Science.gov

Sample records for ability prior knowledge

  1. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  2. Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Wang, Yuh-Chao; Tai, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differential impacts of an inquiry-based instruction on conceptual changes across levels of prior knowledge and reading ability. The instrument emphasized four simultaneously important components: conceptual knowledge, reading ability, attitude toward science, and learning environment. Although the learning patterns and…

  3. Impact of Activity-Based Mathematics Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yüksel, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…

  4. The Relationship between Students' Approaches to Studying, Formal Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge, and Gender and Their Achievement in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Giuliano, Frank J.

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among approaches to studying, prior knowledge, logical thinking ability, attitude, and performance in college freshman chemistry and to explore the effect of gender on the same variables. Subjects were 199 students (114 females, 85 males) enrolled in the second semester of a…

  5. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Research Product 2015-01 Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide Gary M. Stallings Northrop Grumman Corporation Jean L...Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0001 5b. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 633007 6. AUTHOR(S...instructors had a good understanding of what prior knowledge was relevant for their courses. The purpose of the guide documented in this report is

  6. Interest and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund

    This paper selectively reviews research on the relationship between topic interest and prior knowledge, and discusses the optimal association between these variables. The paper points out that interest has a facilitating impact on learning, and at least part of this effect must be ascribed to prior knowledge. While the interest-knowledge…

  7. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  8. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  9. Teacher Knowledge-Ability and Pupil Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

    The effectiveness of schools and the levels of investment in schooling have been in question since the 1966 Coleman report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." Based on a theory of "knowledge-ability," this study challenges the assumption that given "inputs" will yield equivalent effects or "outputs." In…

  10. Prior Knowledge Enhances the Category Dimensionality Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron B.; Harris, Harlan D.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the combined influence of prior knowledge and stimulus dimensionality on category learning was conducted. Subjects learned category structures with the same number of necessary dimensions but more or fewer additional redundant dimensions, and with either knowledge-related or knowledge-unrelated features. Minimal-learning models predict that all subjects, regardless of condition, should learn either the same number of dimensions, or else should respond more slowly to each dimension. Despite similar learning rates and response times, subjects learned more features in the high-dimensional than in the low-dimensional condition. Furthermore, prior knowledge interacted with dimensionality, increasing what was learned especially in the high-dimensional case. A second experiment confirmed that the participants did in fact learn more features during the training phase, rather than simply inferring them at test. These effects can be explained by direct associations among features (representing prior knowledge) combined with feedback between features and the category label, as shown by simulations of the knowledge-resonance, or KRES, model of category learning. PMID:18426059

  11. Understanding the Complexities of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the kinds of prior knowledge students bring with them from high school as it relates to the conventions of writing that they are expected to follow in ARTS 1110 Introduction to University. The research questions were "Can first-year students taking the Arts 1110 Introduction to…

  12. Visual Treatment for Different Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that was conducted to examine the effectiveness of integrating different computerized visual-presentation strategies in learning different contents; the effect of identical presentation strategies on students possessing different levels of prior knowledge; and whether the use of different visual strategies…

  13. Student Models for Prior Knowledge Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj; Pelánek, Radek; Rihák, Jirí

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent behavior of adaptive educational systems is based on student models. Most research in student modeling focuses on student learning (acquisition of skills). We focus on prior knowledge, which gets much less attention in modeling and yet can be highly varied and have important consequences for the use of educational systems. We describe…

  14. Creating illusions of knowledge: learning errors that contradict prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors.

  15. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluating the potential human health and/or ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the ambient environment is one of the central challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and bio-effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. We used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near two wastewater treatment plants. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data was also mapped to the assembly models to statistically evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses. The prior knowledge approach was able reasonably hypothesize the biological impacts at one site but not the other. Chemicals most likely contributing to the observed biological responses were identified at each location. Despite limitations to the approach, knowledge assembly models have strong potential for associating chemical occurrence with potential biological effects and providing a foundation for hypothesis generation to guide research and/or monitoring efforts relat

  16. Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brod, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    The encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of events and facts form the basis for acquiring new skills and knowledge. Prior knowledge can enhance those memory processes considerably and thus foster knowledge acquisition. But prior knowledge can also hinder knowledge acquisition, in particular when the to-be-learned information is inconsistent with…

  17. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on…

  18. The Relevance of Prior Knowledge in Learning and Instructional Design

    PubMed Central

    Hailikari, Telle; Katajavuori, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine how different types of prior knowledge (declarative and procedural) impact student achievement and how prior-knowledge assessment can be used as an instructional design tool. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on the prior-knowledge model, which distinguishes between declarative and procedural knowledge. One hundred fifteen pharmacy students were tested prior to beginning 4 successive basic science courses and then prior to beginning a pharmaceutical chemistry course. Regression analysis was used to determine which type of knowledge was the best predictor of student achievement. The 4 course instructors were interviewed and their comments analyzed. Results Prior knowledge from previous courses significantly influenced student achievement. Procedural knowledge was especially related to student achievement. Instructors and students had mainly positive reactions towards the prior-knowledge tests. Conclusions Students' prior knowledge should be taken into consideration in instructional design and curriculum planning. Furthermore, the results of prior-knowledge assessments may be used as a tool for student support in addressing areas of deficiency. PMID:19214267

  19. Prior Conceptual Knowledge and Textbook Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Guthrie, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of a subject's conceptual knowledge in the procedural task of searching a text for information was studied for 51 college undergraduates in 2 experiments involving knowledge of anatomy. Students with more anatomical information were able to search a text more quickly. Educational implications are discussed. (SLD)

  20. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on decoding skill to children who did not know the topic so that the groups differed only on knowledge of the passage topic. Prior knowledge of the passage topic was found to significantly increase fluency and reduce reading errors, especially errors based on graphic information, in poor readers. Two possible mechanisms of how prior knowledge might operate to facilitate word identification were evaluated using the pattern of error types, as was the relationship of errors to comprehension. Implications of knowledge effects for assessment and educational policy are discussed. PMID:21799586

  1. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  2. Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks…

  3. Novice and expert teachers' conceptions of learners' prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Helen

    2004-11-01

    This study presents comparative case studies of preservice and first-year teachers' and expert teachers' conceptions of the concept of prior knowledge. Kelly's (The Psychology of Personal Construct, New York: W.W. Norton, 1955) theory of personal constructs as discussed by Akerson, Flick, and Lederman (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2000, 37, 363-385) in relationship to prior knowledge underpins the study. Six teachers were selected to participate in the case studies based upon their level experience teaching science and their willingness to take part. The comparative case studies of the novice and expert teachers provide insights into (a) how novice and expert teachers understand the concept of prior knowledge and (b) how they use this knowledge to make instructional decisions. Data collection consisted of interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis. Findings suggest that novice teachers hold insufficient conceptions of prior knowledge and its role in instruction to effectively implement constructivist teaching practices. While expert teachers hold a complex conception of prior knowledge and make use of their students' prior knowledge in significant ways during instruction. A second finding was an apparent mismatch between the novice teachers' beliefs about their urban students' life experiences and prior knowledge and the wealth of knowledge the expert teachers found to draw upon.

  4. Prior Knowledge Moderates Instructional Effects on Conceptual Understanding of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppink, Jimmie; Broers, Nick J.; Imbos, Tjaart; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching and learning methods for statistics for 2 levels of prior knowledge on cognitive load, propositional knowledge, and conceptual understanding. Teaching methods were whether or not to provide students with propositional information, and learning strategies were self-explaining the learning…

  5. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    PubMed Central

    Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638

  6. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Ji, Q.; Miller, K. J.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to convey a user’s intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (e.g., hand velocity or finger flexion). The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS). Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation. PMID:22144944

  7. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  8. Language-Based Prior Knowledge and Transition to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide; Torres, Cristina; Chen, Fan

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a college mathematics student's concept maps, definitions, and essays to support the thesis that language-based prior knowledge can influence students' cognitive processes of mathematical concepts. A group of intermediate algebra students who displayed terms mainly from the spoken language on the first and the second concept…

  9. Prior knowledge driven multiscale segmentation of brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Galun, Meirav; Gomori, John Moshe; Brandt, Achi; Basri, Ronen

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel automatic multiscale algorithm applied to segmentation of anatomical structures in brain MRI. The algorithm which is derived from algebraic multigrid, uses a graph representation of the image and performs a coarsening process that produces a full hierarchy of segments. Our main contribution is the incorporation of prior knowledge information into the multiscale framework through a Bayesian formulation. The probabilistic information is based on an atlas prior and on a likelihood function estimated from a manually labeled training set. The significance of our new approach is that the constructed pyramid, reflects the prior knowledge formulated. This leads to an accurate and efficient methodology for detection of various anatomical structures simultaneously. Quantitative validation results on gold standard MRI show the benefit of our approach.

  10. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Interactive Overviews During Hypermedia-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy M.

    1999-01-01

    Uses interactive overviews (IOs), a type of advance organizer, to explore the effect of interaction between organizer structure and prior knowledge on novices' ability to meet learning goals. Participants were assigned to learn about ecosystems with a hypermedia program. Results indicated that the ecosystem IO aided learners in meeting an…

  11. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated.

  12. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839

  13. Reading strategies and prior knowledge in learning from hypertext.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Ladislao; Kintsch, Walter; Cañas, José J

    2006-07-01

    In two experiments, we identified two main strategies followed by hypertext readers in selecting their reading orders. The first consisted in selecting the text semantically related to the previously read section (coherence strategy), and the second in choosing the most interesting text, delaying reading of less interesting sections (interest strategy). Comprehension data revealed that these strategies affected learning differently as a function of the reader's prior knowledge. For low-knowledge readers, the coherence strategy supported better learning of the content. This effect seems to rely on the improvement of reading order coherence induced by this strategy. By contrast, for intermediate-knowledge readers the coherence and the interest strategies benefited comprehension equally. In both cases, learning was supported through the active processing induced by these strategies. Discussion focuses on resolving inconsistencies in the literature concerning whether or not hypertext supports better comprehension than does traditional linear texts.

  14. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  15. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  16. Dictionary learning based statistical interior reconstruction without a prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yongyi; Mou, Xuanqin

    2016-10-01

    Despite the significantly practical utilities of interior tomography, it still suffers from severe degradation of direct current (DC) shift artifact. Existing literature suggest to introducing prior information of object support (OS) constraint or the zeroth order image moment, i.e., the DC value into interior reconstruction to suppress the shift artifact, while the prior information is not always available in practice. Aimed at alleviating the artifacts without prior knowledge, in this paper, we reported an approach on the estimation of the object support which could be employed to estimate the zeroth order image moment, and hence facilitate the DC shift artifacts removal in interior reconstruction. Firstly, by assuming most of the reconstructed object consists of soft tissues that are equivalent to water, we reconstructed a virtual OS that is symmetrical about the interior region of interest (ROI) for the DC estimation. Hence the DC value can be estimated from the virtual reconstruction. Secondly, a statistical iterative reconstruction incorporated with the sparse representation in terms of learned dictionary and the constraint in terms of image DC value was adopted to solve the interior tomography. Experimental results demonstrate that the relative errors of the estimated zeroth order image moment are 4.7% and 7.6%, corresponding to the simulated data of a human thorax and the real data of a sheep lung, respectively. Reconstructed images with the constraint of the estimated DC value exhibit greatly superior image quality to that without DC value constraint.

  17. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p < . 001). Male students also outperform female students on qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p < . 001). If the sample is restricted to students with little prior knowledge who answer no more than 8 of the 32 questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  18. How Prior Knowledge and Colour Contrast Interfere Visual Search Processes in Novice Learners: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Duygu; Altun, Arif; Mazman, Sacide Guzin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how prior content knowledge and prior exposure to microscope slides on the phases of mitosis effect students' visual search strategies and their ability to differentiate cells that are going through any phases of mitosis. Two different sets of microscope slide views were used for this purpose; with high and low colour…

  19. Subclonal variant calling with multiple samples and prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gerstung, Moritz; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Campbell, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Targeted resequencing of cancer genes in large cohorts of patients is important to understand the biological and clinical consequences of mutations. Cancers are often clonally heterogeneous, and the detection of subclonal mutations is important from a diagnostic point of view, but presents strong statistical challenges. Results: Here we present a novel statistical approach for calling mutations from large cohorts of deeply resequenced cancer genes. These data allow for precisely estimating local error profiles and enable detecting mutations with high sensitivity and specificity. Our probabilistic method incorporates knowledge about the distribution of variants in terms of a prior probability. We show that our algorithm has a high accuracy of calling cancer mutations and demonstrate that the detected clonal and subclonal variants have important prognostic consequences. Availability: Code is available as part of the Bioconductor package deepSNV. Contact: mg14@sanger.ac.uk; pc8@sanger.ac.uk PMID:24443148

  20. Experimentally superposing two pure states with partial prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Keren; Long, Guofei; Katiyar, Hemant; Xin, Tao; Feng, Guanru; Lu, Dawei; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Superposition, arguably the most fundamental property of quantum mechanics, lies at the heart of quantum information science. However, how to create the superposition of any two unknown pure states remains as a daunting challenge. Recently, it was proved that such a quantum protocol does not exist if the two input states are completely unknown, whereas a probabilistic protocol is still available with some prior knowledge about the input states [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403]. The knowledge is that both of the two input states have nonzero overlaps with some given referential state. In this work, we experimentally realize the probabilistic protocol of superposing two pure states in a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system. We demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol by preparing a families of input states, and the average fidelity between the prepared state and expected superposition state is over 99%. Moreover, we experimentally illustrate the limitation of the protocol that it is likely to fail or yields very low fidelity, if the nonzero overlaps are approaching zero. Our experimental implementation can be extended to more complex situations and other quantum systems.

  1. The Roles of Ability, Personality, and Interests in Acquiring Current Events Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…

  2. Brief Report: Teachers' Awareness of the Relationship between Prior Knowledge and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The author examined the degree to which experienced teachers are aware of the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning. Interviews with teachers revealed that they were explicitly aware of when students made connections between prior knowledge and new learning, when they applied their prior knowledge to new contexts, and when they…

  3. Cognitive Theories, Prior Knowledge, and Anchored Instruction on Mathematical Problem Solving and Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…

  4. The Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation on Free Recall and Study Time Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    The effects of mobilizing prior knowledge on information processing were studied. Two hypotheses, the cognitive set-point hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. These hypotheses predict different recall patterns as a result of mobilizing prior knowledge. In…

  5. "Dare I Ask?": Eliciting Prior Knowledge and Its Implications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This article examines high school teachers' engagement of newcomer English learner students' prior knowledge. Three central research questions guided this study: 1) To what extent do teachers function as mediators of their students' prior knowledge? 2) What goes into teachers' thinking about how and when to elicit prior knowledge? and 3) How do…

  6. Relations among Conceptual Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge, and Procedural Flexibility in Two Samples Differing in Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of…

  7. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Thepsoonthorn, C.; Yokozuka, T.; Miura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, Y.

    2016-01-01

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. PMID:27910902

  8. Prior knowledge is essential for the beneficial effect of targeted memory reactivation during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Groch, Sabine; Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Prior knowledge speeds up system consolidation and accelerates integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks. By using targeted memory reactivations, we demonstrate that prior knowledge is also essential for successful reactivation and consolidation of memories during sleep, both on the behavioral and oscillatory level (i.e., theta and fast spindle activity). Thus, prior knowledge is a prerequisite for new memories to enter processes of system consolidation during sleep. PMID:28051138

  9. The role of prior knowledge in error correction for younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K; Liceralde, Van Rynald T

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that, when given feedback, younger adults are more likely to correct high-confidence errors compared with low-confidence errors, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Research examining the hypercorrection effect in both older and younger adults has demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. Their results demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. However, recent work suggests that error correction is largely related to prior knowledge, while confidence may primarily serve as a proxy for prior knowledge. Prior knowledge generally remains stable or increases with age; thus, the current experiment explored how both confidence and prior knowledge contributed to error correction in younger and older adults. Participants answered general knowledge questions, rated how confident they were that their response was correct, received correct answer feedback, and rated their prior knowledge of the correct response. Overall, confidence was related to error correction for younger adults, but this relationship was much smaller for older adults. However, prior knowledge was strongly related to error correction for both younger and older adults. Confidence alone played little unique role in error correction after controlling for the role of prior knowledge. These data demonstrate that prior knowledge largely predicts error correction and suggests that both older and younger adults can use their prior knowledge to effectively correct errors in memory.

  10. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  11. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2016-10-12

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than…

  13. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  14. Understanding the Role of Prior Knowledge in a Multimedia Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rias, Riaza Mohd; Zaman, Halimah Badioze

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effects that individual differences in prior knowledge have on student understanding in learning with multimedia in a computer science subject. Students were identified as having either low or high prior knowledge from a series of questions asked in a survey conducted at the Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences at…

  15. The Effect of Prior Knowledge Activation on Text Recall: An Investigation of Two Conflicting Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    Two hypotheses, the cognitive capacity hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. They appear to be mutually exclusive since they predict different recall patterns as a result of prior knowledge activation. This study was designed to determine whether the two…

  16. A Fuzzy-Based Prior Knowledge Diagnostic Model with Multiple Attribute Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2013-01-01

    Prior knowledge is a very important part of teaching and learning, as it affects how instructors and students interact with the learning materials. In general, tests are used to assess students' prior knowledge. Nevertheless, conventional testing approaches usually assign only an overall score to each student, and this may mean that students are…

  17. The Role of Prior Knowledge in Learning from Analogies in Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braasch, Jason L. G.; Goldman, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether inconsistent effects of analogies in promoting new content learning from text are related to prior knowledge of the analogy "per se." In Experiment 1, college students who demonstrated little understanding of weather systems and different levels of prior knowledge (more vs. less) of an analogous everyday…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia: The Role of Prior Domain Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Think-aloud and pre-test data were collected from 49 undergraduates with varying levels of prior domain knowledge to examine the relationship between prior domain knowledge and self-regulated learning with hypermedia. During the experimental session, each participant individually completed a pretest on the circulatory system, and then one 40-min…

  19. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  20. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  1. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low.

  2. Exploiting prior knowledge in compressed sensing wireless ECG systems.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Recent results in telecardiology show that compressed sensing (CS) is a promising tool to lower energy consumption in wireless body area networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, the performance of current CS-based algorithms, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality of the ECG, still falls short of the performance attained by state-of-the-art wavelet-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose to exploit the structure of the wavelet representation of the ECG signal to boost the performance of CS-based methods for compression and reconstruction of ECG signals. More precisely, we incorporate prior information about the wavelet dependencies across scales into the reconstruction algorithms and exploit the high fraction of common support of the wavelet coefficients of consecutive ECG segments. Experimental results utilizing the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show that significant performance gains, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality, can be obtained by the proposed algorithms compared to current CS-based methods.

  3. Prior-knowledge-based feedforward network simulation of true boiling point curve of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Chen, D Z

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical results and practical experience indicate that feedforward networks can approximate a wide class of functional relationships very well. This property is exploited in modeling chemical processes. Given finite and noisy training data, it is important to encode the prior knowledge in neural networks to improve the fit precision and the prediction ability of the model. In this paper, as to the three-layer feedforward networks and the monotonic constraint, the unconstrained method, Joerding's penalty function method, the interpolation method, and the constrained optimization method are analyzed first. Then two novel methods, the exponential weight method and the adaptive method, are proposed. These methods are applied in simulating the true boiling point curve of a crude oil with the condition of increasing monotonicity. The simulation experimental results show that the network models trained by the novel methods are good at approximating the actual process. Finally, all these methods are discussed and compared with each other.

  4. Coherence Marking, Prior Knowledge, and Comprehension of Informative and Persuasive Texts: Sorting Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalski, Judith; Sanders, Ted; Lentz, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Coherence plays a central role when readers construct meaning from a text. Previous research has shown how coherence marking affects text processing and representation. However, this effect seems to depend on reader's prior knowledge of the text content: Low knowledge readers benefit from coherence marking, whereas high knowledge readers benefit…

  5. Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

  6. Abilities, skills and knowledge in measures of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163

  7. Knowledge Surveys: Students Ability to Self-Assess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauss, Jon; Geedey, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Active learning theory indicates the importance of helping students take control of their learning, monitor their understanding, and assess learning strategies. Knowledge surveys are intended to improve a student's ability to self-assess and cover the content and the full range of cognitive levels of a course. We explore an interdisciplinary data…

  8. What You Know Can Hurt You: Effects of Age and Prior Knowledge on the Accuracy of Judgments of Learning

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Jeffrey P.; Daniels, Karen A.; Solinger, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    How do aging and prior knowledge affect memory and metamemory? We explored this question in the context of a dual-process approach to Judgments of Learning (JOLs) which require people to predict their ability to remember information at a later time. Young and older adults (n's = 36, mean ages = 20.2 & 73.1) studied the names of actors that were famous in the 1950s or 1990s, providing a JOL for each. Recognition memory for studied and unstudied actors was then assessed using a Recollect/Know/No-Memory (R/K/N) judgment task. Results showed that prior knowledge increased recollection in both age groups such that older adults recollected significantly more 1950s actors than younger adults. Also, for both age groups and both decades, actors judged R at test garnered significantly higher JOLs at study than actors judged K or N. However, while the young showed benefits of prior knowledge on relative JOL accuracy, older adults did not, showing lower levels of JOL accuracy for 1950s actors despite having higher recollection for, and knowledge about, those actors. Overall, the data suggest that prior knowledge can be a double-edged sword, increasing the availability of details that can support later recollection, but also increasing non-diagnostic feelings of familiarity that can reduce the accuracy of memory predictions. PMID:21480715

  9. Predictive top-down integration of prior knowledge during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Sohoglu, Ediz; Peelle, Jonathan E; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-06-20

    A striking feature of human perception is that our subjective experience depends not only on sensory information from the environment but also on our prior knowledge or expectations. The precise mechanisms by which sensory information and prior knowledge are integrated remain unclear, with longstanding disagreement concerning whether integration is strictly feedforward or whether higher-level knowledge influences sensory processing through feedback connections. Here we used concurrent EEG and MEG recordings to determine how sensory information and prior knowledge are integrated in the brain during speech perception. We manipulated listeners' prior knowledge of speech content by presenting matching, mismatching, or neutral written text before a degraded (noise-vocoded) spoken word. When speech conformed to prior knowledge, subjective perceptual clarity was enhanced. This enhancement in clarity was associated with a spatiotemporal profile of brain activity uniquely consistent with a feedback process: activity in the inferior frontal gyrus was modulated by prior knowledge before activity in lower-level sensory regions of the superior temporal gyrus. In parallel, we parametrically varied the level of speech degradation, and therefore the amount of sensory detail, so that changes in neural responses attributable to sensory information and prior knowledge could be directly compared. Although sensory detail and prior knowledge both enhanced speech clarity, they had an opposite influence on the evoked response in the superior temporal gyrus. We argue that these data are best explained within the framework of predictive coding in which sensory activity is compared with top-down predictions and only unexplained activity propagated through the cortical hierarchy.

  10. Prior knowledge is more predictive of error correction than subjective confidence.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that, when given feedback, participants are more likely to correct confidently-held errors, as compared with errors held with lower levels of confidence, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Accounts of hypercorrection suggest that confidence modifies attention to feedback; alternatively, hypercorrection may reflect prior domain knowledge, with confidence ratings simply correlated with this prior knowledge. In the present experiments, we attempted to adjudicate among these explanations of the hypercorrection effect. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants answered general knowledge questions, rated their confidence, and received feedback either immediately after rating their confidence or after a delay of several minutes. Although memory for confidence judgments should have been poorer at a delay, the hypercorrection effect was equivalent for both feedback timings. Experiment 2 showed that hypercorrection remained unchanged even when the delay to feedback was increased. In addition, measures of recall for prior confidence judgments showed that memory for confidence was indeed poorer after a delay. Experiment 3 directly compared estimates of domain knowledge with confidence ratings, showing that such prior knowledge was related to error correction, whereas the unique role of confidence was small. Overall, our results suggest that prior knowledge likely plays a primary role in error correction, while confidence may play a small role or merely serve as a proxy for prior knowledge.

