer simulations as the main resources to accomplish their tasks. Considerations of individual differences and the integration of learning materials were suggested for further research on instructional use of computer simulations.

  15. SU-E-J-71: Spatially Preserving Prior Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H; Xing, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prior knowledge-based treatment planning is impeded by the use of a single dose volume histogram (DVH) curve. Critical spatial information is lost from collapsing the dose distribution into a histogram. Even similar patients possess geometric variations that becomes inaccessible in the form of a single DVH. We propose a simple prior knowledge-based planning scheme that extracts features from prior dose distribution while still preserving the spatial information. Methods: A prior patient plan is not used as a mere starting point for a new patient but rather stopping criteria are constructed. Each structure from the prior patient is partitioned into multiple shells. For instance, the PTV is partitioned into an inner, middle, and outer shell. Prior dose statistics are then extracted for each shell and translated into the appropriate Dmin and Dmax parameters for the new patient. Results: The partitioned dose information from a prior case has been applied onto 14 2-D prostate cases. Using prior case yielded final DVHs that was comparable to manual planning, even though the DVH for the prior case was different from the DVH for the 14 cases. Solely using a single DVH for the entire organ was also performed for comparison but showed a much poorer performance. Different ways of translating the prior dose statistics into parameters for the new patient was also tested. Conclusion: Prior knowledge-based treatment planning need to salvage the spatial information without transforming the patients on a voxel to voxel basis. An efficient balance between the anatomy and dose domain is gained through partitioning the organs into multiple shells. The use of prior knowledge not only serves as a starting point for a new case but the information extracted from the partitioned shells are also translated into stopping criteria for the optimization problem at hand.

  16. Neural Mechanisms for Integrating Prior Knowledge and Likelihood in Value-Based Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Chih-Chung; Yu, Chia-Chen; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    In Bayesian decision theory, knowledge about the probabilities of possible outcomes is captured by a prior distribution and a likelihood function. The prior reflects past knowledge and the likelihood summarizes current sensory information. The two combined (integrated) form a posterior distribution that allows estimation of the probability of different possible outcomes. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying Bayesian integration using a novel lottery decision task in which both prior knowledge and likelihood information about reward probability were systematically manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Consistent with Bayesian integration, as sample size increased, subjects tended to weigh likelihood information more compared with prior information. Using fMRI in humans, we found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlated with the mean of the posterior distribution, a statistic that reflects the integration of prior knowledge and likelihood of reward probability. Subsequent analysis revealed that both prior and likelihood information were represented in mPFC and that the neural representations of prior and likelihood in mPFC reflected changes in the behaviorally estimated weights assigned to these different sources of information in response to changes in the environment. Together, these results establish the role of mPFC in prior-likelihood integration and highlight its involvement in representing and integrating these distinct sources of information. PMID:25632152

  17. Neural mechanisms for integrating prior knowledge and likelihood in value-based probabilistic inference.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chih-Chung; Yu, Chia-Chen; Maloney, Laurence T; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2015-01-28

    In Bayesian decision theory, knowledge about the probabilities of possible outcomes is captured by a prior distribution and a likelihood function. The prior reflects past knowledge and the likelihood summarizes current sensory information. The two combined (integrated) form a posterior distribution that allows estimation of the probability of different possible outcomes. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying Bayesian integration using a novel lottery decision task in which both prior knowledge and likelihood information about reward probability were systematically manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Consistent with Bayesian integration, as sample size increased, subjects tended to weigh likelihood information more compared with prior information. Using fMRI in humans, we found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlated with the mean of the posterior distribution, a statistic that reflects the integration of prior knowledge and likelihood of reward probability. Subsequent analysis revealed that both prior and likelihood information were represented in mPFC and that the neural representations of prior and likelihood in mPFC reflected changes in the behaviorally estimated weights assigned to these different sources of information in response to changes in the environment. Together, these results establish the role of mPFC in prior-likelihood integration and highlight its involvement in representing and integrating these distinct sources of information. PMID:25632152

  18. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

  19. The Impact of Different Types of Prior Knowledge on Science Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Science presents many challenging topics, and incorrect prior knowledge of them often interferes with learning. Research has demonstrated that refutation texts promote conceptual change learning by helping readers abandon scientific misconceptions. Little is known about the factors that influence knowledge enrichment, the learning that ensues when…

  20. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  1. The Relation between Prior Knowledge and Students' Collaborative Discovery Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijlers, Hannie; de Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication between students was recorded and the interaction…

  2. Analysis of the IJCNN 2007 agnostic learning vs. prior knowledge challenge.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Isabelle; Saffari, Amir; Dror, Gideon; Cawley, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    We organized a challenge for IJCNN 2007 to assess the added value of prior domain knowledge in machine learning. Most commercial data mining programs accept data pre-formatted in the form of a table, with each example being encoded as a linear feature vector. Is it worth spending time incorporating domain knowledge in feature construction or algorithm design, or can off-the-shelf programs working directly on simple low-level features do better than skilled data analysts? To answer these questions, we formatted five datasets using two data representations. The participants in the "prior knowledge" track used the raw data, with full knowledge of the meaning of the data representation. Conversely, the participants in the "agnostic learning" track used a pre-formatted data table, with no knowledge of the identity of the features. The results indicate that black-box methods using relatively unsophisticated features work quite well and rapidly approach the best attainable performance. The winners on the prior knowledge track used feature extraction strategies yielding a large number of low-level features. Incorporating prior knowledge in the form of generic coding/smoothing methods to exploit regularities in data is beneficial, but incorporating actual domain knowledge in feature construction is very time consuming and seldom leads to significant improvements. The AL vs. PK challenge web site remains open for post-challenge submissions: http://www.agnostic.inf.ethz.ch/.

  3. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  4. Effects of Activation of Prior Knowledge on the Recall of a Clinical Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    A study investigated the known phenomenon of "intermediate effect" in which medical students with an intermediate amount of knowledge and experience demonstrate higher amounts of recall of the text of a medical case than either experienced clinicians or novices. In this study the amount of activation of prior knowledge was controlled by having…

  5. Reconstruction of Biological Networks by Incorporating Prior Knowledge into Bayesian Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Guk

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bayesian network model is widely used for reverse engineering of biological network structures. An advantage of this model is its capability to integrate prior knowledge into the model learning process, which can lead to improving the quality of the network reconstruction outcome. Some previous works have explored this area with focus on using prior knowledge of the direct molecular links, except for a few recent ones proposing to examine the effects of molecular orderings. In this study, we propose a Bayesian network model that can integrate both direct links and orderings into the model. Random weights are assigned to these two types of prior knowledge to alleviate bias toward certain types of information. We evaluate our model performance using both synthetic data and biological data for the RAF signaling network, and illustrate the significant improvement on network structure reconstruction of the proposing models over the existing methods. We also examine the correlation between the improvement and the abundance of ordering prior knowledge. To address the issue of generating prior knowledge, we propose an approach to automatically extract potential molecular orderings from knowledge resources such as Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. PMID:23210479

  6. Reconstruction of biological networks by incorporating prior knowledge into Bayesian network models.

    PubMed

    Pei, Baikang; Shin, Dong-Guk

    2012-12-01

    Bayesian network model is widely used for reverse engineering of biological network structures. An advantage of this model is its capability to integrate prior knowledge into the model learning process, which can lead to improving the quality of the network reconstruction outcome. Some previous works have explored this area with focus on using prior knowledge of the direct molecular links, except for a few recent ones proposing to examine the effects of molecular orderings. In this study, we propose a Bayesian network model that can integrate both direct links and orderings into the model. Random weights are assigned to these two types of prior knowledge to alleviate bias toward certain types of information. We evaluate our model performance using both synthetic data and biological data for the RAF signaling network, and illustrate the significant improvement on network structure reconstruction of the proposing models over the existing methods. We also examine the correlation between the improvement and the abundance of ordering prior knowledge. To address the issue of generating prior knowledge, we propose an approach to automatically extract potential molecular orderings from knowledge resources such as Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation.

  7. Teaching and preschoolers' ability to infer knowledge from mistakes.

    PubMed

    Ronfard, Samuel; Corriveau, Kathleen H

    2016-10-01

    For instruction to be effective, teachers must adjust the way they teach to match what learners know. We asked whether children's ability to infer what someone knows based on his or her mistakes develops alongside their teaching-children's use of more explicit teaching strategies and their ability to tailor how much information to provide in response to their pupils' mistakes. Preschoolers (N=48) were taught a simple game and were then introduced to four puppets: one puppet who played the game perfectly, two puppets who each made one mistake, and one puppet who made two mistakes. After watching each puppet play individually, children were asked to rate the puppet's understanding of the game and then were invited to teach the puppet. Children's ability to monitor the relative accuracy of the puppets-the ability to make nuanced judgments about what each puppet understood based on each puppet's unique mistakes-improved with age. Moreover, older children were more explicit and more precise teachers than younger children. They more often contrasted the learners' mistakes with what should be done and more often provided instructions that directly addressed the puppets' unique mistakes. Thus, between 3 and 5 years of age, developments in children's ability to infer knowledge from mistakes parallel developments both in the strategies children use to teach and in the amount of information they teach in response to mistakes. PMID:27268158

  8. Contribution of prior semantic knowledge to new episodic learning in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kan, Irene P; Alexander, Michael P; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls' performance was enhanced by price knowledge congruency; however, only a subset of amnesic patients experienced the same benefit. Whereas patients with relatively intact semantic systems, as measured by an anatomical measure (i.e., lesion involvement of anterior and lateral temporal lobes), experienced a significant congruency benefit, patients with compromised semantic systems did not experience a congruency benefit. Our findings suggest that when prior knowledge structures are intact, they can support acquisition of new episodic information by providing frameworks into which such information can be incorporated.

  9. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge and how students' explanations systematically vary across seven problem contexts (e.g. the movement of sand dunes, the formation of traffic jams, and diffusion in water). Using the Knowledge in Pieces epistemological perspective, I build a mini-theory of how students construct explanations about the behavior of complex systems. The mini-theory shows how advanced, "decentralized" explanations evolve from a variety of prior knowledge resources, which depend on specific features of the problem. A general emphasis on students' competences is exhibited through three strands of analysis: (1) a focus on moment-to-moment shifts in individuals' explanations in the direction of a normative understanding; (2) a comparison of explanations across the seven problem contexts in order to highlight variation in kinds of prior knowledge that are used; and (3) a concentration on the diversity within explanations that can be all considered examples of emergent thinking. First, I document cases of students' shifting explanations as they become less prototypically centralized (a more naive causality) and then become more prototypically decentralized over short time periods. The analysis illustrates the lines of continuity between these two ways of understanding and how change can occur during the process of students generating a progression of increasingly sophisticated transitional explanations. Second, I find a variety of students' understandings across the problem contexts, expressing both variation in their prior knowledge and how the nature of a specific domain influences reasoning. Certain problem contexts are easier or harder for students

  10. The Importance of Prior Knowledge when Comparing Examples: Influences on Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Equation Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.; Durkin, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Comparing multiple examples typically supports learning and transfer in laboratory studies and is considered a key feature of high-quality mathematics instruction. This experimental study investigated the importance of prior knowledge in learning from comparison. Seventh- and 8th-grade students (N = 236) learned to solve equations by comparing…

  11. The Effect of Instructional Modality and Prior Knowledge on Learning Point Group Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Kastner, Margaret E.

    2005-03-01

    Many topics in chemistry are difficult for learners to understand, including symmetry. Reasons for this difficulty include its multi-level content, instructional methodologies utilized, and learner variables. This study examined the effect of initial instructional modality and prior knowledge on learning of point group symmetry. Forty-four students in a sophomore-level inorganic chemistry class at a small private university were divided by pre-selected lab groups into two groups, lecture and computer, for introductory information about point group symmetry. Both groups had low prior knowledge of symmetry elements although the lecture group had significantly higher knowledge than the computer group. After initial instruction, the lecture group scored significantly higher than the computer group on a point group assessment, even when prior knowledge was controlled. A second assessment, given after both groups had follow-up information from computer courseware, showed no significant difference between the groups. The computer group significantly improved between the two assessments, the lecture group did not. At the end-of-the semester post-test showed no significant difference between the two groups, although only 50% of the students in each group achieved mastery. Factors affecting the significant improvement of the low prior knowledge, computer group were examined and recommendations for future research provided.

  12. Untapped Cultural Support: The Influence of Culturally Bound Prior Knowledge on Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth-McCullough, Ruanda

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the prior knowledge of African American students, this study explored the relationship between cultural orientation of literature and reading comprehension to determine its effect on low, mid, and high level readers. Over one hundred 8th grade students from four different public schools read short stories from three different cultural…

  13. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Viewing and Interpreting Graphics with Macroscopic and Molecular Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Wiebe, Eric N.; Carter, Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the use of multiple representations with macroscopic and molecular features can improve conceptual understanding; however, the influence of prior knowledge of the domain cannot be overlooked. Using eye-tracking technology and sequential analysis, this study investigated how high school students (n = 54) with…

  14. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  15. The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Viewing Repertoire on Learning from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert; Tolboom, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Video is increasingly used as an instructional tool. It is therefore becoming more important to improve learning of students from video. We investigated whether student learning effects are influenced through an instruction about other viewing behaviours, and whether these learning effects depend on their prior knowledge. In a controlled…

  16. The Instructional Effectiveness of Animated Signaling among Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional effectiveness of animated signals among learners with high and low prior knowledge. Each of the two treatments was presented with animated instruction either with signals or without signals on the content of how an airplane achieves lift. Subjects were eighty-seven undergraduate…

  17. The Impacts of Virtual Manipulatives and Prior Knowledge on Geometry Learning Performance in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of virtual and physical manipulatives have failed to consider the impact of prior knowledge on the efficacy of manipulatives. This study focuses on the learning of plane geometry in junior high schools, including the sum of interior angles in polygons, the sum of exterior angles in polygons, and the properties of…

  18. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  19. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  20. Prior Knowledge, Text Coherence, and Interest: How They Interact in Learning from Instructional Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boscolo, Pietro; Mason, Lucia

    This paper describes a study aimed at expanding research on the interactive effect of readers' prior knowledge and text coherence on learning by introducing a third variable, topic interest, which is, the readers' relatively stable affective orientation toward a topic. The hypothesis was that the inferential processes required to fill in…

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SPEED AND PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE ON ADULT LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOX, ALAN B.; SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.

    SOME EFFECTS OF AGE ON ADULT LEARNING WERE STUDIED IN A SERIES OF FOUR EXPERIMENTS ON THE FOLLOWING VARIABLES--(1) SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SET-INDUCING CONDITIONS, (2) ATTITUDES ABOUT A TOPIC, (3) PRIOR KNOWLEDGE, AND (4) LEARNING SPEED OR EFFECTS OF VARIED PRESENTATION RATES. A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF 211 SUBJECTS WAS SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF SEX,…

  2. The Interpretation of Cellular Transport Graphics by Students with Low and High Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Carter, Glenda; Wiebe, Eric N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of cellular transport influenced how high school students in the USA viewed and interpreted graphic representations of this topic. The participants were Advanced Placement Biology students (n = 65); each participant had previously taken a biology course in high school. After assessing…

  3. Effect of Prior Domain Knowledge and Headings on Processing of Informative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surber, John R.; Schroeder, Mark

    2007-01-01

    College students with either high or low prior domain knowledge (PK) read a text chapter presented in short pages on a computer monitor. Half of the participants read with headings present and half with headings absent. The computer recorded time spent reading and rereading each short page. Learning was assessed through a structured recall task.…

  4. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  5. The Role of Specificity, Targeted Learning Activities, and Prior Knowledge for the Effects of Relevance Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelle, Julian; Lehmkuhl, Nina; Beyer, Martin-Uwe; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the role of (a) specificity, (b) the type of targeted learning activities, and (c) learners' prior knowledge for the effects of relevance instructions on learning from instructional explanations. In Experiment 1, we recruited novices regarding the topic of atomic structure (N = 80) and found that "specific"…

  6. Teaching Practice: A Perspective on Inter-Text and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; West, Howard G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of teaching practices that involve intertextual relationship discovery in today's elementary classrooms is increasingly essential to the success of young learners of reading. Teachers must constantly strive to expand their perspective of how to incorporate the dialogue included in prior knowledge assessment. Teachers must also consider how…

  7. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  8. Children's Use of Prior Knowledge and Experience in Understanding Informational Text on Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Nathalie; And Others

    A study examined how students use their prior knowledge and experience to help them understand a text, and how that influences what they recall from the text. Subjects, 46 sixth graders from 3 elementary schools in Nashville, Tennessee, were tape recorded as they thought aloud while reading either a passage on "sugar" or a passage on "fat."…

  9. Effects of Prior Knowledge and Concept-Map Structure on Disorientation, Cognitive Load, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Tricot, Andre; Marine, Claudette

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of prior knowledge (high vs. low; HPK and LPK) and concept-map structure (hierarchical vs. network; HS and NS) on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning from non-linear documents on "the infection process of a retrograde virus (HIV)". Participants in the study were 24 adults. Overall subjective ratings of…

  10. The Impact of Learner's Prior Knowledge on Their Use of Chemistry Computer Simulations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Han-Chin; Andre, Thomas; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    It is complicated to design a computer simulation that adapts to students with different characteristics. This study documented cases that show how college students' prior chemistry knowledge level affected their interaction with peers and their approach to solving problems with the use of computer simulations that were designed to learn…

  11. Prior Knowledge and Online Inquiry-Based Science Reading: Evidence from Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yeh; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study employed eye-tracking technology to examine how students with different levels of prior knowledge process text and data diagrams when reading a web-based scientific report. Students' visual behaviors were tracked and recorded when they read a report demonstrating the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global climate…

  12. Interplay of Prior Knowledge, Self-Regulation and Motivation in Complex Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, H. S.; Kalet, A. L.; Plass, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect effects of medical clerkship students' prior knowledge, self-regulation and motivation on learning performance in complex multimedia learning environments. The data from 386 medical clerkship students from six medical schools were analysed using structural equation modeling. The structural model revealed…

  13. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Situational Interest When Reading Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Mark Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prior knowledge, situational interest, and recall, 34 college students read 15 paragraphs that contained varying amounts of fictional material, rated how interesting they found each paragraph, and were later assessed on how much of the information they retained. Five of the paragraphs contained fictional items…

  14. Feedback Both Helps and Hinders Learning: The Causal Role of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Feedback can be a powerful learning tool, but its effects vary widely. Research has suggested that learners' prior knowledge may moderate the effects of feedback; however, no causal link has been established. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned elementary school children (N = 108) to a condition based on a crossing of 2 factors: induced strategy…

  15. Potentiation in young infants: The origin of the prior knowledge effect?

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rachel; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Learmonth, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments with 6-month-old infants, we found that prior learning of an operant task (remembered for 2 weeks) mediated new learning of a modeling event (remembered for only 1 day) and increased its recall. Infants first learned to associate lever pressing with moving a toy train housed in a large box. One or 2 weeks later, three target actions were modeled on a hand puppet while the train box (a retrieval cue) was in view. Merely retrieving the train memory strengthened it, and simultaneously pairing its retrieved memory with the modeled actions potentiated their learning and recall. When paired 1 week later, deferred imitation increased from 1 day to 4 weeks; when paired 2 weeks later, it increased from 1 day to 6 weeks. The striking parallels between potentiated learning in infants and the prior knowledge effect in adults suggests that the prior knowledge effect originates in early infancy. PMID:21264602

  16. GRISOTTO: A greedy approach to improve combinatorial algorithms for motif discovery with prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Position-specific priors (PSP) have been used with success to boost EM and Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. PSP information has been computed from different sources, including orthologous conservation, DNA duplex stability, and nucleosome positioning. The use of prior information has not yet been used in the context of combinatorial algorithms. Moreover, priors have been used only independently, and the gain of combining priors from different sources has not yet been studied. Results We extend RISOTTO, a combinatorial algorithm for motif discovery, by post-processing its output with a greedy procedure that uses prior information. PSP's from different sources are combined into a scoring criterion that guides the greedy search procedure. The resulting method, called GRISOTTO, was evaluated over 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip sequence-sets commonly used to benchmark prior-based motif discovery algorithms. Results show that GRISOTTO is at least as accurate as other twelve state-of-the-art approaches for the same task, even without combining priors. Furthermore, by considering combined priors, GRISOTTO is considerably more accurate than the state-of-the-art approaches for the same task. We also show that PSP's improve GRISOTTO ability to retrieve motifs from mouse ChiP-seq data, indicating that the proposed algorithm can be applied to data from a different technology and for a higher eukaryote. Conclusions The conclusions of this work are twofold. First, post-processing the output of combinatorial algorithms by incorporating prior information leads to a very efficient and effective motif discovery method. Second, combining priors from different sources is even more beneficial than considering them separately. PMID:21513505

  17. Leveraging students' prior knowledge in attaining deep structural understanding of domain general models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Hillary Lucille

    The Next Generation Science Standards charge U.S. teachers with the task of including patterns, as a crosscutting concept, in their science curricula. This study explores the learning processes and outcomes of a pattern-based curriculum that engages middle school students in the construction of models of particular patterns. These patterns are general behaviors or processes that can be found in a range of phenomena; examples of such patterns include threshold, equilibration, and oscillation. The study investigates 1) the development of students' pattern models in response to instruction, 2) the productivity of prior knowledge in students' construction of pattern models and 3) the features of instruction that support the process of pattern model construction. It addresses research questions through analysis of data collected during the implementation of a pattern-based curriculum. Findings show that students have a wealth of prior knowledge that can be leveraged by instruction toward their construction of models of threshold, equilibration, and oscillation patterns. These findings contribute to literatures concerned with deep structural and domain-general knowledge, the productive role of prior knowledge in conceptual change, and the design of constructivist instruction.

  18. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized-Water Reactors AGENCY: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for..., NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant...

  19. Memory for Star Trek: the role of prior knowledge in recognition revisited.

    PubMed

    Long, Debra L; Prat, Chantel S

    2002-11-01

    Prior studies have found robust knowledge effects on recall of text ideas but have seldom found comparable effects on recognition. This inconsistency was examined in light of recent research on the component processes that underlie recognition memory. Using the remember/know paradigm, the authors found that experts made more remember judgments than novices, but only in response to text ideas relevant to their domain of expertise. Using the process-dissociation procedure, the authors found knowledge effects on recollection estimates, but not on familiarity estimates. The authors contend that knowledge effects have been difficult to detect in recognition because knowledge primarily affects recollection, whereas familiarity gives rise to good performance even among novices.

  20. Factors affecting learning of vector math from computer-based practice: Feedback complexity and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Mikula, Brendon D.