  11. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  12. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Memory: A Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Garvin; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2013-01-01

    Across ontogenetic development, individuals gather manifold experiences during which they detect regularities in their environment and thereby accumulate knowledge. This knowledge is used to guide behavior, make predictions, and acquire further new knowledge. In this review, we discuss the influence of prior knowledge on memory from both the psychology and the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature and provide a developmental perspective on this topic. Recent neuroscience findings point to a prominent role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and of the hippocampus (HC) in the emergence of prior knowledge and in its application during the processes of successful memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. We take the lateral PFC into consideration as well and discuss changes in both medial and lateral PFC and HC across development and postulate how these may be related to the development of the use of prior knowledge for remembering. For future direction, we argue that, to measure age differential effects of prior knowledge on memory, it is necessary to distinguish the availability of prior knowledge from its accessibility and use. PMID:24115923

  13. SU-E-J-71: Spatially Preserving Prior Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H; Xing, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prior knowledge-based treatment planning is impeded by the use of a single dose volume histogram (DVH) curve. Critical spatial information is lost from collapsing the dose distribution into a histogram. Even similar patients possess geometric variations that becomes inaccessible in the form of a single DVH. We propose a simple prior knowledge-based planning scheme that extracts features from prior dose distribution while still preserving the spatial information. Methods: A prior patient plan is not used as a mere starting point for a new patient but rather stopping criteria are constructed. Each structure from the prior patient is partitioned into multiple shells. For instance, the PTV is partitioned into an inner, middle, and outer shell. Prior dose statistics are then extracted for each shell and translated into the appropriate Dmin and Dmax parameters for the new patient. Results: The partitioned dose information from a prior case has been applied onto 14 2-D prostate cases. Using prior case yielded final DVHs that was comparable to manual planning, even though the DVH for the prior case was different from the DVH for the 14 cases. Solely using a single DVH for the entire organ was also performed for comparison but showed a much poorer performance. Different ways of translating the prior dose statistics into parameters for the new patient was also tested. Conclusion: Prior knowledge-based treatment planning need to salvage the spatial information without transforming the patients on a voxel to voxel basis. An efficient balance between the anatomy and dose domain is gained through partitioning the organs into multiple shells. The use of prior knowledge not only serves as a starting point for a new case but the information extracted from the partitioned shells are also translated into stopping criteria for the optimization problem at hand.

  14. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  15. Effects of Activation of Prior Knowledge on the Recall of a Clinical Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    A study investigated the known phenomenon of "intermediate effect" in which medical students with an intermediate amount of knowledge and experience demonstrate higher amounts of recall of the text of a medical case than either experienced clinicians or novices. In this study the amount of activation of prior knowledge was controlled by…

  16. The Relation between Prior Knowledge and Students' Collaborative Discovery Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijlers, Hannie; de Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication between students was recorded and the interaction…

  17. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  18. Evaluating Background and Prior Knowledge: A Case Study on Engineering Graphics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobos-Moyano, Alfonso; Martin-Blas, Teresa; Onate-Gomez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the results obtained by a group of freshmen students in a test of prior knowledge on technical drawing carried out before and after attending an introductory course on this subject. The aim of this course was to help students to gain knowledge necessary to take full advantage of the CAD software that is regularly used to…

  19. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  20. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

  1. Patient Simulation to Demonstrate Students’ Competency in Core Domain Abilities Prior to Beginning Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bhutada, Nilesh S.; Feng, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To implement a simulation-based introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and determine its effectiveness in assessing pharmacy students’ core domain abilities prior to beginning advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design. A 60-hour IPPE that used simulation-based techniques to provide clinical experiences was implemented. Twenty-eight students were enrolled in this simulation IPPE, while 60 were enrolled in hospital and specialty IPPEs within the region. Assessment. The IPPE assessed 10 out of 11 of the pre-APPE core domain abilities, and on the practical examination, 67% of students passed compared to 52% of students in the control group. Students performed better on all 6 knowledge quizzes after completing the simulation IPPE. Based on scores on the Perception of Preparedness to Perform (PREP) survey, students felt more prepared regarding “technical” aspects after completing the simulation experience (p<0.001). Ninety-six percent of the respondents agreed with the statement “I am more aware of medication errors after this IPPE.” Conclusion. Simulation is an effective method for assessing the pre-APPE abilities of pharmacy students, preparing them for real clinical encounters, and for making them more aware of medication errors and other patient safety issues. PMID:23193340

  2. Nonnegative matrix factorization for hyperspectral unmixing using prior knowledge of spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Shi, Zhenwei; An, Zhenyu

    2012-08-01

    Hyperspectral unmixing is a process aiming at identifying the constituent materials and estimating the corresponding fractions from hyperspectral imagery of a scene. Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an effective linear spectral mixture model, has been applied in hyperspectral unmixing during recent years. As the data of hyperspectral imagery analyzed deeper, prior knowledge of some signatures in the scene could be available. In several scenes such as mining areas, a few surface substances like copper and iron are easy to identify through field investigation. Thus, their spectral signatures can be used as prior knowledge to unmix hyperspectral data. In such a context, we propose an NMF based framework for hyperspectral unmixing using such prior knowledge, referred to as NMFupk. Specifically, our algorithm supposes that some spectral signatures in the scene are known and then utilizes the prior knowledge of the spectral signatures to unmix the hyperspectral data. In a series of experiments, we test NMFupk and NMF without prior knowledge on both synthetic and real data. Results achieved demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Student Reasoning from Data Tables: Data Interpretation in Light of Student Ability and Prior Belief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Abigail Marie

    Here I present my work studying introductory physics students proficiency with the control of variables strategy to evaluate simple data tables. In this research, a primary goal was to identify and to describe the reasoning strategies that students use preferentially when evaluating simple data tables where the control of variables strategy is the normative evaluation strategy. In addition, I aimed to identify and describe the factors that affect students reasoning strategies when analyzing these simple data tables. In a series of experiments, I tested 1,360 introductory physics students, giving them simple tables of experimental data to analyze. Generally, each of the experiments that I conducted had two conditions. In both of these conditions, the data filling the tables was identical; however, in the first condition, the data table was presented in a physical context and students were given a short pre-test to measure their beliefs about the context. In the second condition, the table was given in a more generic context. This was repeated with multiple data tables and physical contexts. In addition to the data table task, students were given several measures of cognitive ability. By using students answers on the pretest about physical context, I was able to measure whether or not each students prior beliefs were consistent with the relationships shown in the data tables. Across all the experiments conducted here, I found that those students whose prior beliefs were consistent with the data were over three times more likely to draw a valid inference from the table than students whose prior beliefs were inconsistent with the data. By further analyzing students responses, I found evidence that this difference in performance could be accounted for by the presence of a belief bias. Students tended to cite data in suboptimal ways, frequently treating their own theories as a source of evidence to be supplemented by or illustrated with examples from the data. Because of

  4. The Instructional Effectiveness of Animated Signaling among Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional effectiveness of animated signals among learners with high and low prior knowledge. Each of the two treatments was presented with animated instruction either with signals or without signals on the content of how an airplane achieves lift. Subjects were eighty-seven undergraduate…

  5. The Impact of Learner's Prior Knowledge on Their Use of Chemistry Computer Simulations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Han-Chin; Andre, Thomas; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    It is complicated to design a computer simulation that adapts to students with different characteristics. This study documented cases that show how college students' prior chemistry knowledge level affected their interaction with peers and their approach to solving problems with the use of computer simulations that were designed to learn…

  6. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  7. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  8. Untapped Cultural Support: The Influence of Culturally Bound Prior Knowledge on Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth-McCullough, Ruanda

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the prior knowledge of African American students, this study explored the relationship between cultural orientation of literature and reading comprehension to determine its effect on low, mid, and high level readers. Over one hundred 8th grade students from four different public schools read short stories from three different cultural…

  9. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  10. Prior Knowledge, Text Coherence, and Interest: How They Interact in Learning from Instructional Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boscolo, Pietro; Mason, Lucia

    This paper describes a study aimed at expanding research on the interactive effect of readers' prior knowledge and text coherence on learning by introducing a third variable, topic interest, which is, the readers' relatively stable affective orientation toward a topic. The hypothesis was that the inferential processes required to fill in…

  11. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Viewing and Interpreting Graphics with Macroscopic and Molecular Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Wiebe, Eric N.; Carter, Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the use of multiple representations with macroscopic and molecular features can improve conceptual understanding; however, the influence of prior knowledge of the domain cannot be overlooked. Using eye-tracking technology and sequential analysis, this study investigated how high school students (n = 54) with…

  12. Effect of Prior Domain Knowledge and Headings on Processing of Informative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surber, John R.; Schroeder, Mark

    2007-01-01

    College students with either high or low prior domain knowledge (PK) read a text chapter presented in short pages on a computer monitor. Half of the participants read with headings present and half with headings absent. The computer recorded time spent reading and rereading each short page. Learning was assessed through a structured recall task.…

  13. Interplay of Prior Knowledge, Self-Regulation and Motivation in Complex Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, H. S.; Kalet, A. L.; Plass, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect effects of medical clerkship students' prior knowledge, self-regulation and motivation on learning performance in complex multimedia learning environments. The data from 386 medical clerkship students from six medical schools were analysed using structural equation modeling. The structural model revealed…

  14. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  15. Teaching Practice: A Perspective on Inter-Text and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; West, Howard G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of teaching practices that involve intertextual relationship discovery in today's elementary classrooms is increasingly essential to the success of young learners of reading. Teachers must constantly strive to expand their perspective of how to incorporate the dialogue included in prior knowledge assessment. Teachers must also consider how…

  16. Effects of Prior Knowledge and Concept-Map Structure on Disorientation, Cognitive Load, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Tricot, Andre; Marine, Claudette

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of prior knowledge (high vs. low; HPK and LPK) and concept-map structure (hierarchical vs. network; HS and NS) on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning from non-linear documents on "the infection process of a retrograde virus (HIV)". Participants in the study were 24 adults. Overall subjective ratings of…

  17. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  18. Building Knowledge through Portfolio Learning in Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    It is important for academic credibility that the process of prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR) keeps learning and knowledge as its foundational tenets. Doing so ensures PLAR's recognition as a fertile ground for learners' cognitive and personal growth. In many postsecondary venues, PLAR is often misunderstood and confused with…

  19. Prior Knowledge and Online Inquiry-Based Science Reading: Evidence from Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yeh; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study employed eye-tracking technology to examine how students with different levels of prior knowledge process text and data diagrams when reading a web-based scientific report. Students' visual behaviors were tracked and recorded when they read a report demonstrating the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global climate…

  20. Case-based reasoning for space applications: Utilization of prior experience in knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal is to explain Case-Based Reasoning as a vehicle to establish knowledge-based systems based on experimental reasoning for possible space applications. This goal will be accomplished through an examination of reasoning based on prior experience in a sample domain, and also through a presentation of proposed space applications which could utilize Case-Based Reasoning techniques.

  1. The Interpretation of Cellular Transport Graphics by Students with Low and High Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Carter, Glenda; Wiebe, Eric N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of cellular transport influenced how high school students in the USA viewed and interpreted graphic representations of this topic. The participants were Advanced Placement Biology students (n = 65); each participant had previously taken a biology course in high school. After assessing…

  2. Prior Knowledge, Text Features, and Idea Maps. Technical Report No. 608.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, James O.

    A study investigated the relationships among prior topic knowledge, information in elementary science text, and the construction of visual representation of key text ideas. Eight preservice elementary teachers were first interviewed on two topics in science ("how plants get their food" and "air and weather"); then they read…

  3. Feedback Both Helps and Hinders Learning: The Causal Role of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Feedback can be a powerful learning tool, but its effects vary widely. Research has suggested that learners' prior knowledge may moderate the effects of feedback; however, no causal link has been established. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned elementary school children (N = 108) to a condition based on a crossing of 2 factors: induced strategy…

  4. The Role of Specificity, Targeted Learning Activities, and Prior Knowledge for the Effects of Relevance Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelle, Julian; Lehmkuhl, Nina; Beyer, Martin-Uwe; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the role of (a) specificity, (b) the type of targeted learning activities, and (c) learners' prior knowledge for the effects of relevance instructions on learning from instructional explanations. In Experiment 1, we recruited novices regarding the topic of atomic structure (N = 80) and found that "specific"…

  5. The Impacts of Virtual Manipulatives and Prior Knowledge on Geometry Learning Performance in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of virtual and physical manipulatives have failed to consider the impact of prior knowledge on the efficacy of manipulatives. This study focuses on the learning of plane geometry in junior high schools, including the sum of interior angles in polygons, the sum of exterior angles in polygons, and the properties of…

  6. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Situational Interest When Reading Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Mark Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prior knowledge, situational interest, and recall, 34 college students read 15 paragraphs that contained varying amounts of fictional material, rated how interesting they found each paragraph, and were later assessed on how much of the information they retained. Five of the paragraphs contained fictional items…

  7. Finding out More about Teacher Candidates' Prior Knowledge: Implications for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ell, Fiona; Hill, Mary; Grudnoff, Lexie

    2012-01-01

    While it is recognised that prior knowledge is a key factor in determining future learning, its influence on learning to teach is less well known. This study investigates two cohorts of teacher candidates studying for a one-year, graduate qualification for primary teaching, who completed two tasks at entry to their initial teacher education…

  8. The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Viewing Repertoire on Learning from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert; Tolboom, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Video is increasingly used as an instructional tool. It is therefore becoming more important to improve learning of students from video. We investigated whether student learning effects are influenced through an instruction about other viewing behaviours, and whether these learning effects depend on their prior knowledge. In a controlled…

  9. The Effect of Instructional Modality and Prior Knowledge on Learning Point Group Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Kastner, Margaret E.

    2005-01-01

    Many topics in chemistry are difficult for learners to understand, including symmetry. Reasons for this difficulty include its multi-level content, instructional methodologies utilized, and learner variables. This study examined the effect of initial instructional modality and prior knowledge on learning of point group symmetry. Forty-four…

  10. Accuracy of extrapolated data as a function of prior knowledge and regularization.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Hsin M; Fiddy, Michael A

    2006-05-10

    The prior discrete Fourier transform (PDFT) is a linear spectral estimator that provides a solution that is both data consistent and of minimum weighted norm through the use of a suitably designed Hilbert space. The PDFT has been successfully used in imaging applications to improve resolution and overcome the nonuniqueness associated with having only finitely many spectral measurements. With the use of an appropriate prior function, the resolution of the reconstructed image can be improved dramatically. We explore the ways in which some significant parameters affect the PDFT estimate. A relationship between estimated spectral values, prior knowledge, and regularization was examined. It allows one to assess the reliability of the estimated spectral values for a given choice of prior estimate and provides a means for optimizing PDFT-based estimators.

  11. GRISOTTO: A greedy approach to improve combinatorial algorithms for motif discovery with prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Position-specific priors (PSP) have been used with success to boost EM and Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. PSP information has been computed from different sources, including orthologous conservation, DNA duplex stability, and nucleosome positioning. The use of prior information has not yet been used in the context of combinatorial algorithms. Moreover, priors have been used only independently, and the gain of combining priors from different sources has not yet been studied. Results We extend RISOTTO, a combinatorial algorithm for motif discovery, by post-processing its output with a greedy procedure that uses prior information. PSP's from different sources are combined into a scoring criterion that guides the greedy search procedure. The resulting method, called GRISOTTO, was evaluated over 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip sequence-sets commonly used to benchmark prior-based motif discovery algorithms. Results show that GRISOTTO is at least as accurate as other twelve state-of-the-art approaches for the same task, even without combining priors. Furthermore, by considering combined priors, GRISOTTO is considerably more accurate than the state-of-the-art approaches for the same task. We also show that PSP's improve GRISOTTO ability to retrieve motifs from mouse ChiP-seq data, indicating that the proposed algorithm can be applied to data from a different technology and for a higher eukaryote. Conclusions The conclusions of this work are twofold. First, post-processing the output of combinatorial algorithms by incorporating prior information leads to a very efficient and effective motif discovery method. Second, combining priors from different sources is even more beneficial than considering them separately. PMID:21513505

  12. Reading Comprehension of Informative Texts in Secondary School: A Focus on Direct and Indirect Effects of Reader's Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarchi, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other…

  13. Leveraging students' prior knowledge in attaining deep structural understanding of domain general models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Hillary Lucille

    The Next Generation Science Standards charge U.S. teachers with the task of including patterns, as a crosscutting concept, in their science curricula. This study explores the learning processes and outcomes of a pattern-based curriculum that engages middle school students in the construction of models of particular patterns. These patterns are general behaviors or processes that can be found in a range of phenomena; examples of such patterns include threshold, equilibration, and oscillation. The study investigates 1) the development of students' pattern models in response to instruction, 2) the productivity of prior knowledge in students' construction of pattern models and 3) the features of instruction that support the process of pattern model construction. It addresses research questions through analysis of data collected during the implementation of a pattern-based curriculum. Findings show that students have a wealth of prior knowledge that can be leveraged by instruction toward their construction of models of threshold, equilibration, and oscillation patterns. These findings contribute to literatures concerned with deep structural and domain-general knowledge, the productive role of prior knowledge in conceptual change, and the design of constructivist instruction.

  14. Memory for Star Trek: the role of prior knowledge in recognition revisited.

    PubMed

    Long, Debra L; Prat, Chantel S

    2002-11-01

    Prior studies have found robust knowledge effects on recall of text ideas but have seldom found comparable effects on recognition. This inconsistency was examined in light of recent research on the component processes that underlie recognition memory. Using the remember/know paradigm, the authors found that experts made more remember judgments than novices, but only in response to text ideas relevant to their domain of expertise. Using the process-dissociation procedure, the authors found knowledge effects on recollection estimates, but not on familiarity estimates. The authors contend that knowledge effects have been difficult to detect in recognition because knowledge primarily affects recollection, whereas familiarity gives rise to good performance even among novices.

  15. Factors affecting learning of vector math from computer-based practice: Feedback complexity and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Mikula, Brendon D.

    2016-06-01

    In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we studied the relative effects of "knowledge of correct response" feedback and "elaborated feedback" (i.e., a general explanation) both separately and together. A number of other factors were analyzed, including training time, physics course grade, prior knowledge of vector math, and student beliefs about both their proficiency in and the importance of vector math. We hypothesize a simple model predicting how the effectiveness of feedback depends on prior knowledge, and the results confirm this knowledge-by-treatment interaction. Most notably, elaborated feedback is the most effective feedback, especially for students with low prior knowledge and low course grade. In contrast, knowledge of correct response feedback was less effective for low-performing students, and including both kinds of feedback did not significantly improve performance compared to elaborated feedback alone. Further, while elaborated feedback resulted in higher scores, the learning rate was at best only marginally higher because the training time was slightly longer. Training time data revealed that students spent significantly more time on the elaborated feedback after answering a training question incorrectly. Finally, we found that training improved student self-reported proficiency and that belief in the importance of the learned domain improved the effectiveness of training. Overall, we found that computer based training with static question sequences and immediate elaborated feedback in the form of simple and general explanations can be an effective way to improve student performance on a physics essential skill, especially for less prepared and low

  16. PRIOR-WK&E: Social Software for Policy Making in the Knowledge Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turón, Alberto; Aguarón, Juan; Escobar, María Teresa; Gallardo, Carolina; Moreno-Jiménez, José María; Salazar, José Luis

    This paper presents a social software application denominated as PRIOR-WK&E. It has been developed by the Zaragoza Multicriteria Decision Making Group (GDMZ) with the aim of responding to the challenges of policy making in the Knowledge Society. Three specific modules have been added to PRIOR, the collaborative tool used by the research group (GDMZ) for considering the multicriteria selection of a discrete set of alternatives. The first module (W), that deals with multiactor decision making through the Web, and the second (K), that concerns the extraction and diffusion of knowledge related to the scientific resolution of the problem, were explained in [1]. The new application strengthens securitization and includes a third module (E) that evaluates the effectiveness of public administrations policy making.

  17. Semantically-based priors and nuanced knowledge core for Big Data, Social AI, and language understanding.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies.

  18. Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR. PMID:26819577

  19. The Role of Initial Learning, Problem Features, Prior Knowledge, and Pattern Recognition on Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Baggetta, Peter; Doyle, Stephanie; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that transfer ability (positive and negative) varies depending on the nature of the problems, using the knowledge transfer matrix, as well as being dependent on the individual differences of the learner. A total of 178 participants from the United States and New Zealand completed measures of prior…

  20. Sleep Spindle Density Predicts the Effect of Prior Knowledge on Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kempkes, Marleen; Cousins, James N.; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2016-01-01

    Information that relates to a prior knowledge schema is remembered better and consolidates more rapidly than information that does not. Another factor that influences memory consolidation is sleep and growing evidence suggests that sleep-related processing is important for integration with existing knowledge. Here, we perform an examination of how sleep-related mechanisms interact with schema-dependent memory advantage. Participants first established a schema over 2 weeks. Next, they encoded new facts, which were either related to the schema or completely unrelated. After a 24 h retention interval, including a night of sleep, which we monitored with polysomnography, participants encoded a second set of facts. Finally, memory for all facts was tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Behaviorally, sleep spindle density predicted an increase of the schema benefit to memory across the retention interval. Higher spindle densities were associated with reduced decay of schema-related memories. Functionally, spindle density predicted increased disengagement of the hippocampus across 24 h for schema-related memories only. Together, these results suggest that sleep spindle activity is associated with the effect of prior knowledge on memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memories are gradually assimilated into long-term memory and this process is strongly influenced by sleep. The consolidation of new information is also influenced by its relationship to existing knowledge structures, or schemas, but the role of sleep in such schema-related consolidation is unknown. We show that sleep spindle density predicts the extent to which schemas influence the consolidation of related facts. This is the first evidence that sleep is associated with the interaction between prior knowledge and long-term memory formation. PMID:27030764

  1. Effects of Prior Knowledge in Mathematics on Learner-Interface Interactions in a Learning-by-Teaching Intelligent Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…

  2. Temporal, but not Directional, Prior Knowledge Shortens Muscle Reflex Latency in Response to Sudden Transition of Support Surface During Walking.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system takes advantage of prior knowledge about potential upcoming perturbations for modulating postural reflexes. There are two distinct aspects of prior knowledge: spatial and temporal. This study investigated how each of spatial and temporal prior knowledge contributes to the shortening of muscle response latency. Eleven participants walked on a split-belt treadmill and perturbed by sudden acceleration or deceleration of the right belt at right foot contact. Spatial prior knowledge was given by instruction of possible direction (e.g., only acceleration) of upcoming perturbation at the beginning of an experimental session. Temporal prior knowledge was given to subjects by warning tones at foot contact during three consecutive strides before the perturbation. In response to acceleration perturbation, reflexive muscle activity was observed in soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles. Onset latency of the GAS response was shorter (72 ms vs. 58 ms) when subjects knew the timing of the upcoming perturbation, whereas the latency was independent of directional prior knowledge. SOL onset latency (44 ms) was not influenced by directional nor temporal prior knowledge. Although spinal neural circuit that mediates short-latency reflex was not influenced by the prior knowledge, excitability in supra-spinal neural circuit that mediates medium- and long-latency reflex might be enhanced by knowing the timing of the upcoming perturbation.

  3. Does Learners' Prior Knowledge Moderate the Detrimental Effects of Seductive Details in Reading from Text? A 2 by 3 Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola

    2016-01-01

    Previous work on seductive details has demonstrated that interesting but irrelevant messages hinder students' text learning. Considering that there is little evidence suggesting the relationship between seductive details and prior knowledge, the present study examined how seductive details affect learning in terms of prior knowledge to address the…

  4. An Investigation of the Effects of Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary Acquisition on Passage Comprehension. Program Report 84-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify the contributions of both prior knowledge and prereading vocabulary instruction to passage comprehension. In addition, semantic mapping and semantic feature analysis--instructional strategies that build upon students' prior knowledge--were compared with a modified basal approach for effectiveness as prereading…

  5. Using Prior Knowledge to Aid Teaching and Learning: What Do First-Year Psychology Students Know about Old Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2007-01-01

    Students attending a lecture usually have a wide range of prior knowledge about the topic in question. Rather than seeing this as a problem, lecturers can take advantage of such differences. This article shows how students' misconceptions about old age were used to inform a lecture on the topic. Prior knowledge can thus be used to aid teaching and…

  6. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’ divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled in six Earth science classes at a public senior high school located in the eastern region of Taiwan were participants. Major findings are as follows: (a) A significantly positive correlation existed between students’ PSA and their DSK and RS, approaching large effect sizes; (b) Both students’ DSK and RS significantly explained the variance of their PSA with large effect sizes; (c) Students’ RS could more significantly explain the variance of their DTA subscale with medium effect size while DSK might more significantly explain the variance of their CTA, approaching large effect size. The research suggests that more emphasis should be placed on the reasoning skills when developing students’ divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing more domain-specific knowledge when students’ convergent-thinking ability is considered.

  7. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-08-28

    Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC using two-step prior Ridge regularization) to resolve the problem by incorporating prior biological knowledge about a target gene data set. In our simulation experiments, the propose new methodology CGC-2SPR showed significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over other widely used GC modeling (PGC, Ridge and Lasso) and MI-based (MRNET and ARACNE) methods. In addition, we applied CGC-2SPR to a real biological dataset, i.e., the yeast metabolic cycle, and discovered more true positive edges with CGC-2SPR than with the other existing methods. In our research, we noticed a “ 1+1>2” effect when we combined prior knowledge and gene expression data to discover regulatory networks. Based on causality networks, we made a functional prediction that the Abm1 gene (its functions previously were unknown) might be related to the yeast’s responses to different levels of glucose. In conclusion, our research improves causality modeling by combining heterogeneous knowledge, which is well aligned with the future direction in system biology. Furthermore, we proposed a method of Monte Carlo significance estimation (MCSE) to calculate the edge significances which provide statistical meanings to the discovered causality networks. All of our data and source codes will be available under the link https://bitbucket.org/dtyu/granger-causality/wiki/Home.

  8. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-08-28

    Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC using two-step prior Ridge regularization) to resolve the problem by incorporating prior biological knowledge about a target gene data set. In our simulation experiments, themore » propose new methodology CGC-2SPR showed significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over other widely used GC modeling (PGC, Ridge and Lasso) and MI-based (MRNET and ARACNE) methods. In addition, we applied CGC-2SPR to a real biological dataset, i.e., the yeast metabolic cycle, and discovered more true positive edges with CGC-2SPR than with the other existing methods. In our research, we noticed a “ 1+1>2” effect when we combined prior knowledge and gene expression data to discover regulatory networks. Based on causality networks, we made a functional prediction that the Abm1 gene (its functions previously were unknown) might be related to the yeast’s responses to different levels of glucose. In conclusion, our research improves causality modeling by combining heterogeneous knowledge, which is well aligned with the future direction in system biology. Furthermore, we proposed a method of Monte Carlo significance estimation (MCSE) to calculate the edge significances which provide statistical meanings to the discovered causality networks. All of our data and source codes will be available under the link https://bitbucket.org/dtyu/granger-causality/wiki/Home.« less

  9. Effects of prior knowledge and expert statement on belief in recovered memories: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Nachson, Israel; Read, J Don; Seelau, Sheila M; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Lobb, Brenda; Davies, Graham; Glicksohn, Joseph; Lifschitz, Michal; Brimacombe, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that beliefs in the purported attributes of recovered memories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are associated with knowledge of the "recovered/false memory debate", and that such beliefs will be related to assessments of the credibility of statements made by participants in a vignette about CSA. Participants from five countries (the United States, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Israel) responded to a questionnaire regarding beliefs about recovered memory as well as self-reported exposure to and knowledge of the debate. In addition, they assessed the credibility of statements made by a daughter (reporting recovery of memories of sexual abuse by her father), her father (denying the allegation and accusing the daughter's therapist of implanting in her false "memories" of abuse), and two experts (each supporting one of the two protagonists). We found that prior knowledge of the debate across countries was linked to beliefs in specific attributes of recovered memories and to a subset of the credibility assessments of statements made by the protagonists and their experts. For individuals, however, credibility assessments were unrelated to knowledge of the debate, but they were related to beliefs about memory recovery. Finally, credibility of the protagonists' statements was differentially associated with those made by the daughter's and the father's experts. The results suggest that whereas familiarity with the debate does not affect the credibility of the statements made by the complainant and the accused, expert testimony does, as has been found in prior research. The psycholegal implications of this conclusion are discussed.

  10. Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of…

  11. Boosting probabilistic graphical model inference by incorporating prior knowledge from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Paurush; Fröhlich, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Inferring regulatory networks from experimental data via probabilistic graphical models is a popular framework to gain insights into biological systems. However, the inherent noise in experimental data coupled with a limited sample size reduces the performance of network reverse engineering. Prior knowledge from existing sources of biological information can address this low signal to noise problem by biasing the network inference towards biologically plausible network structures. Although integrating various sources of information is desirable, their heterogeneous nature makes this task challenging. We propose two computational methods to incorporate various information sources into a probabilistic consensus structure prior to be used in graphical model inference. Our first model, called Latent Factor Model (LFM), assumes a high degree of correlation among external information sources and reconstructs a hidden variable as a common source in a Bayesian manner. The second model, a Noisy-OR, picks up the strongest support for an interaction among information sources in a probabilistic fashion. Our extensive computational studies on KEGG signaling pathways as well as on gene expression data from breast cancer and yeast heat shock response reveal that both approaches can significantly enhance the reconstruction accuracy of Bayesian Networks compared to other competing methods as well as to the situation without any prior. Our framework allows for using diverse information sources, like pathway databases, GO terms and protein domain data, etc. and is flexible enough to integrate new sources, if available.

  12. Prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes and representations during text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takatsugu

    2015-09-01

    Certain character locational stereotypes are expected to affect constructions of mental representations during text comprehension. The present study examined whether readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects the construction of these character representations during text comprehension. Two short stories were presented to the participants. In one story, God, and two people wearing blue and green clothes, respectively, appeared in a room in that order (God condition). In the other, three people appeared in red, blue, and green clothes, respectively (three-people condition). The only difference between the two stories was the first character that appeared in the room. All participants were assigned to either the God or three-people condition. Participants read the story and provided an account of their own mental representation of where the three characters were located within the room, and explained the reasoning behind their descriptions. In the God condition, most participants stated that God was in the center (relative to the two people) because of locational stereotypes of God. In the three-people condition, most participants stated that the person in red was located in front of or closest to the participant because of the order in which the character appeared in the text. These results show that readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects their mental representation of spatial relationships between characters during text comprehension.

  13. Bayesian network prior: network analysis of biological data using external knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Isci, Senol; Dogan, Haluk; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Otu, Hasan H.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Reverse engineering GI networks from experimental data is a challenging task due to the complex nature of the networks and the noise inherent in the data. One way to overcome these hurdles would be incorporating the vast amounts of external biological knowledge when building interaction networks. We propose a framework where GI networks are learned from experimental data using Bayesian networks (BNs) and the incorporation of external knowledge is also done via a BN that we call Bayesian Network Prior (BNP). BNP depicts the relation between various evidence types that contribute to the event ‘gene interaction’ and is used to calculate the probability of a candidate graph (G) in the structure learning process. Results: Our simulation results on synthetic, simulated and real biological data show that the proposed approach can identify the underlying interaction network with high accuracy even when the prior information is distorted and outperforms existing methods. Availability: Accompanying BNP software package is freely available for academic use at http://bioe.bilgi.edu.tr/BNP. Contact: hasan.otu@bilgi.edu.tr Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24215027

  14. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Noelle M; Alibali, Martha W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an "operations = answer" format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means "calculate the total", and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the equations.

  15. Cultural Knowledge and Language Ability: The Siamese Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    In an effort to fill a perceived gap in research concerning the relationship between cultural knowledge and second language proficiency, a study was undertaken with foreign students of English as a Second Language (ESL). The subjects were 30 college juniors in a variety of disciplines taking an English world literature class. Subjects were…

  16. Reputation Revision Method for Selecting Cloud Services Based on Prior Knowledge and a Market Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingtao; Zhang, Xulong; Zhang, Mingchuan; Lou, Ying; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wei, Wangyang

    2014-01-01

    The trust levels of cloud services should be evaluated to ensure their reliability. The effectiveness of these evaluations has major effects on user satisfaction, which is increasingly important. However, it is difficult to provide objective evaluations in open and dynamic environments because of the possibilities of malicious evaluations, individual preferences, and intentional praise. In this study, we propose a novel unfair rating filtering method for a reputation revision system. This method uses prior knowledge as the basis of similarity when calculating the average rating, which facilitates the recognition and filtering of unfair ratings. In addition, the overall performance is increased by a market mechanism that allows users and service providers to adjust their choice of services and service configuration in a timely manner. The experimental results showed that this method filtered unfair ratings in an effective manner, which greatly improved the precision of the reputation revision system. PMID:24696650

  17. Using prior knowledge from cellular pathways and molecular networks for diagnostic specimen classification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many complex diseases, an earlier and more reliable diagnosis is considered a key prerequisite for developing more effective therapies to prevent or delay disease progression. Classical statistical learning approaches for specimen classification using omics data, however, often cannot provide diagnostic models with sufficient accuracy and robustness for heterogeneous diseases like cancers or neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, new approaches for building multivariate biomarker models on omics data have been proposed, which exploit prior biological knowledge from molecular networks and cellular pathways to address these limitations. This survey provides an overview of these recent developments and compares pathway- and network-based specimen classification approaches in terms of their utility for improving model robustness, accuracy and biological interpretability. Different routes to translate omics-based multifactorial biomarker models into clinical diagnostic tests are discussed, and a previous study is presented as example. PMID:26141830

  18. Cramer-Rao bound expressions for parametric estimation of overlapping peaks: influence of prior knowledge

    PubMed

    Cavassila; Deval; Huegen; van Ormondt D; Graveron-Demilly

    2000-04-01

    We have derived analytical expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds on spectral parameters for singlet, doublet, and triplet peaks in noise. We considered exponential damping (Lorentzian lineshape) and white Gaussian noise. The expressions, valid if a sufficiently large number of samples is used, were derived in the time domain for algebraic convenience. They enable one to judge the precision of any unbiased estimator as a function of the spectral and experimental parameters, which is useful for quantitation objectives and experimental design. The influence of constraints (chemical prior knowledge) on parameters of the peaks of doublets and triplets is demonstrated both analytically and numerically and the inherent benefits for quantitation are shown. Our expressions also enable analysis of spectra comprising many peaks. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Forewarning of a Threat and Prior Knowledge of Outcome: Effects on Children's Emotional Responses to a Film Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia; Cantor, Joanne

    1990-01-01

    Examines the influence of prior information on children's emotional responses to a frightening program. Finds that forewarning of the threat increased anticipatory fear but did not affect emotional responses, and that prior knowledge of the happy outcome reduced anticipatory fear but had an inconsistent effect on fear during the threatening scene.…

  20. Efficient dynamic programming algorithm with prior knowledge for protein β-strand alignment.

    PubMed

    Sabzekar, Mostafa; Naghibzadeh, Mahmoud; Sadri, Javad

    2017-03-21

    One of the main tasks towards the prediction of protein β-sheet structure is to predict the native alignment of β-strands. The alignment of two β-strands defines similar regions that may reflect functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between them. Therefore, any improvement in β-strands alignment not only reduces the computational search space but also improves β-sheet structure prediction accuracy. To define the alignment scores, previous studies utilized predicted residue-residue contacts (contact maps). However, there are two serious problems using them. First, the precision of contact map prediction techniques, especially for long-range contacts (i.e., β-residues), is still not satisfactory. Second, the residue-residue contact predictors usually utilize general properties of amino acids and disregard the structural features of β-residues. In this paper, we consider β-structure information, which is estimated from protein β-sheet data sets, as alignment scores. However, the predicted contact maps are used as a prior knowledge about residues. They are used for strengthening or weakening the alignment scores in our algorithm. Thus, we can utilize both β-residues and β-structure information in alignment of β-strands. The structure of dynamic programming of the alignment algorithm is changed in order to work with our prior knowledge. Moreover, the Four Russians method is applied to the proposed alignment algorithm in order to reduce the time complexity of the problem. For evaluating the proposed method, we applied it to the state-of-the-art β-sheet structure prediction methods. The experimental results on the BetaSheet916 data set showed significant improvements in the execution time, the accuracy of β-strands' alignment and consequently β-sheet structure prediction accuracy. The results are available at http://conceptsgate.com/BetaSheet.

  1. Network reconstruction based on proteomic data and prior knowledge of protein connectivity using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Stavrakas, Vassilis; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways is instrumental for understanding cells' function. People have been tackling modeling of signaling pathways in order to accurately represent the signaling events inside cells' biochemical microenvironment in a way meaningful for scientists in a biological field. In this article, we propose a method to interrogate such pathways in order to produce cell-specific signaling models. We integrate available prior knowledge of protein connectivity, in a form of a Prior Knowledge Network (PKN) with phosphoproteomic data to construct predictive models of the protein connectivity of the interrogated cell type. Several computational methodologies focusing on pathways' logic modeling using optimization formulations or machine learning algorithms have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a light and fast approach that uses a breadth-first traversal of the graph to identify the shortest pathways and score proteins in the PKN, fitting the dependencies extracted from the experimental design. The pathways are then combined through a heuristic formulation to produce a final topology handling inconsistencies between the PKN and the experimental scenarios. Our results show that the algorithm we developed is efficient and accurate for the construction of medium and large scale signaling networks. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGF/TNFA stimulation against made up experimental data. To avoid the possibility of erroneous predictions, we performed a cross-validation analysis. Finally, we validate that the introduced approach generates predictive topologies, comparable to the ILP formulation. Overall, an efficient approach based on graph theory is presented herein to interrogate protein-protein interaction networks and to provide meaningful biological insights.

  2. SU-E-T-527: Prior Knowledge Guided TomoTherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, J; Yuan, L; Wu, Q; Zhu, X; Chera, B; Chang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality and efficiency of radiotherapy treatment planning are highly planer dependent. Previously we have developed a statistical model to correlate anatomical features with dosimetry features of head and neck Tomotherapy treatment. The model enables us to predict the best achievable dosimetry for individual patient prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to study if the prediction model can facilitate the treatment planning in both the efficiency and dosimetric quality. Methods: The anatomy-dosimetry correlation model was used to calculate the expected DVH for nine patients formerly treated. In Group A (3 patients), the model prediction agreed with the clinic plan; in Group B (3 patients), the model predicted lower larynx mean dose than the clinic plan; in Group C (3 patients), the model suggested the brainstem could be further spared. Guided by the prior knowledge, we re-planned all 9 cases. The number of interactions during the optimization process and dosimetric endpoints between the original clinical plan and model-guided re-plan were compared. Results: For Group A, the difference of target coverage and organs-at-risk sparing is insignificant (p>0.05) between the replan and the clinical plan. For Group B, the clinical plan larynx median dose is 49.4±4.7 Gy, while the prediction suggesting 40.0±6.2 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plan achieved 41.5±6.6 Gy, with similar dose on other structures as clinical plan. For Group C, the clinical plan brainstem maximum dose is 44.7±5.5 Gy. The model predicted lower value 32.2±3.8 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plans reduced brainstem maximum dose to 31.8±4.1 Gy without affecting the dosimetry of other structures. In the replanning of the 9 cases, the times operator interacted with TPS are reduced on average about 50% compared to the clinical plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the prior expert knowledge embedded model improved the efficiency and quality of Tomotherapy treatment planning.

  3. Utilizing knowledge from prior plans in the evaluation of quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2015-06-01

    Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy. Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients’ plans were adapted to a test patient’s anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate. Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48   ±   2.65% for the rectum and 4.90   ±   1.98% for the bladder. 19   ±   10 mm single leaf and 1.9   ±   0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6   ±   0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11   ±   0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6   ±   1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0   ±   0.7° of gantry-MLC lag. Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient’s anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified

  4. Contribution of Content Knowledge and Learning Ability to the Learning of Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; Hatano, Giyoo

    1991-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 1,598 Japanese college students were examined concerning the learning of facts in 2 content domains, baseball and music. Content knowledge facilitated fact learning only in the relevant domain; learning ability facilitated fact learning in both domains. Effects of content knowledge and learning ability were additive. (SLD)

  5. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  6. Verbal Comprehension Ability in Aphasia: Demographic and Lexical Knowledge Effects

    PubMed Central

    Simos, Panagiotis G.; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Potagas, Constantin; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Background. Assessment of sentence-level auditory comprehension can be performed with a variety of tests varying in response requirements. A brief and easy to administer measure, not requiring an overt verbal or a complex motor response, is essential in any test battery for aphasia. Objective. The present study examines the clinical utility of receptive language indices for individuals with aphasia based on the Comprehension of Instructions in Greek (CIG), a variant of the Token Test, and the Greek version of PPVT-R. Methods. Normative data from a large community sample of Greek adults aged 46–80 years was available on both measures. A word-level-independent measure of auditory comprehension was computed as the standard score difference between the two tests and used to compare patients with and without comprehension deficits as indicated by their Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination profile. Results and Conclusions. Indices of internal consistency and test-retest reliability were very good. Education and age effects on performance were significant, with the former being stronger. The potential clinical utility of differential ability indices (contrasting sentence- and word-level auditory comprehension tests) is discussed. PMID:24825951

  7. Metalinguistic Knowledge and Language Ability in University-Level L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Existing research indicates that instructed learners' L2 proficiency and their metalinguistic knowledge are moderately correlated. However, the operationalization of the construct of metalinguistic knowledge has varied somewhat across studies. Metalinguistic knowledge has typically been operationalized as learners' ability to correct, describe,…

  8. DENSE: efficient and prior knowledge-driven discovery of phenotype-associated protein functional modules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identifying cellular subsystems that are involved in the expression of a target phenotype has been a very active research area for the past several years. In this paper, cellular subsystem refers to a group of genes (or proteins) that interact and carry out a common function in the cell. Most studies identify genes associated with a phenotype on the basis of some statistical bias, others have extended these statistical methods to analyze functional modules and biological pathways for phenotype-relatedness. However, a biologist might often have a specific question in mind while performing such analysis and most of the resulting subsystems obtained by the existing methods might be largely irrelevant to the question in hand. Arguably, it would be valuable to incorporate biologist's knowledge about the phenotype into the algorithm. This way, it is anticipated that the resulting subsytems would not only be related to the target phenotype but also contain information that the biologist is likely to be interested in. Results In this paper we introduce a fast and theoretically guranteed method called DENSE (Dense and ENriched Subgraph Enumeration) that can take in as input a biologist's prior knowledge as a set of query proteins and identify all the dense functional modules in a biological network that contain some part of the query vertices. The density (in terms of the number of network egdes) and the enrichment (the number of query proteins in the resulting functional module) can be manipulated via two parameters γ and μ, respectively. Conclusion This algorithm has been applied to the protein functional association network of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, a hydrogen producing, acid-tolerant organism. The algorithm was able to verify relationships known to exist in literature and also some previously unknown relationships including those with regulatory and signaling functions. Additionally, we were also able to hypothesize that some uncharacterized

  9. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS based on prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; de Leeuw, G.; Hou, T.; Guang, J.; Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.; He, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols and other pollutants because aerosols can affect the albedo of the surface by deposition on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic aerosol. Arctic aerosol observations are needed to fill this gap because these are among the basic and most important parameters for researching the Arctic environment. Atmospheric remote sensing using satellites offers us an opportunity to describe the aerosol distribution in terms of both local, regional and global coverage. However, AOD retrieval over a bright surface remains a difficult task because it is hard to separate and explicitly describe the contribution of the observed signal reflected by the variable surface and back scattering by the semi-transparent aerosols, especially with a large solar or sensor zenith angle. In this paper, an approach using a synergetic approach with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data based on prior knowledge is presented. The detailed analysis of the model demonstrates that it is suitable for Arctic region AOD retrieval. Six AERONET stations at high latitude (Andenes, Barrow, Ittoqqortoormiit, OPAL, Thule, and Tiksi) were used for validation, and the correlation coefficient between retrieved AODs and AERONET AODs was 0.75 and the retrieval absolute error is approximately 0.1, while the relative error is 20% (at some stations with clear skies as low as 10% was found). Furthermore, the Russian wildfires that occurred in late July of 2010 and their effect on the Arctic environment is presented; Satellite retrieved AODs in the Arctic increased to 1.0 during 1 August and 15 August 2010, even 2.0, during the burning phase, and subsequently returned to normal values (lower than 0.1), which was fully in line with the AERONET observations. This indicates that the fire plumes were

  10. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Akhondi, Saber A.; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical–disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached an F-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved an F-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improved F-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service at http://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  11. Gene network coherence based on prior knowledge using direct and indirect relationships.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vela, Francisco; Lagares, José Antonio; Díaz-Díaz, Norberto

    2015-06-01

    Gene networks (GNs) have become one of the most important approaches for modeling biological processes. They are very useful to understand the different complex biological processes that may occur in living organisms. Currently, one of the biggest challenge in any study related with GN is to assure the quality of these GNs. In this sense, recent works use artificial data sets or a direct comparison with prior biological knowledge. However, these approaches are not entirely accurate as they only take into account direct gene-gene interactions for validation, leaving aside the weak (indirect) relationships. We propose a new measure, named gene network coherence (GNC), to rate the coherence of an input network according to different biological databases. In this sense, the measure considers not only the direct gene-gene relationships but also the indirect ones to perform a complete and fairer evaluation of the input network. Hence, our approach is able to use the whole information stored in the networks. A GNC JAVA-based implementation is available at: http://fgomezvela.github.io/GNC/. The results achieved in this work show that GNC outperforms the classical approaches for assessing GNs by means of three different experiments using different biological databases and input networks. According to the results, we can conclude that the proposed measure, which considers the inherent information stored in the direct and indirect gene-gene relationships, offers a new robust solution to the problem of GNs biological validation.

  12. Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinshui; He, Chunyang; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhu, Shuang; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2014-01-03

    In this study, we developed a prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis (PKSMA) to map impervious surfaces by using endmembers derived separately for high- and low-density urban regions. First, an urban area was categorized into high- and low-density urban areas, using a multi-step classification method. Next, in high-density urban areas that were assumed to have only vegetation and impervious surfaces (ISs), the Vegetation-Impervious model (V-I) was used in a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) with three endmembers: vegetation, high albedo, and low albedo. In low-density urban areas, the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil model (V-I-S) was used in an SMA analysis with four endmembers: high albedo, low albedo, soil, and vegetation. The fraction of IS with high and low albedo in each pixel was combined to produce the final IS map. The root mean-square error (RMSE) of the IS map produced using PKSMA was about 11.0%, compared to 14.52% using four-endmember SMA. Particularly in high-density urban areas, PKSMA (RMSE = 6.47%) showed better performance than four-endmember (15.91%). The results indicate that PKSMA can improve IS mapping compared to traditional SMA by using appropriately selected endmembers and is particularly strong in high-density urban areas.

  13. Medical student knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT prior to and after viewing ECT scenes from movies.

    PubMed

    Walter, Garry; McDonald, Andrew; Rey, Joseph M; Rosen, Alan

    2002-03-01

    We surveyed samples of medical students in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia, prior to their psychiatry placement, to ascertain views about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the effect on those views of watching ECT scenes in movies. A 26-item questionnaire was constructed by the authors and administered to the students. At set times during the questionnaire, students were asked to view five movie clips showing, or making reference to, ECT. The clips were from Return to Oz, The Hudsucker Proxy, Ordinary People, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Beverly Hillbillies. Ninety-four students participated in the study. Levels of knowledge about the indications, side effects, and mode of administration were poor, and attitudes were generally negative. Viewing the ECT scenes influenced attitudes toward the treatment; after viewing, one-third of the students decreased their support for ECT, and the proportion of students who would dissuade a family member or friend from having ECT rose from less than 10% to almost 25%.

  14. Reasoning strategies used by students to solve stoichiometry problems and its relationship to alternative conceptions, prior knowledge, and cognitive variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Astudillo, Luisa Rojas; Niaz, Mansoor

    1996-06-01

    Achievement in science depends on a series of factors that characterize the cognitive abilities of the students and the complex interactions between these factors and the environment that intervenes in the formation of students' background. The objective of this study is to: a) investigate reasoning strategies students use in solving stoichiometric problems; b) explore the relation between these strategies and alternative conceptions, prior knowledge and cognitive variables; and c) interpret the results within an epistemological framework. Results obtained show how stoichiometric relations produce conflicting situations for students, leading to conceptual misunderstanding of concepts, such as mass, atoms and moles. The wide variety of strategies used by students attest to the presence of competing and conflicting frameworks (progressive transitions, cf. Lakatos, 1970), leading to greater conceptual understanding. It is concluded that the methodology developed in this study (based on a series of closely related probing questions, generally requiring no calculations, that elicit student conceptual understanding to varying degrees within an intact classroom context) was influential in improving student performance. This improvement in performance, however, does not necessarily affect students' hard core of beliefs.

  15. Mechanisms underlying comprehension of health information in adulthood: the roles of prior knowledge and working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M; Gibson, Tanja N; Applegate, Elizabeth A; de Dios, Jeannette

    2011-07-01

    Prior knowledge, working memory capacity (WMC), and conceptual integration (attention allocated to integrating concepts in text) are critical within many contexts; however, their impact on the acquisition of health information (i.e. learning) is relatively unexplored.We examined how these factors impact learning about nutrition within a cross-sectional study of adults ages 18 to 81. Results showed that conceptual integration mediated the effects of knowledge and WMC on learning, confirming that attention to concepts while reading is important for learning about health. We also found that when knowledge was controlled, age declines in learning increased, suggesting that knowledge mitigates the effects of age on learning about nutrition.

  16. DBCP: a web server for disulfide bonding connectivity pattern prediction without the prior knowledge of the bonding state of cysteines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Tseng, Lin-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The proper prediction of the location of disulfide bridges is efficient in helping to solve the protein folding problem. Most of the previous works on the prediction of disulfide connectivity pattern use the prior knowledge of the bonding state of cysteines. The DBCP web server provides prediction of disulfide bonding connectivity pattern without the prior knowledge of the bonding state of cysteines. The method used in this server improves the accuracy of disulfide connectivity pattern prediction (Qp) over the previous studies reported in the literature. This DBCP server can be accessed at http://120.107.8.16/dbcp or http://140.120.14.136/dbcp. PMID:20530534

  17. GO-PCA: An Unsupervised Method to Explore Gene Expression Data Using Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Method Genome-wide expression profiling is a widely used approach for characterizing heterogeneous populations of cells, tissues, biopsies, or other biological specimen. The exploratory analysis of such data typically relies on generic unsupervised methods, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering. However, generic methods fail to exploit prior knowledge about the molecular functions of genes. Here, I introduce GO-PCA, an unsupervised method that combines PCA with nonparametric GO enrichment analysis, in order to systematically search for sets of genes that are both strongly correlated and closely functionally related. These gene sets are then used to automatically generate expression signatures with functional labels, which collectively aim to provide a readily interpretable representation of biologically relevant similarities and differences. The robustness of the results obtained can be assessed by bootstrapping. Results I first applied GO-PCA to datasets containing diverse hematopoietic cell types from human and mouse, respectively. In both cases, GO-PCA generated a small number of signatures that represented the majority of lineages present, and whose labels reflected their respective biological characteristics. I then applied GO-PCA to human glioblastoma (GBM) data, and recovered signatures associated with four out of five previously defined GBM subtypes. My results demonstrate that GO-PCA is a powerful and versatile exploratory method that reduces an expression matrix containing thousands of genes to a much smaller set of interpretable signatures. In this way, GO-PCA aims to facilitate hypothesis generation, design of further analyses, and functional comparisons across datasets. PMID:26575370

  18. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  20. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized-Water...