    2016-06-01

    In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we studied the relative effects of "knowledge of correct response" feedback and "elaborated feedback" (i.e., a general explanation) both separately and together. A number of other factors were analyzed, including training time, physics course grade, prior knowledge of vector math, and student beliefs about both their proficiency in and the importance of vector math. We hypothesize a simple model predicting how the effectiveness of feedback depends on prior knowledge, and the results confirm this knowledge-by-treatment interaction. Most notably, elaborated feedback is the most effective feedback, especially for students with low prior knowledge and low course grade. In contrast, knowledge of correct response feedback was less effective for low-performing students, and including both kinds of feedback did not significantly improve performance compared to elaborated feedback alone. Further, while elaborated feedback resulted in higher scores, the learning rate was at best only marginally higher because the training time was slightly longer. Training time data revealed that students spent significantly more time on the elaborated feedback after answering a training question incorrectly. Finally, we found that training improved student self-reported proficiency and that belief in the importance of the learned domain improved the effectiveness of training. Overall, we found that computer based training with static question sequences and immediate elaborated feedback in the form of simple and general explanations can be an effective way to improve student performance on a physics essential skill, especially for less prepared and low

  1. The effect of prior knowledge of hypnotic items on hypnotic performance and depth.

    PubMed

    Page, R A; Handley, G W

    1992-10-01

    First we exposed experimental subjects to either the hypnotic items they were about to experience or to those items embedded in a longer list of hypnotic items. We then asked them to give item-difficulty ratings prior to administration of a standard group susceptibility scale. Controls received no prior exposure to any hypnotic items. We obtained four dependent measures: hypnotic susceptibility score, an in-hypnosis depth report, Field (1965) Depth Inventory score, and retrospective depth reports. The three groups did not differ significantly on any of the dependent measures. Although this result differs from that of Shor, Pistole, Easton, and Kihlstrom (1984), who found that prior knowledge of items depressed susceptibility scores, this may be due to procedural differences between the two studies. Subjects' self-predictions of item difficulty were poor to modest, and accuracy of predictions was not related to any of the four dependent measures.

  2. Information content of prior hydrological knowledge in EGU visitors for streamflow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Citizens living in flood-prone areas sometimes outperform hydrological models in terms of flood prediction. An interesting question is whether this is due to more access to information, more prior knowledge or better pattern recognition capabilities. In this interactive pico presentation, we plan to quantify the information content of the prior hydrological knowledge present in the brains of members of the audience, by making them participate in a probabilistic prediction game and comparing their performance to hydrologically ignorant computer-based time series prediction models. Results will be analysed in an information-theoretical perspective, where we will try to reverse engineer the best performing forecasters (without physical contact; the software, not the hardware).

  3. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children’s Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children’s explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In two studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were consistent with children’s prior knowledge were simultaneously contrasted with events that were inconsistent with prior knowledge, and children were invited to explain either outcome (or both). Results demonstrate that inconsistent outcomes are an especially powerful trigger for children’s explanations, and that the explanations children provide for inconsistent outcomes refer to internal causal properties, overriding perceptual appearances. In sum, the data provide empirical evidence that inconsistent events motivate children to construct explanations, thereby suggesting that children’s explanations function in the service of discovery. PMID:20573114

  4. Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR.

  5. Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR. PMID:26819577

  6. The Role of Initial Learning, Problem Features, Prior Knowledge, and Pattern Recognition on Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Baggetta, Peter; Doyle, Stephanie; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that transfer ability (positive and negative) varies depending on the nature of the problems, using the knowledge transfer matrix, as well as being dependent on the individual differences of the learner. A total of 178 participants from the United States and New Zealand completed measures of prior…

  7. Sleep Spindle Density Predicts the Effect of Prior Knowledge on Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kempkes, Marleen; Cousins, James N.; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2016-01-01

    Information that relates to a prior knowledge schema is remembered better and consolidates more rapidly than information that does not. Another factor that influences memory consolidation is sleep and growing evidence suggests that sleep-related processing is important for integration with existing knowledge. Here, we perform an examination of how sleep-related mechanisms interact with schema-dependent memory advantage. Participants first established a schema over 2 weeks. Next, they encoded new facts, which were either related to the schema or completely unrelated. After a 24 h retention interval, including a night of sleep, which we monitored with polysomnography, participants encoded a second set of facts. Finally, memory for all facts was tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Behaviorally, sleep spindle density predicted an increase of the schema benefit to memory across the retention interval. Higher spindle densities were associated with reduced decay of schema-related memories. Functionally, spindle density predicted increased disengagement of the hippocampus across 24 h for schema-related memories only. Together, these results suggest that sleep spindle activity is associated with the effect of prior knowledge on memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memories are gradually assimilated into long-term memory and this process is strongly influenced by sleep. The consolidation of new information is also influenced by its relationship to existing knowledge structures, or schemas, but the role of sleep in such schema-related consolidation is unknown. We show that sleep spindle density predicts the extent to which schemas influence the consolidation of related facts. This is the first evidence that sleep is associated with the interaction between prior knowledge and long-term memory formation. PMID:27030764

  8. Relevance of different prior knowledge sources for inferring gene interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catharina; Bontempi, Gianluca; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    When inferring networks from high-throughput genomic data, one of the main challenges is the subsequent validation of these networks. In the best case scenario, the true network is partially known from previous research results published in structured databases or research articles. Traditionally, inferred networks are validated against these known interactions. Whenever the recovery rate is gauged to be high enough, subsequent high scoring but unknown inferred interactions are deemed good candidates for further experimental validation. Therefore such validation framework strongly depends on the quantity and quality of published interactions and presents serious pitfalls: (1) availability of these known interactions for the studied problem might be sparse; (2) quantitatively comparing different inference algorithms is not trivial; and (3) the use of these known interactions for validation prevents their integration in the inference procedure. The latter is particularly relevant as it has recently been showed that integration of priors during network inference significantly improves the quality of inferred networks. To overcome these problems when validating inferred networks, we recently proposed a data-driven validation framework based on single gene knock-down experiments. Using this framework, we were able to demonstrate the benefits of integrating prior knowledge and expression data. In this paper we used this framework to assess the quality of different sources of prior knowledge on their own and in combination with different genomic data sets in colorectal cancer. We observed that most prior sources lead to significant F-scores. Furthermore, their integration with genomic data leads to a significant increase in F-scores, especially for priors extracted from full text PubMed articles, known co-expression modules and genetic interactions. Lastly, we observed that the results are consistent for three different data sets: experimental knock-down data and two

  9. Temporal, but not Directional, Prior Knowledge Shortens Muscle Reflex Latency in Response to Sudden Transition of Support Surface During Walking

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system takes advantage of prior knowledge about potential upcoming perturbations for modulating postural reflexes. There are two distinct aspects of prior knowledge: spatial and temporal. This study investigated how each of spatial and temporal prior knowledge contributes to the shortening of muscle response latency. Eleven participants walked on a split-belt treadmill and perturbed by sudden acceleration or deceleration of the right belt at right foot contact. Spatial prior knowledge was given by instruction of possible direction (e.g., only acceleration) of upcoming perturbation at the beginning of an experimental session. Temporal prior knowledge was given to subjects by warning tones at foot contact during three consecutive strides before the perturbation. In response to acceleration perturbation, reflexive muscle activity was observed in soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles. Onset latency of the GAS response was shorter (72 ms vs. 58 ms) when subjects knew the timing of the upcoming perturbation, whereas the latency was independent of directional prior knowledge. SOL onset latency (44 ms) was not influenced by directional nor temporal prior knowledge. Although spinal neural circuit that mediates short-latency reflex was not influenced by the prior knowledge, excitability in supra-spinal neural circuit that mediates medium- and long-latency reflex might be enhanced by knowing the timing of the upcoming perturbation. PMID:26903838

  10. Using Prior Knowledge to Aid Teaching and Learning: What Do First-Year Psychology Students Know about Old Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2007-01-01

    Students attending a lecture usually have a wide range of prior knowledge about the topic in question. Rather than seeing this as a problem, lecturers can take advantage of such differences. This article shows how students' misconceptions about old age were used to inform a lecture on the topic. Prior knowledge can thus be used to aid teaching and…

  11. The Relation between the Nature of Prior Knowledge Activated and Information Processing: To Elaborate or To Infer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; Schmidt, Henk G.

    Effects of mobilizing prior knowledge on information processing were studied with 3 groups of 12 adult subjects each. The assumption that activating different kinds of prior knowledge would induce different information processing activities during subsequent text processing (inferencing or elaborating) was tested using passages about fishing…

  12. Effects of Prior Knowledge in Mathematics on Learner-Interface Interactions in a Learning-by-Teaching Intelligent Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…

  13. Does Learners' Prior Knowledge Moderate the Detrimental Effects of Seductive Details in Reading from Text? A 2 by 3 Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola

    2016-01-01

    Previous work on seductive details has demonstrated that interesting but irrelevant messages hinder students' text learning. Considering that there is little evidence suggesting the relationship between seductive details and prior knowledge, the present study examined how seductive details affect learning in terms of prior knowledge to address the…

  14. Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of…

  15. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-08-28

    Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC using two-step prior Ridge regularization) to resolve the problem by incorporating prior biological knowledge about a target gene data set. In our simulation experiments, themore » propose new methodology CGC-2SPR showed significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over other widely used GC modeling (PGC, Ridge and Lasso) and MI-based (MRNET and ARACNE) methods. In addition, we applied CGC-2SPR to a real biological dataset, i.e., the yeast metabolic cycle, and discovered more true positive edges with CGC-2SPR than with the other existing methods. In our research, we noticed a “ 1+1>2” effect when we combined prior knowledge and gene expression data to discover regulatory networks. Based on causality networks, we made a functional prediction that the Abm1 gene (its functions previously were unknown) might be related to the yeast’s responses to different levels of glucose. In conclusion, our research improves causality modeling by combining heterogeneous knowledge, which is well aligned with the future direction in system biology. Furthermore, we proposed a method of Monte Carlo significance estimation (MCSE) to calculate the edge significances which provide statistical meanings to the discovered causality networks. All of our data and source codes will be available under the link https://bitbucket.org/dtyu/granger-causality/wiki/Home.« less

  16. Selective influence of prior allocentric knowledge on the kinesthetic learning of a path.

    PubMed

    Lafon, Matthieu; Vidal, Manuel; Berthoz, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Spatial cognition studies have described two main cognitive strategies involved in the memorization of traveled paths in human navigation. One of these strategies uses the action-based memory (egocentric) of the traveled route or paths, which involves kinesthetic memory, optic flow, and episodic memory, whereas the other strategy privileges a survey memory of cartographic type (allocentric). Most studies have dealt with these two strategies separately, but none has tried to show the interaction between them in spite of the fact that we commonly use a map to imagine our journey and then proceed using egocentric navigation. An interesting question is therefore: how does prior allocentric knowledge of the environment affect the egocentric, purely kinesthetic navigation processes involved in human navigation? We designed an experiment in which blindfolded subjects had first to walk and memorize a path with kinesthetic cues only. They had previously been shown a map of the path, which was either correct or distorted (consistent shrinking or growing). The latter transformations were studied in order to observe what influence a distorted prior knowledge could have on spatial mechanisms. After having completed the first learning travel along the path, they had to perform several spatial tasks during the testing phase: (1) pointing towards the origin and (2) to specific points encountered along the path, (3) a free locomotor reproduction, and (4) a drawing of the memorized path. The results showed that prior cartographic knowledge influences the paths drawn and the spatial inference capacity, whereas neither locomotor reproduction nor spatial updating was disturbed. Our results strongly support the notion that (1) there are two independent neural bases underlying these mechanisms: a map-like representation allowing allocentric spatial inferences, and a kinesthetic memory of self-motion in space; and (2) a common use of, or a switching between, these two strategies is

  17. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-08-28

    Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC using two-step prior Ridge regularization) to resolve the problem by incorporating prior biological knowledge about a target gene data set. In our simulation experiments, the propose new methodology CGC-2SPR showed significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over other widely used GC modeling (PGC, Ridge and Lasso) and MI-based (MRNET and ARACNE) methods. In addition, we applied CGC-2SPR to a real biological dataset, i.e., the yeast metabolic cycle, and discovered more true positive edges with CGC-2SPR than with the other existing methods. In our research, we noticed a “ 1+1>2” effect when we combined prior knowledge and gene expression data to discover regulatory networks. Based on causality networks, we made a functional prediction that the Abm1 gene (its functions previously were unknown) might be related to the yeast’s responses to different levels of glucose. In conclusion, our research improves causality modeling by combining heterogeneous knowledge, which is well aligned with the future direction in system biology. Furthermore, we proposed a method of Monte Carlo significance estimation (MCSE) to calculate the edge significances which provide statistical meanings to the discovered causality networks. All of our data and source codes will be available under the link https://bitbucket.org/dtyu/granger-causality/wiki/Home.

  18. Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei

    2008-06-01

    We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also depend on the type of instruction. We introduce a connectedness model whose connectedness parameter measures the degree to which the rate of learning is proportional to prior knowledge. Over a wide range of pretest scores on standard tests of introductory physics concepts, it fits high-quality data nearly within error. We suggest that data from MIT have low connectedness (indicating memory-based learning) because the test used the same context and representation as the instruction and that more connected data from the University of Minnesota resulted from instruction in a different representation from the test.

  19. Boosting probabilistic graphical model inference by incorporating prior knowledge from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Paurush; Fröhlich, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Inferring regulatory networks from experimental data via probabilistic graphical models is a popular framework to gain insights into biological systems. However, the inherent noise in experimental data coupled with a limited sample size reduces the performance of network reverse engineering. Prior knowledge from existing sources of biological information can address this low signal to noise problem by biasing the network inference towards biologically plausible network structures. Although integrating various sources of information is desirable, their heterogeneous nature makes this task challenging. We propose two computational methods to incorporate various information sources into a probabilistic consensus structure prior to be used in graphical model inference. Our first model, called Latent Factor Model (LFM), assumes a high degree of correlation among external information sources and reconstructs a hidden variable as a common source in a Bayesian manner. The second model, a Noisy-OR, picks up the strongest support for an interaction among information sources in a probabilistic fashion. Our extensive computational studies on KEGG signaling pathways as well as on gene expression data from breast cancer and yeast heat shock response reveal that both approaches can significantly enhance the reconstruction accuracy of Bayesian Networks compared to other competing methods as well as to the situation without any prior. Our framework allows for using diverse information sources, like pathway databases, GO terms and protein domain data, etc. and is flexible enough to integrate new sources, if available.

  20. Top-down (Prior Knowledge) and Bottom-up (Perceptual Modality) Influences on Spontaneous Interpersonal Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Christina L; Gorman, Jamie C; Hessler, Eric E

    2016-04-01

    Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories. In an empirical study twelve dyads performed a finger oscillation task while attending to each other's movements through either visual, auditory, or visual and auditory perceptual modalities. Half of the participants were given prior knowledge of their partner's perceptual capabilities for coordinating across these different perceptual modality combinations. We found that the effect of top-down influence depends on the perceptual modality combination between two individuals. When people used the same perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in less synchronization and when people used different perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in more synchronization. Furthermore, persistence in the change in behavior as a result of having perceptual information about each other ('social memory') was stronger when this top-down influence was present.

  1. Top-down (Prior Knowledge) and Bottom-up (Perceptual Modality) Influences on Spontaneous Interpersonal Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Christina L; Gorman, Jamie C; Hessler, Eric E

    2016-04-01

    Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories. In an empirical study twelve dyads performed a finger oscillation task while attending to each other's movements through either visual, auditory, or visual and auditory perceptual modalities. Half of the participants were given prior knowledge of their partner's perceptual capabilities for coordinating across these different perceptual modality combinations. We found that the effect of top-down influence depends on the perceptual modality combination between two individuals. When people used the same perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in less synchronization and when people used different perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in more synchronization. Furthermore, persistence in the change in behavior as a result of having perceptual information about each other ('social memory') was stronger when this top-down influence was present. PMID:27033133

  2. Prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes and representations during text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takatsugu

    2015-09-01

    Certain character locational stereotypes are expected to affect constructions of mental representations during text comprehension. The present study examined whether readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects the construction of these character representations during text comprehension. Two short stories were presented to the participants. In one story, God, and two people wearing blue and green clothes, respectively, appeared in a room in that order (God condition). In the other, three people appeared in red, blue, and green clothes, respectively (three-people condition). The only difference between the two stories was the first character that appeared in the room. All participants were assigned to either the God or three-people condition. Participants read the story and provided an account of their own mental representation of where the three characters were located within the room, and explained the reasoning behind their descriptions. In the God condition, most participants stated that God was in the center (relative to the two people) because of locational stereotypes of God. In the three-people condition, most participants stated that the person in red was located in front of or closest to the participant because of the order in which the character appeared in the text. These results show that readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects their mental representation of spatial relationships between characters during text comprehension. PMID:26220704

  3. Prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes and representations during text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takatsugu

    2015-09-01

    Certain character locational stereotypes are expected to affect constructions of mental representations during text comprehension. The present study examined whether readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects the construction of these character representations during text comprehension. Two short stories were presented to the participants. In one story, God, and two people wearing blue and green clothes, respectively, appeared in a room in that order (God condition). In the other, three people appeared in red, blue, and green clothes, respectively (three-people condition). The only difference between the two stories was the first character that appeared in the room. All participants were assigned to either the God or three-people condition. Participants read the story and provided an account of their own mental representation of where the three characters were located within the room, and explained the reasoning behind their descriptions. In the God condition, most participants stated that God was in the center (relative to the two people) because of locational stereotypes of God. In the three-people condition, most participants stated that the person in red was located in front of or closest to the participant because of the order in which the character appeared in the text. These results show that readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects their mental representation of spatial relationships between characters during text comprehension.

  4. Identifying Genes Involved in Cyclic Processes by Combining Gene Expression Analysis and Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on time series gene expressions, cyclic genes can be recognized via spectral analysis and statistical periodicity detection tests. These cyclic genes are usually associated with cyclic biological processes, for example, cell cycle and circadian rhythm. The power of a scheme is practically measured by comparing the detected periodically expressed genes with experimentally verified genes participating in a cyclic process. However, in the above mentioned procedure the valuable prior knowledge only serves as an evaluation benchmark, and it is not fully exploited in the implementation of the algorithm. In addition, partial data sets are also disregarded due to their nonstationarity. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to identify cyclic-process-involved genes by integrating the prior knowledge with the gene expression analysis. The proposed algorithm is applied on data sets corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. Biological evidences are found to validate the roles of the discovered genes in cell cycle and circadian rhythm. Dendrograms are presented to cluster the identified genes and to reveal expression patterns. It is corroborated that the proposed novel identification scheme provides a valuable technique for unveiling pathways related to cyclic processes. PMID:19390635

  5. CORE-Net: exploiting prior knowledge and preferential attachment to infer biological interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Montefusco, F; Cosentino, C; Amato, F

    2010-09-01

    The problem of reverse engineering in the topology of functional interaction networks from time-course experimental data has received considerable attention in literature, due to the potential applications in the most diverse fields, comprising engineering, biology, economics and social sciences. The present work introduces a novel technique, CORE-Net, which addresses this problem focusing on the case of biological interaction networks. The method is based on the representation of the network in the form of a dynamical system and on an iterative convex optimisation procedure. A first advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows to exploit qualitative prior knowledge about the network interactions, of the same kind as typically available from biological literature and databases. A second novel contribution consists of exploiting the growth and preferential attachment mechanisms to improve the inference performances when dealing with networks which exhibit a scale-free topology. The technique is first assessed through numerical tests on in silico random networks, subsequently it is applied to reverse engineering a cell cycle regulatory subnetwork in Saccharomyces cerevisiae from experimental microarray data. These tests show that the combined exploitation of prior knowledge and preferential attachment significantly improves the predictions with respect to other approaches.

  6. A prior knowledge model for multidimensional striping noise compensation in hyperspectral imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Pablo; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Parra, Francisca; Torres, Sergio N.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a prior knowledge model is proposed in order to increase the effectiveness of a multidimensional striping noise compensation (SNC) algorithm. This is accomplished by considering an optoelectronic approach, thereby generating a more accurate mathematical representation of the hyperspectral acquisition process. The proposed model includes knowledge on the system spectral response, which can be obtained by means of an input with known spectral radiation. Further, the model also considers the dependence of the noise structure on the analog-digital conversion process, that is, schemes such as active-pixel sensor (APS) and passive-pixel sensor (PPS) have been considered. Finally, the model takes advantage of the degree of crosstalk between consecutive bands in order to determinate how much of this spectral information is contributing to the read out data obtained in a particular band. All prior knowledge is obtained by a series of experimental analysis, and then integrated into the model. After estimating the required parameters, the applicability of the multidimensional SNC is illustrated by compensating for stripping noise in hyperspectral images acquired using an experimental setup. A laboratory prototype, based on both a Photonfocus Hurricane hyperspectral camera and a Xeva Xenics NIR hyperspectral camera, has been implemented to acquire data in the range of 400-1000 [nm] and 900-1700 [nm], respectively. Also, a mobile platform has been used to simulate and synchronize the scanning procedure of the cameras and an uniform tungsten lamp has been installed to ensure an equal spectral radiance between the different bands for calibration purpose.

  7. Using prior knowledge from cellular pathways and molecular networks for diagnostic specimen classification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many complex diseases, an earlier and more reliable diagnosis is considered a key prerequisite for developing more effective therapies to prevent or delay disease progression. Classical statistical learning approaches for specimen classification using omics data, however, often cannot provide diagnostic models with sufficient accuracy and robustness for heterogeneous diseases like cancers or neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, new approaches for building multivariate biomarker models on omics data have been proposed, which exploit prior biological knowledge from molecular networks and cellular pathways to address these limitations. This survey provides an overview of these recent developments and compares pathway- and network-based specimen classification approaches in terms of their utility for improving model robustness, accuracy and biological interpretability. Different routes to translate omics-based multifactorial biomarker models into clinical diagnostic tests are discussed, and a previous study is presented as example. PMID:26141830

  8. Using prior knowledge from cellular pathways and molecular networks for diagnostic specimen classification.

    PubMed

    Glaab, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    For many complex diseases, an earlier and more reliable diagnosis is considered a key prerequisite for developing more effective therapies to prevent or delay disease progression. Classical statistical learning approaches for specimen classification using omics data, however, often cannot provide diagnostic models with sufficient accuracy and robustness for heterogeneous diseases like cancers or neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, new approaches for building multivariate biomarker models on omics data have been proposed, which exploit prior biological knowledge from molecular networks and cellular pathways to address these limitations. This survey provides an overview of these recent developments and compares pathway- and network-based specimen classification approaches in terms of their utility for improving model robustness, accuracy and biological interpretability. Different routes to translate omics-based multifactorial biomarker models into clinical diagnostic tests are discussed, and a previous study is presented as example.