  1. Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    its business case for LCS and conduct a number of operational test events on both variants prior to making a decision to contract for more ships...of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions Why GAO Did This Study GAO has reported extensively on...Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions , GAO-15-361C (Washington, D.C.: July 7, 2015) (S//NF). 5H.R. Rep

  2. Absolute Thickness Measurements on Coatings Without Prior Knowledge of Material Properties Using Terahertz Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Harder, Bryan; Zhu, Dongming; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of a novel noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement method for measuring thickness in dielectric coating systems having either dielectric or conductive substrate materials. The method does not require knowledge of the velocity of terahertz waves in the coating material. The dielectric coatings ranged from approximately 300 to 1400 m in thickness. First, the terahertz method was validated on a bulk dielectric sample to determine its ability to precisely measure thickness and density variation. Then, the method was studied on simulated coating systems. One simulated coating consisted of layered thin paper samples of varying thicknesses on a ceramic substrate. Another simulated coating system consisted of adhesive-backed Teflon adhered to conducting and dielectric substrates. Alumina samples that were coated with a ceramic adhesive layer were also investigated. Finally, the method was studied for thickness measurement of actual thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on ceramic substrates. The unique aspects and limitations of this method for thickness measurements are discussed.

  3. Helping Preservice Teachers with Inaccurate and Fragmentary Prior Knowledge to Acquire Conceptual Understanding of Psychological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohst, Andrea; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research on learning has brought forth many insights that are relevant for teachers (for example, knowledge about learning strategies). However, teachers sometimes have intuitive fragmentary knowledge that is partly incorrect. Such knowledge hinders the acquisition of psychological knowledge. Tried-and-tested interventions dealing…

  4. Chinese EFL Teachers' Knowledge of Basic Language Constructs and Their Self-Perceived Teaching Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Dixon, L. Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to…

  5. A Study of Innovative Entrepreneurial Talents of Business and Management: Knowledge, Ability and Quality Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yurong; Wang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    It has been an urgent mission for universities and institutes to instruct the students with enterprise knowledge and cultivate high quality entrepreneurial talents with innovation. The paper discusses the knowledge, ability and quality structure of talents of economics and administration with a purpose to achieve the goal of innovative…

  6. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of prior knowledge of topics with their instructional objectives on senior secondary school class two (SS II) students. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The design of the study is quasi experimental of pretest-posttest of non-equivalent control group. Two research…

  7. "She Has to Drink Blood of the Snake": Culture and Prior Knowledge in Science|Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Leah A.; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this analysis, we argue that science education should attend more deeply to youths' cultural resources and practices (e.g. material, social, and intellectual). Inherent in our argument is a call for revisiting conceptions of "prior knowledge" to theorize how people make sense of the complex ecologies of experience, ideas, and cultural…

  8. Prior Knowledge Influence on Self-Explanation Effectiveness when Solving Problems: An Exploratory Study in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionas, Ioan Gelu; Cernusca, Dan; Collier, Harvest L.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study presents the outcomes of using self-explanation to improve learners' performance in solving basic chemistry problems. The results of the randomized experiment show the existence of a moderation effect between prior knowledge and the level of support self-explanation provides to learners, suggestive of a synergistic effect…

  9. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  10. Temporal Learning in 4 1/2- and 6-Year-Old Children: Role of Instructions and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit, Sylvie; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined the role of prior temporal knowledge of 4 1/2- and 6-year-olds through the use of high-rate, interval, and minimal instructions in a fixed-interval training schedule. Determined that the subjects' learning depended on their verbal self-control skills. (BC)

  11. The Mediation Effect of In-Game Performance between Prior Knowledge and Posttest Score. CRESST Report 819

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Though video games are commonly considered to hold great potential as learning environments, their effectiveness as a teaching tool has yet to be determined. One reason for this is that researchers often run into the problem of multicollinearity between prior knowledge, in-game performance, and posttest scores, thereby making the determination of…

  12. The Effectiveness of Worked Examples Associated with Presentation Format and Prior Knowledge: A Web-Based Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, E-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether presentation format and prior knowledge affect the effectiveness of worked examples. The experiment was conducted through a specially designed online instrument. A 2X2X3 factorial before-and-after design was conducted. Three-way ANOVA was employed for data analysis. The result showed first, that prior…

  13. When Relationships Depicted Diagrammatically Conflict with Prior Knowledge: An Investigation of Students' Interpretations of Evolutionary Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Science is an important domain for investigating students' responses to information that contradicts their prior knowledge. In previous studies of this topic, this information was communicated verbally. The present research used diagrams, specifically trees (cladograms) depicting evolutionary relationships among taxa. Effects of college…

  14. Role of prior knowledge in implicit and explicit learning of artificial grammars.

    PubMed

    Ziori, Eleni; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Dienes, Zoltán

    2014-08-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) performance reflects both implicit and explicit processes and has typically been modeled without incorporating any influence from general world knowledge. Our research provides a systematic investigation of the implicit vs. explicit nature of general knowledge and its interaction with knowledge types investigated by past AGL research (i.e., rule- and similarity-based knowledge). In an AGL experiment, a general knowledge manipulation involved expectations being either congruent or incongruent with training stimulus structure. Inconsistent observations paradoxically led to an advantage in structural knowledge and in the use of general world knowledge in both explicit (conscious) and implicit (unconscious) cases (as assessed by subjective measures). The above findings were obtained under conditions of reduced processing time and impaired executive resources. Key findings from our work are that implicit AGL can clearly be affected by general knowledge, and implicit learning can be enhanced by the violation of expectations.

  15. Differential Ability Antecedents of General and Specific Dimensions of Declarative Knowledge: More than "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to test the proposition that the relative contribution of narrow abilities (but not of "g") may have been obscured in prior research due to a failure to employ fully multidimensional latent variable analyses. The current study corrects for these deficiencies and examines the relationships between cognitive…

  16. Automatic Detection of Student Mental Models during Prior Knowledge Activation in MetaTutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rus, Vasile; Lintean, Mihai; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents several methods to automatically detecting students' mental models in MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students self-regulatory processes during learning of complex science topics. In particular, we focus on detecting students' mental models based on student-generated paragraphs during prior knowledge…

  17. Accreditation or Validation of Prior Experiential Learning: Knowledge and "Savoirs" in France-A Different Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouget, Mireille; Osborne, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article stems from the study of the process and application of Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) in the French higher education system, in France referred to as VAP (Validation des Acquis Professionnels ). The paper seeks to review not only the context in which the concepts underpinning VAP in France have developed, but also…

  18. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge…

  19. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

  20. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  1. Building dynamical models from data and prior knowledge: The case of the first period-doubling bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Furtado, Edgar Campos

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of nonlinear model building from data with (gray box) and without (black box) prior knowledge. The model class is very important because it determines two aspects of the final model, namely (i) the type of nonlinearity that can be accurately approximated and (ii) the type of prior knowledge that can be taken into account. Such features are usually in conflict when it comes to choosing the model class. The problem of model structure selection is also reviewed. It is argued that such a problem is philosophically different depending on the model class and it is suggested that the choice of model class should be performed based on the type of a priori available. A procedure is proposed to build polynomial models from data on a Poincaré section and prior knowledge about the first period-doubling bifurcation, for which the normal form is also polynomial. The final models approximate dynamical data in a least-squares sense and, by design, present the first period-doubling bifurcation at a specified value of parameters. The procedure is illustrated by means of simulated examples.

  2. Comprehension Challenges in the Fourth Grade: The Roles of Text Cohesion, Text Genre, and Readers' Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Danielle S.; Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Floyd, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined young readers' comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science), text cohesion (high, low), and readers' abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge). The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the "fourth grade slump". Children in grade 4 read four texts,…

  3. Exploring Differences in Practicing Teachers' Valuing of Pedagogical Knowledge Based on Teaching Ability Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Helenrose; Buehl, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we assessed 443 teachers' beliefs with the "Teaching Ability Belief Scale" (TABS) and the "Importance of Teaching Knowledge Scale" (ITKS). Using cluster analysis, we identified four groups of teachers based on their responses to the TABS reflecting "Innate," "Learned,"…

  4. Chinese EFL teachers' knowledge of basic language constructs and their self-perceived teaching abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum.

  5. Were Knowledge Management Abilities of University Students Enhanced after Creating Personal Blog-Based Portfolios?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Chen, To-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The effect of creating blog-based portfolios on knowledge management (KM) abilities among university students was examined in the present study. Participants included 43 students majoring in Multimedia and Game Science at a University in Taiwan. Students spent nine weeks creating their personal portfolios by using a blog. The "t"-test…

  6. The Development of Children's Ability to Fill the Gaps in Their Knowledge by Consulting Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…

  7. Investigating the Effect of Origami Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Spatial Ability and Geometric Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akayuure, Peter; Asiedu-Addo, S. K.; Alebna, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Whereas origami is said to have pedagogical benefits in geometry education, research is inclusive about its effect on spatial ability and geometric knowledge among preservice teachers. The study investigated the effect of origami instruction on these aspects using pretest posttest quasi-experiment design. The experimental group consisted of 52…

  8. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of and Ability to Use Text Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the pre-service teachers' knowledge of and ability to use text messaging, and assist their use of this technology in the classroom teaching context. Data were gathered by means of a questionnaire and text message exercises. Fifty-three pre-service teachers participated in the study. It was found that although different…

  9. Volunteer Mentor Training and Support: Three Perspectives Regarding the Knowledge and Abilities Needed for Effective Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Leslie G.

    2013-01-01

    A key factor in mentoring effectiveness and satisfaction is ensuring that mentor preparation training and ongoing support address needed mentor knowledge and abilities (MKAs). Knowing how to mentor is different from knowing what mentoring involves or knowing mentoring policies and procedures. Ideally, mentor training incorporates both the…

  10. Undergraduate Students' Ability to Revise Text Effectively: Relationships with Topic Knowledge and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anne-Marie; Simmons, Fiona; Willis, Catherine; Pawling, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In order to communicate understanding, students are often required to produce texts which present an explicit, coherent argument. This study examined the extent to which individual differences in undergraduates' topic knowledge and working memory skills were related to their ability to revise texts to better fulfil these goals. Forty-seven…

  11. An Investigation of Relationships between Students' Mathematical Problem-Posing Abilities and Their Mathematical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…

  12. Development of Polytechnic Knowledge and Abilities in the Course of Studying Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imashev, Gizatulla; Abykanova, Bakytgul T.; Rakhmetova, Mairagul T.; Tumysheva, Anar A.; Moldasheva, Raushan N.; Ilyasova, Sandugash S.; Shahimova, Aliya A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article one of aspects of physics course studying improvement at high schools--the problem of the development of polytechnic knowledge and abilities in modern conditions--is revealed. In this research, the role and place of polytechnic education in the improvement of teaching physics at high schools are revealed, the main pedagogical…

  13. How to achieve synergy between medical education and cognitive neuroscience? An exercise on prior knowledge in understanding.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Dirk J; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-05-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of prior knowledge in understanding plays a strategic role in both medical education and cognitive neuroscience it is used as a central element in our discussion. A critical condition for the acquisition of new knowledge is the existence of prior knowledge, which can be built in a mental model or schema. Formation of schemas is a central event in student-centered active learning, by which mental models are constructed and reconstructed. These theoretical considerations from cognitive psychology foster scientific discussions that may lead to salient issues and questions for research with cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how knowledge, insight and experience are established in the brain and to clarify their neural correlates. Recently, evidence has been obtained that new information processed by the hippocampus can be consolidated into a stable, neocortical network more rapidly if this new information fits readily into a schema. Opportunities for medical education and medical education research can be created in a fruitful dialogue within an educational multidisciplinary platform. In this synergetic setting many questions can be raised by educational scholars interested in evidence-based education that may be highly relevant for integrative research and the further development of medical education.

  14. An Alternative Time for Telling: When Conceptual Instruction Prior to Problem Solving Improves Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    Background: The sequencing of learning materials greatly influences the knowledge that learners construct. Recently, learning theorists have focused on the sequencing of instruction in relation to solving related problems. The general consensus suggests explicit instruction should be provided; however, when to provide instruction remains unclear.…

  15. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  16. Connecting Learning: Brain-Based Strategies for Linking Prior Knowledge in the Library Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Kathi L.

    2005-01-01

    The brain is a complex organ and learning is a complex process. While there is not complete agreement among researchers about brain-based learning and its direct connection to neuroscience, knowledge about the brain as well as the examination of cognitive psychology, anthropology, professional experience, and educational research can provide…

  17. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  18. Learning a Mathematical Concept from Comparing Examples: The Importance of Variation and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jian-peng; Pang, Ming Fai

    2011-01-01

    In experiment 1, novice fourth-grade students (N = 92) who compared multiple examples that separately varied each critical aspect and then simultaneously varied all critical aspects developed better conceptual knowledge about the "altitude of a triangle" than students who compared multiple examples that did not separately vary each critical aspect…

  19. Learners' strategies for reconstructing cognitive frameworks and navigating conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrott, Annette M.

    Problem. Science teachers are charged with preparing students to become scientifically literate individuals. Teachers are given curriculum that specifies the knowledge that students should come away with; however, they are not necessarily aware of the knowledge with which the student arrives or how best to help them navigate between the two knowledge states. Educators must be aware, not only of where their students are conceptually, but how their students move from their prior knowledge and naive theories, to scientifically acceptable theories. The understanding of how students navigate this course has the potential to revolutionize educational practices. Methods. This study explored how five 9th grade biology students reconstructed their cognitive frameworks and navigated conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge. The research questions investigated were: (1) how do students in the process of changing their naive science theories to accepted science theories describe their journey from prior knowledge to current conception, and (2) what are the methods that students utilize to bridge the gap between alternate and consensual science conceptions to effect conceptual change. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews formed the primary data for probing the context and details of students' conceptual change experience. Primary interview data was coded by thematic analysis. Results and discussion. This study revealed information about students' perceived roles in learning, the role of articulation in the conceptual change process, and ways in which a community of learners aids conceptual change. It was ascertained that students see their role in learning primarily as repeating information until they could add that information to their knowledge. Students are more likely to consider challenges to their conceptual frameworks and be more motivated to become active

  20. Computational discovery of cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila without prior knowledge of motifs

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Andra; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting cis-regulatory modules without knowledge of motifs. We formulate this problem in a pragmatic setting, and create over 30 new data sets, using Drosophila modules, to use as a 'benchmark'. We propose two new methods for the problem, and evaluate these, as well as two existing methods, on our benchmark. We find that the challenge of predicting cis-regulatory modules ab initio, without any input of relevant motifs, is a realizable goal. PMID:18226245

  1. Investigating the impact of prior knowledge and interest on aquarium visitor learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, John H.; Adelman, Leslie M.

    2003-02-01

    Most free-choice science learning institutions, in particular science centers, zoos, aquariums, and natural history museums, define themselves as educational institutions. However, to what extent, and for which visitors, do these free-choice learning settings accomplish their educational mission? Answering this question has proven challenging, in large part because of the inherent variability of visitors to such settings. We hypothesize that the challenges of measuring free-choice science learning might be diminished if it were possible to pool populations during analysis in ways that reduced this variability. Specifically, we propose grouping learners according to their entering understanding and attitudes, using qualitative categories such as minimal, moderate, and extensive. In this article, we use data collected at the National Aquarium in Baltimore to determine whether grouping makes it possible to discern more readily the nature of changes in aquarium visitors' conservation knowledge and attitudes. Although analysis revealed that there were significant changes in both conservation knowledge and attitudes, entry to exit, for all 100 visitors studied, a more detailed analysis revealed that gains were not evenly distributed across all visitors. The results support the hypothesis that the grouping of learners into minimal, moderate, and extensive conservation knowledge and attitude categories enabled a more fine-grained and accurate understanding of changes in aquarium visitor's conservation learning.

  2. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web

    PubMed Central

    SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130

  3. Using prior knowledge in SVD-based parameter estimation for magnetic resonance spectroscopy--the ATP example.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Petre; Selén, Yngve; Sandgren, Niclas; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2004-09-01

    We introduce the knowledge-based singular value decomposition (KNOB-SVD) method for exploiting prior knowledge in magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy based on the SVD of the data matrix. More specifically, we assume that the MR data are well modeled by the superposition of a given number of exponentially damped sinusoidal components and that the dampings alphakappa, frequencies omegakappa, and complex amplitudes rhokappa of some components satisfy the following relations: alphakappa = alpha (alpha = unknown), omegakappa = omega + (kappa- 1)delta (omega = unknown, delta = known), and rhokappa = Ckapparho (rho = unknown, ckappa = known real constants). The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) complex, which has one triple peak and two double peaks whose dampings, frequencies, and amplitudes may in some cases be known to satisfy the above type of relations, is used as a vehicle for describing our SVD-based method throughout the paper. By means of numerical examples, we show that our method provides more accurate parameter estimates than a commonly used general-purpose SVD-based method and a previously suggested prior knowledge-based SVD method.

  4. Fundamentals of microfluidics for high school students with no prior knowledge of fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Vishal; Peck, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Three microfluidics-based laboratory exercises were developed and implemented in a high school science classroom setting. The first exercise demonstrated ways in which flows are characterized, including viscosity, turbulence, shear stress, reversibility, compressibility, and hydrodynamic resistance. Students characterized flows in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices in the other two exercises, where they observed the mixing characteristics of laminar flows, and conservation of volumetric flow rate for incompressible flows. In surveys, the students self-reported increased knowledge of microfluidics, and an improved attitude toward science and nanotechnology.

  5. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity.

  6. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  7. A study of primary science teachers' ability to restructure knowledge in scientific texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh-Yeo, Wan Inn

    The ability of elementary science teachers to restructure knowledge in an unfamiliar scientific text is investigated in this study. Science in schools is said to be characterized by an extensive reliance on textbooks with little evidence of inquiry on the part of students and teachers. The successful implementation of any inquiry science program can only be achieved if teachers can access knowledge in resources such as scientific books and journals which they are able to read critically, and translate and transform that knowledge. Participants were twelve high school graduates undertaking a teacher training course in Singapore. Recalls, problem solving, and ConSAT maps were used as a measure of readers' textbase representation, situational representation and cognitive structures respectively. The target text rewritten for a colleague and for 6sp{th} graders were used as a measure of readers' ability to restructure knowledge. Qualitative and quantitative analyses have shown a difference between able and less able readers on these measures. Able readers recalled more key concepts than less able readers and used the global text structure. Problem solutions of able readers were based on the principles of fermentation with immediate recognition of the variable and its implied consequences and likely solution. The more coherent textbase and situational representations of able readers is reflected in the ConSAT maps of such readers which approximated 44.45% of the criterion map in contrast to less than 25% for less able readers. Not surprisingly, able readers demonstrated to some degree, an ability to restructure knowledge while less able readers did not. Based on the findings of the study the investigator challenges the assumption about reading proficiency of trainee teachers and suggests attention should be paid to literacy requirements and practices. If teachers are unable to restructure knowledge in scientific texts, it is highly unlikely that they would be able to

  8. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  9. Identifying Context-Specific Transcription Factor Targets from Prior Knowledge and Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J; Favorov, Alexander V; Ochs, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Numerous methodologies, assays, and databases presently provide candidate targets of transcription factors (TFs). However, TFs rarely regulate their targets universally. The context of activation of a TF can change the transcriptional response of targets. Direct multiple regulation typical to mammalian genes complicates direct inference of TF targets from gene expression data. We present a novel statistic that infers context-specific TF regulation based upon the CoGAPS algorithm, which infers overlapping gene expression patterns resulting from coregulation. Numerical experiments with simulated data showed that this statistic correctly inferred targets that are common to multiple TFs, except in cases where the signal from a TF is negligible relative to noise level and signal from other TFs. The statistic is robust to moderate levels of error in the simulated gene sets, identifying fewer false positives than false negatives. Significantly, the regulatory statistic refines the number of TF targets relevant to cell signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to genes consistent with the phosphorylation patterns of TFs identified in previous studies. As formulated, the proposed regulatory statistic has wide applicability to inferring set membership in integrated datasets. This statistic could be naturally extended to account for prior probabilities of set membership or to add candidate gene targets. PMID:23694699

  10. Identifying context-specific transcription factor targets from prior knowledge and gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Favorov, Alexander V; Ochs, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Numerous methodologies, assays, and databases presently provide candidate targets of transcription factors (TFs). However, TFs rarely regulate their targets universally. The context of activation of a TF can change the transcriptional response of targets. Direct multiple regulation typical to mammalian genes complicates direct inference of TF targets from gene expression data. We present a novel statistic that infers context-specific TF regulation based upon the CoGAPS algorithm, which infers overlapping gene expression patterns resulting from coregulation. Numerical experiments with simulated data showed that this statistic correctly inferred targets that are common to multiple TFs, except in cases where the signal from a TF is negligible relative to noise level and signal from other TFs. The statistic is robust to moderate levels of error in the simulated gene sets, identifying fewer false positives than false negatives. Significantly, the regulatory statistic refines the number of TF targets relevant to cell signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to genes consistent with the phosphorylation patterns of TFs identified in previous studies. As formulated, the proposed regulatory statistic has wide applicability to inferring set membership in integrated datasets. This statistic could be naturally extended to account for prior probabilities of set membership or to add candidate gene targets.

  11. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  12. The influence of visual feedback and prior knowledge about feedback on vertical aiming strategies.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Dutoy, Chris; Andrew, Matthew; Burkitt, James J; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James L; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine time and energy optimization strategies for movements made with and against gravity. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated concurrent visual feedback, and knowledge about feedback. When vision was eliminated upon movement initiation, participants exhibited greater undershooting, both with their primary submovement and their final endpoint, than when vision was available. When aiming downward, participants were more likely to terminate their aiming following the primary submovement or complete a lower amplitude corrective submovement. This strategy reduced the frequency of energy-consuming corrections against gravity. In Experiment 2, the authors eliminated vision of the hand and the target at the end of the movement. This procedure was expected to have its greatest impact under no-vision conditions where no visual feedback was available for subsequent planning. As anticipated, direction and concurrent visual feedback had a profound impact on endpoint bias. Participants exhibited pronounced undershooting when aiming downward and without vision. Differences in undershooting between vision and no vision were greater under blocked feedback conditions. When performers were uncertain about the impending feedback, they planned their movements for the worst-case scenario. Thus movement planning considers the variability in execution, and avoids outcomes that require time and energy to correct.

  13. Rethinking temporal contiguity and the judgement of causality: effects of prior knowledge, experience, and reinforcement procedure.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2003-07-01

    Time plays a pivotal role in causal inference. Nonetheless most contemporary theories of causal induction do not address the implications of temporal contiguity and delay, with the exception of associative learning theory. Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) and several replications (Reed, 1992, 1999) have demonstrated that people fail to identify causal relations if cause and effect are separated by more than two seconds. In line with an associationist perspective, these findings have been interpreted to indicate that temporal lags universally impair causal induction. This interpretation clashes with the richness of everyday causal cognition where people apparently can reason about causal relations involving considerable delays. We look at the implications of cause-effect delays from a computational perspective and predict that delays should generally hinder reasoning performance, but that this hindrance should be alleviated if reasoners have knowledge of the delay. Two experiments demonstrated that (1) the impact of delay on causal judgement depends on participants' expectations about the timeframe of the causal relation, and (2) the free-operant procedures used in previous studies are ill-suited to study the direct influences of delay on causal induction, because they confound delay with weaker evidence for the relation in question. Implications for contemporary causal learning theories are discussed.

  14. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  15. A prior-knowledge-based threshold segmentation method of forward-looking sonar images for underwater linear object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixin; Bian, Hongyu; Yagi, Shin-ichi; Yang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Raw sonar images may not be used for underwater detection or recognition directly because disturbances such as the grating-lobe and multi-path disturbance affect the gray-level distribution of sonar images and cause phantom echoes. To search for a more robust segmentation method with a reasonable computational cost, a prior-knowledge-based threshold segmentation method of underwater linear object detection is discussed. The possibility of guiding the segmentation threshold evolution of forward-looking sonar images using prior knowledge is verified by experiment. During the threshold evolution, the collinear relation of two lines that correspond to double peaks in the voting space of the edged image is used as the criterion of termination. The interaction is reflected in the sense that the Hough transform contributes to the basis of the collinear relation of lines, while the binary image generated from the current threshold provides the resource of the Hough transform. The experimental results show that the proposed method could maintain a good tradeoff between the segmentation quality and the computational time in comparison with conventional segmentation methods. The proposed method redounds to a further process for unsupervised underwater visual understanding.

  16. Learning Using Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Students' Comprehension, Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Status of a Biotechnological Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2010-05-01

    The importance of biotechnology education at the high-school level has been recognized in a number of international curriculum frameworks around the world. One of the most problematic issues in learning biotechnology has been found to be the biotechnological methods involved. Here, we examine the unique contribution of an animation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in promoting conceptual learning of the biotechnological method among 12th-grade biology majors. All of the students learned about the PCR using still images ( n = 83) or the animation ( n = 90). A significant advantage to the animation treatment was identified following learning. Students’ prior content knowledge was found to be an important factor for students who learned PCR using still images, serving as an obstacle to learning the PCR method in the case of low prior knowledge. Through analysing students’ discourse, using the framework of the conceptual status analysis, we found that students who learned about PCR using still images faced difficulties in understanding some mechanistic aspects of the method. On the other hand, using the animation gave the students an advantage in understanding those aspects.

  17. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  18. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  19. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  20. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  1. Effect of Adopters' Lifestyles and Animal-Care Knowledge on Their Expectations Prior to Companion-Animal Guardianship.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2016-01-01

    Human expectations can greatly affect the human-companion animal relationship, sometimes putting nonhuman animals at risk for relinquishment. At 20 animal shelters in Southern Ontario, Canada, potential adopters (N = 234) completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, companion animal-care knowledge, and preadoption expectations of their adopted companion animals. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of adopters' lifestyles and companion animal-care knowledge with their expectations for animal behavior, the human-companion animal relationship, and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship. Dog adopters had higher expectations than cat adopters for their companion animal's behavior (p < .001), the human-companion animal relationship (p < .001), and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). Adopters' human relationship statuses were also associated with expectations for the human-companion animal relationship (p = .002). As adopters' companion animal-care knowledge increased, so did their expectations for the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). An understanding of adopters' expectations prior to adoption will help animal shelters better match, educate, and prepare adopters for their lives with companion animals.

  2. Impact of a Required Pharmaceutical Calculations Course on Mathematics Ability and Knowledge Retention

    PubMed Central

    Buring, Shauna M.; Papas, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. Methods. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Results. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. Conclusions. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students’ overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations. PMID:23966727

  3. Enhancing the metalinguistic abilities of pre-service teachers via coursework targeting language structure knowledge.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Caralyn J; McNeill, Brigid C; Everatt, John

    2016-04-01

    Low metalinguistic knowledge of pre-service and in-service teachers is likely to restrict the provision of evidence-based literacy instruction in the classroom. Despite such concerns, relatively few studies have examined the effects of teacher preparation coursework in building pre-service teachers' language structure knowledge. This study examined the effects of 7 h of language structure coursework, delivered over 7 weeks, on 121 New Zealand pre-service teachers in their initial year of study. Changes in participants' phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and orthographic knowledge were tracked across the teaching period. The impact of the coursework for participants who presented with strong spelling (n = 24) and poor spelling (n = 24) ability was also compared. The cohort demonstrated significant gains across all measures. Strong spellers responded more favourably to the teaching than poor spellers, even when accounting for initial levels of meta-linguistic knowledge. Implications for the development of teacher preparation programmes that enhance the provision of effective literacy instruction are discussed.

  4. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  5. The Role of Knowledge Structures in the Ability of Preservice Elementary Teachers to Diagnose a Child's Understanding of Molecular Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored preservice teachers' (n = 25) knowledge structures and their mastery of content knowledge in relation to their ability to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of a fourth grader's videotaped explanations of a scientific phenomenon, i.e., molecular kinetic properties of air. Participants' knowledge structures were analyzed…

  6. The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

  7. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  8. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  9. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  10. Folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential introduction of mandatory fortification.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Simonette R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, the New Zealand Ministry of Health recommends women take supplemental folic acid from at least one month preconception until the end of the twelfth week of pregnancy, as well as consume folate-rich foods. A postpartum survey was conducted to describe folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread in May 2012. Increasing knowledge of folic acid recommendations was associated with higher supplement uptake among women who planned their pregnancies (p=0.001 for linear trend). Folic acid information failed to adequately reach some socio-demographic subgroups before conception, even when pregnancy was planned, including: indigenous Maori, Pacific and Asian women, younger women, women with large families, and women with lower educational attainment and income. Only half of all women surveyed knew some bread contained added folic acid, and among these women, less than 2% consistently chose voluntarily fortified bread during the periconceptional period by inspecting labels. Sixty-one percent of women indicated they were either in favour of mandatory fortification, or held no opinion on the matter, while 4% were opposed to the addition of folic acid to bread. Approximately one-third (35%) of women agreed with voluntary fortification. Future health promotion initiatives should be tailored toward women who are younger, less educated, with lower income, multiparous or of minority ethnicity status. Nonetheless, mandatory folic acid fortification may be required to attain the desired degree of equity.

  11. Language and reading instruction in early years' classrooms: the knowledge and self-rated ability of Australian teachers.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.

  12. The Interpretation of a Knowledge Claim in the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and the Impact of This on RPL Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Frederika

    2014-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is: what does a knowledge claim consist of in the context of the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)? The research comprises a case study of RPL applicants' entry into a postgraduate diploma (a fourth-year programme) in project management. The focus is on the knowledge claims made as part of the RPL application…

  13. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part I: Development, Application and Evaluation of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Reported is the development, use, and evaluation of an instructional technique based upon: (1) the assessment of students' prior knowledge; and (2) a theoretical perspective advocated by Ausubel and others which emphasizes the importance of existing knowledge in influencing subsequent concept learning. The experimental group of 46 South African…

  14. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  15. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-based earthquakes instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits designed to teach the 'Principles of Earthquakes.' Each subunit consisted of three modules: evaluation of prior knowledge with/without in-time feedback; animation-based instruction; and evaluation of learning outcomes with feedback. The 153 participants consisted of 10th grade high-school students. Seventy-eight students participated in the animation-based instruction, involving assessment of prior knowledge and appropriate feedback mechanism (APA group). A total of 75 students participated in animation-based learning that did not take into account their prior knowledge (ANPA group). The effectiveness of the instruction was then evaluated by using a Science Conception Test (SCT), a self-rating cognitive load questionnaire (CLQ), as well as a structured interview. The results indicated that: (1) Students' perceived cognitive load was reduced effectively through improving their prior knowledge by providing appropriate feedback. (2) When students perceived lower levels of cognitive load, they showed better learning outcome. The result of this study revealed that students of the APA group showed better performance than those of the ANPA group in an open-ended question. Furthermore, students' perceived cognitive load was negatively associated with their learning outcomes.

  16. Use of Assessments in College Chemistry Courses: Examining Students' Prior Conceptual Knowledge, Chemistry Self-efficacy, and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane-Garcia, Sachel M.

    Students' retention in STEM-related careers is of great concern for educators and researchers, especially the retention of underrepresented groups such as females, Hispanics, and Blacks in these careers. Therefore it is important to study factors that could potentially influence students' decision to stay in STEM. The work described in this dissertation involved three research studies where assessments have been used in college chemistry courses to assess students' prior content knowledge, chemistry-self-efficacy, and attitude toward science. These three factors have been suggested to have an influence on students' performance in a course and could eventually be a retention factor. The first research study involved the development and use of an instrument to measure biochemistry prior knowledge of foundational concepts from chemistry and biology that are considered important for biochemistry learning. This instrument was developed with a parallel structure where three items were used to measure a concept and common incorrect ideas were used as distractors. The specific structure of this instrument allows the identification of common incorrect ideas that students have when entering biochemistry and that can hinder students' learning of biochemistry concepts. This instrument was given as pre/posttest to students enrolled in introductory biochemistry courses. The findings indicated that some incorrect ideas are persistent even after instruction, as is the case for bond energy and the structure of the alpha helix concepts. This study highlights the importance of measuring prior conceptual knowledge; so that instructors can plan interventions to help students overcome their incorrect ideas. For the second research study, students' chemistry self-efficacy was measured five times during a semester of preparatory college chemistry. Chemistry self-efficacy beliefs have been linked to students' achievement, and students with stronger self-efficacy are more likely to try

  17. Prior knowledge transfer across transcriptional data sets and technologies using compositional statistics yields new mislabelled ovarian cell line

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Jaine K.; Davison, Timothy; McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven; Keating, Karen; Delaney, Thomas; Greenan, Caroline; Williams, Alistair R.; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Harkin, D. Paul; Gourley, Charlie; Kennedy, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe gene expression compositional assignment (GECA), a powerful, yet simple method based on compositional statistics that can validate the transfer of prior knowledge, such as gene lists, into independent data sets, platforms and technologies. Transcriptional profiling has been used to derive gene lists that stratify patients into prognostic molecular subgroups and assess biomarker performance in the pre-clinical setting. Archived public data sets are an invaluable resource for subsequent in silico validation, though their use can lead to data integration issues. We show that GECA can be used without the need for normalising expression levels between data sets and can outperform rank-based correlation methods. To validate GECA, we demonstrate its success in the cross-platform transfer of gene lists in different domains including: bladder cancer staging, tumour site of origin and mislabelled cell lines. We also show its effectiveness in transferring an epithelial ovarian cancer prognostic gene signature across technologies, from a microarray to a next-generation sequencing setting. In a final case study, we predict the tumour site of origin and histopathology of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. In particular, we identify and validate the commonly-used cell line OVCAR-5 as non-ovarian, being gastrointestinal in origin. GECA is available as an open-source R package. PMID:27353327

  18. Pull-push level sets: a new term to encode prior knowledge for the segmentation of teeth images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a novel level set method for contour detection in multiple-object scenarios applied to the segmentation of teeth images. Teeth segmentation from 2D images of dental plaster cast models is a difficult problem because it is necessary to independently segment several objects that have very badly defined borders between them. Current methods for contour detection which only employ image information cannot successfully segment such structures. Being therefore necessary to use prior knowledge about the problem domain, current approaches in the literature are limited to the extraction of shape information of individual objects, whereas the key factor in such a problem are the relative positions of the different objects composing the anatomical structure. Therefore, we propose a novel method for introducing such information into a level set framework. This results in a new energy term which can be explained as a regional term that takes into account the relative positions of the different objects, and consequently creates an attraction or repulsion force that favors a determined configuration. The proposed method is compared with balloon and GVF snakes, as well as with the Geodesic Active Regions model, showing accurate results.

  19. The Effect of Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Abilities on the Development of Knowledge of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties in students' understanding of the spherical model of the Earth have been shown in previous studies. One of the reasons for these difficulties lies in beliefs and preliminary knowledge that hinder the interpretation of the scientific knowledge, the other reason may lie in the low level of verbal and visuo-spatial abilities. The study…

  20. Acquiring Information from Simple Weather Maps: Influences of Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Visual-Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.; Miller, Christy R.; Power, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The influences of domain-specific meteorological knowledge and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps were examined in a regression-based study involving a sample of participants with relatively low meteorological knowledge and in an experiment involving a contrast between samples of higher- and…

  1. Language and Reading Instruction in Early Years' Classrooms: The Knowledge and Self-Rated Ability of Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Hannah L.; Snow, Pamela C.; Eadie, Patricia A.; Goldfeld, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as…

  2. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

  3. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to

  4. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Fassi, Aurora; Zaffino, Paolo; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Depauw, Nicolas; Seco, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  5. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  6. Pathways to fraction learning: Numerical abilities mediate the relation between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ai; Resnick, Ilyse; Hansen, Nicole; Rodrigues, Jessica; Rinne, Luke; Jordan, Nancy C

    2016-12-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of number-related skills in the developmental relationship between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge using structural equation modeling. Fifth-grade numerical skills (i.e., whole number line estimation, non-symbolic proportional reasoning, multiplication, and long division skills) mapped onto two distinct factors: magnitude reasoning and calculation. Controlling for participants' (N=536) demographic characteristics, these two factors fully mediated relationships between third-grade general cognitive competencies (attentive behavior, verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities, and working memory) and sixth-grade fraction knowledge (concepts and procedures combined). However, specific developmental pathways differed by type of fraction knowledge. Magnitude reasoning ability fully mediated paths from all four cognitive competencies to knowledge of fraction concepts, whereas calculation ability fully mediated paths from attentive behavior and verbal ability to knowledge of fraction procedures (all with medium to large effect sizes). These findings suggest that there are partly overlapping, yet distinct, developmental pathways from cognitive competencies to general fraction knowledge, fraction concepts, and fraction procedures.

  7. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  8. Effects of Process-Oriented and Product-Oriented Worked Examples and Prior Knowledge on Learner Problem Solving and Attitude: A Study in the Domain of Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Christopher Darren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of process-oriented and product-oriented worked example strategies and the mediating effect of prior knowledge (high versus low) on problem solving and learner attitude in the domain of microeconomics. In addition, the effect of these variables on learning efficiency as well as the…

  9. Prior Knowledge Activation: How Different Concept Mapping Tasks Lead to Substantial Differences in Cognitive Processes, Learning Outcomes, and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…

  10. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-Based Earthquakes Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits…

  11. How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

  12. Effects of Topic Interest and Prior Knowledge on Text Recall and Annotation Use in Reading a Hypermedia Text in the L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topic interest and prior knowledge on text recall and annotation use of second language learners engaged in reading a hypermedia text. The participants were proficient learners of English enrolled in an undergraduate English Language Teaching programme. They were asked to read a hypermedia text that…

  13. A Computer Game as a Context for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving: The Effects of Type of Question Prompt and Level of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Puu.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of type of question prompt and level of prior knowledge on non-routine mathematical problem solving. A computer game was blended within the pattern reasoning tasks, along with question prompts, in order to demonstrate and enhance the connections between viable problem-solving strategies and…

  14. Effects of Examiners' Prior Knowledge of Subjects' Ethnicity and Intelligence on the Scoring of Responses to the Stanford-Binet Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether scoring of Stanford-Binet test items might be influenced by the examiner's prior knowledge of subjects' ethnicity and IQ. Stanford-Binet protocols (N=36) of subjects from five to eight years old were divided into four groups and assigned four groups of examiners. Results suggested no bias. (Author/JAC)

  15. The Influence of Cognitive Reasoning Level, Cognitive Restructuring Ability, Disembedding Ability, Working Memory Capacity, and Prior Knowledge On Students' Performance On Balancing Equations by Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.; Jacks, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the influence of five cognitive variables on high school students' performance on balancing chemical equations by inspection. Reports that reasoning, restructuring, and disembedding variables could be a single variable, and that working memory capacity does not influence overall performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis…

  16. Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other Characteristics for Military Pilot Selection: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    pg. 526) notes that tests of Mechanical Aptitude may correlate highly (“load on”) with the Visualization factor, which defines one of three major...contains two spatial abilities: Visualization and Orientation. Studies using factor analysis to identify the required abilities may find that a test...psychomotor ability. Flying hours demonstrated the highest correlation with ratings, followed by general cognitive ability ( visual short-term memory

  17. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  18. The influence of prior knowledge, a science methods course, and student teaching on preservice teachers' developing philosophy and practice of teaching science in elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toolin, Regina Elizabeth

    This study was designed to examine preservice teachers' knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about science, teaching, learning and the social conditions of schools in the context of a science methods course and student teaching in 1994. Interviews and reflective journals served as the primary data sources for this study. The interviews were developed to elicit and examine the influence of prior knowledge and experiences of the preservice teachers as students learning science and to determine the influence of the methods course, practicum, and student teaching on the preservice teachers' knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about science, teaching science and the social conditions of schools. The journals were designed to elicit and examine the influence of prior knowledge and experiences of science and science teaching and to determine the influence of the methods course curriculum on the knowledge, experiences, and beliefs of the preservice teachers. Methods class observation notes and student assignments also served as valuable data for determining the influence of the methods class. Case studies were developed of Anna and Beth, two preservice teachers in the methods class, to illustrate the impact of these influences. Analysis of the data resulted in descriptive case studies where the major themes of the study were presented from Anna's and Beth's perspectives. These themes were categorized under the major topics of: (1) The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Experiences; (2) The Influence of the Elementary Education Program; (3) The Influence of Student Teaching. Specific factors that appeared to have the most significant influence on Anna's and Beth's knowledge, experiences, and beliefs were identified, discussed, and interpreted for each major topic. Finally, case studies were compared and inferences were drawn to highlight the factors that significantly influenced Anna's and Beth's developing knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about teaching science in

  19. Preventing adolescent drowning: understanding water safety knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability. The effect of a short water safety intervention.

    PubMed

    Petrass, Lauren A; Blitvich, Jennifer D

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, epidemiological data indicate that children are a high-risk group for drowning and while progress has been made in understanding toddler drownings, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the drowning risk and protective factors inherent for adolescents and young adults. This study used a self-report questionnaire to establish swimming and water safety knowledge and attitudes of young adults and objectively measured their actual swimming ability using formal practical testing procedures. Participants then completed a short, 12-week intervention that encompassed swimming, survival and rescue skills, along with water safety knowledge applicable to a range of aquatic environments. Knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability were then re-measured following the intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test was performed to detect whether there were significant differences between knowledge, attitude and swim ability scores pre-intervention and post-intervention. A total of 135 participants completed the baseline and follow up questionnaire and all practical testing. Results indicated that these young adults had a very low level of water safety knowledge pre-intervention, although the majority had sound swimming and water safety skills and attitudes. Overall, significant improvements were evident in knowledge (p<0.001) and swim ability (p<0.001) post-intervention, although no changes were observed in attitudes (p=0.079). Previous participation in formal swimming lessons and/or swimming within the school curriculum had no significant impact on water safety knowledge, skills or attitudes of these young adults, and there were few significant gender differences. While it is important to conduct further studies to confirm that these findings are consistent with a more representative sample of young adults, our findings are the first to provide empirical evidence of the value of a comprehensive aquatic education

  20. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

    2007-01-01

    To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired…

  1. Maternal Knowledge of Nutrition, Problem-Solving Abilities and the Introduction of Complementary Foods into Infants' Diets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Chantelle Nobile; Drotar, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables (maternal knowledge and problem-solving ability) associated with the early introduction of complementary foods (i.e. foods other than breastmilk or formula) into infants diets. Ninety-eight primarily African-American mothers who presented to an urban, ambulatory care clinic in the Midwest…

  2. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  3. The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback and Language Analytic Ability on Chinese Learners' Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of English Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Lin; Xiao, Hailing

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an 8-week study that investigated the differential effects of two written corrective feedback (CF) options on 92 low-intermediate EFL students' explicit and implicit knowledge of English articles and the extent to which language analytic ability might influence the effect of written CF. The study used a…

  4. Do Children with Williams Syndrome Really Have Good Vocabulary Knowledge? Methods for Comparing Cognitive and Linguistic Abilities in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K.; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in…

  5. [The impact of aging on the ability to recognize famous faces and provide biographical knowledge of famous people].

    PubMed

    Langlois, Roxane; Fontaine, Francine; Hamel, Caroline; Joubert, Sven

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aging on the ability a) to name famous faces and b) to access biographical knowledge about famous people from different modalities of presentation (faces and names). Healthy elderly subjects (n = 117) divided into three different age groups were assessed using a semantic memory test of famous people. Results of this study indicate a decline in naming performance between oldest and youngest groups. In contrast, no difference between groups was found in terms of the ability to access semantic knowledge about famous people. Finally, a main effect of modality of presentation (faces vs. names) was found, revealing greater ability to identify famous people in the verbal (names) than in the visual modality (faces). Taken together, results of this study may contribute to developing new cognitive intervention programs in older adults presenting with proper-name anomia.

  6. Enhancing the Metalinguistic Abilities of Pre-Service Teachers via Coursework Targeting Language Structure Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Caralyn J.; McNeill, Brigid C.; Everatt, John

    2016-01-01

    Low metalinguistic knowledge of pre-service and in-service teachers is likely to restrict the provision of evidence-based literacy instruction in the classroom. Despite such concerns, relatively few studies have examined the effects of teacher preparation coursework in building pre-service teachers' language structure knowledge. This study…

  7. Learning to Be (In)variant: Combining Prior Knowledge and Experience to Infer Orientation Invariance in Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Austerweil, Joseph L; Griffiths, Thomas L; Palmer, Stephen E

    2016-12-21

    How does the visual system recognize images of a novel object after a single observation despite possible variations in the viewpoint of that object relative to the observer? One possibility is comparing the image with a prototype for invariance over a relevant transformation set (e.g., translations and dilations). However, invariance over rotations (i.e., orientation invariance) has proven difficult to analyze, because it applies to some objects but not others. We propose that the invariant transformations of an object are learned by incorporating prior expectations with real-world evidence. We test this proposal by developing an ideal learner model for learning invariance that predicts better learning of orientation dependence when prior expectations about orientation are weak. This prediction was supported in two behavioral experiments, where participants learned the orientation dependence of novel images using feedback from solving arithmetic problems.

  8. Norwegian general practitioners' knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding, and their self-rated ability as breastfeeding counsellor

    PubMed Central

    Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. Design A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. Subjects 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. Results The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Conclusion Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key pointsBreastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors’ advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that:GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding.GPs had

  9. Adjustment of speaker’s referential expressions to an addressee’s likely knowledge and link with theory of mind abilities

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Amélie M.; Fossard, Marion; Couture, Sophie; Achim, André

    2015-01-01

    To communicate cooperatively, speakers must determine what constitutes the common ground with their addressee and adapt their referential choices accordingly. Assessing another person’s knowledge requires a social cognition ability termed theory of mind (ToM). This study relies on a novel referential communication task requiring probabilistic inferences of the knowledge already held by an addressee prior to the study. Forty participants were asked to present 10 movie characters and the addressee, who had the same characters in a random order, was asked to place them in order. ToM and other aspects of social cognition were also assessed. Participants used more information when presenting likely unknown than likely known movie characters. They particularly increased their use of physical descriptors, which most often accompanied movie-related information. Interestingly, a significant relationship emerged between our ToM test and the increased amount of information given for the likely unknown characters. These results suggest that speakers use ToM to infer their addressee’s likely knowledge and accordingly adapt their referential expressions. PMID:26136711

  10. The Effects of Learners' Prior Knowledge, Self-Regulation, and Motivation on Learning Performance in Complex Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyuksoon S.

    2010-01-01

    Many medical schools have developed computer-based, multimedia learning environments to fill the knowledge gap and provide common cases and resources to students. However, considering that multimedia in education may impede effective learning if the characteristics of learners and tasks are not considered thoroughly in instructional design, it is…

  11. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  12. The Effects of Local Ecological Knowledge, Minimum-Impact Knowledge, and Prior Experience on Visitor Perceptions of the Ecological Impacts of Backcountry Recreation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Ashley; Monz, Christopher; Newman, Peter; Lawson, Steve; Taff, Derrick

    2012-10-01

    An on-site visitor survey instrument was developed to examine visitor perceptions of resource impacts resulting from backcountry hiking activities. The survey was conducted in the Bear Lake Corridor of Rocky Mountain National Park, CO and examined visitor characteristics that may influence visitor perceptions of specific resource conditions. Findings indicate that visitors are more perceptive of recreation-related resource impacts that are the result of undesirable behavior and, while visitors do perceive resource impacts, visitors tend to be more affected by crowding. Factors such as local ecological knowledge and knowledge of minimal-impact practices positively influence visitor perceptions of resource impacts. These findings support the use of visitor education on ecological knowledge and minimum-impact as a means of increasing visitor awareness of recreation impact issues.

  13. Mediation Effects of Latent Numerical Abilities on the Associations between Domain General Competencies and Fraction Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Ai; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse; Carrique, Jessica; Jordan, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to reveal the developmental pathway from third grade cognitive competencies to sixth grade conceptual and procedural fraction knowledge through the intervening whole numerical skills at fifth grade. The study used empirical data that come from 536 students in nine schools across two Delaware public school…

  14. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,…

  15. Automatic change detection of buildings in urban environment from very high spatial resolution images using existing geodatabase and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouziani, Mourad; Goïta, Kalifa; He, Dong-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The updating of geodatabases (GDB) in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It may be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. Some change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geodatabase. Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to be added to the geodatabase. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2006 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The rate of good detection is 90%. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the exact contours of the buildings. It could be improved by including a shape post-analysis of detected buildings. The proposed method could be integrated into a cartographic update process or as a method for the quality assessment of a geodatabase. It could be also be used to identify illegal building work or to monitor urban growth.