  9. fMRI evidence of equivalent neural suppression by repetition and prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Poppenk, J; McIntosh, A R; Moscovitch, M

    2016-09-01

    Stimulus repetition speeds behavioral responding (behavioral priming) and is accompanied by suppressed neural responses (repetition suppression; RS) that have been observed up to three days after initial exposure. While some proposals have suggested the two phenomena are linked, behavioral priming has been observed many years after initial exposure, whereas RS is widely considered a transitory phenomenon. This raises the question: what is the true upper limit of RS persistence? To answer this question, we scanned healthy, English-native adults with fMRI as they viewed novel (Asian) proverbs, recently repeated (Asian) proverbs, and previously known (English) proverbs that were matched on various dimensions. We then estimated RS by comparing repeated or previously known proverbs against novel ones. Multivariate analyses linked previously known and repeated proverbs with statistically indistinguishable RS in a broad visual-linguistic network. In each suppressed region, prior knowledge and repetition also induced a common shift in functional connectivity, further underscoring the similarity of the RS phenomenon induced by these conditions. By contrast, activated regions readily distinguished prior knowledge and repetition conditions in a manner consistent with engagement of semantic and episodic memory systems, respectively. Our results illustrate that regardless of whether RS is understood in terms of its magnitude, spatial extent or functional connectivity profile, typical RS effects can be elicited even under conditions where recently triggered biological processes or episodic memory are unlikely to play a prominent role. These results provide important new evidence that RS (of the kind observed after an interval of at least several minutes) reflects the facilitation of perceptual and comprehension processes by any type of information retrieved from long-term memory. PMID:27461077

  10. Network reconstruction based on proteomic data and prior knowledge of protein connectivity using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Stavrakas, Vassilis; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways is instrumental for understanding cells' function. People have been tackling modeling of signaling pathways in order to accurately represent the signaling events inside cells' biochemical microenvironment in a way meaningful for scientists in a biological field. In this article, we propose a method to interrogate such pathways in order to produce cell-specific signaling models. We integrate available prior knowledge of protein connectivity, in a form of a Prior Knowledge Network (PKN) with phosphoproteomic data to construct predictive models of the protein connectivity of the interrogated cell type. Several computational methodologies focusing on pathways' logic modeling using optimization formulations or machine learning algorithms have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a light and fast approach that uses a breadth-first traversal of the graph to identify the shortest pathways and score proteins in the PKN, fitting the dependencies extracted from the experimental design. The pathways are then combined through a heuristic formulation to produce a final topology handling inconsistencies between the PKN and the experimental scenarios. Our results show that the algorithm we developed is efficient and accurate for the construction of medium and large scale signaling networks. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGF/TNFA stimulation against made up experimental data. To avoid the possibility of erroneous predictions, we performed a cross-validation analysis. Finally, we validate that the introduced approach generates predictive topologies, comparable to the ILP formulation. Overall, an efficient approach based on graph theory is presented herein to interrogate protein-protein interaction networks and to provide meaningful biological insights. PMID:26020784

  11. Network reconstruction based on proteomic data and prior knowledge of protein connectivity using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Stavrakas, Vassilis; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways is instrumental for understanding cells' function. People have been tackling modeling of signaling pathways in order to accurately represent the signaling events inside cells' biochemical microenvironment in a way meaningful for scientists in a biological field. In this article, we propose a method to interrogate such pathways in order to produce cell-specific signaling models. We integrate available prior knowledge of protein connectivity, in a form of a Prior Knowledge Network (PKN) with phosphoproteomic data to construct predictive models of the protein connectivity of the interrogated cell type. Several computational methodologies focusing on pathways' logic modeling using optimization formulations or machine learning algorithms have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a light and fast approach that uses a breadth-first traversal of the graph to identify the shortest pathways and score proteins in the PKN, fitting the dependencies extracted from the experimental design. The pathways are then combined through a heuristic formulation to produce a final topology handling inconsistencies between the PKN and the experimental scenarios. Our results show that the algorithm we developed is efficient and accurate for the construction of medium and large scale signaling networks. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGF/TNFA stimulation against made up experimental data. To avoid the possibility of erroneous predictions, we performed a cross-validation analysis. Finally, we validate that the introduced approach generates predictive topologies, comparable to the ILP formulation. Overall, an efficient approach based on graph theory is presented herein to interrogate protein-protein interaction networks and to provide meaningful biological insights.

  12. Learning gait of quadruped robot without prior knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Qijun

    2012-09-01

    Walking is the basic skill of a legged robot, and one of the promising ways to improve the walking performance and its adaptation to environment changes is to let the robot learn its walking by itself. Currently, most of the walking learning methods are based on robot vision system or some external sensing equipment to estimate the walking performance of certain walking parameters, and therefore are usually only applicable under laboratory condition, where environment can be pre-defined. Inspired by the rhythmic swing movement during walking of legged animals and the behavior of their adjusting their walking gait on different walking surfaces, a concept of walking rhythmic pattern(WRP) is proposed to evaluate the walking specialty of legged robot, which is just based on the walking dynamics of the robot. Based on the onboard acceleration sensor data, a method to calculate WRP using power spectrum in frequency domain and diverse smooth filters is also presented. Since the evaluation of WRP is only based on the walking dynamics data of the robot's body, the proposed method doesn't require prior knowledge of environment and thus can be applied in unknown environment. A gait learning approach of legged robots based on WRP and evolution algorithm(EA) is introduced. By using the proposed approach, a quadruped robot can learn its locomotion by its onboard sensing in an unknown environment, where the robot has no prior knowledge about this place. The experimental result proves proportional relationship exits between WRP match score and walking performance of legged robot, which can be used to evaluate the walking performance in walking optimization under unknown environment.

  13. The Effect of an Outdoor Nature Investigation Program on Young Children's Ability To Transfer Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Carole G.; Copley, Juanita V.

    This study examined the effect of using an outdoor nature investigation program on the ability of third-grade students to transfer knowledge. Specifically, the study determined whether the program enhanced students' ability to transfer declarative (facts and concepts), procedural (process skills), and schematic (experience) knowledge to a set of…

  14. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  15. SU-E-T-527: Prior Knowledge Guided TomoTherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, J; Yuan, L; Wu, Q; Zhu, X; Chera, B; Chang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality and efficiency of radiotherapy treatment planning are highly planer dependent. Previously we have developed a statistical model to correlate anatomical features with dosimetry features of head and neck Tomotherapy treatment. The model enables us to predict the best achievable dosimetry for individual patient prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to study if the prediction model can facilitate the treatment planning in both the efficiency and dosimetric quality. Methods: The anatomy-dosimetry correlation model was used to calculate the expected DVH for nine patients formerly treated. In Group A (3 patients), the model prediction agreed with the clinic plan; in Group B (3 patients), the model predicted lower larynx mean dose than the clinic plan; in Group C (3 patients), the model suggested the brainstem could be further spared. Guided by the prior knowledge, we re-planned all 9 cases. The number of interactions during the optimization process and dosimetric endpoints between the original clinical plan and model-guided re-plan were compared. Results: For Group A, the difference of target coverage and organs-at-risk sparing is insignificant (p>0.05) between the replan and the clinical plan. For Group B, the clinical plan larynx median dose is 49.4±4.7 Gy, while the prediction suggesting 40.0±6.2 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plan achieved 41.5±6.6 Gy, with similar dose on other structures as clinical plan. For Group C, the clinical plan brainstem maximum dose is 44.7±5.5 Gy. The model predicted lower value 32.2±3.8 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plans reduced brainstem maximum dose to 31.8±4.1 Gy without affecting the dosimetry of other structures. In the replanning of the 9 cases, the times operator interacted with TPS are reduced on average about 50% compared to the clinical plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the prior expert knowledge embedded model improved the efficiency and quality of Tomotherapy treatment planning.

  16. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. PMID:25323417

  17. Sparse factor model for co-expression networks with an application using prior biological knowledge.

    PubMed

    Blum, Yuna; Houée-Bigot, Magalie; Causeur, David

    2016-06-01

    Inference on gene regulatory networks from high-throughput expression data turns out to be one of the main current challenges in systems biology. Such networks can be very insightful for the deep understanding of interactions between genes. Because genes-gene interactions is often viewed as joint contributions to known biological mechanisms, inference on the dependence among gene expressions is expected to be consistent to some extent with the functional characterization of genes which can be derived from ontologies (GO, KEGG, …). The present paper introduces a sparse factor model as a general framework either to account for a prior knowledge on joint contributions of modules of genes to latent biological processes or to infer on the corresponding co-expression network. We propose an ℓ1 - regularized EM algorithm to fit a sparse factor model for correlation. We demonstrate how it helps extracting modules of genes and more generally improves the gene clustering performance. The method is compared to alternative estimation procedures for sparse factor models of relevance networks in a simulation study. The integration of a biological knowledge based on the gene ontology (GO) is also illustrated on a liver expression data generated to understand adiposity variability in chicken.

  18. Utilizing knowledge from prior plans in the evaluation of quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2015-06-01

    Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy. Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients’ plans were adapted to a test patient’s anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate. Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48   ±   2.65% for the rectum and 4.90   ±   1.98% for the bladder. 19   ±   10 mm single leaf and 1.9   ±   0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6   ±   0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11   ±   0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6   ±   1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0   ±   0.7° of gantry-MLC lag. Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient’s anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified

  19. Utilizing knowledge from prior plans in the evaluation of quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2015-06-21

    Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy. Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients' plans were adapted to a test patient's anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate.Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48 ± 2.65% for the rectum and 4.90 ± 1.98% for the bladder. 19 ± 10 mm single leaf and 1.9 ± 0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6 ± 0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11 ± 0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6 ± 1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0 ± 0.7° of gantry-MLC lag.Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient's anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified. A knowledge based QA evaluation enables customized QA criteria per treatment site, institution and/or physician and can often be more sensitive to

  20. Strategies for dynamic stability during locomotion on a slippery surface: effects of prior experience and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Marigold, Daniel S; Patla, Aftab E

    2002-07-01

    Falls due to slips are prevalent in everyday life. The purpose of this study was to determine the reactive recovery responses used to maintain dynamic stability during an unexpected slip, establish the time course of response adaptation to repeated slip perturbations, and distinguish the proactive strategies for negotiating a slippery surface. Twelve young adults participated in the study in which a slip was generated following foot contact on a set of steel free-wheeling rollers. Surface electromyographic (EMG) data were collected from rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and the medial head of gastrocnemius on the perturbed limb. Whole body kinematics were recorded using an optical imaging system: from this the center of mass, foot angle, and medial-lateral stability margins were determined. In addition, braking/loading and accelerating/unloading impulses while in contact with the rollers and the rate of loading the rollers were determined from ground reaction forces. Results demonstrate that the reactive recovery response to the first slip consisted of a rapid onset of a flexor synergy (146-199 ms), a large arm elevation strategy, and a modified swing limb trajectory. With repeated exposure to the slip perturbation, the CNS rapidly adapts within one slip trial through global changes. These changes include the attenuation of muscle response magnitude, reduced braking impulse, landing more flat-footed, and elevating the center of mass. Individuals implement a "surfing strategy" while on the rollers when knowledge of the surface condition was available before hand. Furthermore, knowledge of a slip results in a reduced braking impulse and rate of loading, a shift in medial-lateral center of mass closer to the support limb at foot contact on the rollers and a more flat foot landing. In conclusion, prior experience with the perturbations allows subsequent modification and knowledge of the surface condition results in proactive adjustments to safely

  1. Teachers' Beliefs about the Role of Prior Language Knowledge in Learning and How These Influence Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2011-01-01

    The present study was developed to assess teachers' beliefs on (1) the role of prior language knowledge in language learning; (2) the perceived usefulness of language knowledge in modern society; and (3) the teaching practices to be used with multilingual students. Subjects were 176 secondary schoolteachers working in Italy (N = 103), Austria (N =…

  2. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET

    PubMed Central

    Androsova, Ganna; del Sol, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell’s response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization), are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean) and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the implemented

  3. DENSE: efficient and prior knowledge-driven discovery of phenotype-associated protein functional modules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identifying cellular subsystems that are involved in the expression of a target phenotype has been a very active research area for the past several years. In this paper, cellular subsystem refers to a group of genes (or proteins) that interact and carry out a common function in the cell. Most studies identify genes associated with a phenotype on the basis of some statistical bias, others have extended these statistical methods to analyze functional modules and biological pathways for phenotype-relatedness. However, a biologist might often have a specific question in mind while performing such analysis and most of the resulting subsystems obtained by the existing methods might be largely irrelevant to the question in hand. Arguably, it would be valuable to incorporate biologist's knowledge about the phenotype into the algorithm. This way, it is anticipated that the resulting subsytems would not only be related to the target phenotype but also contain information that the biologist is likely to be interested in. Results In this paper we introduce a fast and theoretically guranteed method called DENSE (Dense and ENriched Subgraph Enumeration) that can take in as input a biologist's prior knowledge as a set of query proteins and identify all the dense functional modules in a biological network that contain some part of the query vertices. The density (in terms of the number of network egdes) and the enrichment (the number of query proteins in the resulting functional module) can be manipulated via two parameters γ and μ, respectively. Conclusion This algorithm has been applied to the protein functional association network of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, a hydrogen producing, acid-tolerant organism. The algorithm was able to verify relationships known to exist in literature and also some previously unknown relationships including those with regulatory and signaling functions. Additionally, we were also able to hypothesize that some uncharacterized

  4. Discrete Logic Modelling Optimization to Contextualize Prior Knowledge Networks Using PRUNET.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ana; Crespo, Isaac; Androsova, Ganna; del Sol, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput technologies have led to the generation of an increasing amount of data in different areas of biology. Datasets capturing the cell's response to its intra- and extra-cellular microenvironment allows such data to be incorporated as signed and directed graphs or influence networks. These prior knowledge networks (PKNs) represent our current knowledge of the causality of cellular signal transduction. New signalling data is often examined and interpreted in conjunction with PKNs. However, different biological contexts, such as cell type or disease states, may have distinct variants of signalling pathways, resulting in the misinterpretation of new data. The identification of inconsistencies between measured data and signalling topologies, as well as the training of PKNs using context specific datasets (PKN contextualization), are necessary conditions to construct reliable, predictive models, which are current challenges in the systems biology of cell signalling. Here we present PRUNET, a user-friendly software tool designed to address the contextualization of a PKNs to specific experimental conditions. As the input, the algorithm takes a PKN and the expression profile of two given stable steady states or cellular phenotypes. The PKN is iteratively pruned using an evolutionary algorithm to perform an optimization process. This optimization rests in a match between predicted attractors in a discrete logic model (Boolean) and a Booleanized representation of the phenotypes, within a population of alternative subnetworks that evolves iteratively. We validated the algorithm applying PRUNET to four biological examples and using the resulting contextualized networks to predict missing expression values and to simulate well-characterized perturbations. PRUNET constitutes a tool for the automatic curation of a PKN to make it suitable for describing biological processes under particular experimental conditions. The general applicability of the implemented algorithm

  5. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F H; Akhondi, Saber A; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical-disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached anF-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved anF-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improvedF-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service athttp://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  6. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Akhondi, Saber A.; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical–disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached an F-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved an F-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improved F-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service at http://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  7. Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinshui; He, Chunyang; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhu, Shuang; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2014-01-03

    In this study, we developed a prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis (PKSMA) to map impervious surfaces by using endmembers derived separately for high- and low-density urban regions. First, an urban area was categorized into high- and low-density urban areas, using a multi-step classification method. Next, in high-density urban areas that were assumed to have only vegetation and impervious surfaces (ISs), the Vegetation-Impervious model (V-I) was used in a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) with three endmembers: vegetation, high albedo, and low albedo. In low-density urban areas, the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil model (V-I-S) was used in an SMA analysis with four endmembers: high albedo, low albedo, soil, and vegetation. The fraction of IS with high and low albedo in each pixel was combined to produce the final IS map. The root mean-square error (RMSE) of the IS map produced using PKSMA was about 11.0%, compared to 14.52% using four-endmember SMA. Particularly in high-density urban areas, PKSMA (RMSE = 6.47%) showed better performance than four-endmember (15.91%). The results indicate that PKSMA can improve IS mapping compared to traditional SMA by using appropriately selected endmembers and is particularly strong in high-density urban areas.

  8. Absolute Thickness Measurements on Coatings Without Prior Knowledge of Material Properties Using Terahertz Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Harder, Bryan; Zhu, Dongming; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of a novel noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement method for measuring thickness in dielectric coating systems having either dielectric or conductive substrate materials. The method does not require knowledge of the velocity of terahertz waves in the coating material. The dielectric coatings ranged from approximately 300 to 1400 m in thickness. First, the terahertz method was validated on a bulk dielectric sample to determine its ability to precisely measure thickness and density variation. Then, the method was studied on simulated coating systems. One simulated coating consisted of layered thin paper samples of varying thicknesses on a ceramic substrate. Another simulated coating system consisted of adhesive-backed Teflon adhered to conducting and dielectric substrates. Alumina samples that were coated with a ceramic adhesive layer were also investigated. Finally, the method was studied for thickness measurement of actual thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on ceramic substrates. The unique aspects and limitations of this method for thickness measurements are discussed.

  9. Helping Preservice Teachers with Inaccurate and Fragmentary Prior Knowledge to Acquire Conceptual Understanding of Psychological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohst, Andrea; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research on learning has brought forth many insights that are relevant for teachers (for example, knowledge about learning strategies). However, teachers sometimes have intuitive fragmentary knowledge that is partly incorrect. Such knowledge hinders the acquisition of psychological knowledge. Tried-and-tested interventions dealing…

  10. A Study of Innovative Entrepreneurial Talents of Business and Management: Knowledge, Ability and Quality Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yurong; Wang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    It has been an urgent mission for universities and institutes to instruct the students with enterprise knowledge and cultivate high quality entrepreneurial talents with innovation. The paper discusses the knowledge, ability and quality structure of talents of economics and administration with a purpose to achieve the goal of innovative…

  11. Verbal Information Hinders Young Children's Ability to Gain Modality Specific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Gillian M.; Beck, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether having prior experience of objects influenced young children's ability to solve a metacognitive search task, based on the objects' perceptual properties. In Experiment 1, 100 children (mean age 77?months) chose whether to look or feel to locate one of two hidden balls (identifiable by sight or touch).…

  12. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of prior knowledge of topics with their instructional objectives on senior secondary school class two (SS II) students. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The design of the study is quasi experimental of pretest-posttest of non-equivalent control group. Two research…

  13. When Relationships Depicted Diagrammatically Conflict with Prior Knowledge: An Investigation of Students' Interpretations of Evolutionary Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Science is an important domain for investigating students' responses to information that contradicts their prior knowledge. In previous studies of this topic, this information was communicated verbally. The present research used diagrams, specifically trees (cladograms) depicting evolutionary relationships among taxa. Effects of college…

  14. "She Has to Drink Blood of the Snake": Culture and Prior Knowledge in Science|Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Leah A.; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this analysis, we argue that science education should attend more deeply to youths' cultural resources and practices (e.g. material, social, and intellectual). Inherent in our argument is a call for revisiting conceptions of "prior knowledge" to theorize how people make sense of the complex ecologies of experience, ideas, and…

  15. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Feedback Type Design on Student Achievement and Satisfaction in Introductory Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of student prior knowledge and feedback type on student achievement and satisfaction in an introductory managerial accounting course using computer-based formative assessment tools. The study involved a redesign of the existing Job Order Costing unit using the ADDIE model of instructional design. The…

  16. The Mediation Effect of In-Game Performance between Prior Knowledge and Posttest Score. CRESST Report 819

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Though video games are commonly considered to hold great potential as learning environments, their effectiveness as a teaching tool has yet to be determined. One reason for this is that researchers often run into the problem of multicollinearity between prior knowledge, in-game performance, and posttest scores, thereby making the determination of…

  17. A Comparative Case Study of Prior Cultural Knowledge in English-Second-Language Lexical Meaning-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Shuguang

    The study investigated the role of a second language (L2) learner's prior cultural knowledge in target language lexical meaning-making. Comparison focuses on what important similarities in L2 lexical meaning-making of culturally loaded words appear among learners with the same ethnic background, and what important lexical meaning differences exist…

  18. General and Domain-Specific Influence of Prior Knowledge on Setting of Goals and Content Use in Museum Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corredor, Javier

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the influence of prior knowledge on the setting of goals and use of content in museum website visits. Goal setting is a crucial process in organizing the activities of surfers in open environments, such as museum websites, where surfers faced ill-defined tasks. To this end, 12 graduate students were asked to surf through two…

  19. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  20. Using intermediate states to improve the ability of the Arden Syntax to implement care plans and reuse knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, E. H.; Hripcsak, G.; Starren, J.; Jenders, R. A.; Clayton, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Arden Syntax is one of a few knowledge representation languages currently in use for clinical decision support. While some of these languages are being used in active patient care settings, none have gained widespread acceptance as a clinical tool. Prior attempts to represent temporally complex care plans in the Arden Syntax have revealed difficulties in representing and tracking series of consecutive time-oriented events and recommendations, in sharing and reusing knowledge and in dealing with unobtainable data. In an attempt to improve Arden's ability to deal with these problems and demonstrate the importance of these factors, the clinical event monitor has been adapted to store coded data representing Intermediate States in the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) central data repository. The Intermediate States define the current state of the patient as laid out in the care plan. Four care plans were constructed. The findings include an improved ability to track complex series of events and recommendations over long periods of time. The knowledge generated by the electronic care plans was able to be reused by the care plan that generated it, by other elements of the knowledge base and by non-decision support applications. Modular development, facilitated by the changes, simplified dealing with data not available to the central data repository by aiding the implementation of those parts of the care plan for which sufficient data is available. PMID:8563276

  1. Robust data-driven incorporation of prior knowledge into the inference of dynamic regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Alex; Hafemeister, Christoph; Bonneau, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Inferring global regulatory networks (GRNs) from genome-wide data is a computational challenge central to the field of systems biology. Although the primary data currently used to infer GRNs consist of gene expression and proteomics measurements, there is a growing abundance of alternate data types that can reveal regulatory interactions, e.g. ChIP-Chip, literature-derived interactions, protein–protein interactions. GRN inference requires the development of integrative methods capable of using these alternate data as priors on the GRN structure. Each source of structure priors has its unique biases and inherent potential errors; thus, GRN methods using these data must be robust to noisy inputs. Results: We developed two methods for incorporating structure priors into GRN inference. Both methods [Modified Elastic Net (MEN) and Bayesian Best Subset Regression (BBSR)] extend the previously described Inferelator framework, enabling the use of prior information. We test our methods on one synthetic and two bacterial datasets, and show that both MEN and BBSR infer accurate GRNs even when the structure prior used has significant amounts of error (>90% erroneous interactions). We find that BBSR outperforms MEN at inferring GRNs from expression data and noisy structure priors. Availability and implementation: Code, datasets and networks presented in this article are available at http://bonneaulab.bio.nyu.edu/software.html. Contact: bonneau@nyu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23525069

  2. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

  3. Automatic Detection of Student Mental Models during Prior Knowledge Activation in MetaTutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rus, Vasile; Lintean, Mihai; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents several methods to automatically detecting students' mental models in MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students self-regulatory processes during learning of complex science topics. In particular, we focus on detecting students' mental models based on student-generated paragraphs during prior knowledge…

  4. When Prior Knowledge Interferes, Inhibitory Control Matters for Learning: The Case of Numerical Magnitude Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laski, Elida V.; Dulaney, Alana

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested the "interference hypothesis"-that learning and using more advanced representations and strategies requires the inhibition of prior, less advanced ones. Specifically, it examined the relation between inhibitory control and number line estimation performance. Experiment 1 compared the accuracy of adults' (N = 53)…

  5. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge…

  6. When Generating Answers Benefits Arithmetic Skill: The Importance of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Kmicikewycz, Alexander Oleksij

    2008-01-01

    People remember information better if they generate the information while studying rather than read the information. However, prior research has not investigated whether this generation effect extends to related but unstudied items and has not been conducted in classroom settings. We compared third graders' success on studied and unstudied…

  7. Accreditation or Validation of Prior Experiential Learning: Knowledge and "Savoirs" in France-A Different Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouget, Mireille; Osborne, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article stems from the study of the process and application of Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) in the French higher education system, in France referred to as VAP (Validation des Acquis Professionnels ). The paper seeks to review not only the context in which the concepts underpinning VAP in France have developed, but also…

  8. Discovery of lung cancer pathways using reverse phase protein microarray and prior-knowledge based Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Chul; Yang, Chin-Rang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Baoju; Wu, Xiaorong; Gao, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to infer the signaling pathway related to lung cancer using Reverse Phase Protein Microarray (RPPM), which provides information on post-translational phosphorylation events. The computational inferring of pathways is obtained by performing Bayesian network in combination with prior knowledge from Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI). A clustering based Linear Programming Relaxation is developed for the searching of optimal networks. The PPI prior knowledge is incorporated into a new scoring function definition based on minimum description length (MDL). In the experiment, we first evaluate the algorithm performance with synthetic networks and associated data. Then we show our signaling network inference for lung cancer using RPPM data. Through the study, we expect to derive new signalling pathways and insight on protein regulatory relationships, which are yet to be known for lung cancer study.