  16. Fast muscle responses to an unexpected foot-in-hole scenario, evoked in the context of prior knowledge of the potential perturbation.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Masahiro; Masahiro, Shinya; Oda, Shingo; Shingo, Oda

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of prior knowledge of the potential loss of support during walking on muscle responses to the potential perturbation. Four conditions were tested; non-instructed control (NC), non-instructed perturbed (NP), instructed control (IC) and instructed perturbed (IP). Participants were perturbed by having them step into a hidden hole (8.5 cm) in a walkway during the NP and IP trials. Participants had no prior knowledge of the potential perturbation under the NC and NP conditions, but under the instructed conditions, participants were informed that there might be a hole in the walkway. A cautious landing strategy was observed in the IC trials. The participants exhibited flat-footed landings (plantar angle: NC: 13.7 +/- 2.8 degrees; IC: 8.5 +/- 5.2 degrees) and a prolonged double support phase (NC: 138 +/- 18 ms; IC: 161 +/- 17 ms) when they had prior knowledge of the possible hole. When the participants encountered a hole, we saw triggering of fast muscle responses in the ipsilateral plantarflexors and knee extensor, as well as in the contralateral dorsiflexors and knee flexors. This pattern was interpreted as a stop walking synergy. The opposite muscle activation pattern, which was thought of as a resume walking synergy, was induced when no hole was presented and actual foot contact occurred at the expected instant. The latencies between the onsets of muscle responses and the expected heel contact were shorter under the IP condition than under the NP condition (ipsilateral soleus: NP: 78 +/- 13 ms, IP: 64 +/- 14 ms; contralateral biceps femoris: NP: 94 +/- 25 ms; IP: 76 +/- 17 ms). Our results demonstrate that reactive muscle responses to perturbations depend on the anticipatory state with respect to potential perturbations.

  17. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R.; Lucieer, Vanessa L.; Nichol, Scott L.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve’s IUCN zone IV, and

  18. Self-configurable radio receiver system and method for use with signals without prior knowledge of signal defining characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Tkacenko, Andre (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, radio receiver, and system to autonomously receive and decode a plurality of signals having a variety of signal types without a priori knowledge of the defining characteristics of the signals is disclosed. The radio receiver is capable of receiving a signal of an unknown signal type and, by estimating one or more defining characteristics of the signal, determine the type of signal. The estimated defining characteristic(s) is/are utilized to enable the receiver to determine other defining characteristics. This in turn, enables the receiver, through multiple iterations, to make a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate for each of the defining characteristics. After the type of signal is determined by its defining characteristics, the receiver selects an appropriate decoder from a plurality of decoders to decode the signal.

  19. Sumatran orangutans differ in their cultural knowledge but not in their cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Singleton, Ian; van Schaik, Carel

    2012-12-04

    Animal cultures are controversial because the method used to isolate culture in animals aims at excluding genetic and environmental influences rather than demonstrating social learning. Here, we analyzed these factors in parallel in captivity to determine their influences on tool use. We exposed Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) orphans from tool-using and non-tool-using regions (western swamps and eastern Langkat, respectively) that differed in both genetic and cultural backgrounds to a raking task and a honey-dipping task to assess their understanding of stick use. Orangutans from both regions were equally successful in raking; however, swamp orangutans were more successful than Langkat orangutans in honey dipping, where previously acquired knowledge was required. A larger analysis suggested that the Alas River could constitute a geographical barrier to the spread of this cultural trait. Finally, honey-dipping individuals were on average less than 4 years old, but this behavior is not observed in the wild before 6 years of age. Our results suggest first that genetic differences between wild Sumatran populations cannot explain their differences in stick use; however, their performances in honey dipping support a cultural differentiation in stick knowledge. Second, the results suggest that the honey-dippers were too young when arriving at the quarantine center to have possibly mastered the behavior in the wild individually, suggesting that they arrived with preestablished mental representations of stick use or, simply put, "cultural ideas."

  20. Seniors, health information, and the Internet: motivation, ability, and Internet knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaojing; Simpson, Penny M

    2013-10-01

    Providing health information to older adults is crucial to empowering them to better control their health, and the information is readily available on the Internet. Yet, little is known about the factors that are important in affecting seniors' Internet search for health information behavior. This work addresses this research deficit by examining the role of health information orientation (HIO), eHealth literacy, and Internet knowledge (IK) in affecting the likelihood of using the Internet as a source for health information. The analysis reveals that each variable in the study is significant in affecting Internet search likelihood. Results from the analysis also demonstrate the partial mediating role of eHealth literacy and the interaction between eHealth literacy and HIO. The findings suggest that improving seniors' IK and eHealth literacy would increase their likelihood of searching for and finding health information on the Internet that might encourage better health behaviors.

  1. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Protein–peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein–peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein–peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock. PMID:25943545

  2. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site.

    PubMed

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Protein-peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein-peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein-peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock.

  3. Learn and apply: using multi-sensory storytelling to gather knowledge about preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities--three case studies.

    PubMed

    Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.

  4. The CCMC's national study of case manager job descriptions: an understanding of the activities, role relationships, knowledges, skills, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein A; Huber, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Defining the roles and functions of case managers is crucial in today's healthcare environment and necessary for the case management field. One way to address this issue is through the examination of case managers' job descriptions used in various healthcare organizations. The study reported herein used qualitative analysis procedures and the latent class cluster analysis method to examine a national sample of 1028 job descriptions of case managers. The study identified the activities, role relationships, knowledge, skills, and abilities of case managers working in varied settings. It also described the changes that occurred in the practice of case management, based on these job descriptions, over 5 years: from the mid-1990s until the early 2000s. One benefit of this study was a change in one eligibility criterion of the CCM credential. Another was the development of a taxonomy of case managers' roles and functions that can be used as a step toward standardization of case managers' job descriptions.

  5. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  6. SU-D-17A-01: Geometric and Dosimetric Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Reconstruction Technique Using Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a 4D-CBCT reconstruction technique both geometrically and dosimetrically Methods: A prior-knowledge guided 4DC-BCT reconstruction method named the motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) has been developed. MM-FD views each phase of the 4D-CBCT as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The deformation field is first solved by principal component analysis based motion modeling, followed by constrained free-form deformation.The 4D digital extended-cardiac- torso (XCAT) phantom was used for comprehensive evaluation. Based on a simulated 4D planning CT of a lung patient, 8 different scenarios were simulated to cover the typical on-board anatomical and respiratory variations: (1) synchronized and (2) unsynchronized motion amplitude change for body and tumor; tumor (3) shrinkage and (4) expansion; tumor average position shift in (5) superior-inferior (SI) direction, (6) anterior-posterior (AP) direction and (7) SI, AP and lateral directions altogether; and (8) tumor phase shift relative to the respiratory cycle of the body. Orthogonal-view 30° projections were simulated based on the eight patient scenarios to reconstruct on-board 4D-CBCTs. For geometric evaluation, the volume-percentage-difference (VPD) was calculated to assess the volumetric differences between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumor.For dosimetric evaluation, a gated treatment plan was designed for the prior 4D-CT. The dose distributions were calculated on the reconstructed 4D-CBCTs and the ground-truth images for comparison. The MM-FD technique was compared with MM-only and FD-only techniques. Results: The average (±s.d.) VPD values of reconstructed tumors for MM-only, FDonly and MM-FD methods were 59.16%(± 26.66%), 75.98%(± 27.21%) and 5.22%(± 2.12%), respectively. The average min/max/mean dose (normalized to prescription) of the reconstructed tumors by MM-only, FD-only, MM-FD methods and ground-truth tumors were 78.0%/122.2%/108.2%, 13%/117.7%/86%, 58

  7. A knowledge gap analysis on multi-scale predictive ability for agriculturally derived sediments under South African conditions.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A J

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture has been implicated as a major source of sediments in South Africa. The aim of the knowledge gap analysis was to understand the production and delivery components of agriculturally derived sediments under South African conditions and to assess the predictive ability to address the fate of these sediments from field to catchment scales. An overview is given of important erosion processes and erosion modelling applied in South Africa at the field and catchment scale. A limitation of the sediment models is that gully erosion is not simulated; therefore, the models should be complemented with gully erosion predictions if gullies are an important sediment source. Field-scale models inadequately predict sediment production localised at hydrologically sensitive areas as a result of saturation excess flow and/or throughflow. The discussion on erosion modelling reveals that more complex models have had limited application in South Africa because they require large and detailed data sets, and may have parameters that are difficult to measure or to estimate. A modelling framework is discussed which allows linking of sediment models requiring readily available data, gully erosion models/maps and the use of other techniques to assess the fate of agriculturally derived sediments from field to catchment scale.

  8. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  9. Can a Short Intensive Course Affect Entrepreneurial Ability, Knowledge and Intent, or Further Entrepreneurial Study? An Assessment of the SEED Programme, Dunedin, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon; Kirkwood, Jodyanne; Clark, Gavin J.; Silvey, Stephen; Appleby, Ruth D.; Wolkenhauer, Svea Mara; Panjabi, Jayashree; Gluyas, Eva; Brain, Chelsea; Abbott, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The SEED (Student Enterprise Experience in Dunedin) programme was developed as a four-week, intensive entrepreneurial "boot camp" to provide a small group of participants with a highly experiential business course. Using pre-course and post-course surveys, the authors measured the entrepreneurial ability, knowledge and intentions of the…

  10. Using Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA) Data to Identify Career Pathing Opportunities: An Application of Job Analysis to Internal Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, William

    1993-01-01

    When knowledge, skills, and abilities of four job classes (secretarial/clerical, managerial/administrative, professional/technical, service) were identified, 68% of those determined important for managerial/administrative were also important for secretarial/clerical. Job analysis proved useful in identifying possible career paths, and potential…

  11. The Effects of a Socioscientific Issues Instructional Model in Secondary Agricultural Education on Students' Content Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning Ability, Argumentation Skills, and Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess…

  12. Implementing CLIL in Higher Education in Thailand: The Extent to Which CLIL Improves Agricultural Students' Writing Ability, Agricultural Content, and Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansri, Charinee; Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which a CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) course at university level in Thailand improves undergraduate Agricultural students' writing ability, agricultural content, and cultural knowledge. The study sample consisted of 27 students majoring in Agriculture at a public university in…

  13. Pursuing a Purpose: The Role of Career Exploration Courses and Service-Learning Internships in Recognizing and Developing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of…

  14. Knowledge and luck.

    PubMed

    Turri, John; Buckwalter, Wesley; Blouw, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement that involves reaching the truth. But many factors affecting the truth are beyond our control, and reaching the truth is often partly due to luck. Which sorts of luck are compatible with knowledge? We found that knowledge attributions are highly sensitive to lucky events that change the explanation for why a belief is true. By contrast, knowledge attributions are surprisingly insensitive to lucky events that threaten, but ultimately fail to change the explanation for why a belief is true. These results shed light on our concept of knowledge, help explain apparent inconsistencies in prior work on knowledge attributions, and constitute progress toward a general understanding of the relation between success and luck.

  15. Ab initio X-ray structural characterization of an inclusion compound with a compositionally disordered chiral guest: no prior knowledge of the crystal composition.

    PubMed

    Guzei, Ilia A; Miles, Kelsey C

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure and absolute configuration of a molecular host/guest/impurity inclusion complex were established unequivocally in spite of our having no prior knowledge of its chemical composition. The host (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane, (I), displays expected conformational features. The crystal-disordered chiral guest 4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one, (II), is present in the crystal 85.1 (4)% of the time. It shares a common site with 4a-hydroperoxymethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one, (III), present 14.9 (4)% of the time, which is the product of autoxidation of (II). This minor peroxide impurity was isolated, and the results of nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence studies are consistent with the proposed structure of (III). The complete structure was therefore determined to be (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one-4a-hydroperoxymethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one (1/0.85/0.15), C31H30O4·0.85C10H14O·0.15C10H14O3, (IV). There are host-host, host-guest, and host-impurity hydrogen-bonding interactions of types S and D in the solid state. We believe that the crystals of (IV) were originally prepared to establish the chirality of the guest (II) by means of X-ray diffraction analysis of host/guest crystals obtained in the course of chiral resolution during cocrystallization of (II) with (I). In spite of the absence of `heavy' elements, the absolute configurations of all anomeric centres in the structure are assigned as R based on resonant scattering effects.

  16. SU-C-204-04: Patient Specific Proton Stopping Powers Estimation by Combining Proton Radiography and Prior-Knowledge X-Ray CT Information

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, CA; Brousmiche, S; Hansen, D; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The material relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the highest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate, patient specific, RSP by combining 1) pre-treatment x-ray CT and 2) daily proton radiograph of the patient. Methods: The method is formulated as a linear least-square optimization problem (min||Ax-B||2). The parameter A represents the pathlength crossed by the proton in each material. The RSPs for the materials (water equivalent thickness (WET)/physical thickness) are denoted by x. B is the proton radiograph expressed as WET crossed. The problem is minimized using a convex-conic optimization algorithm with xiprior knowledge x-ray CT demonstrates serious potential to increase the accuracy of present RSP estimates.

  17. Joint surface reconstruction and 4D deformation estimation from sparse data and prior knowledge for marker-less Respiratory motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Berkels, Benjamin; Rumpf, Martin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge.Methods: The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner.Results: In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ±0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data—down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially.Conclusions: In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using

  18. How logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge interact in the process of solving problems about light and vision among Taiwanese secondary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Chieh

    Piagetian scholars argue that the effect of problem content, e.g., empirical knowledge, should decrease with age. Indeed, they believe that the empirical knowledge cannot affect human problem-solving after individuals approach the formal operation stage. In arguing this point, this study uses an A-AR model to address how empirical knowledge affects the problem-solving process among Taiwanese secondary students. The A-AR model is borrowed from mathematics and the symbols, A, A, and R, represent Assumption, Answering, and Reasoning, respectively. Similar to solving mathematics problems, the A-AR model problems require participants to use the given assumptions by logical reasoning in order to respond to the problems. In this situation, the effect of empirical knowledge on problem-solving is easy to detect. There are three results about human problem-solving found in this study. First, the empirical knowledge still affects human problem-solving at the formal operation stage. Not like the Piagetian scholars' assumption: the effect of empirical knowledge is decreasing with age, this study finds that the effect of empirical knowledge is S-shape. The S-shape is a result of academic training. Second, the academic training, major, shapes human problem-solving strategies. For instance, the 12th grade science students' problem-solving strategy is based on logical reasoning ability by the given assumptions and the same grade social science students' strategy is according of their empirical knowledge. Third, the interference of logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge is a predictor of the empirical knowledge effect on human problem-solving. The relation between the empirical knowledge and interference can be characterized as: the more negative interference the participants have, the more of the empirical knowledge effect they will have in the next year. This study does not agree with the Piagetian theory about human problem-solving: the effect of empirical knowledge

  19. Making priors a priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, Matthew; Chadwick, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    When we build a predictive model of a drug property we rigorously assess its predictive accuracy, but we are rarely able to address the most important question, "How useful will the model be in making a decision in a practical context?" To answer this requires an understanding of the prior probability distribution ("the prior") and hence prevalence of negative outcomes due to the property being assessed. In this perspective, we illustrate the importance of the prior to assess the utility of a model in different contexts: to select or eliminate compounds, to prioritise compounds for further investigation using more expensive screens, or to combine models for different properties to select compounds with a balance of properties. In all three contexts, a better understanding of the prior probabilities of adverse events due to key factors will improve our ability to make good decisions in drug discovery, finding higher quality molecules more efficiently.

  20. Prior Knowledge Base of Constellations and Bright Stars among Non-Science Majoring Undergraduates and 14-15 Year Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Eric G.; Hintz, Maureen L.; Lawler, M. Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve students' knowledge of constellations and bright stars in an introductory level descriptive astronomy survey course, we measured the baseline knowledge that students bring to the class and how their score evolve over the course of the semester. This baseline is needed by the broader astronomy education research…

  1. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  2. Knowledge of partner's ability as a moderator of group motivation gains: an exploration of the Köhler discrepancy effect.

    PubMed

    Messé, Lawrence A; Hertel, Guido; Kerr, Norbert L; Lount, Robert B; Park, Ernest S

    2002-06-01

    O. Köhler (1926, 1927) found that less able performers tried harder as team members under conjunctive task demands (Kohler motivation gain effect) and that the greatest gain occurred with moderately discrepant coworker abilities (Köhler discrepancy effect). Recent investigations have reproduced Köhler's overall motivation gain but not the discrepancy effect. The present research examined whether workers' foreknowledge of task abilities--present in Kohler's research, absent in contemporary studies--moderates the discrepancy effect. Participants worked alone or in 2-person teams under conjunctive task demands. Experiment 1 manipulated foreknowledge of ability. Experiment 2 manipulated discrepancy: a (confederate) teammate performed slightly, moderately, or substantially better. Both experiments found (a) overall motivation gains and (b) discrepancy moderation under foreknowledge conditions. Implications for understanding group motivation gains are discussed.

  3. The correlation between ostomy knowledge and self-care ability with psychosocial adjustment in Chinese patients with a permanent colostomy: a descriptive study .

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Meng, Ai-feng; Yang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Yi-nan

    2013-07-01

    A colostomy can have a negative impact on patient quality of life. Research suggests that psychosocial adaptation is positively associated with quality of life, but few reports address this adaptation and its related factors in patients with a permanent colostomy. A 4-month, descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of ostomy knowledge and ability to self-care on the psychosocial adjustment of 54 Chinese outpatients (47 men, 14 participants 40 to 50 years old, 40 participants 50 to 70 years old) with a permanent colostomy to investigate the correlation between stoma knowledge, self-care ability, and psychosocial adjustment. Assessment instruments included a sociodemographic data questionnaire and a Chinese translation of the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 that comprises 20 items in three domains (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life). Participants rated statements on a scale from 0 (totally disagree) to 4 (totally agree); a score of 40 indicates a low level of psychosocial adjustment. Participants also completed the Stoma-related Knowledge Scale, comprising 14 5-point Likert scale questions where low scores indicate low knowledge, and they answered one question regarding self-care ability. Data were analyzed using statistical software for social science. The average stoma-related knowledge score suggested moderate levels of knowledge (45.112 ± 13.358). Twenty (20) participants managed all stoma care aspects independently, 30 required some assistance, and four (4) required care by someone else. The three domains of psychosocial adjustment scores (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life) were 17.60 ± 4.093,12.92 ± 3.440, and 19.15 ± 6.316, respectively. Knowledge and the three domains of psychosocial adjustment were positively correlated with positive emotion (r = .610, P = 0.001), negative emotion (r = .696, P = 0.000), and social life adjustment (r = .617, P = 0.001). A significant difference in psychosocial adjustment

  4. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  5. A Needs Assessment to Determine Knowledge and Ability of Egyptian Agricultural Technical School Teachers Related to Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby; Roberts, T. Grady; Samy, M. M.; Thoron, Andrew C.; Easterly, R. G., III

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted approximately one year after Egyptian Agricultural Technical School (ATS) instructors attended workshops on integrating placement Supervised Agricultural Experience as an instructional tool in their programs. Following a year of implementation, the purpose of this study was to determine ATS teacher knowledge and ability…

  6. Does EFL Readers' Lexical and Grammatical Knowledge Predict Their Reading Ability? Insights from a Perceptron Artificial Neural Network Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Baghaei, Purya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between reading comprehension and lexical and grammatical knowledge among English as a foreign language students by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). There were 825 test takers administered both a second-language reading test and a set of psychometrically validated grammar and vocabulary tests.…

  7. The Practical Side of Culinary Arts Education: The Role of Social Ability and Durable Knowledge in Culinary Arts Externships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeaux, William Raymond

    2012-01-01

    As externships evolved from their vocational education roots into the university setting, both the course purposes and the expectations of student changed toward deeper learning. While the students' responsibility for gaining knowledge has increased, teaching methods designed by educators to prepare students for more critically evaluated…

  8. Investigating the effects of structured and guided inquiry on students' development of conceptual knowledge and inquiry abilities: a case study in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Wen-Hua; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-08-01

    In order to promote scientific inquiry in secondary schooling in Taiwan, the study developed a computer-based inquiry curriculum (including structured and guided inquiry units) and investigated how the curriculum influenced students' science learning. The curriculum was implemented in 5 junior secondary schools in the context of a weeklong summer science course with 117 students. We first used a multi-level assessment approach to evaluate the students' learning outcomes with the curriculum. Then, a path analysis approach was adopted for investigating at different assessment levels how the curriculum as a whole and how different types of inquiry units affected the students' development of conceptual understandings and inquiry abilities. The results showed that the curriculum was effective in enhancing the students' conceptual knowledge and inquiry abilities in the contexts of the six scientific topics. After the curriculum, they were able to construct interconnected scientific knowledge. The path diagrams suggested that, due to different instructional designs, the structured and guided inquiry units appeared to support the students' learning of the topics in different ways. More importantly, they demonstrated graphically how the learning of content knowledge and inquiry ability mutually influenced one another and were reciprocally developed in a computer-based inquiry learning environment.

  9. Articulating Knowledge, How Adults Learn and the Role of the Prior Learning Assessment Professional. Proceedings of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning (Princeton, New Jersey, June 13-16, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagavarian, Debra A., Ed.

    This publication highlights three topics from the 1992 National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. "Computer Conferencing at the National Institute: The Articulation of Knowledge and Writing Ability in the Assessment of Experiential Learning" (Evelyn F. Spradley) discusses the electronic conference held concurrently with the…

  10. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on

  11. Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Bowen; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Chang, Daniel; Cheng, Jason; Li, Ruijiang

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid

  12. Three Forms of Assessment of Prior Knowledge, and Improved Performance Following an Enrichment Programme, of English Second Language Biology Students within the Context of a Marine Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the assessment of student background knowledge along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Examines improved student performance in each of the respective assessments on the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to English as Second Language (ESL)…

  13. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  14. Non-Bayesian noun generalization in 3- to 5-year-old children: Probing the role of prior knowledge in the suspicious coincidence effect

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as “Labrador,” “dog,” and “animal.” Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model—that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate examples. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate examples, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend. PMID:24961497

  15. Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…

  16. The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.

  17. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  18. Effects of Diabetic Case Management on Knowledge, Self-Management Abilities, Health Behaviors, and Health Service Utilization for Diabetes in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soon Ae; Lee, Kunsei; Lin, Vivian; Liu, George; Shin, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a case management program for diabetics, using a pre-post comparison design. Materials and Methods The study population comprised 6007 diabetics who received case management intervention in 2006 and were sampled nationwide in Korea. Before and after the intervention, the study population answered questions regarding their knowledge of diabetes, self-management ability, and health behaviors. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Healthcare service utilization for diabetes was extracted from health insurance claim data from 2005 to 2007. Results The case management program significantly improved the study population's knowledge of diabetes and ability to self-manage nutrition, blood glucose monitoring, foot and oral care, and medications. This program also significantly changed the study population's health behaviors regarding smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise, and BMI was positively affected. In the over-serviced subgroup, there was a significant decrease in the number of consultations (mean=7.0; SD=19.5) after intervention. Conversely, in the under-serviced subgroup, there was a significant increase in the number of consultations (mean=3.2; SD=7.9) and the days of prescribed medication (mean=66.4; SD=120.3) after intervention. Conclusion This study showed that the case management program led the study population to improve their knowledge, self-management ability, health behaviors, and utilization of health care. It is necessary in future studies to evaluate the appropriateness of healthcare usage and clinical outcome by using a control group to determine the direct effectiveness of this case management program. PMID:25510771

  19. FORECAST 2000: a prediction of skills, knowledge, and abilities required by senior medical treatment facility leaders into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports results from a Delphi study conducted among the Commanders and Deputy Commanders for Administration of 37 Army medical treatment facilities (MTFs), who identified the most important issues challenging their institutions for the remainder of this decade, and the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by MTF leaders to deal successfully with those challenges. A Delphi mail-out was conducted in two iterations. Respondents identified 187 health care issues which were divided by content into nine domains by a panel of health care experts. The domains, ranked by importance, were cost-finance, health care delivery, access to care, quality and risk management, technology, professional staff relations, leadership, marketing, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, MTF leaders agreed upon the necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities of future leaders. Results indicated that future leadership will require enhanced financial, quantitative, and technical skills, as well as competence in a broad array of interpersonal and communication skills. Implications for military medical leader development initiatives are discussed.

  20. Prior Knowledge of Rules in Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, Charles J.

    This paper briefly reviews the literature concerning the Paiget-Burner debate over the roles of identify and reversibility rules in conservation acquisition, and describes an experiment designed to determine whether one group of rules is more closely related to conservation than the other. A group of children, aged 4-6 years, received tests of…

  1. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  2. Epistemological Beliefs of Prospective Preschool Teachers and Their Relation to Knowledge, Perception, and Planning Abilities in the Field of Mathematics: A Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…

  3. Creating Connections: Using the Internet to Support Struggling Readers' Background Knowledge. Issues in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Rachel A.

    2004-01-01

    Background knowledge plays an important role in one?s ability to learn. We learn new knowledge by relating it to our prior knowledge, which in turn provides concrete understanding (Piaget, 1969). Rosenblatt (1996) explained, "The reader brings to the work personality traits, memories of past events, present needs and preoccupations, a…

  4. Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…

  5. An Analysis of Knowledge Structure, Diversity and Diagnostic Abilities among Pre-Service Science Teachers within the Domain of Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Avery, Leanne; Golden, Constance Feldt; French, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of preservice science teachers' knowledge structures in the domain of oxidation and reduction chemistry. Knowledge structures were elicited through video-recorded semi-structured interviews before and after the unit of instruction, and analyzed using a visual flow map representation.…

  6. Effects of pressure ulcer classification system education programme on knowledge and visual differential diagnostic ability of pressure ulcer classification and incontinence-associated dermatitis for clinical nurses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Jung Yoon

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure ulcer classification system education on clinical nurses' knowledge and visual differential diagnostic ability of pressure ulcer (PU) classification and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). One group pre and post-test was used. A convenience sample of 407 nurses, participating in PU classification education programme of continuing education, were enrolled. The education programme was composed of a 50-minute lecture on PU classification and case-studies. The PU Classification system and IAD knowledge test (PUCS-KT) and visual differential diagnostic ability tool (VDDAT), consisting of 21 photographs including clinical information were used. Paired t-test was performed using SPSS/WIN 20.0. The overall mean difference of PUCS-KT (t = -11·437, P<0·001) and VDDAT (t = -21·113, P<0·001) was significantly increased after PU classification education. Overall understanding of six PU classification and IAD after education programme was increased, but lacked visual differential diagnostic ability regarding Stage III PU, suspected deep tissue injury (SDTI), and Unstageable. Continuous differentiated education based on clinical practice is needed to improve knowledge and visual differential diagnostic ability for PU classification, and comparison experiment study is required to examine effects of education programmes.

  7. Constrained noninformative priors

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given.

  8. Physical priors in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaz, Hassan; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Liang, Jianming

    2009-02-01

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) aims to remove the contrast agent from the CT abdominal images so that a virtual model of the colon can be constructed. Virtual colonoscopy requires either liquid or solid preparation of the colon before CT imaging. This paper has two parts to address ECC in both preparation methods. In the first part, meniscus removal in the liquid preparation is studied. The meniscus is the curve seen at the top of a liquid in response to its container. Left on the colon wall, the meniscus can decrease the sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy. We state the differential equation that governs the profile of the meniscus and propose an algorithm for calculating the boundary of the contrast agent. We compute the surface tension of the liquid-colon wall contact using in-vivo CT data. Our results show that the surface tension can be estimated with an acceptable degree of uncertainty. Such an estimate, along with the meniscus profile differential equation will be used as an a priori knowledge to aid meniscus segmentation. In the second part, we study ECC in solid preparation of colon. Since the colon is pressurized with air before acquisition of the CT images, a prior on the shape of the colon wall can be obtained. We present such prior and investigate it using patient data. We show the shape prior is held in certain parts of the colon and propose a method that uses this prior to ease pseudoenhancement correction.

  9. Do Children with Social Communication Disorder Have Explicit Knowledge of Pragmatic Rules They Break? A Comparison of Conversational Pragmatic Ability and Metapragmatic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine; Collins, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children who have social communication disorder (CwSCD) demonstrate persistent difficulties with language pragmatics in conversations and other verbal interactions. Speech-language interventions for these children often include promotion of metapragmatic awareness (MPA); that is, the ability to identify explicitly and reflect upon…

  10. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  11. The Role Knowledge Frameworks Play in the Ability of Preservice Elementary Teachers To Explain the Operation of a St. Louis Motor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which preservice elementary teachers (n=30) described the working of a St. Louis motor before and after studying a laboratory unit on magnetism and electricity. Shows that knowledge framework interconnectedness of the post-unit interview was positively correlated. Analyzes in depth the highest and lowest performing students.…

  12. Minimally Informative Prior Distributions for PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Robert W. Youngblood; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-06-01

    A salient feature of Bayesian inference is its ability to incorporate information from a variety of sources into the inference model, via the prior distribution (hereafter simply “the prior”). However, over-reliance on old information can lead to priors that dominate new data. Some analysts seek to avoid this by trying to work with a minimally informative prior distribution. Another reason for choosing a minimally informative prior is to avoid the often-voiced criticism of subjectivity in the choice of prior. Minimally informative priors fall into two broad classes: 1) so-called noninformative priors, which attempt to be completely objective, in that the posterior distribution is determined as completely as possible by the observed data, the most well known example in this class being the Jeffreys prior, and 2) priors that are diffuse over the region where the likelihood function is nonnegligible, but that incorporate some information about the parameters being estimated, such as a mean value. In this paper, we compare four approaches in the second class, with respect to their practical implications for Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The most commonly used such prior, the so-called constrained noninformative prior, is a special case of the maximum entropy prior. This is formulated as a conjugate distribution for the most commonly encountered aleatory models in PSA, and is correspondingly mathematically convenient; however, it has a relatively light tail and this can cause the posterior mean to be overly influenced by the prior in updates with sparse data. A more informative prior that is capable, in principle, of dealing more effectively with sparse data is a mixture of conjugate priors. A particular diffuse nonconjugate prior, the logistic-normal, is shown to behave similarly for some purposes. Finally, we review the so-called robust prior. Rather than relying on the mathematical abstraction of entropy, as does the constrained

  13. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia.

  14. Reduced sensitivity to social priors during action prediction in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Farrer, Chlöé; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Jacquet, Pierre O; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to directly investigate whether difficulties in the appreciation of others' intentions can be accounted for by abnormal interaction between these two types of information: (i) the sensory evidence conveyed by movement kinematics, and (ii) the observer's expectations, acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we contrasted the ability to infer Non-Social and Social intentions in adults with and without ASD, using a series of tasks in which both sensory evidence and prior expectations were manipulated. The results showed that attenuated effect of prior expectations in ASD individuals does not result from a generalized impairment in mentalizing, but one confined to social intentions. Attenuated priors in the social domain predicted the severity of clinical symptoms in the area of social interaction. Importantly, however, we found that reduced priors in the social domain could be compensated by ASD through observational learning, i.e. through deriving statistical regularities from observed behaviours. This capacity to balance reduced social expectations by learning inversely correlated with the severity of repetitive and stereotyped behaviours. Collectively, these findings suggest that adults with ASD exhibit a disturbance in the inferential mechanism that integrates sensory evidence into prior beliefs to produce accurate inferences about other people's intentions.

  15. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  16. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.

  17. Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…

  18. Tuning your priors to the world.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of "tuning the prior"-widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of "ecological" tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an "ideal observer." But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment-which there almost always is-an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors.

  19. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.

  20. Second Language Idiom Learning: The Effects of Lexical Knowledge and Pedagogical Sequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of Spanish idioms in a classroom setting that was supplemented with explicit instruction over a 10-week period. The research design manipulated two variables: prior lexical knowledge and idiom organization. Sixty-five second language (L2) learners completed pre- and posttests that measured their ability to…

  1. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  2. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  3. Another Look at Mother Goose: Prior Knowledge or Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Lenore

    Arguing that Mother Goose is becoming an endangered species, this paper reports on the results of an informal survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in a children's literature course. The survey results reported in the paper indicated that some students were able to complete a cloze-type Mother Goose couplet, but others audibly…

  4. Tests of a Prior Marksmanship Knowledge Predictor Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Christopher L. Vowels, U.S. Army Research Institute Peter S. Schaefer, U.S. Army Research Institute NOTICES DISTRIBUTION: Primary...Duty 95 Active Guard Reserve ( AGR ) 6 * - One student left the service status blank. Note: PV2 = Private E-2; SFC = Sergeant First Class...2. Branch of Service (n = 102) Air Force Army 0 102 3. Current Service Status (n = 101) Active Duty Active Guard Reserve ( AGR ) 95 6

  5. Prior Knowledge of Mechanics amongst First Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Dick

    2007-01-01

    In the last 25 years, A-level Mathematics syllabi have changed very considerably, introducing a broader range of application areas but reducing the previous emphasis on classical mechanics. This article describes a baseline survey undertaken to establish in detail the entry levels in mechanics for the cohort of students entering Engineering…

  6. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  7. Tuning Your Priors to the World

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of “tuning the prior”—widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of “ecological” tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an “ideal observer.” But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment—which there almost always is—an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors. PMID:23335572

  8. Marginally specified priors for non-parametric Bayesian estimation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David C; Hoff, Peter D; Dunson, David B

    2015-01-01

    Prior specification for non-parametric Bayesian inference involves the difficult task of quantifying prior knowledge about a parameter of high, often infinite, dimension. A statistician is unlikely to have informed opinions about all aspects of such a parameter but will have real information about functionals of the parameter, such as the population mean or variance. The paper proposes a new framework for non-parametric Bayes inference in which the prior distribution for a possibly infinite dimensional parameter is decomposed into two parts: an informative prior on a finite set of functionals, and a non-parametric conditional prior for the parameter given the functionals. Such priors can be easily constructed from standard non-parametric prior distributions in common use and inherit the large support of the standard priors on which they are based. Additionally, posterior approximations under these informative priors can generally be made via minor adjustments to existing Markov chain approximation algorithms for standard non-parametric prior distributions. We illustrate the use of such priors in the context of multivariate density estimation using Dirichlet process mixture models, and in the modelling of high dimensional sparse contingency tables.

  9. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    PubMed

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing.

  10. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  11. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  12. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns.

    PubMed

    Kumkale, G Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J

    2010-06-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed.

  13. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns1

    PubMed Central

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:21625405

  14. Random template placement and prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röver, Christian

    2010-05-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  15. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  16. MRI tissue segmentation incorporating a bias field modulated smoothness prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enmin; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Sacrey, Diana; Blumenfeld, Robert; Weiner, Michael W.; Studholme, Colin

    2003-05-01

    This paper examines a refinement to probabilistic intensity based tissue segmentation methods, which makes use of knowledge derived from an MRI bias field estimate. Intensity based labeling techniques have employed local smoothness priors to reduce voxel level tissue labeling errors, by making use of the assumption that, within uniform regions of tissue, a voxel should be highly likely to have a similar tissue assignment to its neighbors. Increasing the size of this neighborhood provides more robustness to noise, but reduces the ability to describe small structures. However, when intensity bias due to RF field inhomogeneity is present within the MRI data, local contrast to noise may vary across the image. We therefore propose an approach to refining the labeling by making use of the bias field estimate, to adapt the neighborhood size applied to reduce local labeling errors. We explore the use of a radially symmetric Gaussian weighted neighborhood, and the use of the mean and median of the adapted region probabilities, to refine local probabilistic labeling. The approach is evaluated using the Montreal brainweb MRI simulator as a gold standard providing known gray, white and CSF tissue segmentation. These results show that the method is capable of improving the local tissue labeling in areas most influenced by inhomogeneity. The method appears most promising in its application to regional tissue volume analysis or higher field MRI data where bias field inhomogeneity can be significant.

  17. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  18. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  19. Essays on Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  20. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  1. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  2. Knowledge Structures of Entering Computer Networking Students and Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students bring prior knowledge to their learning experiences. This prior knowledge is known to affect how students encode and later retrieve new information learned. Teachers and content developers can use information about students' prior knowledge to create more effective lessons and materials. In many content areas, particularly the sciences,…

  3. Improving semantic scene understanding using prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laddha, Ankit; Hebert, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Perception for ground robot mobility requires automatic generation of descriptions of the robot's surroundings from sensor input (cameras, LADARs, etc.). Effective techniques for scene understanding have been developed, but they are generally purely bottom-up in that they rely entirely on classifying features from the input data based on learned models. In fact, perception systems for ground robots have a lot of information at their disposal from knowledge about the domain and the task. For example, a robot in urban environments might have access to approximate maps that can guide the scene interpretation process. In this paper, we explore practical ways to combine such prior information with state of the art scene understanding approaches.

  4. Guide to Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition at SIAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    This guide describes the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology's (SIAST's) (Canada) Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) program. PLAR is an evaluation through a valid and reliable process of the knowledge and skills a student has learned through previous education, training, or experience, to determine the…

  5. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  6. Aging Cognition Unconfounded by Prior Test Experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Investigate time-related age differences in cognitive functioning without influences of prior test experience. Methods. Cognitive scores were compared in different individuals from the same birth years who were tested in different years, when they were at different ages. These types of quasi-longitudinal comparisons were carried out on data from three large projects: the Seattle Longitudinal Study [Schaie, K. W. (2013). Developmental influences on adult intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press], the Betula Project [Ronnlund, M., & Nilsson, L-G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence, 36, 192–209], and the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project (this study). Results. In each data set, the results revealed that the estimates of cognitive change with no prior test experience closely resembled the estimates of age relations based on cross-sectional comparisons. Furthermore, longitudinal comparisons revealed positive changes at young ages that gradually became more negative with increased age, whereas all of the estimates of change without prior test experience were negative except those for measures of vocabulary. Discussion. The current results suggest that retest effects can distort the mean age trends in longitudinal comparisons that are not adjusted for experience. Furthermore, the findings can be considered robust because the patterns were similar across three data sets involving different samples of participants and cognitive tests, and across different methods of controlling experience effects in the new data set. PMID:25182845

  7. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... summary report available... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 12 hours ago Good ...

  8. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  9. Novel Method for Calculating a Nonsubjective Informative Prior for a Bayesian Model in Toxicology Screening: A Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Woldegebriel, Michael

    2015-11-17

    In toxicology screening (forensic, food-safety), due to several analytical errors (e.g., retention time shift, lack of repeatability in m/z scans, etc.), the ability to confidently identify/confirm a compound remains a challenge. Due to these uncertainties, a probabilistic approach is currently preferred. However, if a probabilistic approach is followed, the only statistical method that is capable of estimating the probability of whether the compound of interest (COI) is present/absent in a given sample is Bayesian statistics. Bayes' theorem can combine prior information (prior probability) with data (likelihood) to give an optimal probability (posterior probability) reflecting the presence/absence of the COI. In this work, a novel method for calculating an informative prior probability for a Bayesian model in targeted toxicology screening is introduced. In contrast to earlier proposals making use of literature citation rates and the prior knowledge of the analyst, this method presents a thorough and nonsubjective approach. The formulation approaches the probability calculation as a clustering and random draw problem that incorporates few analytical method parameters meticulously estimated to reflect sensitivity and specificity of the system. The practicality of the method has been demonstrated and validated using real data and simulated analytical techniques.

  10. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Heußer, Thorsten Brehm, Marcus; Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data.

  11. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  12. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  13. Unequal Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)

  14. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  15. The Genesis of Reading Ability: What Helps Children Learn Letter-Sound Correspondences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max; Wilson, Katherine; Valpied, Jodie; Wedgwood, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of letter-sound correspondences underpins successful reading acquisition, and yet little is known about how young children acquire this knowledge and what prior information they bring to the learning process. In this study, we used an experimental training design to examine whether either prior letter awareness or prior phonemic…

  16. Integrating Informative Priors from Experimental Research with Bayesian Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan; Richardson, David; MacLehose, Richard; Wing, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Informative priors can be a useful tool for epidemiologists to handle problems of sparse data in regression modeling. It is sometimes the case that an investigator is studying a population exposed to two agents, X and Y, where Y is the agent of primary interest. Previous research may suggest that the exposures have different effects on the health outcome of interest, one being more harmful than the other. Such information may be derived from epidemiologic analyses; however, in the case where such evidence is unavailable, knowledge can be drawn from toxicologic studies or other experimental research. Unfortunately, using toxicologic findings to develop informative priors in epidemiologic analyses requires strong assumptions, with no established method for its utilization. We present a method to help bridge the gap between animal and cellular studies and epidemiologic research by specification of an order-constrained prior. We illustrate this approach using an example from radiation epidemiology. PMID:23222512

  17. Image-Specific Prior Adaptation for Denoising.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Lin, Zhe; Jin, Hailin; Yang, Jianchao; Wang, James Z

    2015-12-01

    Image priors are essential to many image restoration applications, including denoising, deblurring, and inpainting. Existing methods use either priors from the given image (internal) or priors from a separate collection of images (external). We find through statistical analysis that unifying the internal and external patch priors may yield a better patch prior. We propose a novel prior learning algorithm that combines the strength of both internal and external priors. In particular, we first learn a generic Gaussian mixture model from a collection of training images and then adapt the model to the given image by simultaneously adding additional components and refining the component parameters. We apply this image-specific prior to image denoising. The experimental results show that our approach yields better or competitive denoising results in terms of both the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity.

  18. Visualizing topography: Effects of presentation strategy, gender, and spatial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Carla

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different presentation strategies (2-D static visuals, 3-D animated visuals, and 3-D interactive, animated visuals) and gender on achievement, time-spent-on visual treatment, and attitude during a computer-based science lesson about reading and interpreting topographic maps. The study also examined the relationship of spatial ability and prior knowledge to gender, achievement, and time-spent-on visual treatment. Students enrolled in high school chemistry-physics were pretested and given two spatial ability tests. They were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to one of three levels of presentation strategy or the control group. After controlling for the effects of spatial ability and prior knowledge with analysis of covariance, three significant differences were found between the versions: (a) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; (b) the 3-D animated treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; and (c) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the 3-D interactive animated treatment group. Furthermore, the 3-D interactive animated treatment group spent significantly more time on the visual screens than the 2-D static treatment group. Analyses of student attitudes revealed that most students felt the landform visuals in the computer-based program helped them learn, but not in a way they would describe as fun. Significant differences in attitude were found by treatment and by gender. In contrast to findings from other studies, no gender differences were found on either of the two spatial tests given in this study. Cognitive load, cognitive involvement, and solution strategy are offered as three key factors that may help explain the results of this study. Implications for instructional design include suggestions about the use of 2-D static, 3-D animated and 3-D interactive animations as well

  19. Measuring Knowledge Elaboration Based on a Computer-Assisted Knowledge Map Analytical Approach to Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Huang, Ronghuai; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the level of knowledge elaboration and explore the relationships between prior knowledge of a group, group performance, and knowledge elaboration in collaborative learning. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the level of knowledge elaboration. The collaborative learning objective in…

  20. Obstetrics in Mexico prior to 1600.

    PubMed

    Van Patten, N

    1932-03-01

    Surviving Indian codices and inscriptions, reports written down by the Spanish, and continuity of practice from pre-conquest times are the sources of knowledge about obstetrics in Mexico prior to 1600. Antenatal care included avoidance of exposure to heat, no sleep during the day, and plenty of nourishment, although certain dietary precautions were recommended. Moderate intercourse during the first trimester was permitted but prohibited near the time of parturition. In general, midwives counseled the prospective mother to eat well, to rest physically and mentally, and to engage very moderately in manual labor. Massage was given at regular intervals, and vapor baths were taken. Juices of medicinal plants were administered during labor both to expedite it and to relieve pain. Women assumed a squatting position during labor, which was also assisted by abdominal massage and the manual dilation of the vulva. If parturition was prolonged, pressure was applied by the midwife who used her feet for this purpose. The child was bathed immediately after birth. Lactation was prolonged among the Mexicans.

  1. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  2. Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup: 2014 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Legislation passed in 2011 required the Washington Student Achievement Council (WSAC) to convene a Prior Learning Assessment Workgroup. The workgroup was tasked with coordinating and implementing seven goals, described in statute, to promote the award of college credit for prior learning. Awarding college credit for prior learning increases access…

  3. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  4. Frames of Reference for the Light-from-Above Prior in Visual Search and Shape Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wendy J.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with highly complex and ambiguous visual input, human observers must rely on prior knowledge and assumptions to efficiently determine the structure of their surroundings. One of these assumptions is the "light-from-above" prior. In the absence of explicit light-source information, the visual system assumes that the light-source is roughly…

  5. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, S; Tan, T; Walsh, A; Carey, M

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  6. Using Dirichlet Priors to Improve Model Parameter Plausibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Dovan; Gong, Yue; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Student modeling is a widely used approach to make inference about a student's attributes like knowledge, learning, etc. If we wish to use these models to analyze and better understand student learning there are two problems. First, a model's ability to predict student performance is at best weakly related to the accuracy of any one of its…

  7. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  8. Bayesian generalized linear mixed modeling of Tuberculosis using informative priors

    PubMed Central

    Woldegerima, Woldegebriel Assefa

    2017-01-01

    TB is rated as one of the world’s deadliest diseases and South Africa ranks 9th out of the 22 countries with hardest hit of TB. Although many pieces of research have been carried out on this subject, this paper steps further by inculcating past knowledge into the model, using Bayesian approach with informative prior. Bayesian statistics approach is getting popular in data analyses. But, most applications of Bayesian inference technique are limited to situations of non-informative prior, where there is no solid external information about the distribution of the parameter of interest. The main aim of this study is to profile people living with TB in South Africa. In this paper, identical regression models are fitted for classical and Bayesian approach both with non-informative and informative prior, using South Africa General Household Survey (GHS) data for the year 2014. For the Bayesian model with informative prior, South Africa General Household Survey dataset for the year 2011 to 2013 are used to set up priors for the model 2014. PMID:28257437

  9. Bayesian generalized linear mixed modeling of Tuberculosis using informative priors.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Oluwatobi Blessing; Lougue, Siaka; Woldegerima, Woldegebriel Assefa

    2017-01-01

    TB is rated as one of the world's deadliest diseases and South Africa ranks 9th out of the 22 countries with hardest hit of TB. Although many pieces of research have been carried out on this subject, this paper steps further by inculcating past knowledge into the model, using Bayesian approach with informative prior. Bayesian statistics approach is getting popular in data analyses. But, most applications of Bayesian inference technique are limited to situations of non-informative prior, where there is no solid external information about the distribution of the parameter of interest. The main aim of this study is to profile people living with TB in South Africa. In this paper, identical regression models are fitted for classical and Bayesian approach both with non-informative and informative prior, using South Africa General Household Survey (GHS) data for the year 2014. For the Bayesian model with informative prior, South Africa General Household Survey dataset for the year 2011 to 2013 are used to set up priors for the model 2014.

  10. The power prior: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Gwon, Yeongjin; Chen, Fang

    2015-12-10

    The power prior has been widely used in many applications covering a large number of disciplines. The power prior is intended to be an informative prior constructed from historical data. It has been used in clinical trials, genetics, health care, psychology, environmental health, engineering, economics, and business. It has also been applied for a wide variety of models and settings, both in the experimental design and analysis contexts. In this review article, we give an A-to-Z exposition of the power prior and its applications to date. We review its theoretical properties, variations in its formulation, statistical contexts for which it has been used, applications, and its advantages over other informative priors. We review models for which it has been used, including generalized linear models, survival models, and random effects models. Statistical areas where the power prior has been used include model selection, experimental design, hierarchical modeling, and conjugate priors. Frequentist properties of power priors in posterior inference are established, and a simulation study is conducted to further examine the empirical performance of the posterior estimates with power priors. Real data analyses are given illustrating the power prior as well as the use of the power prior in the Bayesian design of clinical trials.

  11. Visual Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    Visual knowledge is an enormously important part of our total knowledge. The psychological study of learning and knowledge has focused almost exclusively on verbal materials. Today, the advance of technology is making the use of visual communication increasingly feasible and popular. However, this enthusiasm involves the illusion that visual…

  12. Preserving Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taintor, Spence

    2008-01-01

    Every year, teachers leave the profession and take valuable experience and knowledge with them. An increasing retirement rate makes schools vulnerable to a significant loss of knowledge. This article describes how implementing a knowledge management process will ensure that valuable assets are captured and shared. (Contains 3 online resources.)

  13. Interplay between Content Knowledge and Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakyolu, Hanife; Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

    2016-01-01

    This research study aimed to analyze the relationship between content knowledge and argumentation by examining students' prior subject matter knowledge and their production of arguments as well as by comparing students' arguments with their knowledge-in-use during scientific argumentation sessions. A correlational research design was carried out…

  14. Middle School Students' Knowledge of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jonathan M.; Barger, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Authors examined 1,015 middle school students' knowledge of autism using a single item of prior awareness and a 10-item Knowledge of Autism (KOA) scale. The KOA scale was designed to assess students' knowledge of the course, etiology, and symptoms associated with autism. Less than half of students (46.1%) reported having heard of autism; however,…

  15. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students’ cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  16. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students' cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio.

  17. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  18. Tacit Knowledge. Trends and Issues Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Tacit knowledge, the knowledge that workers possess but do not articulate, is associated with terms such as "skill,""know-how,""working knowledge," and "expertise" that are used to describe knowledge about and ability to perform work. Learning that takes place through apprenticeships draws heavily on tacit…

  19. Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates and Choice of Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency…

  20. Universal Priors for Sparse Modeling(PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    UNIVERSAL PRIORS FOR SPARSE MODELING By Ignacio Ramı́rez Federico Lecumberry and Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 2276 ( August 2009...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Universal Priors for Sparse Modeling (Invited Paper) Ignacio Ramı́rez#1, Federico Lecumberry ∗2, Guillermo Sapiro...I. Ramirez, F. Lecumberry , and G. Sapiro. Sparse modeling with univer- sal priors and learned incoherent dictionaries. Submitted to NIPS, 2009. [22

  1. The curse of knowledge: first language knowledge impairs adult learners' use of novel statistics for word segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2008-08-01

    We investigated whether adult learners' knowledge of phonotactic restrictions on word forms from their first language impacts their ability to use statistical information to segment words in a novel language. Adults were exposed to a speech stream where English phonotactics and phoneme co-occurrence information conflicted. A control where these did not conflict was also run. Participants chose between words defined by novel statistics and words that are phonotactically possible in English, but had much lower phoneme contingencies. Control participants selected words defined by statistics while experimental participants did not. This result held up with increases in exposure and when segmentation was aided by telling participants a word prior to exposure. It was not the case that participants simply preferred English-sounding words, however, when the stimuli contained very short pauses, participants were able to learn the novel words despite the fact that they violated English phonotactics. Results suggest that prior linguistic knowledge can interfere with learners' abilities to segment words from running speech using purely statistical cues at initial exposure.