  9. The effects of prior knowledge and instruction on understanding image formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galili, Igal; Bendall, Sharon; Goldberg, Fred

    This paper reports on a study that was designed to investigate the knowledge about image formation exhibited by students following instruction in geometrical optics in an activity-based college physics course for prospective elementary teachers. Students were interviewed individually, using several tasks involving simple apparatus (plane and curved mirrors, lenses, and prisms). The diagrams drawn by the students and the verbal comments they made provide evidence that their knowledge can be described as an intermediate state, a hybridization of preinstruction knowledge (which is dominated by a holistic conceptualization) and formal physics knowledge. We infer from our data the core concepts and main ideas of the postinstruction students' hybrid knowledge. Finally, by comparing preinstruction and formal physics conceptualizations of image formation we argue that a strong type of knowledge restructuring (in the sense of Carey, S., 1986: American Psychologist, 41, 1123-1130; Vosianou, S., & Brewer, W.F., 1987: Review of Educational Research, 57, 51-67) is required for students to acquire the latter.

  10. Counting-On, Trading and Partitioning: Effects of Training and Prior Knowledge on Performance on Base-10 Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Matthew; Cakir, Kadir

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting performance on base-10 tasks were investigated in a series of four studies with a total of 453 children aged 5-7 years. Training in counting-on was found to enhance child performance on base-10 tasks (Studies 2, 3, and 4), while prior knowledge of counting-on (Study 1), trading (Studies 1 and 3), and partitioning (Studies 1 and…

  11. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R; Goodyer, Ian M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2015-10-27

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  12. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  13. Development of Polytechnic Knowledge and Abilities in the Course of Studying Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imashev, Gizatulla; Abykanova, Bakytgul T.; Rakhmetova, Mairagul T.; Tumysheva, Anar A.; Moldasheva, Raushan N.; Ilyasova, Sandugash S.; Shahimova, Aliya A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article one of aspects of physics course studying improvement at high schools--the problem of the development of polytechnic knowledge and abilities in modern conditions--is revealed. In this research, the role and place of polytechnic education in the improvement of teaching physics at high schools are revealed, the main pedagogical…

  14. The Development of Children's Ability to Fill the Gaps in Their Knowledge by Consulting Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…

  15. An Investigation of Relationships between Students' Mathematical Problem-Posing Abilities and Their Mathematical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…

  16. Teacher-Education Students' Reading Abilities and their Knowledge about Word Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Brucker, Pamela Owen

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on teacher-education students taking a special-education language-arts course in which information about English word structure was taught. The relationship between students' component reading-related abilities and their performance on three measures of word-structure knowledge, before and after course instruction about word…

  17. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of and Ability to Use Text Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the pre-service teachers' knowledge of and ability to use text messaging, and assist their use of this technology in the classroom teaching context. Data were gathered by means of a questionnaire and text message exercises. Fifty-three pre-service teachers participated in the study. It was found that although…

  18. Chinese EFL teachers' knowledge of basic language constructs and their self-perceived teaching abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum. PMID:26294098

  19. Were Knowledge Management Abilities of University Students Enhanced after Creating Personal Blog-Based Portfolios?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Chen, To-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The effect of creating blog-based portfolios on knowledge management (KM) abilities among university students was examined in the present study. Participants included 43 students majoring in Multimedia and Game Science at a University in Taiwan. Students spent nine weeks creating their personal portfolios by using a blog. The "t"-test…

  20. Exploring Differences in Practicing Teachers' Valuing of Pedagogical Knowledge Based on Teaching Ability Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Helenrose; Buehl, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we assessed 443 teachers' beliefs with the "Teaching Ability Belief Scale" (TABS) and the "Importance of Teaching Knowledge Scale" (ITKS). Using cluster analysis, we identified four groups of teachers based on their responses to the TABS reflecting "Innate," "Learned,"…

  1. Investigating the Effect of Origami Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Spatial Ability and Geometric Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akayuure, Peter; Asiedu-Addo, S. K.; Alebna, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Whereas origami is said to have pedagogical benefits in geometry education, research is inclusive about its effect on spatial ability and geometric knowledge among preservice teachers. The study investigated the effect of origami instruction on these aspects using pretest posttest quasi-experiment design. The experimental group consisted of 52…

  2. Volunteer Mentor Training and Support: Three Perspectives Regarding the Knowledge and Abilities Needed for Effective Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Leslie G.

    2013-01-01

    A key factor in mentoring effectiveness and satisfaction is ensuring that mentor preparation training and ongoing support address needed mentor knowledge and abilities (MKAs). Knowing how to mentor is different from knowing what mentoring involves or knowing mentoring policies and procedures. Ideally, mentor training incorporates both the…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Adolescents' Orthographic Knowledge and Overall Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Danielle V.; Kroeger, Diane C.

    2012-01-01

    A conceptualization of reading as an interaction of constrained and unconstrained skills formed the theoretical basis for this correlational analysis of adolescents' orthographic knowledge. We hypothesized that orthographic development (as measured by spelling ability) would serve as a link between constrained and unconstrained reading skills in…

  4. Chinese EFL teachers' knowledge of basic language constructs and their self-perceived teaching abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum.

  5. Undergraduate Students' Ability to Revise Text Effectively: Relationships with Topic Knowledge and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anne-Marie; Simmons, Fiona; Willis, Catherine; Pawling, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In order to communicate understanding, students are often required to produce texts which present an explicit, coherent argument. This study examined the extent to which individual differences in undergraduates' topic knowledge and working memory skills were related to their ability to revise texts to better fulfil these goals. Forty-seven…

  6. Comprehension Challenges in the Fourth Grade: The Roles of Text Cohesion, Text Genre, and Readers' Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Danielle S.; Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Floyd, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined young readers' comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science), text cohesion (high, low), and readers' abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge). The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the "fourth grade slump". Children in grade 4 read four texts,…

  7. How to achieve synergy between medical education and cognitive neuroscience? An exercise on prior knowledge in understanding.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Dirk J; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-05-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of prior knowledge in understanding plays a strategic role in both medical education and cognitive neuroscience it is used as a central element in our discussion. A critical condition for the acquisition of new knowledge is the existence of prior knowledge, which can be built in a mental model or schema. Formation of schemas is a central event in student-centered active learning, by which mental models are constructed and reconstructed. These theoretical considerations from cognitive psychology foster scientific discussions that may lead to salient issues and questions for research with cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how knowledge, insight and experience are established in the brain and to clarify their neural correlates. Recently, evidence has been obtained that new information processed by the hippocampus can be consolidated into a stable, neocortical network more rapidly if this new information fits readily into a schema. Opportunities for medical education and medical education research can be created in a fruitful dialogue within an educational multidisciplinary platform. In this synergetic setting many questions can be raised by educational scholars interested in evidence-based education that may be highly relevant for integrative research and the further development of medical education.

  8. Connecting Learning: Brain-Based Strategies for Linking Prior Knowledge in the Library Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Kathi L.

    2005-01-01

    The brain is a complex organ and learning is a complex process. While there is not complete agreement among researchers about brain-based learning and its direct connection to neuroscience, knowledge about the brain as well as the examination of cognitive psychology, anthropology, professional experience, and educational research can provide…

  9. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  10. Learning a Mathematical Concept from Comparing Examples: The Importance of Variation and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jian-peng; Pang, Ming Fai

    2011-01-01

    In experiment 1, novice fourth-grade students (N = 92) who compared multiple examples that separately varied each critical aspect and then simultaneously varied all critical aspects developed better conceptual knowledge about the "altitude of a triangle" than students who compared multiple examples that did not separately vary each critical aspect…

  11. An Alternative Time for Telling: When Conceptual Instruction Prior to Problem Solving Improves Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    Background: The sequencing of learning materials greatly influences the knowledge that learners construct. Recently, learning theorists have focused on the sequencing of instruction in relation to solving related problems. The general consensus suggests explicit instruction should be provided; however, when to provide instruction remains unclear.…

  12. Investigating the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Interest on Aquarium Visitor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.; Adelman, Leslie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores to what extent and for which visitors do free-choice learning settings accomplish their educational mission. Uses data collected at the National Aquarium in Baltimore to determine whether grouping makes it possible to discern the nature of changes in aquarium visitors' conservation knowledge and attitudes. Discusses the effects of learner…

  13. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  14. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web.

    PubMed

    Sharit, Joseph; Hernández, Mario A; Czaja, Sara J; Pirolli, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60-70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71-85). Ten younger adults (ages 18-39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem's complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites.

  15. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web

    PubMed Central

    SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130

  16. Building on prior knowledge: schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-10-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain

  17. Computational discovery of cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila without prior knowledge of motifs

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Andra; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting cis-regulatory modules without knowledge of motifs. We formulate this problem in a pragmatic setting, and create over 30 new data sets, using Drosophila modules, to use as a 'benchmark'. We propose two new methods for the problem, and evaluate these, as well as two existing methods, on our benchmark. We find that the challenge of predicting cis-regulatory modules ab initio, without any input of relevant motifs, is a realizable goal. PMID:18226245

  18. Investigating the impact of prior knowledge and interest on aquarium visitor learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, John H.; Adelman, Leslie M.

    2003-02-01

    Most free-choice science learning institutions, in particular science centers, zoos, aquariums, and natural history museums, define themselves as educational institutions. However, to what extent, and for which visitors, do these free-choice learning settings accomplish their educational mission? Answering this question has proven challenging, in large part because of the inherent variability of visitors to such settings. We hypothesize that the challenges of measuring free-choice science learning might be diminished if it were possible to pool populations during analysis in ways that reduced this variability. Specifically, we propose grouping learners according to their entering understanding and attitudes, using qualitative categories such as minimal, moderate, and extensive. In this article, we use data collected at the National Aquarium in Baltimore to determine whether grouping makes it possible to discern more readily the nature of changes in aquarium visitors' conservation knowledge and attitudes. Although analysis revealed that there were significant changes in both conservation knowledge and attitudes, entry to exit, for all 100 visitors studied, a more detailed analysis revealed that gains were not evenly distributed across all visitors. The results support the hypothesis that the grouping of learners into minimal, moderate, and extensive conservation knowledge and attitude categories enabled a more fine-grained and accurate understanding of changes in aquarium visitor's conservation learning.

  19. Fundamentals of microfluidics for high school students with no prior knowledge of fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Vishal; Peck, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Three microfluidics-based laboratory exercises were developed and implemented in a high school science classroom setting. The first exercise demonstrated ways in which flows are characterized, including viscosity, turbulence, shear stress, reversibility, compressibility, and hydrodynamic resistance. Students characterized flows in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices in the other two exercises, where they observed the mixing characteristics of laminar flows, and conservation of volumetric flow rate for incompressible flows. In surveys, the students self-reported increased knowledge of microfluidics, and an improved attitude toward science and nanotechnology.

  20. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity.

  1. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity. PMID:25128283

  2. Normalizing RNA-sequencing data by modeling hidden covariates with prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Sara; Battle, Alexis; Zhu, Xiaowei; Urban, Alexander E; Levinson, Douglas; Montgomery, Stephen B; Koller, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptomic assays that measure expression levels are widely used to study the manifestation of environmental or genetic variations in cellular processes. RNA-sequencing in particular has the potential to considerably improve such understanding because of its capacity to assay the entire transcriptome, including novel transcriptional events. However, as with earlier expression assays, analysis of RNA-sequencing data requires carefully accounting for factors that may introduce systematic, confounding variability in the expression measurements, resulting in spurious correlations. Here, we consider the problem of modeling and removing the effects of known and hidden confounding factors from RNA-sequencing data. We describe a unified residual framework that encapsulates existing approaches, and using this framework, present a novel method, HCP (Hidden Covariates with Prior). HCP uses a more informed assumption about the confounding factors, and performs as well or better than existing approaches while having a much lower computational cost. Our experiments demonstrate that accounting for known and hidden factors with appropriate models improves the quality of RNA-sequencing data in two very different tasks: detecting genetic variations that are associated with nearby expression variations (cis-eQTLs), and constructing accurate co-expression networks. PMID:23874524

  3. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  4. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  5. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  6. Prior knowledge or freedom of interpretation? A critical look at a recently published classification of "novel" Zn binding sites.

    PubMed

    Raczynska, Joanna E; Wlodawer, Alexander; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-06-01

    In a recently published article (Yao, Flight, Rouchka, and Moseley, Proteins 2015;83:1470-1487) the authors proposed novel Zn coordination patterns in protein structures, apparently discovered using an unprejudiced approach to the information collected in the Protein data Bank (PDB), which they advocated as superior to the prior-knowledge-informed paradigm. In our assessment of those propositions we demonstrate here that most, if not all, of the "new" coordination geometries are fictitious, as they are based on incorrectly interpreted protein crystal structures, which in themselves are often not error-free. The flaws of interpretation include partial or wrong Zn sites, missed or wrong ligands, ignored crystal symmetry and ligands, etc. In conclusion, we warn against using this and similar meta-analyses that ignore chemical and crystallographic knowledge, and emphasize the importance of safeguarding structural databases against bad apples. Proteins 2016; 84:770-776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26914344

  7. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  8. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  9. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  10. Rethinking temporal contiguity and the judgement of causality: effects of prior knowledge, experience, and reinforcement procedure.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2003-07-01

    Time plays a pivotal role in causal inference. Nonetheless most contemporary theories of causal induction do not address the implications of temporal contiguity and delay, with the exception of associative learning theory. Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) and several replications (Reed, 1992, 1999) have demonstrated that people fail to identify causal relations if cause and effect are separated by more than two seconds. In line with an associationist perspective, these findings have been interpreted to indicate that temporal lags universally impair causal induction. This interpretation clashes with the richness of everyday causal cognition where people apparently can reason about causal relations involving considerable delays. We look at the implications of cause-effect delays from a computational perspective and predict that delays should generally hinder reasoning performance, but that this hindrance should be alleviated if reasoners have knowledge of the delay. Two experiments demonstrated that (1) the impact of delay on causal judgement depends on participants' expectations about the timeframe of the causal relation, and (2) the free-operant procedures used in previous studies are ill-suited to study the direct influences of delay on causal induction, because they confound delay with weaker evidence for the relation in question. Implications for contemporary causal learning theories are discussed.

  11. A prior-knowledge-based threshold segmentation method of forward-looking sonar images for underwater linear object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixin; Bian, Hongyu; Yagi, Shin-ichi; Yang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Raw sonar images may not be used for underwater detection or recognition directly because disturbances such as the grating-lobe and multi-path disturbance affect the gray-level distribution of sonar images and cause phantom echoes. To search for a more robust segmentation method with a reasonable computational cost, a prior-knowledge-based threshold segmentation method of underwater linear object detection is discussed. The possibility of guiding the segmentation threshold evolution of forward-looking sonar images using prior knowledge is verified by experiment. During the threshold evolution, the collinear relation of two lines that correspond to double peaks in the voting space of the edged image is used as the criterion of termination. The interaction is reflected in the sense that the Hough transform contributes to the basis of the collinear relation of lines, while the binary image generated from the current threshold provides the resource of the Hough transform. The experimental results show that the proposed method could maintain a good tradeoff between the segmentation quality and the computational time in comparison with conventional segmentation methods. The proposed method redounds to a further process for unsupervised underwater visual understanding.

  12. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  13. Learning Using Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Students' Comprehension, Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Status of a Biotechnological Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2010-05-01

    The importance of biotechnology education at the high-school level has been recognized in a number of international curriculum frameworks around the world. One of the most problematic issues in learning biotechnology has been found to be the biotechnological methods involved. Here, we examine the unique contribution of an animation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in promoting conceptual learning of the biotechnological method among 12th-grade biology majors. All of the students learned about the PCR using still images ( n = 83) or the animation ( n = 90). A significant advantage to the animation treatment was identified following learning. Students’ prior content knowledge was found to be an important factor for students who learned PCR using still images, serving as an obstacle to learning the PCR method in the case of low prior knowledge. Through analysing students’ discourse, using the framework of the conceptual status analysis, we found that students who learned about PCR using still images faced difficulties in understanding some mechanistic aspects of the method. On the other hand, using the animation gave the students an advantage in understanding those aspects.

  14. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  15. Effect of Adopters' Lifestyles and Animal-Care Knowledge on Their Expectations Prior to Companion-Animal Guardianship.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2016-01-01

    Human expectations can greatly affect the human-companion animal relationship, sometimes putting nonhuman animals at risk for relinquishment. At 20 animal shelters in Southern Ontario, Canada, potential adopters (N = 234) completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, companion animal-care knowledge, and preadoption expectations of their adopted companion animals. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of adopters' lifestyles and companion animal-care knowledge with their expectations for animal behavior, the human-companion animal relationship, and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship. Dog adopters had higher expectations than cat adopters for their companion animal's behavior (p < .001), the human-companion animal relationship (p < .001), and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). Adopters' human relationship statuses were also associated with expectations for the human-companion animal relationship (p = .002). As adopters' companion animal-care knowledge increased, so did their expectations for the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). An understanding of adopters' expectations prior to adoption will help animal shelters better match, educate, and prepare adopters for their lives with companion animals.

  16. Effect of Adopters' Lifestyles and Animal-Care Knowledge on Their Expectations Prior to Companion-Animal Guardianship.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2016-01-01

    Human expectations can greatly affect the human-companion animal relationship, sometimes putting nonhuman animals at risk for relinquishment. At 20 animal shelters in Southern Ontario, Canada, potential adopters (N = 234) completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, companion animal-care knowledge, and preadoption expectations of their adopted companion animals. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of adopters' lifestyles and companion animal-care knowledge with their expectations for animal behavior, the human-companion animal relationship, and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship. Dog adopters had higher expectations than cat adopters for their companion animal's behavior (p < .001), the human-companion animal relationship (p < .001), and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). Adopters' human relationship statuses were also associated with expectations for the human-companion animal relationship (p = .002). As adopters' companion animal-care knowledge increased, so did their expectations for the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). An understanding of adopters' expectations prior to adoption will help animal shelters better match, educate, and prepare adopters for their lives with companion animals. PMID:26865430

  17. Impact of a Required Pharmaceutical Calculations Course on Mathematics Ability and Knowledge Retention

    PubMed Central

    Buring, Shauna M.; Papas, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. Methods. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Results. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. Conclusions. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students’ overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations. PMID:23966727

  18. The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

  19. Enhancing the metalinguistic abilities of pre-service teachers via coursework targeting language structure knowledge.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Caralyn J; McNeill, Brigid C; Everatt, John

    2016-04-01

    Low metalinguistic knowledge of pre-service and in-service teachers is likely to restrict the provision of evidence-based literacy instruction in the classroom. Despite such concerns, relatively few studies have examined the effects of teacher preparation coursework in building pre-service teachers' language structure knowledge. This study examined the effects of 7 h of language structure coursework, delivered over 7 weeks, on 121 New Zealand pre-service teachers in their initial year of study. Changes in participants' phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and orthographic knowledge were tracked across the teaching period. The impact of the coursework for participants who presented with strong spelling (n = 24) and poor spelling (n = 24) ability was also compared. The cohort demonstrated significant gains across all measures. Strong spellers responded more favourably to the teaching than poor spellers, even when accounting for initial levels of meta-linguistic knowledge. Implications for the development of teacher preparation programmes that enhance the provision of effective literacy instruction are discussed. PMID:26271915

  20. The Role of Knowledge Structures in the Ability of Preservice Elementary Teachers to Diagnose a Child's Understanding of Molecular Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored preservice teachers' (n = 25) knowledge structures and their mastery of content knowledge in relation to their ability to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of a fourth grader's videotaped explanations of a scientific phenomenon, i.e., molecular kinetic properties of air. Participants' knowledge structures were analyzed…

  1. Use of Assessments in College Chemistry Courses: Examining Students' Prior Conceptual Knowledge, Chemistry Self-efficacy, and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane-Garcia, Sachel M.

    Students' retention in STEM-related careers is of great concern for educators and researchers, especially the retention of underrepresented groups such as females, Hispanics, and Blacks in these careers. Therefore it is important to study factors that could potentially influence students' decision to stay in STEM. The work described in this dissertation involved three research studies where assessments have been used in college chemistry courses to assess students' prior content knowledge, chemistry-self-efficacy, and attitude toward science. These three factors have been suggested to have an influence on students' performance in a course and could eventually be a retention factor. The first research study involved the development and use of an instrument to measure biochemistry prior knowledge of foundational concepts from chemistry and biology that are considered important for biochemistry learning. This instrument was developed with a parallel structure where three items were used to measure a concept and common incorrect ideas were used as distractors. The specific structure of this instrument allows the identification of common incorrect ideas that students have when entering biochemistry and that can hinder students' learning of biochemistry concepts. This instrument was given as pre/posttest to students enrolled in introductory biochemistry courses. The findings indicated that some incorrect ideas are persistent even after instruction, as is the case for bond energy and the structure of the alpha helix concepts. This study highlights the importance of measuring prior conceptual knowledge; so that instructors can plan interventions to help students overcome their incorrect ideas. For the second research study, students' chemistry self-efficacy was measured five times during a semester of preparatory college chemistry. Chemistry self-efficacy beliefs have been linked to students' achievement, and students with stronger self-efficacy are more likely to try

  2. `She Has to Drink Blood of the Snake': Culture and prior knowledge in science|health education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, Leah A.; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2014-06-01

    In this analysis, we argue that science education should attend more deeply to youths' cultural resources and practices (e.g. material, social, and intellectual). Inherent in our argument is a call for revisiting conceptions of 'prior knowledge' to theorize how people make sense of the complex ecologies of experience, ideas, and cultural practices that undergird any learning moment. We illustrate our argument using examples from the domain of personal health, chosen because of its tremendous societal impact and its significant areas of overlap with biology, chemistry, physics, and other scientific disciplines taught as core subjects in schools. Using data from a team ethnography of young people's science and technology learning across settings and over developmental timescales, we highlight two youths' experiences and understandings related to personal health, and how those experiences and understandings influenced the youths' sense-making about the natural world. We then discuss the implications of our argument for science education.

  3. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  4. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-20

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

  5. Reflecting on explanatory ability: A mechanism for detecting gaps in causal knowledge.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dan R; Murphy, Meredith P; Messer, Riley M

    2016-05-01

    People frequently overestimate their understanding-with a particularly large blind-spot for gaps in their causal knowledge. We introduce a metacognitive approach to reducing overestimation, termed reflecting on explanatory ability (REA), which is briefly thinking about how well one could explain something in a mechanistic, step-by-step, causally connected manner. Nine experiments demonstrated that engaging in REA just before estimating one's understanding substantially reduced overestimation. Moreover, REA reduced overestimation with nearly the same potency as generating full explanations, but did so 20 times faster (although only for high complexity objects). REA substantially reduced overestimation by inducing participants to quickly evaluate an object's inherent causal complexity (Experiments 4-7). REA reduced overestimation by also fostering step-by-step, causally connected processing (Experiments 2 and 3). Alternative explanations for REA's effects were ruled out including a general conservatism account (Experiments 4 and 5) and a covert explanation account (Experiment 8). REA's overestimation-reduction effect generalized beyond objects (Experiments 1-8) to sociopolitical policies (Experiment 9). REA efficiently detects gaps in our causal knowledge with implications for improving self-directed learning, enhancing self-insight into vocational and academic abilities, and even reducing extremist attitudes. PMID:26999047

  6. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  7. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  8. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  9. Folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential introduction of mandatory fortification.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Simonette R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, the New Zealand Ministry of Health recommends women take supplemental folic acid from at least one month preconception until the end of the twelfth week of pregnancy, as well as consume folate-rich foods. A postpartum survey was conducted to describe folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread in May 2012. Increasing knowledge of folic acid recommendations was associated with higher supplement uptake among women who planned their pregnancies (p=0.001 for linear trend). Folic acid information failed to adequately reach some socio-demographic subgroups before conception, even when pregnancy was planned, including: indigenous Maori, Pacific and Asian women, younger women, women with large families, and women with lower educational attainment and income. Only half of all women surveyed knew some bread contained added folic acid, and among these women, less than 2% consistently chose voluntarily fortified bread during the periconceptional period by inspecting labels. Sixty-one percent of women indicated they were either in favour of mandatory fortification, or held no opinion on the matter, while 4% were opposed to the addition of folic acid to bread. Approximately one-third (35%) of women agreed with voluntary fortification. Future health promotion initiatives should be tailored toward women who are younger, less educated, with lower income, multiparous or of minority ethnicity status. Nonetheless, mandatory folic acid fortification may be required to attain the desired degree of equity.

  10. Language and reading instruction in early years' classrooms: the knowledge and self-rated ability of Australian teachers.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.

  11. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part I: Development, Application and Evaluation of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Reported is the development, use, and evaluation of an instructional technique based upon: (1) the assessment of students' prior knowledge; and (2) a theoretical perspective advocated by Ausubel and others which emphasizes the importance of existing knowledge in influencing subsequent concept learning. The experimental group of 46 South African…

  12. The Interpretation of a Knowledge Claim in the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and the Impact of This on RPL Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Frederika

    2014-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is: what does a knowledge claim consist of in the context of the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)? The research comprises a case study of RPL applicants' entry into a postgraduate diploma (a fourth-year programme) in project management. The focus is on the knowledge claims made as part of the RPL…

  13. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  14. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  15. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-based earthquakes instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits designed to teach the 'Principles of Earthquakes.' Each subunit consisted of three modules: evaluation of prior knowledge with/without in-time feedback; animation-based instruction; and evaluation of learning outcomes with feedback. The 153 participants consisted of 10th grade high-school students. Seventy-eight students participated in the animation-based instruction, involving assessment of prior knowledge and appropriate feedback mechanism (APA group). A total of 75 students participated in animation-based learning that did not take into account their prior knowledge (ANPA group). The effectiveness of the instruction was then evaluated by using a Science Conception Test (SCT), a self-rating cognitive load questionnaire (CLQ), as well as a structured interview. The results indicated that: (1) Students' perceived cognitive load was reduced effectively through improving their prior knowledge by providing appropriate feedback. (2) When students perceived lower levels of cognitive load, they showed better learning outcome. The result of this study revealed that students of the APA group showed better performance than those of the ANPA group in an open-ended question. Furthermore, students' perceived cognitive load was negatively associated with their learning outcomes.

  16. Prior knowledge transfer across transcriptional data sets and technologies using compositional statistics yields new mislabelled ovarian cell line.

    PubMed

    Blayney, Jaine K; Davison, Timothy; McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven; Keating, Karen; Delaney, Thomas; Greenan, Caroline; Williams, Alistair R; McCluggage, W Glenn; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Harkin, D Paul; Gourley, Charlie; Kennedy, Richard D

    2016-09-30

    Here, we describe gene expression compositional assignment (GECA), a powerful, yet simple method based on compositional statistics that can validate the transfer of prior knowledge, such as gene lists, into independent data sets, platforms and technologies. Transcriptional profiling has been used to derive gene lists that stratify patients into prognostic molecular subgroups and assess biomarker performance in the pre-clinical setting. Archived public data sets are an invaluable resource for subsequent in silico validation, though their use can lead to data integration issues. We show that GECA can be used without the need for normalising expression levels between data sets and can outperform rank-based correlation methods. To validate GECA, we demonstrate its success in the cross-platform transfer of gene lists in different domains including: bladder cancer staging, tumour site of origin and mislabelled cell lines. We also show its effectiveness in transferring an epithelial ovarian cancer prognostic gene signature across technologies, from a microarray to a next-generation sequencing setting. In a final case study, we predict the tumour site of origin and histopathology of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. In particular, we identify and validate the commonly-used cell line OVCAR-5 as non-ovarian, being gastrointestinal in origin. GECA is available as an open-source R package.

  17. Prior knowledge transfer across transcriptional data sets and technologies using compositional statistics yields new mislabelled ovarian cell line

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Jaine K.; Davison, Timothy; McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven; Keating, Karen; Delaney, Thomas; Greenan, Caroline; Williams, Alistair R.; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Harkin, D. Paul; Gourley, Charlie; Kennedy, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe gene expression compositional assignment (GECA), a powerful, yet simple method based on compositional statistics that can validate the transfer of prior knowledge, such as gene lists, into independent data sets, platforms and technologies. Transcriptional profiling has been used to derive gene lists that stratify patients into prognostic molecular subgroups and assess biomarker performance in the pre-clinical setting. Archived public data sets are an invaluable resource for subsequent in silico validation, though their use can lead to data integration issues. We show that GECA can be used without the need for normalising expression levels between data sets and can outperform rank-based correlation methods. To validate GECA, we demonstrate its success in the cross-platform transfer of gene lists in different domains including: bladder cancer staging, tumour site of origin and mislabelled cell lines. We also show its effectiveness in transferring an epithelial ovarian cancer prognostic gene signature across technologies, from a microarray to a next-generation sequencing setting. In a final case study, we predict the tumour site of origin and histopathology of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. In particular, we identify and validate the commonly-used cell line OVCAR-5 as non-ovarian, being gastrointestinal in origin. GECA is available as an open-source R package. PMID:27353327

  18. Use of Assessments in College Chemistry Courses: Examining Students' Prior Conceptual Knowledge, Chemistry Self-efficacy, and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane-Garcia, Sachel M.

    Students' retention in STEM-related careers is of great concern for educators and researchers, especially the retention of underrepresented groups such as females, Hispanics, and Blacks in these careers. Therefore it is important to study factors that could potentially influence students' decision to stay in STEM. The work described in this dissertation involved three research studies where assessments have been used in college chemistry courses to assess students' prior content knowledge, chemistry-self-efficacy, and attitude toward science. These three factors have been suggested to have an influence on students' performance in a course and could eventually be a retention factor. The first research study involved the development and use of an instrument to measure biochemistry prior knowledge of foundational concepts from chemistry and biology that are considered important for biochemistry learning. This instrument was developed with a parallel structure where three items were used to measure a concept and common incorrect ideas were used as distractors. The specific structure of this instrument allows the identification of common incorrect ideas that students have when entering biochemistry and that can hinder students' learning of biochemistry concepts. This instrument was given as pre/posttest to students enrolled in introductory biochemistry courses. The findings indicated that some incorrect ideas are persistent even after instruction, as is the case for bond energy and the structure of the alpha helix concepts. This study highlights the importance of measuring prior conceptual knowledge; so that instructors can plan interventions to help students overcome their incorrect ideas. For the second research study, students' chemistry self-efficacy was measured five times during a semester of preparatory college chemistry. Chemistry self-efficacy beliefs have been linked to students' achievement, and students with stronger self-efficacy are more likely to try

  19. Pull-push level sets: a new term to encode prior knowledge for the segmentation of teeth images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a novel level set method for contour detection in multiple-object scenarios applied to the segmentation of teeth images. Teeth segmentation from 2D images of dental plaster cast models is a difficult problem because it is necessary to independently segment several objects that have very badly defined borders between them. Current methods for contour detection which only employ image information cannot successfully segment such structures. Being therefore necessary to use prior knowledge about the problem domain, current approaches in the literature are limited to the extraction of shape information of individual objects, whereas the key factor in such a problem are the relative positions of the different objects composing the anatomical structure. Therefore, we propose a novel method for introducing such information into a level set framework. This results in a new energy term which can be explained as a regional term that takes into account the relative positions of the different objects, and consequently creates an attraction or repulsion force that favors a determined configuration. The proposed method is compared with balloon and GVF snakes, as well as with the Geodesic Active Regions model, showing accurate results.

  20. Young Children's Ability to Read and Spell Their Own and Classmates' Names: The Role of Letter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2009-01-01

    Children's ability to read and spell their own and classmates' personal names in and out of context in Hebrew was studied. Preliterate children aged 4 to 6 years (N = 60) showed high knowledge of their own names but varied greatly in knowledge of others' names and emergent literacy skills. Reading and spelling of names was primarily related to…

  1. Acquiring Information from Simple Weather Maps: Influences of Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Visual-Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.; Miller, Christy R.; Power, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The influences of domain-specific meteorological knowledge and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps were examined in a regression-based study involving a sample of participants with relatively low meteorological knowledge and in an experiment involving a contrast between samples of higher- and…

  2. The Effect of Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Abilities on the Development of Knowledge of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties in students' understanding of the spherical model of the Earth have been shown in previous studies. One of the reasons for these difficulties lies in beliefs and preliminary knowledge that hinder the interpretation of the scientific knowledge, the other reason may lie in the low level of verbal and visuo-spatial abilities. The study…

  3. Language and Reading Instruction in Early Years' Classrooms: The Knowledge and Self-Rated Ability of Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Hannah L.; Snow, Pamela C.; Eadie, Patricia A.; Goldfeld, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as…

  4. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  5. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

  6. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Fassi, Aurora; Zaffino, Paolo; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Depauw, Nicolas; Seco, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  7. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  8. Why is a Pomegranate an Apple? The Role of Shape, Taxonomic Relatedness, and Prior Lexical Knowledge in Children's Overextensions of "Apple" and "Dog."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Croft, William; Fu, Panfang; Clausner, Timothy; Gottfried, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Examined how object shape, taxonomic relatedness, and prior lexical knowledge influenced children's overextensions (e.g., referring to pomegranates as apples). Researchers presented items that disentangled the three factors and used a novel comprehension task where children could indicate negative exemplars. Error patterns differed by task and by…

  9. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-Based Earthquakes Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits…

  10. How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

  11. Prior Knowledge Activation: How Different Concept Mapping Tasks Lead to Substantial Differences in Cognitive Processes, Learning Outcomes, and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…

  12. TESL: The Crucial Role of Formal and Explicit Instruction and Learners' Prior Knowledge--An Example in Learners of Chinese Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, May Xiu-qin

    This paper argues that formal and explicit instruction and learners' prior knowledge play a crucial role in teaching and learning English as a second language (ESL), and that a pure communicative approach is inadequate in achieving optimum results. The discussion is presented in two parts. The first outlines the issues under consideration,…

  13. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  14. Effects of Examiners' Prior Knowledge of Subjects' Ethnicity and Intelligence on the Scoring of Responses to the Stanford-Binet Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether scoring of Stanford-Binet test items might be influenced by the examiner's prior knowledge of subjects' ethnicity and IQ. Stanford-Binet protocols (N=36) of subjects from five to eight years old were divided into four groups and assigned four groups of examiners. Results suggested no bias. (Author/JAC)

  15. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  16. [Constructing the network of classic genetic knowledge and developing self-learning ability of students in genetic classroom].

    PubMed

    Luo, Pei-Gao

    2010-04-01

    With the quick increase of new knowledge in genetics, undergraduate teaching of genetics is becoming a challenge for many teachers. In this paper, the author suggested that it would be important to construct the knowledge network of genetics and to develop the self-learning ability of students. This could help students to read textbooks "from the thicker to the thinner in classroom" and "from the thinner to the thicker outside classroom", so that students would turn to be the talents with new ideas and have more competent ability in biology-related fields.

  17. The influence of prior knowledge, a science methods course, and student teaching on preservice teachers' developing philosophy and practice of teaching science in elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toolin, Regina Elizabeth

    This study was designed to examine preservice teachers' knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about science, teaching, learning and the social conditions of schools in the context of a science methods course and student teaching in 1994. Interviews and reflective journals served as the primary data sources for this study. The interviews were developed to elicit and examine the influence of prior knowledge and experiences of the preservice teachers as students learning science and to determine the influence of the methods course, practicum, and student teaching on the preservice teachers' knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about science, teaching science and the social conditions of schools. The journals were designed to elicit and examine the influence of prior knowledge and experiences of science and science teaching and to determine the influence of the methods course curriculum on the knowledge, experiences, and beliefs of the preservice teachers. Methods class observation notes and student assignments also served as valuable data for determining the influence of the methods class. Case studies were developed of Anna and Beth, two preservice teachers in the methods class, to illustrate the impact of these influences. Analysis of the data resulted in descriptive case studies where the major themes of the study were presented from Anna's and Beth's perspectives. These themes were categorized under the major topics of: (1) The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Experiences; (2) The Influence of the Elementary Education Program; (3) The Influence of Student Teaching. Specific factors that appeared to have the most significant influence on Anna's and Beth's knowledge, experiences, and beliefs were identified, discussed, and interpreted for each major topic. Finally, case studies were compared and inferences were drawn to highlight the factors that significantly influenced Anna's and Beth's developing knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about teaching science in

  18. Preventing adolescent drowning: understanding water safety knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability. The effect of a short water safety intervention.

    PubMed

    Petrass, Lauren A; Blitvich, Jennifer D

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, epidemiological data indicate that children are a high-risk group for drowning and while progress has been made in understanding toddler drownings, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the drowning risk and protective factors inherent for adolescents and young adults. This study used a self-report questionnaire to establish swimming and water safety knowledge and attitudes of young adults and objectively measured their actual swimming ability using formal practical testing procedures. Participants then completed a short, 12-week intervention that encompassed swimming, survival and rescue skills, along with water safety knowledge applicable to a range of aquatic environments. Knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability were then re-measured following the intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test was performed to detect whether there were significant differences between knowledge, attitude and swim ability scores pre-intervention and post-intervention. A total of 135 participants completed the baseline and follow up questionnaire and all practical testing. Results indicated that these young adults had a very low level of water safety knowledge pre-intervention, although the majority had sound swimming and water safety skills and attitudes. Overall, significant improvements were evident in knowledge (p<0.001) and swim ability (p<0.001) post-intervention, although no changes were observed in attitudes (p=0.079). Previous participation in formal swimming lessons and/or swimming within the school curriculum had no significant impact on water safety knowledge, skills or attitudes of these young adults, and there were few significant gender differences. While it is important to conduct further studies to confirm that these findings are consistent with a more representative sample of young adults, our findings are the first to provide empirical evidence of the value of a comprehensive aquatic education

  19. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

    2007-01-01

    To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired…

  20. Do Children with Williams Syndrome Really Have Good Vocabulary Knowledge? Methods for Comparing Cognitive and Linguistic Abilities in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K.; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in…

  1. Maternal Knowledge of Nutrition, Problem-Solving Abilities and the Introduction of Complementary Foods into Infants' Diets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Chantelle Nobile; Drotar, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables (maternal knowledge and problem-solving ability) associated with the early introduction of complementary foods (i.e. foods other than breastmilk or formula) into infants diets. Ninety-eight primarily African-American mothers who presented to an urban, ambulatory care clinic in the Midwest…

  2. The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback and Language Analytic Ability on Chinese Learners' Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of English Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Lin; Xiao, Hailing

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an 8-week study that investigated the differential effects of two written corrective feedback (CF) options on 92 low-intermediate EFL students' explicit and implicit knowledge of English articles and the extent to which language analytic ability might influence the effect of written CF. The study used a…

  3. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  4. Incorporation of prior knowledge for region of change imaging from sparse scan data in image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Stayman, J. W.; Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Zbijewski, W.; Khanna, A. J.; Prince, J. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes to utilize a patient-specific prior to augment intraoperative sparse-scan data to accurately reconstruct the aspects of the region that have changed by a surgical procedure in image-guided surgeries. When anatomical changes are introduced by a surgical procedure, only a sparse set of x-ray images are acquired, and the prior volume is registered to these data. Since all the information of the patient anatomy except for the surgical change is already known from the prior volume, we highlight only the change by creating difference images between the new scan and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) computed from the registered prior volume. The region of change (RoC) is reconstructed from these sparse difference images by a penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction method regularized by a compressed sensing penalty. When the surgical changes are local and relatively small, the RoC reconstruction involves only a small volume size and a small number of projections, allowing much faster computation and lower radiation dose than is needed to reconstruct the entire surgical volume. The reconstructed RoC merges with the prior volume to visualize an updated surgical field. We apply this novel approach to sacroplasty phantom data obtained from a conebeam CT (CBCT) test bench and vertebroplasty data with a fresh cadaver acquired from a C-arm CBCT system with a flat-panel detector (FPD).

  5. Psychological Effects of Immediate Knowledge of Results and Adaptive Ability Testing. Research Report 76-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    The effects of providing immediate knowledge of results (KR) and adaptive testing on test anxiety and test-taking motivation were investigated. Also studied was the accuracy of student perceptions of the difficulty of adaptive and conventional tests administered with or without immediate knowledge of results. Testees were 350 college students…

  6. Enhancing the Metalinguistic Abilities of Pre-Service Teachers via Coursework Targeting Language Structure Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Caralyn J.; McNeill, Brigid C.; Everatt, John

    2016-01-01

    Low metalinguistic knowledge of pre-service and in-service teachers is likely to restrict the provision of evidence-based literacy instruction in the classroom. Despite such concerns, relatively few studies have examined the effects of teacher preparation coursework in building pre-service teachers' language structure knowledge. This study…

  7. Transfer in chemistry: a study of students' abilities in transferring mathematical knowledge to chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoban, Richard A.; Finlayson, Odilla E.; Nolan, Brien C.

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that there is a mathematics problem in chemistry, whereby, for example, undergraduate students appear to be unable to utilize basic calculus knowledge in a chemistry context - calculus knowledge - which would have been taught to these students in a mathematics context. However, there appears to be a scarcity of literature addressing the possible reasons for this problem. This dearth of literature has spurred the following two questions: (1) Can students transfer mathematical knowledge to chemistry?; and (2) What are the possible factors associated with students being able to successfully transfer mathematical knowledge to a chemistry context? These questions were investigated in relation to the basic mathematical knowledge which chemistry students need for chemical kinetics and thermodynamics, using the traditional view of the transfer of learning. Two studies were undertaken amongst two samples of undergraduate students attending Dublin City University. Findings suggest that the mathematical difficulties which students encounter in a chemistry context may not be because of an inability to transfer the knowledge, but may instead be due to insufficient mathematical understanding and/or knowledge of mathematical concepts relevant to chemical kinetics and thermodynamics.

  8. Norwegian general practitioners' knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding, and their self-rated ability as breastfeeding counsellor

    PubMed Central

    Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. Design A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. Subjects 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. Results The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Conclusion Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key pointsBreastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors’ advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that:GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding.GPs had

  9. Why is a pomegranate an apple? The role of shape, taxonomic relatedness, and prior lexical knowledge in children's overextensions of apple and dog.

    PubMed

    Gelman, S A; Croft, W; Fu, P; Clausner, T; Gottfried, G

    1998-06-01

    Children's overextensions (e.g. referring to a pomegranate as apple) raise intriguing questions regarding early word meanings. Specifically, how do object shape, taxonomic relatedness, and prior lexical knowledge influence children's overextensions? The present study sheds new light on this issue by presenting items that disentangle the three factors of shape, taxonomic category, and prior lexical knowledge, and by using a novel comprehension task (the screened-alternative task) in which children can indicate negative exemplars (e.g. which items are NOT apples). 49 subjects in three age groups participated (Ms = 2;0, 2;6, and 4;5). Findings indicate: (1) Error patterns differed by task. In production, errors were overwhelmingly due to selecting items that matched the target word in BOTH shape and taxonomic relatedness. In comprehension, more errors were based on either shape alone or taxonomic relatedness alone, and the nature and frequency of the overextensions interacted with prior lexical knowledge. (2) Error patterns also differed markedly based on the word being tested (apple vs. dog), in both comprehension and production (3) As predicted, errors were more frequent in production than comprehension, though only for children in the two younger age groups. Altogether, the study indicates that overextensions are not simply production errors, and that both taxonomic relatedness and object shape play a powerful role in early naming errors.

  10. Adjustment of speaker’s referential expressions to an addressee’s likely knowledge and link with theory of mind abilities

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Amélie M.; Fossard, Marion; Couture, Sophie; Achim, André

    2015-01-01

    To communicate cooperatively, speakers must determine what constitutes the common ground with their addressee and adapt their referential choices accordingly. Assessing another person’s knowledge requires a social cognition ability termed theory of mind (ToM). This study relies on a novel referential communication task requiring probabilistic inferences of the knowledge already held by an addressee prior to the study. Forty participants were asked to present 10 movie characters and the addressee, who had the same characters in a random order, was asked to place them in order. ToM and other aspects of social cognition were also assessed. Participants used more information when presenting likely unknown than likely known movie characters. They particularly increased their use of physical descriptors, which most often accompanied movie-related information. Interestingly, a significant relationship emerged between our ToM test and the increased amount of information given for the likely unknown characters. These results suggest that speakers use ToM to infer their addressee’s likely knowledge and accordingly adapt their referential expressions. PMID:26136711

  11. Do children with Williams syndrome really have good vocabulary knowledge? Methods for comparing cognitive and linguistic abilities in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M

    2007-09-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in which language abilities are often claimed to be relatively strong. Data from this group were compared with data from typically developing children, children with Down syndrome, and children with non-specific learning difficulties using a number of approaches including comparison of age-equivalent scores, matching, analysis of covariance, and regression-based standardization. Across these analyses children with Williams syndrome consistently demonstrated relatively good receptive vocabulary knowledge, although this effect appeared strongest in the oldest children.

  12. The Link between Technical Knowledge of the Youth and Their Technical Abilities: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovieriene, Ala

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the part of research for determining the link between technical knowledge of Lithuanian youth and their independence in performing jobs connected with engineering. It has also been attempted to trace whether exists any difference in this respect between the groups of boys and girls. For the research sample, young people from…

  13. Mediation Effects of Latent Numerical Abilities on the Associations between Domain General Competencies and Fraction Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Ai; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse; Carrique, Jessica; Jordan, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to reveal the developmental pathway from third grade cognitive competencies to sixth grade conceptual and procedural fraction knowledge through the intervening whole numerical skills at fifth grade. The study used empirical data that come from 536 students in nine schools across two Delaware public school…

  14. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,…

  15. The Effects of Learners' Prior Knowledge, Self-Regulation, and Motivation on Learning Performance in Complex Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyuksoon S.

    2010-01-01

    Many medical schools have developed computer-based, multimedia learning environments to fill the knowledge gap and provide common cases and resources to students. However, considering that multimedia in education may impede effective learning if the characteristics of learners and tasks are not considered thoroughly in instructional design, it is…

  16. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part II: Analysis of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Peter W.; Hewson, Mariana G.

    Presented is an analysis of a concept teaching technique that was developed according to a theoretical perspective which emphasizes the importance of a student's existing knowledge in influencing that person's subsequent learning. Significant differences between an experimental group which was exposed to this instructional strategy, and the…

  17. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  18. Some Good Texts Are Always Better: Text Revision to Foster Inferences of Readers with High and Low Prior Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilabert, R.; Martinez, G.; Vidal-Abarca, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two experiments testing whether an approach to revise a text that fosters the reader's active processing benefits both high and low-knowledge readers. A history text and two alternative revised versions, one fostering the reader's inferential activity and the other reducing it, were employed. Junior high school students with…

  19. The effects of local ecological knowledge, minimum-impact knowledge, and prior experience on visitor perceptions of the ecological impacts of backcountry recreation.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Ashley; Monz, Christopher; Newman, Peter; Lawson, Steve; Taff, Derrick

    2012-10-01

    An on-site visitor survey instrument was developed to examine visitor perceptions of resource impacts resulting from backcountry hiking activities. The survey was conducted in the Bear Lake Corridor of Rocky Mountain National Park, CO and examined visitor characteristics that may influence visitor perceptions of specific resource conditions. Findings indicate that visitors are more perceptive of recreation-related resource impacts that are the result of undesirable behavior and, while visitors do perceive resource impacts, visitors tend to be more affected by crowding. Factors such as local ecological knowledge and knowledge of minimal-impact practices positively influence visitor perceptions of resource impacts. These findings support the use of visitor education on ecological knowledge and minimum-impact as a means of increasing visitor awareness of recreation impact issues.

  20. Automatic change detection of buildings in urban environment from very high spatial resolution images using existing geodatabase and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouziani, Mourad; Goïta, Kalifa; He, Dong-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The updating of geodatabases (GDB) in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It may be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. Some change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geodatabase. Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to be added to the geodatabase. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2006 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The rate of good detection is 90%. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the exact contours of the buildings. It could be improved by including a shape post-analysis of detected buildings. The proposed method could be integrated into a cartographic update process or as a method for the quality assessment of a geodatabase. It could be also be used to identify illegal building work or to monitor urban growth.

  1. SU-E-J-83: Ion Imaging to Better Estimate In-Vivo Relative Stopping Powers Using X-Ray CT Prior-Knowledge Information

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, M; Collins-Fekete, C; Riboldi, M; Baroni, G; Doolan, P; Hansen, D; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To reduce uncertainties in relative stopping power (RSP) estimates for ions (alpha and carbon) by using Ion radiographic-imaging and X-ray CT prior-knowledge. Methods: A 36×36 phantom matrix composed of 9 materials with different thicknesses and randomly placed is generated. Theoretical RSPs are calculated using stopping power (SP) data from three references (Janni, ICRU49 and Bischel). We introduced an artificial systematic error (1.5%, 2.5% or 3.5%) and a random error (<0.5%) to the SP to simulated patient ion-range errors present in clinic environment. Carbon/alpha final energy for each RSPs set (theoretical and from CT images) is obtained with a ray-tracing algorithm. A gradient descent (GD) method is used to minimize the difference in exit particle energy, between theory and X-ray CT RSP maps, by iteratively correcting the RSP map from X-ray CT. Once a new set of RSPs is obtained for a direction a new optimization is done over other direction using the RSPs from the previous optimization. Theoretical RSPs are compared with experimental RSPs obtained with Gammex Phantom. Results: Preliminary results show that optimized RSP values can be obtained with smaller uncertainties (<1%) than clinical RSPs (1.5% to 3.5%). Theoretical values from three different references show uncertainties, up to 3% from experimental values. Further investigation will consider prior-knowledge from RSP obtained with CT images and ion radiographies from Monte Carlo Simulations. Conclusion: GD and ray-tracing methods have been implemented to reduce RSP uncertainties from values obtained for clinical treatment. Experimental RSPs will be obtained using carbon/alpha beams to consider the existence of material dependent systematic errors. Based on the results, it is hoped to show that using ray-tracing optimization with ion radiography and prior knowledge on RPSs, treatment planning accuracy and cost-effectiveness can be improved.

  2. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  3. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R.; Lucieer, Vanessa L.; Nichol, Scott L.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve’s IUCN zone IV, and

  4. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  5. Seniors, health information, and the Internet: motivation, ability, and Internet knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaojing; Simpson, Penny M

    2013-10-01

    Providing health information to older adults is crucial to empowering them to better control their health, and the information is readily available on the Internet. Yet, little is known about the factors that are important in affecting seniors' Internet search for health information behavior. This work addresses this research deficit by examining the role of health information orientation (HIO), eHealth literacy, and Internet knowledge (IK) in affecting the likelihood of using the Internet as a source for health information. The analysis reveals that each variable in the study is significant in affecting Internet search likelihood. Results from the analysis also demonstrate the partial mediating role of eHealth literacy and the interaction between eHealth literacy and HIO. The findings suggest that improving seniors' IK and eHealth literacy would increase their likelihood of searching for and finding health information on the Internet that might encourage better health behaviors.

  6. Self-configurable radio receiver system and method for use with signals without prior knowledge of signal defining characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Tkacenko, Andre (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, radio receiver, and system to autonomously receive and decode a plurality of signals having a variety of signal types without a priori knowledge of the defining characteristics of the signals is disclosed. The radio receiver is capable of receiving a signal of an unknown signal type and, by estimating one or more defining characteristics of the signal, determine the type of signal. The estimated defining characteristic(s) is/are utilized to enable the receiver to determine other defining characteristics. This in turn, enables the receiver, through multiple iterations, to make a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate for each of the defining characteristics. After the type of signal is determined by its defining characteristics, the receiver selects an appropriate decoder from a plurality of decoders to decode the signal.

  7. [The elderly and memory complaints. A study of self-knowledge about memory, depression and memory abilities].

    PubMed

    Ponds, R W; Bruning, H A; Jolles, J

    1992-10-01

    A group of 24 elderly persons who applied for a memory training because of memory complaints is compared with a control group of 24 healthy persons (matched for age, sex, and education). The comparison concerned several memory tests, complaints above everyday memory, depression and aspects of meta-memory. Before training, the memory training group had more complaints about everyday memory and depression compared to the control group. The training group reported more decline in memory capacity and functioning compared to their earlier days. They also reported feelings of stress and anxiety related to memory performance in daily life. Before training, the training group had more general knowledge about basic memory processes and used memory strategies more frequently. On most memory tests no differences were found. Memory complaints of elderly people may therefore not only be related to memory abilities according to tests but also to individual (negative) beliefs in memory capacity and abilities. PMID:1440759

  8. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Protein–peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein–peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein–peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock. PMID:25943545

  9. The Illogicality of Stock-Brokers: Psychological Experiments on the Effects of Prior Knowledge and Belief Biases on Logical Reasoning in Stock Trading

    PubMed Central

    Knauff, Markus; Budeck, Claudia; Wolf, Ann G.; Hamburger, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Background Explanations for the current worldwide financial crisis are primarily provided by economists and politicians. However, in the present work we focus on the psychological-cognitive factors that most likely affect the thinking of people on the economic stage and thus might also have had an effect on the progression of the crises. One of these factors might be the effect of prior beliefs on reasoning and decision-making. So far, this question has been explored only to a limited extent. Methods We report two experiments on logical reasoning competences of nineteen stock-brokers with long-lasting vocational experiences at the stock market. The premises of reasoning problems concerned stock trading and the experiments varied whether or not their conclusions—a proposition which is reached after considering the premises—agreed with the brokers' prior beliefs. Half of the problems had a conclusion that was highly plausible for stock-brokers while the other half had a highly implausible conclusion. Results The data show a strong belief bias. Stock-brokers were strongly biased by their prior knowledge. Lowest performance was found for inferences in which the problems caused a conflict between logical validity and the experts' belief. In these cases, the stock-brokers tended to make logically invalid inferences rather than give up their existing beliefs. Conclusions Our findings support the thesis that cognitive factors have an effect on the decision-making on the financial market. In the present study, stock-brokers were guided more by past experience and existing beliefs than by logical thinking and rational decision-making. They had difficulties to disengage themselves from vastly anchored thinking patterns. However, we believe, that it is wrong to accuse the brokers for their “malfunctions”, because such hard-wired cognitive principles are difficult to suppress even if the person is aware of them. PMID:20976157

  10. The effect of the deliberation process and jurors' prior legal knowledge on the sentence: the role of psychological expertise and crime scene photo.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Rémi; Bastounis, Marina

    2010-01-01

    An experiment with simulated juries (N = 198) tested the impact of the deliberation process and two extra legal variables on the determination of sentence. Participants were either social science students without prior instruction in criminal law (prior legal knowledge: low-level group) or future professional magistrates completing their final year of training (high-level group). We manipulated the presence versus absence of (i) a non-diagnostic observation of the defendant by a psychology expert and (ii) a realistic crime scene photograph. After controlling for participants' gender and age, our results show that the high-level group was both less sensitive to the manipulated variables and more severe in their sentence than low-level jurors. We observed a post-deliberation increase in pre-deliberation bias such that the non-diagnostic psychological expertise had a stronger post-deliberation impact on the sentence. Finally, an unexpected effect showed that aggressive responses during the psychological observation tended to operate as exculpatory rather than accusatory evidence. Our results are discussed on the basis of previous research and proposals for future research are made.

  11. The CCMC's national study of case manager job descriptions: an understanding of the activities, role relationships, knowledges, skills, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein A; Huber, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Defining the roles and functions of case managers is crucial in today's healthcare environment and necessary for the case management field. One way to address this issue is through the examination of case managers' job descriptions used in various healthcare organizations. The study reported herein used qualitative analysis procedures and the latent class cluster analysis method to examine a national sample of 1028 job descriptions of case managers. The study identified the activities, role relationships, knowledge, skills, and abilities of case managers working in varied settings. It also described the changes that occurred in the practice of case management, based on these job descriptions, over 5 years: from the mid-1990s until the early 2000s. One benefit of this study was a change in one eligibility criterion of the CCM credential. Another was the development of a taxonomy of case managers' roles and functions that can be used as a step toward standardization of case managers' job descriptions.

  12. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  13. SU-D-17A-01: Geometric and Dosimetric Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Reconstruction Technique Using Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a 4D-CBCT reconstruction technique both geometrically and dosimetrically Methods: A prior-knowledge guided 4DC-BCT reconstruction method named the motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) has been developed. MM-FD views each phase of the 4D-CBCT as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The deformation field is first solved by principal component analysis based motion modeling, followed by constrained free-form deformation.The 4D digital extended-cardiac- torso (XCAT) phantom was used for comprehensive evaluation. Based on a simulated 4D planning CT of a lung patient, 8 different scenarios were simulated to cover the typical on-board anatomical and respiratory variations: (1) synchronized and (2) unsynchronized motion amplitude change for body and tumor; tumor (3) shrinkage and (4) expansion; tumor average position shift in (5) superior-inferior (SI) direction, (6) anterior-posterior (AP) direction and (7) SI, AP and lateral directions altogether; and (8) tumor phase shift relative to the respiratory cycle of the body. Orthogonal-view 30° projections were simulated based on the eight patient scenarios to reconstruct on-board 4D-CBCTs. For geometric evaluation, the volume-percentage-difference (VPD) was calculated to assess the volumetric differences between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumor.For dosimetric evaluation, a gated treatment plan was designed for the prior 4D-CT. The dose distributions were calculated on the reconstructed 4D-CBCTs and the ground-truth images for comparison. The MM-FD technique was compared with MM-only and FD-only techniques. Results: The average (±s.d.) VPD values of reconstructed tumors for MM-only, FDonly and MM-FD methods were 59.16%(± 26.66%), 75.98%(± 27.21%) and 5.22%(± 2.12%), respectively. The average min/max/mean dose (normalized to prescription) of the reconstructed tumors by MM-only, FD-only, MM-FD methods and ground-truth tumors were 78.0%/122.2%/108.2%, 13%/117.7%/86%, 58

  14. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  15. Pursuing a Purpose: The Role of Career Exploration Courses and Service-Learning Internships in Recognizing and Developing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of…

  16. Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: Digging Deeper for the Contributions of Language Dominance, Linguistic Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…

  17. Implementing CLIL in Higher Education in Thailand: The Extent to Which CLIL Improves Agricultural Students' Writing Ability, Agricultural Content, and Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansri, Charinee; Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which a CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) course at university level in Thailand improves undergraduate Agricultural students' writing ability, agricultural content, and cultural knowledge. The study sample consisted of 27 students majoring in Agriculture at a public university in…

  18. Can a Short Intensive Course Affect Entrepreneurial Ability, Knowledge and Intent, or Further Entrepreneurial Study? An Assessment of the SEED Programme, Dunedin, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon; Kirkwood, Jodyanne; Clark, Gavin J.; Silvey, Stephen; Appleby, Ruth D.; Wolkenhauer, Svea Mara; Panjabi, Jayashree; Gluyas, Eva; Brain, Chelsea; Abbott, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The SEED (Student Enterprise Experience in Dunedin) programme was developed as a four-week, intensive entrepreneurial "boot camp" to provide a small group of participants with a highly experiential business course. Using pre-course and post-course surveys, the authors measured the entrepreneurial ability, knowledge and intentions of the…

  19. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  20. SU-C-204-04: Patient Specific Proton Stopping Powers Estimation by Combining Proton Radiography and Prior-Knowledge X-Ray CT Information

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, CA; Brousmiche, S; Hansen, D; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The material relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the highest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate, patient specific, RSP by combining 1) pre-treatment x-ray CT and 2) daily proton radiograph of the patient. Methods: The method is formulated as a linear least-square optimization problem (min||Ax-B||2). The parameter A represents the pathlength crossed by the proton in each material. The RSPs for the materials (water equivalent thickness (WET)/physical thickness) are denoted by x. B is the proton radiograph expressed as WET crossed. The problem is minimized using a convex-conic optimization algorithm with xiprior knowledge x-ray CT demonstrates serious potential to increase the accuracy of present RSP estimates.

  1. Joint surface reconstruction and 4D deformation estimation from sparse data and prior knowledge for marker-less Respiratory motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Berkels, Benjamin; Rumpf, Martin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge.Methods: The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner.Results: In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ±0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data—down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially.Conclusions: In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using

  2. How logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge interact in the process of solving problems about light and vision among Taiwanese secondary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Chieh

    Piagetian scholars argue that the effect of problem content, e.g., empirical knowledge, should decrease with age. Indeed, they believe that the empirical knowledge cannot affect human problem-solving after individuals approach the formal operation stage. In arguing this point, this study uses an A-AR model to address how empirical knowledge affects the problem-solving process among Taiwanese secondary students. The A-AR model is borrowed from mathematics and the symbols, A, A, and R, represent Assumption, Answering, and Reasoning, respectively. Similar to solving mathematics problems, the A-AR model problems require participants to use the given assumptions by logical reasoning in order to respond to the problems. In this situation, the effect of empirical knowledge on problem-solving is easy to detect. There are three results about human problem-solving found in this study. First, the empirical knowledge still affects human problem-solving at the formal operation stage. Not like the Piagetian scholars' assumption: the effect of empirical knowledge is decreasing with age, this study finds that the effect of empirical knowledge is S-shape. The S-shape is a result of academic training. Second, the academic training, major, shapes human problem-solving strategies. For instance, the 12th grade science students' problem-solving strategy is based on logical reasoning ability by the given assumptions and the same grade social science students' strategy is according of their empirical knowledge. Third, the interference of logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge is a predictor of the empirical knowledge effect on human problem-solving. The relation between the empirical knowledge and interference can be characterized as: the more negative interference the participants have, the more of the empirical knowledge effect they will have in the next year. This study does not agree with the Piagetian theory about human problem-solving: the effect of empirical knowledge

  3. Knowledge and luck.

    PubMed

    Turri, John; Buckwalter, Wesley; Blouw, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement that involves reaching the truth. But many factors affecting the truth are beyond our control, and reaching the truth is often partly due to luck. Which sorts of luck are compatible with knowledge? We found that knowledge attributions are highly sensitive to lucky events that change the explanation for why a belief is true. By contrast, knowledge attributions are surprisingly insensitive to lucky events that threaten, but ultimately fail to change the explanation for why a belief is true. These results shed light on our concept of knowledge, help explain apparent inconsistencies in prior work on knowledge attributions, and constitute progress toward a general understanding of the relation between success and luck.

  4. The Effect of Calculator-Based Ranger Activities on Students' Graphing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh Nam

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three issues of Calculator-based Ranger (CBR) activities on graphing abilities: (a) the effect of CBR activities on graphing abilities; (b) the extent to which prior knowledge about graphing skills affects graphing ability; and (c) the influence of instructional styles on students' graphing abilities. Indicates that CBR activities are…

  5. Prior Knowledge Base of Constellations and Bright Stars among Non-Science Majoring Undergraduates and 14-15 Year Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Eric G.; Hintz, Maureen L.; Lawler, M. Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve students' knowledge of constellations and bright stars in an introductory level descriptive astronomy survey course, we measured the baseline knowledge that students bring to the class and how their score evolve over the course of the semester. This baseline is needed by the broader astronomy education research…

  6. The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after

  7. Does EFL Readers' Lexical and Grammatical Knowledge Predict Their Reading Ability? Insights from a Perceptron Artificial Neural Network Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Baghaei, Purya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between reading comprehension and lexical and grammatical knowledge among English as a foreign language students by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). There were 825 test takers administered both a second-language reading test and a set of psychometrically validated grammar and vocabulary tests.…

  8. A Needs Assessment to Determine Knowledge and Ability of Egyptian Agricultural Technical School Teachers Related to Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby; Roberts, T. Grady; Samy, M. M.; Thoron, Andrew C.; Easterly, R. G., III

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted approximately one year after Egyptian Agricultural Technical School (ATS) instructors attended workshops on integrating placement Supervised Agricultural Experience as an instructional tool in their programs. Following a year of implementation, the purpose of this study was to determine ATS teacher knowledge and ability…

  9. The Practical Side of Culinary Arts Education: The Role of Social Ability and Durable Knowledge in Culinary Arts Externships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeaux, William Raymond

    2012-01-01

    As externships evolved from their vocational education roots into the university setting, both the course purposes and the expectations of student changed toward deeper learning. While the students' responsibility for gaining knowledge has increased, teaching methods designed by educators to prepare students for more critically evaluated…

  10. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  11. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  12. Investigating the effects of structured and guided inquiry on students' development of conceptual knowledge and inquiry abilities: a case study in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Wen-Hua; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-08-01

    In order to promote scientific inquiry in secondary schooling in Taiwan, the study developed a computer-based inquiry curriculum (including structured and guided inquiry units) and investigated how the curriculum influenced students' science learning. The curriculum was implemented in 5 junior secondary schools in the context of a weeklong summer science course with 117 students. We first used a multi-level assessment approach to evaluate the students' learning outcomes with the curriculum. Then, a path analysis approach was adopted for investigating at different assessment levels how the curriculum as a whole and how different types of inquiry units affected the students' development of conceptual understandings and inquiry abilities. The results showed that the curriculum was effective in enhancing the students' conceptual knowledge and inquiry abilities in the contexts of the six scientific topics. After the curriculum, they were able to construct interconnected scientific knowledge. The path diagrams suggested that, due to different instructional designs, the structured and guided inquiry units appeared to support the students' learning of the topics in different ways. More importantly, they demonstrated graphically how the learning of content knowledge and inquiry ability mutually influenced one another and were reciprocally developed in a computer-based inquiry learning environment.

  13. Non-Bayesian noun generalization in 3- to 5-year-old children: probing the role of prior knowledge in the suspicious coincidence effect.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gavin W; Samuelson, Larissa K; Smith, Jodi R; Spencer, John P

    2015-03-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as "Labrador," "dog," and "animal." Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model-that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate exemplars. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate exemplars, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model, including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend.

  14. Articulating Knowledge, How Adults Learn and the Role of the Prior Learning Assessment Professional. Proceedings of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning (Princeton, New Jersey, June 13-16, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagavarian, Debra A., Ed.

    This publication highlights three topics from the 1992 National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. "Computer Conferencing at the National Institute: The Articulation of Knowledge and Writing Ability in the Assessment of Experiential Learning" (Evelyn F. Spradley) discusses the electronic conference held concurrently with the…

  15. Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Bowen; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Chang, Daniel; Cheng, Jason; Li, Ruijiang

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid

  16. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  17. Integration of New Domain-Related States and Events from Texts and Illustrations by Subjects with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Gaelle; Tapiero, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate with high and low knowledge subjects in the scientific domain of the neuron, the way information should be presented and illustrated to promote the integration of new information. This fundamental process for learning was examined in two experiments using a primed recognition task. In the first study, the…

  18. Non-Bayesian noun generalization in 3- to 5-year-old children: Probing the role of prior knowledge in the suspicious coincidence effect

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as “Labrador,” “dog,” and “animal.” Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model—that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate examples. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate examples, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend. PMID:24961497

  19. Effects of Diabetic Case Management on Knowledge, Self-Management Abilities, Health Behaviors, and Health Service Utilization for Diabetes in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soon Ae; Lee, Kunsei; Lin, Vivian; Liu, George; Shin, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a case management program for diabetics, using a pre-post comparison design. Materials and Methods The study population comprised 6007 diabetics who received case management intervention in 2006 and were sampled nationwide in Korea. Before and after the intervention, the study population answered questions regarding their knowledge of diabetes, self-management ability, and health behaviors. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Healthcare service utilization for diabetes was extracted from health insurance claim data from 2005 to 2007. Results The case management program significantly improved the study population's knowledge of diabetes and ability to self-manage nutrition, blood glucose monitoring, foot and oral care, and medications. This program also significantly changed the study population's health behaviors regarding smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise, and BMI was positively affected. In the over-serviced subgroup, there was a significant decrease in the number of consultations (mean=7.0; SD=19.5) after intervention. Conversely, in the under-serviced subgroup, there was a significant increase in the number of consultations (mean=3.2; SD=7.9) and the days of prescribed medication (mean=66.4; SD=120.3) after intervention. Conclusion This study showed that the case management program led the study population to improve their knowledge, self-management ability, health behaviors, and utilization of health care. It is necessary in future studies to evaluate the appropriateness of healthcare usage and clinical outcome by using a control group to determine the direct effectiveness of this case management program. PMID:25510771

  20. An analysis of the changes in ability and knowledge of students taking A-level physics and mathematics over a 35 year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-03-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming students to answer these questions declined significantly in the 1990s with average scores falling from around 75% up to 1990 to below 50% after 2000 against a background of increasing A-level grades of the entrants to the programme. It is suggested that changes in teaching and examination methods have caused students to be less able to carry out multi-stage calculations and that the introduction of modular examinations may have encouraged a culture where students tend to forget material learnt in previous modules.

  1. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  2. Examining the effects of technology-enhanced, inquiry-based laboratories on graphing skills, content knowledge, science reasoning ability and attitudes of community college chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantley, Scott Jackson

    This study investigated the effects of inquiry-based technology-enhanced, laboratories with the use of Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) activities on graphing skills, content knowledge, science reasoning skills, and attitudes of introductory general chemistry community college students. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest comparison and treatment group design. The treatment group received a MBL technology. Inquiry-based laboratory activities were used for each. Four major research questions were explored in my study. The following instruments were used: the Modified Lawson Test of Scientific Reasoning; the Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS); the modified laboratory instrument ("Behavior of Gases" and "Lights, Color and Absorption" with accompanies content questions, validated by a panel of chemists, as well as an attitude survey. Mean scores from the Lawson, TOGS, Behavior of Gases and Lights, Color and Absorption labs, content knowledge questions were analyzed using t-tests to determine if a statistical significance exists between their mean scores. Basic statistics were used to analyze the attitude survey. The results from the Lawson revealed that students' mean score performance were not statistically significant between treatment and comparison groups. The t-test results indicated that each group had similar reasoning ability. The TOGS t-test results revealed that the mean scores were not statistically significant between each group. The results suggest that each group had similar graphing abilities. However, significant differences in the mean scores were found on their performance for the "Behavior of Gases" and "Lights, Color and Absorption" laboratories. Conducting a follow-up assessment of content knowledge for Behavior of Gases and Lights, Color and Absorption, revealed that no statistically significant difference exists on their mean scores, suggesting that though treatment students' performance was improved in the laboratory by

  3. Prior Knowledge of Rules in Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, Charles J.

    This paper briefly reviews the literature concerning the Paiget-Burner debate over the roles of identify and reversibility rules in conservation acquisition, and describes an experiment designed to determine whether one group of rules is more closely related to conservation than the other. A group of children, aged 4-6 years, received tests of…

  4. Detecting wave function collapse without prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Charles Wesley; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-08-01

    We are concerned with the problem of detecting with high probability whether a wave function has collapsed or not, in the following framework: A quantum system with a d-dimensional Hilbert space is initially in state ψ; with probability 0 < p < 1, the state collapses relative to the orthonormal basis b1, …, bd. That is, the final state ψ' is random, it is ψ with probability 1 - p and bk (up to a phase) with p times Born's probability || ψ 2 . Now an experiment on the system in state ψ' is desired that provides information about whether or not a collapse has occurred. Elsewhere [C. W. Cowan and R. Tumulka, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 195303 (2014)], we identify and discuss the optimal experiment in case that ψ is either known or random with a known probability distribution. Here, we present results about the case that no a priori information about ψ is available, while we regard p and b1, …, bd as known. For certain values of p, we show that the set of ψs for which any experiment E is more reliable than blind guessing is at most half the unit sphere; thus, in this regime, any experiment is of questionable use, if any at all. Remarkably, however, there are other values of p and experiments E such that the set of ψs for which E is more reliable than blind guessing has measure greater than half the sphere, though with a conjectured maximum of 64% of the sphere.

  5. Fighting Prior Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John

    1990-01-01

    Reviews arguments for and against prior administrative review and censorship of student expression. Suggests that prior review strips any pretense of democracy from many American educational institutions. Argues that prior review is journalistically inappropriate, educationally unsound, and practically illogical. (KEH)

  6. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  7. Epistemological Beliefs of Prospective Preschool Teachers and Their Relation to Knowledge, Perception, and Planning Abilities in the Field of Mathematics: A Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…

  8. Creating Connections: Using the Internet to Support Struggling Readers' Background Knowledge. Issues in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Rachel A.

    2004-01-01

    Background knowledge plays an important role in one?s ability to learn. We learn new knowledge by relating it to our prior knowledge, which in turn provides concrete understanding (Piaget, 1969). Rosenblatt (1996) explained, "The reader brings to the work personality traits, memories of past events, present needs and preoccupations, a…

  9. Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…

  10. The Effects of a Socioscientific Issues Instructional Model in Secondary Agricultural Education on Students' Content Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning Ability, Argumentation Skills, and Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to…

  11. An Analysis of Knowledge Structure, Diversity and Diagnostic Abilities among Pre-Service Science Teachers within the Domain of Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Avery, Leanne; Golden, Constance Feldt; French, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of preservice science teachers' knowledge structures in the domain of oxidation and reduction chemistry. Knowledge structures were elicited through video-recorded semi-structured interviews before and after the unit of instruction, and analyzed using a visual flow map representation.…

  12. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  13. Do Children with Social Communication Disorder Have Explicit Knowledge of Pragmatic Rules They Break? A Comparison of Conversational Pragmatic Ability and Metapragmatic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine; Collins, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children who have social communication disorder (CwSCD) demonstrate persistent difficulties with language pragmatics in conversations and other verbal interactions. Speech-language interventions for these children often include promotion of metapragmatic awareness (MPA); that is, the ability to identify explicitly and reflect upon…

  14. Python Environment for Bayesian Learning: Inferring the Structure of Bayesian Networks from Knowledge and Data.

    PubMed

    Shah, Abhik; Woolf, Peter

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce pebl, a Python library and application for learning Bayesian network structure from data and prior knowledge that provides features unmatched by alternative software packages: the ability to use interventional data, flexible specification of structural priors, modeling with hidden variables and exploitation of parallel processing. PMID:20161541

  15. Effects of Mathematics Content Knowledge on Pre-School Teachers' Performance: A Video-Based Assessment of Perception and Planning Abilities in Informal Learning Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…

  16. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia.

  17. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  18. Assessment of knowledge transfer in the context of biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Randolph E.

    The dynamic act of knowledge transfer, or the connection of a student's prior knowledge to features of a new problem, could be considered one of the primary goals of education. Yet studies highlight more instances of failure than success. This dissertation focuses on how knowledge transfer takes place during individual problem solving, in classroom settings and during group work. Through the lens of dynamic transfer, or how students connect prior knowledge to problem features, this qualitative study focuses on a methodology to assess transfer in the context of biomechanics. The first phase of this work investigates how a pedagogical technique based on situated cognition theory affects students' ability to transfer knowledge gained in a biomechanics class to later experiences both in and out of the classroom. A post-class focus group examined events the students remembered from the class, what they learned from them, and how they connected them to later relevant experiences inside and outside the classroom. These results were triangulated with conceptual gains evaluated through concept inventories and pre- and post- content tests. Based on these results, the next two phases of the project take a more in-depth look at dynamic knowledge transfer during independent problem-solving and group project interactions, respectively. By categorizing prior knowledge (Source Tools), problem features (Target Tools) and the connections between them, results from the second phase of this study showed that within individual problem solving, source tools were almost exclusively derived from "propagated sources," i.e. those based on an authoritative source. This differs from findings in the third phase of the project, in which a mixture of "propagated" sources and "fabricated" sources, i.e. those based on student experiences, were identified within the group project work. This methodology is effective at assessing knowledge transfer in the context of biomechanics through evidence of

  19. Variable selection for discriminant analysis with Markov random field priors for the analysis of microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Stingo, Francesco C.; Vannucci, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Discriminant analysis is an effective tool for the classification of experimental units into groups. Here, we consider the typical problem of classifying subjects according to phenotypes via gene expression data and propose a method that incorporates variable selection into the inferential procedure, for the identification of the important biomarkers. To achieve this goal, we build upon a conjugate normal discriminant model, both linear and quadratic, and include a stochastic search variable selection procedure via an MCMC algorithm. Furthermore, we incorporate into the model prior information on the relationships among the genes as described by a gene–gene network. We use a Markov random field (MRF) prior to map the network connections among genes. Our prior model assumes that neighboring genes in the network are more likely to have a joint effect on the relevant biological processes. Results: We use simulated data to assess performances of our method. In particular, we compare the MRF prior to a situation where independent Bernoulli priors are chosen for the individual predictors. We also illustrate the method on benchmark datasets for gene expression. Our simulation studies show that employing the MRF prior improves on selection accuracy. In real data applications, in addition to identifying markers and improving prediction accuracy, we show how the integration of existing biological knowledge into the prior model results in an increased ability to identify genes with strong discriminatory power and also aids the interpretation of the results. Contact: marina@rice.edu PMID:21159623

  20. Implicit and explicit prior information in near-infrared spectral imaging: accuracy, quantification and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Leblond, Frederic; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of tissue provides quantification of absorbers, scattering and luminescent agents in bulk tissue through the use of measurement data and assumptions. Prior knowledge can be critical about things such as (i) the tissue shape and/or structure, (ii) spectral constituents, (iii) limits on parameters, (iv) demographic or biomarker data, and (v) biophysical models of the temporal signal shapes. A general framework of NIRS imaging with prior information is presented, showing that prior information datasets could be incorporated at any step in the NIRS process, with the general workflow being: (i) data acquisition, (ii) pre-processing, (iii) forward model, (iv) inversion/reconstruction, (v) post-processing, and (vi) interpretation/diagnosis. Most of the development in NIRS has used ad hoc or empirical implementations of prior information such as pre-measured absorber or fluorophore spectra, or tissue shapes as estimated by additional imaging tools. A comprehensive analysis would examine what prior information maximizes the accuracy in recovery and value for medical diagnosis, when implemented at separate stages of the NIRS sequence. Individual applications of prior information can show increases in accuracy or improved ability to estimate biochemical features of tissue, while other approaches may not. Most beneficial inclusion of prior information has been in the inversion/reconstruction process, because it solves the mathematical intractability. However, it is not clear that this is always the most beneficial stage. PMID:22006905

  1. Recognition of Prior Learning: The Participants' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.

    2016-01-01

    The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…

  2. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  3. Headaches prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, L. L.

    1988-06-01

    In two surveys of headaches it was noted that their incidence had increased significantly within 48 h prior to earthquakes from an incidence of 17% to 58% in the first survey using correlated samples and from 20.4% to 44% in the second survey using independent samples. It is suggested that an increase in positive air ions from rock compression may trigger head pain via a decrease in brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The findings are presented as preliminary, with the hope of generating further research efforts in areas more prone to earthquakes.

  4. Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…

  5. Unconsciously elicited perceptual prior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Raymond; Baria, Alexis T.; Flounders, Matthew W.; He, Biyu J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence over the past decade suggests that vision is not simply a passive, feed-forward process in which cortical areas relay progressively more abstract information to those higher up in the visual hierarchy, but rather an inferential process with top-down processes actively guiding and shaping perception. However, one major question that persists is whether such processes can be influenced by unconsciously perceived stimuli. Recent psychophysics and neuroimaging studies have revealed that while consciously perceived stimuli elicit stronger responses in higher visual and frontoparietal areas than those that fail to reach conscious awareness, the latter can still drive high-level brain and behavioral responses. We investigated whether unconscious processing of a masked natural image could facilitate subsequent conscious recognition of its degraded counterpart (a black-and-white “Mooney” image) presented many seconds later. We found that this is indeed the case, suggesting that conscious vision may be influenced by priors established by unconscious processing of a fleeting image. PMID:27595010

  6. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  7. Prior Knowledge, Prior Conceptions, Prior Constructs: What Do Constructivists Really Mean, and Are They Practising What They Preach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geelan, David R.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the teaching/learning/research process should be rethought of as a collaborative social learning for constructivism to be meaningful in science education. Includes perspectives on George Kelly's personal construct psychology and Glaserfeld's radical constructivism. (AIM)

  8. Object affordances tune observers' prior expectations about tool-use behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M; Tessari, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Learning about the function and use of tools through observation requires the ability to exploit one's own knowledge derived from past experience. It also depends on the detection of low-level local cues that are rooted in the tool's perceptual properties. Best known as 'affordances', these cues generate biomechanical priors that constrain the number of possible motor acts that are likely to be performed on tools. The contribution of these biomechanical priors to the learning of tool-use behaviors is well supported. However, it is not yet clear if, and how, affordances interact with higher-order expectations that are generated from past experience--i.e. probabilistic exposure--to enable observational learning of tool use. To address this question we designed an action observation task in which participants were required to infer, under various conditions of visual uncertainty, the intentions of a demonstrator performing tool-use behaviors. Both the probability of observing the demonstrator achieving a particular tool function and the biomechanical optimality of the observed movement were varied. We demonstrate that biomechanical priors modulate the extent to which participants' predictions are influenced by probabilistically-induced prior expectations. Biomechanical and probabilistic priors have a cumulative effect when they 'converge' (in the case of a probabilistic bias assigned to optimal behaviors), or a mutually inhibitory effect when they actively 'diverge' (in the case of probabilistic bias assigned to suboptimal behaviors).

  9. 76 FR 62388 - Notice of Public Hearing and Request for Comments on the Study of Prior User Rights

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., between prior user rights and start-up enterprises as well as the ability to attract venture capital to... prior user rights and start-up enterprises and the ability to attract venture capital to start...

  10. What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…

  11. Second Language Idiom Learning: The Effects of Lexical Knowledge and Pedagogical Sequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of Spanish idioms in a classroom setting that was supplemented with explicit instruction over a 10-week period. The research design manipulated two variables: prior lexical knowledge and idiom organization. Sixty-five second language (L2) learners completed pre- and posttests that measured their ability to…

  12. Color correction of smartphone photos with prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Yonghui; Wang, Shen-ge

    2012-03-01

    Human visual system has the property of perceiving the object color to remain constant regardless of the prevailing illumination. However, digital cameras usually lack this capability, and the captured images are digitally corrected to discount the color of the scene light based on the estimated illuminant. Illumination estimation might be erroneous in some artificial or chromatic lighting conditions. A method was proposed to correct digital photos captured with a smartphone camera using the smartphone owner's face as the reference. Taking the advantage of the latest smartphones with two build-in cameras, we could use the front camera to capture the smartphone owner's face and compare with the saved reference face image in order to estimate the scene illuminant. After that, we could properly adjust the capture setting for the main camera in order to take a decent target image; or we could automatically correct the target image based on the estimated illumination by comparing two face images. The method was implemented on the iOS mobile platform. Experimental result shows that the adjusted images using the proposed method are generally more favorable than the pictures taken directly by the default camera application.

  13. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  14. Prior Knowledge of Mechanics amongst First Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Dick

    2007-01-01

    In the last 25 years, A-level Mathematics syllabi have changed very considerably, introducing a broader range of application areas but reducing the previous emphasis on classical mechanics. This article describes a baseline survey undertaken to establish in detail the entry levels in mechanics for the cohort of students entering Engineering…

  15. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  16. Another Look at Mother Goose: Prior Knowledge or Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Lenore

    Arguing that Mother Goose is becoming an endangered species, this paper reports on the results of an informal survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in a children's literature course. The survey results reported in the paper indicated that some students were able to complete a cloze-type Mother Goose couplet, but others audibly…

  17. Tuning Your Priors to the World

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of “tuning the prior”—widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of “ecological” tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an “ideal observer.” But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment—which there almost always is—an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors. PMID:23335572

  18. Marginally specified priors for non-parametric Bayesian estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, David C.; Hoff, Peter D.; Dunson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Prior specification for non-parametric Bayesian inference involves the difficult task of quantifying prior knowledge about a parameter of high, often infinite, dimension. A statistician is unlikely to have informed opinions about all aspects of such a parameter but will have real information about functionals of the parameter, such as the population mean or variance. The paper proposes a new framework for non-parametric Bayes inference in which the prior distribution for a possibly infinite dimensional parameter is decomposed into two parts: an informative prior on a finite set of functionals, and a non-parametric conditional prior for the parameter given the functionals. Such priors can be easily constructed from standard non-parametric prior distributions in common use and inherit the large support of the standard priors on which they are based. Additionally, posterior approximations under these informative priors can generally be made via minor adjustments to existing Markov chain approximation algorithms for standard non-parametric prior distributions. We illustrate the use of such priors in the context of multivariate density estimation using Dirichlet process mixture models, and in the modelling of high dimensional sparse contingency tables. PMID:25663813

  19. The Necessity of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, M. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of artificial intelligence, focusing on three interrelated issues: (1) representation of knowledge, which is roughly the machine equivalent of human memory; (2) control and use of knowledge, which corresponds to human abilities in problem solving and planning; and (3) the acquisition of knowledge, or what humans call…

  20. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    PubMed

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing.

  1. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  2. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns.

    PubMed

    Kumkale, G Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J

    2010-06-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed.

  3. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  4. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  5. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... anniversary throughout 2016... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 5 days ago AgrAbility's ...

  6. Components of Visual Prior Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Keith A.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2003-01-01

    The prior entry hypothesis contends that attention accelerates sensory processing, shortening the time to perception. Typical observations supporting the hypothesis may be explained equally well by response biases, changes in decision criteria, or sensory facilitation. In a series of experiments conducted to discriminate among the potential…

  7. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  8. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  9. Essays on Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  10. Predicting a prior for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The quantum state of the universe combined with the structure of the landscape potential implies a prior that specifies predictions for observations. We compute the prior for CMB related observables given by the no-boundary wave function (NBWF) in a landscape model that includes a range of inflationary patches representative of relatively simple single-field models. In this landscape the NBWF predicts our classical cosmological background emerges from a region of eternal inflation associated with a plateau-like potential. The spectra of primordial fluctuations on observable scales are characteristic of concave potentials, in excellent agreement with the Planck data. By contrast, alternative theories of initial conditions that strongly favor inflation at high values of the potential are disfavored by observations in this landscape.

  11. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  12. Knowledge Structures of Entering Computer Networking Students and Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students bring prior knowledge to their learning experiences. This prior knowledge is known to affect how students encode and later retrieve new information learned. Teachers and content developers can use information about students' prior knowledge to create more effective lessons and materials. In many content areas, particularly the sciences,…

  13. Improving semantic scene understanding using prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laddha, Ankit; Hebert, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Perception for ground robot mobility requires automatic generation of descriptions of the robot's surroundings from sensor input (cameras, LADARs, etc.). Effective techniques for scene understanding have been developed, but they are generally purely bottom-up in that they rely entirely on classifying features from the input data based on learned models. In fact, perception systems for ground robots have a lot of information at their disposal from knowledge about the domain and the task. For example, a robot in urban environments might have access to approximate maps that can guide the scene interpretation process. In this paper, we explore practical ways to combine such prior information with state of the art scene understanding approaches.

  14. On the Scientific Basis of Ability Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Horn, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that despite aberrations, false starts, misapplications, and unfortunate crystallizations of methods and interpretations, the differential psychology of cognitive abilities is an important part of psychological knowledge about human beings. (Author/GC)

  15. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Heußer, Thorsten Brehm, Marcus; Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data.

  16. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  17. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  18. Visualizing topography: Effects of presentation strategy, gender, and spatial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Carla

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different presentation strategies (2-D static visuals, 3-D animated visuals, and 3-D interactive, animated visuals) and gender on achievement, time-spent-on visual treatment, and attitude during a computer-based science lesson about reading and interpreting topographic maps. The study also examined the relationship of spatial ability and prior knowledge to gender, achievement, and time-spent-on visual treatment. Students enrolled in high school chemistry-physics were pretested and given two spatial ability tests. They were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to one of three levels of presentation strategy or the control group. After controlling for the effects of spatial ability and prior knowledge with analysis of covariance, three significant differences were found between the versions: (a) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; (b) the 3-D animated treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; and (c) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the 3-D interactive animated treatment group. Furthermore, the 3-D interactive animated treatment group spent significantly more time on the visual screens than the 2-D static treatment group. Analyses of student attitudes revealed that most students felt the landform visuals in the computer-based program helped them learn, but not in a way they would describe as fun. Significant differences in attitude were found by treatment and by gender. In contrast to findings from other studies, no gender differences were found on either of the two spatial tests given in this study. Cognitive load, cognitive involvement, and solution strategy are offered as three key factors that may help explain the results of this study. Implications for instructional design include suggestions about the use of 2-D static, 3-D animated and 3-D interactive animations as well

  19. Integrating Informative Priors from Experimental Research with Bayesian Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan; Richardson, David; MacLehose, Richard; Wing, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Informative priors can be a useful tool for epidemiologists to handle problems of sparse data in regression modeling. It is sometimes the case that an investigator is studying a population exposed to two agents, X and Y, where Y is the agent of primary interest. Previous research may suggest that the exposures have different effects on the health outcome of interest, one being more harmful than the other. Such information may be derived from epidemiologic analyses; however, in the case where such evidence is unavailable, knowledge can be drawn from toxicologic studies or other experimental research. Unfortunately, using toxicologic findings to develop informative priors in epidemiologic analyses requires strong assumptions, with no established method for its utilization. We present a method to help bridge the gap between animal and cellular studies and epidemiologic research by specification of an order-constrained prior. We illustrate this approach using an example from radiation epidemiology. PMID:23222512

  20. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  1. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  2. Recognition of Prior Vocational Learning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas; Ahn, Song-Ee

    2004-01-01

    Initiatives in the recognition of prior learning (RPL) have been taken in Sweden in recent years, mainly focusing on prior vocational learning among immigrants. The government started different projects to find methods for recognising a person's prior learning in the field of vocational competence. This article presents a study of how these…

  3. Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup: 2014 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2011 required the Washington Student Achievement Council (WSAC) to convene a Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup. The workgroup was tasked with coordinating and implementing seven goals, described in statute, to promote the award of college credit for prior learning. Awarding college credit for prior learning increases access…

  4. Assessing Prior Learning--A CAEL Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Joan

    A model for assessing and awarding credit for prior experiential learning is presented; the adult student's experiences are summarized in a portfolio. The model incorporates eight stages: facilitating the construction and assessment of a portfolio, identifying significant prior experiences, expressing the learning outcomes of prior experiences,…

  5. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD INGREDIENTS General Provisions § 181.5 Prior sanctions. (a) A prior sanction shall exist only for... food additive or GRAS regulation promulgated after a general evaluation of use of an ingredient... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food...

  6. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS General Provisions § 181.5 Prior sanctions. (a) A... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food...

  7. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS General Provisions § 181.5 Prior sanctions. (a) A... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS General Provisions § 181.5 Prior sanctions. (a) A... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS General Provisions § 181.5 Prior sanctions. (a) A... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food...

  10. Expectation prior to human papilloma virus vaccination: 11 to 12-Year-old girls' written narratives.

    PubMed

    Forsner, M; Nilsson, S; Finnström, B; Mörelius, E

    2016-09-01

    Expectations prior to needle-related procedures can influence individuals' decision making and compliance with immunization programmes. To protect from human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, the immunization needs to be given before sexual debut raising interest for this study's aim to investigate how 11 to 12-year-old girls narrate about their expectations prior to HPV vaccination. A total of 27 girls aged 11 to 12 years participated in this qualitative narrative study by writing short narratives describing their expectations. The requirement for inclusion was to have accepted HPV vaccination. Data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Findings showed the following expectations: going to hurt, going to be scared and going to turn out fine. The expectations were based on the girls' previous experiences, knowledge and self-image. The latent content revealed that the girls tried to transform uneasiness to confidence. The conclusion drawn from this study is that most girls of this age seem confident about their ability to cope with possible unpleasantness related to vaccinations. However, nurses need to find strategies to help those children who feel uneasy about needle-related procedures. PMID:26311482

  11. Using Dirichlet Priors to Improve Model Parameter Plausibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Dovan; Gong, Yue; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Student modeling is a widely used approach to make inference about a student's attributes like knowledge, learning, etc. If we wish to use these models to analyze and better understand student learning there are two problems. First, a model's ability to predict student performance is at best weakly related to the accuracy of any one of its…

  12. Measuring Knowledge Elaboration Based on a Computer-Assisted Knowledge Map Analytical Approach to Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Huang, Ronghuai; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the level of knowledge elaboration and explore the relationships between prior knowledge of a group, group performance, and knowledge elaboration in collaborative learning. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the level of knowledge elaboration. The collaborative learning objective in…

  13. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students’ cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  14. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students' cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  15. Frames of Reference for the Light-from-Above Prior in Visual Search and Shape Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wendy J.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with highly complex and ambiguous visual input, human observers must rely on prior knowledge and assumptions to efficiently determine the structure of their surroundings. One of these assumptions is the "light-from-above" prior. In the absence of explicit light-source information, the visual system assumes that the light-source is roughly…

  16. The power prior: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-12-10

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A-to-Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Frequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established, and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials.

  17. The power prior: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-12-10

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A-to-Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Frequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established, and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials. PMID:26346180

  18. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  19. First People, Firsthand Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    We are infatuated with our abilities to predict and analyze, yet we need to listen and observe, behaviors that made Native Americans wise environmental managers. European Americans, who are new to this hemisphere, and indigenous people must forge a world view that synthesizes Western science and traditional environmental knowledge in order to…

  20. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, S; Tan, T; Walsh, A; Carey, M

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  1. Balancing the Role of Priors in Multi-Observer Segmentation Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaoyao; Huang, Xiaolei; Wang, Wei; Lopresti, Daniel; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Xue, Zhiyun; Thoma, George

    2008-05-28

    Comparison of a group of multiple observer segmentations is known to be a challenging problem. A good segmentation evaluation method would allow different segmentations not only to be compared, but to be combined to generate a "true" segmentation with higher consensus. Numerous multi-observer segmentation evaluation approaches have been proposed in the literature, and STAPLE in particular probabilistically estimates the true segmentation by optimal combination of observed segmentations and a prior model of the truth. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, STAPLE'S convergence to the desired local minima depends on good initializations for the truth prior and the observer-performance prior. However, accurate modeling of the initial truth prior is nontrivial. Moreover, among the two priors, the truth prior always dominates so that in certain scenarios when meaningful observer-performance priors are available, STAPLE can not take advantage of that information. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian decision formulation of the problem that permits the two types of prior knowledge to be integrated in a complementary manner in four cases with differing application purposes: (1) with known truth prior; (2) with observer prior; (3) with neither truth prior nor observer prior; and (4) with both truth prior and observer prior. The third and fourth cases are not discussed (or effectively ignored) by STAPLE, and in our research we propose a new method to combine multiple-observer segmentations based on the maximum a posterior (MAP) principle, which respects the observer prior regardless of the availability of the truth prior. Based on the four scenarios, we have developed a web-based software application that implements the flexible segmentation evaluation framework for digitized uterine cervix images. Experiment results show that our framework has flexibility in effectively integrating different priors for multi-observer segmentation evaluation and it also generates

  2. Investigating the ability of multiparametric MRI to exclude significant prostate cancer prior to transperineal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Eva M.; Barrett, Tristan; Wadhwa, Karan; Parashar, Deepak; Frey, Julia; Koo, Brendan C.; Warren, Anne Y.; Doble, Andrew; Kastner, Christof; Gallagher, Ferdia A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We characterized false negative prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporting by using histology derived from MRI-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided transperineal (MTTP) fusion biopsies. Methods: In total, 148 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. Men underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI), reported by a consultant/attending radiologist in line with European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) standards. MTTP biopsy of the lesions was performed according to the Ginsburg recommendations. Cases with an MRI-histology mismatch were identified and underwent a second read by an experienced radiologist. A third review was performed with direct histology comparison to determine a true miss from an MRI-occult cancer. Statistical analysis was performed with McNemar’s test. Results: False negative lesions were identified in 29 MRI examinations (19.6%), with a total of 46 lesions. Most false negative lesions (21/46) were located in the anterior sectors of the prostate. The second read led to a significant decrease of false-negative lesions with 7/29 further studies identified as positive on a patient-by-patient basis (24.1% of studies, p = 0.016) and 11/46 lesions (23.9%; p = 0.001). Of these, 30 lesions following the first read and 23 lesions after the second read were considered significant cancer according to the University College London criteria. However, on direct comparison with histology, most lesions were MRI occult. Conclusion: We demonstrate that MRI can fail to detect clinically relevant lesions. Improved results were achieved with a second read but despite this, a number of lesions remain MRI-occult. Further advances in imaging are required to reduce false negative results. PMID:26788234

  3. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  4. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  5. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  6. Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates and Choice of Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency…

  7. Middle School Students' Knowledge of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jonathan M.; Barger, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Authors examined 1,015 middle school students' knowledge of autism using a single item of prior awareness and a 10-item Knowledge of Autism (KOA) scale. The KOA scale was designed to assess students' knowledge of the course, etiology, and symptoms associated with autism. Less than half of students (46.1%) reported having heard of autism; however,…

  8. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  9. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  10. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  11. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  12. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  13. Prior schemata transfer as an account for assessing the intuitive use of new technology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sandrine; Itoh, Makoto; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    New devices are considered intuitive when they allow users to transfer prior knowledge. Drawing upon fundamental psychology experiments that distinguish prior knowledge transfer from new schema induction, a procedure was specified for assessing intuitive use. This procedure was tested with 31 participants who, prior to using an on-board computer prototype, studied its screenshots in reading vs. schema induction conditions. Distinct patterns of transfer or induction resulted for features of the prototype whose functions were familiar or unfamiliar, respectively. Though moderated by participants' cognitive style, these findings demonstrated a means for quantitatively assessing transfer of prior knowledge as the operation that underlies intuitive use. Implications for interface evaluation and design, as well as potential improvements to the procedure, are discussed.

  14. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Ala, Maureen; Gruidl, Jeremiah; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  15. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  16. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  17. Prior Computer Experience and Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in…

  18. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  19. Reference analysis of the signal + background model in counting experiments II. Approximate reference prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, D.

    2014-10-01

    The objective Bayesian treatment of a model representing two independent Poisson processes, labelled as ``signal'' and ``background'' and both contributing additively to the total number of counted events, is considered. It is shown that the reference prior for the parameter of interest (the signal intensity) can be well approximated by the widely (ab)used flat prior only when the expected background is very high. On the other hand, a very simple approximation (the limiting form of the reference prior for perfect prior background knowledge) can be safely used over a large portion of the background parameters space. The resulting approximate reference posterior is a Gamma density whose parameters are related to the observed counts. This limiting form is simpler than the result obtained with a flat prior, with the additional advantage of representing a much closer approximation to the reference posterior in all cases. Hence such limiting prior should be considered a better default or conventional prior than the uniform prior. On the computing side, it is shown that a 2-parameter fitting function is able to reproduce extremely well the reference prior for any background prior. Thus, it can be useful in applications requiring the evaluation of the reference prior for a very large number of times.

  20. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  1. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  2. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2015-12-21

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  3. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  4. Informative prior distributions for ELISA analyses.

    PubMed

    Klauenberg, Katy; Walzel, Monika; Ebert, Bernd; Elster, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Immunoassays are capable of measuring very small concentrations of substances in solutions and have an immense range of application. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in particular can detect the presence of an infection, of drugs, or hormones (as in the home pregnancy test). Inference of an unknown concentration via ELISA usually involves a non-linear heteroscedastic regression and subsequent prediction, which can be carried out in a Bayesian framework. For such a Bayesian inference, we are developing informative prior distributions based on extensive historical ELISA tests as well as theoretical considerations. One consideration regards the quality of the immunoassay leading to two practical requirements for the applicability of the priors. Simulations show that the additional prior information can lead to inferences which are robust to reasonable perturbations of the model and changes in the design of the data. On real data, the applicability is demonstrated across different laboratories, for different analytes and laboratory equipment as well as for previous and current ELISAs with sigmoid regression function. Consistency checks on real data (similar to cross-validation) underpin the adequacy of the suggested priors. Altogether, the new priors may improve concentration estimation for ELISAs that fulfill certain design conditions, by extending the range of the analyses, decreasing the uncertainty, or giving more robust estimates. Future use of these priors is straightforward because explicit, closed-form expressions are provided. This work encourages development and application of informative, yet general, prior distributions for other types of immunoassays.

  5. Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  6. Knowledge Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David

    2004-01-01

    The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

  7. Test your troubleshooting knowledge.

    PubMed

    Snyder, E

    2001-01-01

    While troubleshooting and repairing medical instrumentation may be all that BMETs would like to do, it's just too limited in scope to perform the job effectively. Flattened organizations can require greater responsibility for BMETs--and lead to greater ambiguity. Besides electronic troubleshooting skills, mechanical ability, and the knowledge of how medical equipment normally operates, additional skills are required of the BMET to effectively facilitate a repair--such as knowledge of pertinent codes and standards, job safety laws and guidelines, politeness, and empathy for the equipment user. You will notice that many of these relate to interpersonal relations. The ability to interact with fellow health care workers in a non-threatening manner and to have an appreciation for their perspectives are valuable customer service skills--potentially more valuable than being able to do component-level troubleshooting! PMID:11668951

  8. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  9. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  10. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  11. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  12. Mechanics of Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl

    1978-01-01

    The major thesis of this research is that there are two types of processes underlying verbal performance. First, there are processes based on knowledge. Second, verbal performance requires the exercise of certain information-free, mechanistic processes, i.e., those that are conducted on the physical representation of a symbol (including whatever…

  13. On the prior distribution of extinction time.

    PubMed

    Solow, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian inference about the extinction of a species based on a record of its sightings requires the specification of a prior distribution for extinction time. Here, I critically review some specifications in the context of a specific model of the sighting record. The practical implication of the choice of prior distribution is illustrated through an application to the sighting record of the Caribbean monk seal. PMID:27277952

  14. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  15. An approach to prior austenite reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Majid; Nelson, Tracy W.; Sorensen, Carl D.; Wei Lingyun

    2012-04-15

    One area of interest in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of steels is to understand microstructural evolution during the process. Most of the deformation occurs in the austenite temperature range. Quantitative microstructural measurements of prior austenite microstructure are needed in order to understand evolution of the microstructure. Considering the fact that room temperature microstructure in ferritic steels contains very little to no retained austenite, prior austenite microstructure needs to be recovered from the room temperature ferrite. In this paper, an approach based on Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) is introduced to detect Bain zones. Bain zone detection is used to reconstruct prior austenite grain structure. Additionally, a separate approach based on phase transformation orientation relationships is introduced in order to recover prior austenite orientation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This approach provides a tool to reconstruct large-scale austenite microstructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It recovers prior austenite orientation without relying on retained austenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It utilizes EBSD data from the room temperature microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher number of active variants leads to more accurate reconstructions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At least two variants are needed in order to recover prior austenite orientation.

  16. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis. PMID:26882228

  17. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    PubMed

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  18. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  19. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2015-08-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper levels of the modeling learning progression defined by Schwarz et al. (2009) are attainable by Israeli K-12 students. Nine Israeli high school students studying physics, chemistry, biology, or general science were interviewed individually, once using a context related to the science subject that they were learning and once using an unfamiliar context. All the interviewees displayed MMK superior to that of elementary and middle school students, despite the lack of formal instruction on the practice. Their MMK was independent of content area, but their ability to engage in the practice of modeling was content dependent. This study indicates that, given proper support, the upper levels of the learning progression described by Schwarz et al. (2009) may be attainable by K-12 science students. The value of explicitly focusing on MMK as a learning goal in science education is considered.

  20. Lending a Helping Hand: Voluntary Engagement in Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergel, Ines; Lazer, David; Binz-Scharf, Maria Christina

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is essential for the functioning of every social system, especially for professionals in knowledge-intensive organisations. Since individuals do not possess all the work-related knowledge that they require, they turn to others in search for that knowledge. While prior research has mainly focused on antecedents and consequences of…

  1. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  2. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; Barnes, C. W.; Bogdanov, A.; Danly, C. R.; Efimov, S.; Endres, M.; Fertman, A.; Golubev, A. A.; et al

    2016-02-18

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well asmore » the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.« less

  3. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope.

    PubMed

    Varentsov, D; Antonov, O; Bakhmutova, A; Barnes, C W; Bogdanov, A; Danly, C R; Efimov, S; Endres, M; Fertman, A; Golubev, A A; Hoffmann, D H H; Ionita, B; Kantsyrev, A; Krasik, Ya E; Lang, P M; Lomonosov, I; Mariam, F G; Markov, N; Merrill, F E; Mintsev, V B; Nikolaev, D; Panyushkin, V; Rodionova, M; Schanz, M; Schoenberg, K; Semennikov, A; Shestov, L; Skachkov, V S; Turtikov, V; Udrea, S; Vasylyev, O; Weyrich, K; Wilde, C; Zubareva, A

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5-4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This paper describes the PRIOR setup as well as the results of the first static and dynamic proton radiography experiments performed at GSI. PMID:26931841

  4. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; Barnes, C. W.; Bogdanov, A.; Danly, C. R.; Efimov, S.; Endres, M.; Fertman, A.; Golubev, A. A.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Ionita, B.; Kantsyrev, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Lang, P. M.; Lomonosov, I.; Mariam, F. G.; Markov, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Mintsev, V. B.; Nikolaev, D.; Panyushkin, V.; Rodionova, M.; Schanz, M.; Schoenberg, K.; Semennikov, A.; Shestov, L.; Skachkov, V. S.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Vasylyev, O.; Weyrich, K.; Wilde, C.; Zubareva, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5-4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This paper describes the PRIOR setup as well as the results of the first static and dynamic proton radiography experiments performed at GSI.

  5. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper…

  6. Procedural knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeff, M.P.; Lansky, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, our formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's space shuttle are provided.

  7. Hysteresis as an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Sabrina D; Bitzer, Sebastian; Nierhaus, Till; Kalberlah, Christian; Preusser, Sven; Neumann, Jane; Nikulin, Vadim V; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual decisions not only depend on the incoming information from sensory systems but constitute a combination of current sensory evidence and internally accumulated information from past encounters. Although recent evidence emphasizes the fundamental role of prior knowledge for perceptual decision making, only few studies have quantified the relevance of such priors on perceptual decisions and examined their interplay with other decision-relevant factors, such as the stimulus properties. In the present study we asked whether hysteresis, describing the stability of a percept despite a change in stimulus property and known to occur at perceptual thresholds, also acts as a form of an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making, supporting the stability of a decision across successively presented random stimuli (i.e., decision hysteresis). We applied a variant of the classical 2-point discrimination task and found that hysteresis influenced perceptual decision making: Participants were more likely to decide 'same' rather than 'different' on successively presented pin distances. In a direct comparison between the influence of applied pin distances (explicit stimulus property) and hysteresis, we found that on average, stimulus property explained significantly more variance of participants' decisions than hysteresis. However, when focusing on pin distances at threshold, we found a trend for hysteresis to explain more variance. Furthermore, the less variance was explained by the pin distance on a given decision, the more variance was explained by hysteresis, and vice versa. Our findings suggest that hysteresis acts as an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making that becomes increasingly important when explicit stimulus properties provide decreasing evidence.

  8. Trajectories of Work-Related Functional Impairment prior to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related functional impairment in terms of sickness absence and disability pension (SA/DP) has been reported to be associated with subsequent suicide. However, there is only limited knowledge on SA/DP patterns prior to suicide. The aim was to identify trajectories of work-related functional impairment prior to suicide and to describe associations of socio-demographic and medical factors with such trajectories. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of the 4 209 individuals aged 22–65 years who committed suicide during 2007–2010 in Sweden. Work-related functional impairment was measured as mean annual number of months of SA/DP. We analyzed trajectories of SA/DP during five years prior to suicide (i.e., 2002–2009) by a group-based trajectory method. Associations between socio-demographic and medical factors with different groups of trajectories were estimated by chi2-test and multinomial logistic regression. Results Five different functional impairment trajectory groups were identified prior to suicide. One group had constant low levels of SA/DP (46%), while 30% had constant high levels of SA/DP. Two groups (16%) showed increasing number of SA/DP months. The remaining 7% showed decreasing number of SA/DP months before the suicide. Sex, age, educational level, family situation, and diagnosis-specific healthcare were significantly associated with different trajectory groups (Likelihood ratio X2 tests <0.05). A larger proportion of higher educated and younger men with a lower proportion of previous suicide attempts were found in the group with constant low levels. Opposite characteristics were displayed in the group with constant high levels. Conclusions This study identified five different groups of work-related functional impairment trajectories before suicide. These differences might be partly explained by the variations in socio-demographic profiles and health care consumptions five years before suicide. PMID:26444997

  9. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., either orally or in writing to a Customs officer before, or without knowledge of, the commencement of a... satisfied the information was provided before, or without knowledge of, the commencement of a formal... “discloses the circumstances of a violation” means the act of providing to Customs a statement orally or...

  10. Differential representations of prior and likelihood uncertainty in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Vilares, Iris; Howard, James D; Fernandes, Hugo L; Gottfried, Jay A; Kording, Konrad P

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Uncertainty shapes our perception of the world and the decisions we make. Two aspects of uncertainty are commonly distinguished: uncertainty in previously acquired knowledge (prior) and uncertainty in current sensory information (likelihood). Previous studies have established that humans can take both types of uncertainty into account, often in a way predicted by Bayesian statistics. However, the neural representations underlying these parameters remain poorly understood. Results By varying prior and likelihood uncertainty in a decision-making task while performing neuroimaging in humans, we found that prior and likelihood uncertainty had quite distinct representations. While likelihood uncertainty activated brain regions along the early stages of the visuomotor pathway, representations of prior uncertainty were identified in specialized brain areas outside this pathway, including putamen, amygdala, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, the magnitude of brain activity in the putamen predicted individuals’ personal tendencies to rely more on either prior or current information. Conclusions Our results suggest different pathways by which prior and likelihood uncertainty map onto the human brain, and provide a potential neural correlate for higher reliance on current or prior knowledge. Overall, these findings offer insights into the neural pathways that may allow humans to make decisions close to the optimal defined by a Bayesian statistical framework. PMID:22840519

  11. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  12. The Developmental Change of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics in Relation to Their Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is a multidimensional construct with two main dimensions: knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. The present study aimed to model the development of young pupils' metacognitive abilities in mathematics in relation to processing efficiency, working memory and mathematical performance. We developed instruments measuring…

  13. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and work-based responsibilities.…

  14. Stolen Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Duguid, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discusses situated learning in the workplace and in the classroom. Topics addressed include operationalization versus legitimization of educational theories; instruction versus learning; explicit versus implicit instruction and knowledge; individual versus social context; systems narrowly construed versus systems broadly construed; and legitimate…

  15. Knowledge River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2004-01-01

    One of the most promising of all diversity initiatives in library and information studies (LIS) is Knowledge River (KR) at the School of Information Resources and Library Science (SIRLS) at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Created and directed by Patricia A. Tarin, the program has already recruited some 42 students into the profession, 20 of…

  16. 7 CFR 2500.049 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior approvals. 2500.049 Section 2500.049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE...

  17. 7 CFR 2500.049 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prior approvals. 2500.049 Section 2500.049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE...

  18. 7 CFR 2500.049 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prior approvals. 2500.049 Section 2500.049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE...

  19. 22 CFR 129.8 - Prior notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior notification. 129.8 Section 129.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS REGISTRATION AND LICENSING OF.... (c) The procedures outlined in § 126.8(c) through (g) are equally applicable with respect to...

  20. Prior Learning Assessment: Outcomes and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Ontario college system's Prior Learning Assessment program for adult learners, focusing on outcomes and characteristics of students completing the process at Seneca College from April 1994 to February 1995. Indicates that of 77 participants, 46 were female, the mean age was 31, and 81% passed the process successfully. (BCY)