  2. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  3. Image segmentation based on kernel PCA and shape prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoping; Boukerroui, Djamal; Cocquerez, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The introduction of shape priori in the segmentation model ameliorates effectively the poor segmentation result due to the using of the image information alone to segment the image including noise, occlusion, or missing parts. But the presentation of shape via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) brings on the limitation of the similarity between the objet and the prior shape. In this paper, we proposed using Kernel PCA (KPCA) to capture the shape information - the variability. KPCA can present better shape prior knowledge. The model based on KPCA allows segmenting the object with nonlinear transformation or a quite difference with the priori shape. Moreover, since the shape model is incorporated into the deformable model, our segmentation model includes the image term and the shape term to balance the influence of the global image information and the shape prior knowledge in proceed of segmentation. Our model and the model based on PCA both are applied to synthetic images and CT medical images. The comparative results show that KPCA can more accurately identify the object with large deformation or from the noised seriously background.

  4. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  5. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  6. Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Underlying Success in USAF Pilot Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    E. Driskill Jefferson M. Koonce P. Nance Johnny J. Weissmuller Metrica , Inc. 10010 San Pedro Avenue, Suite 400 San Antonio TX 78216-3856 APRIL 2001...Weissmuller 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 10 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Metrica , Inc. 10010...Effectiveness Directorate, Manpower and Personnel Research Division, under Contract F41624-95-D-5030/0003 with Metrica , Inc, and Work Unit 1123-A1-10

  7. Identification of Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Army Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    understanding ill-structured problems, anticipating change , creating opportunities, and recognizing and managing transitions. Existing Need The Army...least familiar with the problem or situation (i.e., problem is novel, commanders and staff are new to the problem, or the problem 6 has changed in...frames are likely required. These changes are a result of a new or better understanding of the problem environment. Thus, reframing and sensemaking

  8. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Military Leader Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    strategies, which in turn positively affect both short and long-term learning (e.g., Ford, Smith, Weissbein, Gully, & Salas, 1998; Gist, Stevens , & Bavetta...Education, 3, 100-115. Eid, J., Johnsen, B. H., Brun, W., Laberg , J. C., Nyhus, J. K., & Larsson, G (2004).Situation awareness and transformational...Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827-844. Gist, M. E., Stevens , C. K., & Bavetta, A. G. (1991). Effects of self-efficacy and post-training

  9. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Ala, Maureen; Gruidl, Jeremiah; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  10. Sex Differences in Infants' Ability to Represent Complex Event Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinle, Amy; Wilcox, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Prior research suggests that when very simple event sequences are used, 4.5-month-olds demonstrate the ability to individuate objects based on the continuity or disruption of their speed of motion (Wilcox & Schweinle, 2003). However, infants demonstrate their ability to individuate objects in an event-monitoring task (i.e., infants must keep track…

  11. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  12. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  13. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  14. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  15. Prior Computer Experience and Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in…

  16. 7 CFR 550.27 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program Management § 550.27 Prior approvals. (a) The budget is the financial expression of the project or... requiring prior written approval). (3) The absence for more than three months, or a 25 percent reduction in... in writing with supporting reasons. (5) The transfer of amounts budgeted for indirect costs to...

  17. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior... in denial of the oral prior disclosure. (b) Disclosure of the circumstances of a violation. The term... violations involving merchandise accompanying persons entering the United States or commercial...

  18. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior... in denial of the oral prior disclosure. (b) Disclosure of the circumstances of a violation. The term... violations involving merchandise accompanying persons entering the United States or commercial...

  19. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior... in denial of the oral prior disclosure. (b) Disclosure of the circumstances of a violation. The term... violations involving merchandise accompanying persons entering the United States or commercial...

  20. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.74 Prior... in denial of the oral prior disclosure. (b) Disclosure of the circumstances of a violation. The term... violations involving merchandise accompanying persons entering the United States or commercial...

  1. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  2. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  3. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  4. Structured illumination microscopy with unknown patterns and a statistical prior

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Li-Hao; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) improves resolution by down-modulating high-frequency information of an object to fit within the passband of the optical system. Generally, the reconstruction process requires prior knowledge of the illumination patterns, which implies a well-calibrated and aberration-free system. Here, we propose a new algorithmic self-calibration strategy for SIM that does not need to know the exact patterns a priori, but only their covariance. The algorithm, termed PE-SIMS, includes a pattern-estimation (PE) step requiring the uniformity of the sum of the illumination patterns and a SIM reconstruction procedure using a statistical prior (SIMS). Additionally, we perform a pixel reassignment process (SIMS-PR) to enhance the reconstruction quality. We achieve 2× better resolution than a conventional widefield microscope, while remaining insensitive to aberration-induced pattern distortion and robust against parameter tuning. PMID:28270977

  5. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Stayman, J. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g., through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  6. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  7. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation.

    PubMed

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers' attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants' verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.

  8. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  9. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  10. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  11. Determining informative priors for cognitive models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael D; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2017-02-13

    The development of cognitive models involves the creative scientific formalization of assumptions, based on theory, observation, and other relevant information. In the Bayesian approach to implementing, testing, and using cognitive models, assumptions can influence both the likelihood function of the model, usually corresponding to assumptions about psychological processes, and the prior distribution over model parameters, usually corresponding to assumptions about the psychological variables that influence those processes. The specification of the prior is unique to the Bayesian context, but often raises concerns that lead to the use of vague or non-informative priors in cognitive modeling. Sometimes the concerns stem from philosophical objections, but more often practical difficulties with how priors should be determined are the stumbling block. We survey several sources of information that can help to specify priors for cognitive models, discuss some of the methods by which this information can be formalized in a prior distribution, and identify a number of benefits of including informative priors in cognitive modeling. Our discussion is based on three illustrative cognitive models, involving memory retention, categorization, and decision making.

  12. Informative prior distributions for ELISA analyses.

    PubMed

    Klauenberg, Katy; Walzel, Monika; Ebert, Bernd; Elster, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Immunoassays are capable of measuring very small concentrations of substances in solutions and have an immense range of application. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in particular can detect the presence of an infection, of drugs, or hormones (as in the home pregnancy test). Inference of an unknown concentration via ELISA usually involves a non-linear heteroscedastic regression and subsequent prediction, which can be carried out in a Bayesian framework. For such a Bayesian inference, we are developing informative prior distributions based on extensive historical ELISA tests as well as theoretical considerations. One consideration regards the quality of the immunoassay leading to two practical requirements for the applicability of the priors. Simulations show that the additional prior information can lead to inferences which are robust to reasonable perturbations of the model and changes in the design of the data. On real data, the applicability is demonstrated across different laboratories, for different analytes and laboratory equipment as well as for previous and current ELISAs with sigmoid regression function. Consistency checks on real data (similar to cross-validation) underpin the adequacy of the suggested priors. Altogether, the new priors may improve concentration estimation for ELISAs that fulfill certain design conditions, by extending the range of the analyses, decreasing the uncertainty, or giving more robust estimates. Future use of these priors is straightforward because explicit, closed-form expressions are provided. This work encourages development and application of informative, yet general, prior distributions for other types of immunoassays.

  13. Mt. Kelud haze removal using color attenuation prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresy, N.; Yuniarno, Eko M.; Supeno, M. S. N.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Kelud crater observation using closed-circuit television (CCTV) has not been used as the main guide in the world of volcanology. This is caused by observations manually by volcanologist who is not certain and depends on their ability and experience. In practice, there is still obstacles haze in the image taken from CCTV record. This paper present color attenuation prior method to eliminate haze on the digital image. The results obtained showed that the selected method is capable of eliminating sparse haze and moderate haze but not dense haze.

  14. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  15. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  16. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan.

  17. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-12-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper levels of the modeling learning progression defined by Schwarz et al. (2009) are attainable by Israeli K-12 students. Nine Israeli high school students studying physics, chemistry, biology, or general science were interviewed individually, once using a context related to the science subject that they were learning and once using an unfamiliar context. All the interviewees displayed MMK superior to that of elementary and middle school students, despite the lack of formal instruction on the practice. Their MMK was independent of content area, but their ability to engage in the practice of modeling was content dependent. This study indicates that, given proper support, the upper levels of the learning progression described by Schwarz et al. (2009) may be attainable by K-12 science students. The value of explicitly focusing on MMK as a learning goal in science education is considered.

  18. Proportion estimation using prior cluster purities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The prior distribution of CLASSY component purities is studied, and this information incorporated into maximum likelihood crop proportion estimators. The method is tested on Transition Year spring small grain segments.

  19. Lending a Helping Hand: Voluntary Engagement in Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergel, Ines; Lazer, David; Binz-Scharf, Maria Christina

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is essential for the functioning of every social system, especially for professionals in knowledge-intensive organisations. Since individuals do not possess all the work-related knowledge that they require, they turn to others in search for that knowledge. While prior research has mainly focused on antecedents and consequences of…

  20. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  1. Ability Is Ageless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Experience Works is a national organization that provides training and employment services to older adults. Its Prime Time Awards Program honors contributions of older workers in their 70s and beyond, demonstrating the continued ability and productivity of this population as well as the benefits they derive from productive work. (SK)

  2. Computerized Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…

  3. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  4. Promoting Logical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Alan R.

    1973-01-01

    This article reports one search for factors or conditions shaping the child's growth in logical ability. The search indicated the existence of a relationship between the quantity of teacher talk that contains the language of logic and the change exhibited by students. Implications for classroom practice are discussed. (JA)

  5. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  6. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  7. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper…

  8. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes e; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. Methods: The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: “mental exertion”, “mental fatigue”, “mental fatigue and performance”, “mental exertion and sports” “mental exertion and exercise”. Results: We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Conclusion: Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates. PMID:27867415

  9. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and…

  10. Hysteresis as an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Sabrina D; Bitzer, Sebastian; Nierhaus, Till; Kalberlah, Christian; Preusser, Sven; Neumann, Jane; Nikulin, Vadim V; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual decisions not only depend on the incoming information from sensory systems but constitute a combination of current sensory evidence and internally accumulated information from past encounters. Although recent evidence emphasizes the fundamental role of prior knowledge for perceptual decision making, only few studies have quantified the relevance of such priors on perceptual decisions and examined their interplay with other decision-relevant factors, such as the stimulus properties. In the present study we asked whether hysteresis, describing the stability of a percept despite a change in stimulus property and known to occur at perceptual thresholds, also acts as a form of an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making, supporting the stability of a decision across successively presented random stimuli (i.e., decision hysteresis). We applied a variant of the classical 2-point discrimination task and found that hysteresis influenced perceptual decision making: Participants were more likely to decide 'same' rather than 'different' on successively presented pin distances. In a direct comparison between the influence of applied pin distances (explicit stimulus property) and hysteresis, we found that on average, stimulus property explained significantly more variance of participants' decisions than hysteresis. However, when focusing on pin distances at threshold, we found a trend for hysteresis to explain more variance. Furthermore, the less variance was explained by the pin distance on a given decision, the more variance was explained by hysteresis, and vice versa. Our findings suggest that hysteresis acts as an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making that becomes increasingly important when explicit stimulus properties provide decreasing evidence.

  11. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; ...

    2016-02-18

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well asmore » the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.« less

  12. Structured sparse priors for image classification.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Umamahesh; Suo, Yuanming; Dao, Minh; Monga, Vishal; Tran, Trac D

    2015-06-01

    Model-based compressive sensing (CS) exploits the structure inherent in sparse signals for the design of better signal recovery algorithms. This information about structure is often captured in the form of a prior on the sparse coefficients, with the Laplacian being the most common such choice (leading to l1 -norm minimization). Recent work has exploited the discriminative capability of sparse representations for image classification by employing class-specific dictionaries in the CS framework. Our contribution is a logical extension of these ideas into structured sparsity for classification. We introduce the notion of discriminative class-specific priors in conjunction with class specific dictionaries, specifically the spike-and-slab prior widely applied in Bayesian sparse regression. Significantly, the proposed framework takes the burden off the demand for abundant training image samples necessary for the success of sparsity-based classification schemes. We demonstrate this practical benefit of our approach in important applications, such as face recognition and object categorization.

  13. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; Barnes, C. W.; Bogdanov, A.; Danly, C. R.; Efimov, S.; Endres, M.; Fertman, A.; Golubev, A. A.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Ionita, B.; Kantsyrev, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Lang, P. M.; Lomonosov, I.; Mariam, F. G.; Markov, N.; Mintsev, V. B.; Nikolaev, D.; Panyushkin, V.; Rodionova, M.; Schanz, M.; Schoenberg, K.; Semennikov, A.; Shestov, L.; Skachkov, V. S.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Vasylyev, O.; Weyrich, K.; Wilde, C.; Zubareva, A.; Merrill, F. E.

    2016-02-18

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well as the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.

  14. Tests of Cognitive Ability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Carretta, 1996, p. 113). In fact , tests that do not even appear to measure g do so as illustrated by Rabbitt, Banerji, and Szymanski (1989) who...predictive validity where it is assumed that it measures a certain construct, but in fact measures a different construct. For example, Walters, Miller...grammar, word knowledge, making inferences, finding facts , seeing relationships, and identifying the main idea of the text. Reading and difficulty

  15. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  16. Obstacles to Student Teacher Reflection: The Role of Prior School Experience as a Barrier to Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    This study was conducted to examine the influences of prior school experience on student teachers' thinking. It includes descriptions of students' prior school experiences and an intervention in which students were asked to reflect on and re-evaluate those experiences. Beliefs about education, learning, self worth, abilities, and the development…

  17. 7 CFR 550.27 - Prior approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the scope or the objective of the project or program (even if there is no associated budget revision... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Program Management § 550.27 Prior approvals. (a) The budget is the financial expression of the project...

  18. Augmenting system reliability analyses with observation priors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl; Anderson-cook, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Occasionally, a system may fail a test without an obvious component being at fault. Instead, experts may know that at least one of a set of components has failed, but there is uncertainty about which members in the set were the actual failures. When no further information is available, this missing data may be imputed using standard data augmentation (DA). This process is already used in the current implementation of the JMP complex-system reliability modeling codes. In some cases when this situation arises, there may be some supplemental information about the nature of the failure that suggests which subset of components are more likely to have failed. the behavior of the system during the failure may make certain components more likely candidates, and lead the engineering experts to have certain prior beliefs about what occurred. In this case, it is still known that at least one of a set of components failed, but the experts have some idea that certain failure scenarios are more likely than others. This white paper addresses this situation by modifying the imputation process of data augmentation through the use of an observation prior. This prior is specific to particular observations, and a given outcome which is repeated several times could potentially have different observation priors associated with each occurrence.

  19. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  20. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. Prior Learning Assessment: Outcomes and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Ontario college system's Prior Learning Assessment program for adult learners, focusing on outcomes and characteristics of students completing the process at Seneca College from April 1994 to February 1995. Indicates that of 77 participants, 46 were female, the mean age was 31, and 81% passed the process successfully. (BCY)

  4. Accrediting Prior Learning at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Christine; Edwards, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the Assessment of Prior Learning (APL) and describes a pilot project at the Open University (United Kingdom) that introduced credit for APL in one course. Steps in the assessment process are outlined, including constructing a student portfolio; and workload, staff development, and costs are considered. (LRW)

  5. 42 CFR 438.806 - Prior approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prior approval. 438.806 Section 438.806 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) For subsequent years, the amount is increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price...

  6. An Ensemble Approach to Building Mercer Kernels with Prior Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly dimensional feature space. we describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using pre-defined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can encode prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. Specifically, we demonstrate the use of the algorithm in situations with extremely small samples of data. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and demonstrate the method's superior performance against standard methods. The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains templates for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic-algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code.

  7. The Developmental Change of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics in Relation to Their Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is a multidimensional construct with two main dimensions: knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. The present study aimed to model the development of young pupils' metacognitive abilities in mathematics in relation to processing efficiency, working memory and mathematical performance. We developed instruments measuring…

  8. Concussion knowledge among rehabilitation staff

    PubMed Central

    Kolessar, Michael; Callender, Librada; Bennett, Monica

    2017-01-01

    A concussion knowledge survey was completed by 561 rehabilitation professionals across a wide range of disciplines in a nationwide rehabilitation hospital system. Item questions were structured to reflect key areas of concussion knowledge targeted in a prior consensus statement. The vast majority of staff provided responses consistent with the current concussion literature regarding concussion diagnosis and symptom presentation immediately after concussion. Greater variability was seen for items assessing beliefs about the typical recovery from concussion, best care practices, and long-term effects from concussion. Factors such as profession, years of experience, and work with concussion or traumatic brain injury were not consistently related to better performance on the survey. Prior concussion-focused education/training was related to better survey performance. This survey highlights the pressing need to educate frontline health providers regarding concussion recovery and best care practices. PMID:28127126

  9. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Eva M; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person's visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject's "attentional impulsivity". In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors.

  10. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  11. Performance of informative priors skeptical of large treatment effects in clinical trials: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Claudia; Han, Weilu; Truong, Van Thi Thanh; Green, Charles; Tyson, Jon E

    2015-12-13

    One of the main advantages of Bayesian analyses of clinical trials is their ability to formally incorporate skepticism about large treatment effects through the use of informative priors. We conducted a simulation study to assess the performance of informative normal, Student-t, and beta distributions in estimating relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes. Simulation scenarios varied the prior standard deviation (SD; level of skepticism of large treatment effects), outcome rate in the control group, true treatment effect, and sample size. We compared the priors with regards to bias, mean squared error (MSE), and coverage of 95% credible intervals. Simulation results show that the prior SD influenced the posterior to a greater degree than the particular distributional form of the prior. For RR, priors with a 95% interval of 0.50-2.0 performed well in terms of bias, MSE, and coverage under most scenarios. For OR, priors with a wider 95% interval of 0.23-4.35 had good performance. We recommend the use of informative priors that exclude implausibly large treatment effects in analyses of clinical trials, particularly for major outcomes such as mortality.

  12. 34 CFR 642.32 - Prior experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., based on the applicant's success in meeting the administrative requirements and programmatic objectives... qualifications and skills in meeting the needs of disadvantaged students; and (ii) Increased knowledge and...) (2 points) The extent to which the applicant has met the administrative...

  13. On the evolution of calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies.

  14. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  15. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  16. Ability Conceptions in Physical Education: Some Measurement Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Xiang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    The construct of ability conceptions plays a critical role in children's motivation and achievement behaviors in education, including physical education. Valid and reliable measures of this construct are essential to advance our knowledge of children's ability conceptions and related cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. From a…

  17. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  18. Difficulty and Ability: Staff Member Perceptions of Seasonal Staff Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.; Bixler, Robert D. Switzer, Deborah M.; Hurtes, Karen P.

    New and returning camp staff were surveyed about the difficulty of camp-specific skills and knowledge and their own abilities. A summer-camp training inventory of 24 camp-specific skills and knowledge statements was administered to a total of 702 new and returning staff at eight camps on the first and last day of pre-season training sessions and…

  19. Influence of prior involvement on employees' ratings.

    PubMed

    Brody, Richard G; Frank, Kimberly E

    2002-02-01

    Surveys show that the majority of firms provide merit pay to outstanding employees. Despite the widespread use of merit pay programs, there is no consensus as to their effectiveness. While some plans have been successful in motivating employees to achieve higher performance, others have caused employees' dissatisfaction and discouragement. One previously unexplored area in the implementation of merit pay systems is the effect of the decision-maker's prior involvement with the employee on the decision to grant merit. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether hiring an employee leads to larger merit allocations despite evidence that the standards for merit were not met. 101 accounting students participated to assess the influence of hiring on subsequent merit allocations. Analysis indicated that prior involvement does bias ensuing merit decisions.

  20. [Medical examination prior to trade school admission].

    PubMed

    Hursidić-Radulović, Azra; Decković-Vukres, Vlasta

    2005-01-01

    Regulation on medical examination prior to apprenticeship is built in the Act on Trades and Crafts. Medical examinations of the students before admission to secondary craft schools have been done regularly since 1993. Between 11,000 and 14,000 students are admitted to secondary craft schools in the Republic of Croatia annually. According to statistics, about 10% of students have obvious health problems, about 5% of students have healt problems which vitally limit their capacity in particular crafts. This statistic refers to about 3% of the examined students. Medical examinations of students prior to admission to craft schools represent a particular sort of health capacity examinations. The paper includes applications for the most freqent trades and crafts, and findings of the craft school admission examinations.

  1. Distance priors from Planck 2015 data

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Ke; Wang, Sai E-mail: wangke@itp.ac.cn

    2015-12-01

    We update the distance priors by adopting Planck TT,TE,EE+lowP data released in 2015, and our results impose at least 30% tighter constraints than those from Planck TT+lowP. Combining the distance priors with the combination of supernova Union 2.1 compilation of 580 SNe (Union 2.1) and low redshift Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data, we constrain the cosmological parameters in the freely binned dark energy (FBDE) and FBDE+Ω{sub k} models respectively, and find that the equations of state of dark energy in both models are consistent with w=−1. Furthermore, we show that the tension with the BAO data at z=2.34 from Lyα forest (LyαF) auto-correlation and Combined LyαF cannot be relaxed in the FBDE and FBDE+Ω{sub k} models.

  2. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  3. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self–other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design. PMID:26644594

  4. Knowledge-Driven Contrast Gain Control is Characterized by Two Distinct Electrocortical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Mišić, Bratislav V.; Schneider, Bruce A.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in luminance (contrast) is fundamental to perception because contrasts define the edges and textures of visual objects. Recent research has shown that contrast sensitivity, in addition to being controlled by purely stimulus-driven mechanisms, is also affected by expectations and prior knowledge about the contrast of upcoming stimuli. The ability to adjust contrast sensitivity based on expectations and prior knowledge could help to maximize the information extracted when scanning familiar visual scenes. In the present study we used the event-related potentials (ERP) technique to resolve the stages that mediate knowledge-driven aspects of contrast gain control. Using groupwise independent components analysis and multivariate partial least squares, we isolated two robust spatiotemporal patterns of electrical brain activity associated with preparation for upcoming targets whose contrast was predicted by a cue. The patterns were sensitive to the informative value of the cue. When the cues were informative, these patterns were also able to differentiate among cues that predicted low-contrast targets and cues that predicted high-contrast targets. Both patterns were localized to parts of occipitotemporal cortex, and their morphology, latency, and topography resembled P2/N2 and P3 potentials. These two patterns provide electrophysiological markers of knowledge-driven preparation for impending changes in contrast and shed new light on the manner in which top-down factors modulate sensory processing. PMID:20140269

  5. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  6. New Knowledge Derived from Learned Knowledge: Functional-Anatomic Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund, Michael W.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Forming new knowledge based on knowledge established through prior learning is a central feature of higher cognition that is captured in research on stimulus equivalence (SE). Numerous SE investigations show that reinforcing behavior under control of distinct sets of arbitrary conditional relations gives rise to stimulus control by new, "derived"…

  7. Calculation of Measurement Uncertainty Using Prior Information

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, S. D.; Estler, W. T.; Levenson, M. S.; Eberhardt, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the use of Bayesian inference to include prior information about the value of the measurand in the calculation of measurement uncertainty. Typical examples show this can, in effect, reduce the expanded uncertainty by up to 85 %. The application of the Bayesian approach to proving workpiece conformance to specification (as given by international standard ISO 14253-1) is presented and a procedure for increasing the conformance zone by modifying the expanded uncertainty guard bands is discussed. PMID:28009370

  8. Transformational Learning through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Karen; Gerber, Dan; Hendra, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Upon graduation from University Without Walls (UWW), Robin said, "During first semester you told us that if we allowed it to, this experience [writing a prior learning portfolio] would change us. I was so angry with you for saying that because I liked who I was and didn't want to change. But you were right. And I'm glad." For the past 39…

  9. Ability Grouping in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1982-01-01

    Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)

  10. Elapsed decision time affects the weighting of prior probability in a perceptual decision task.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Timothy D; Mazurek, Mark E; Kiani, Roozbeh; Hopp, Elisabeth; Shadlen, Michael N

    2011-04-27

    Decisions are often based on a combination of new evidence with prior knowledge of the probable best choice. Optimal combination requires knowledge about the reliability of evidence, but in many realistic situations, this is unknown. Here we propose and test a novel theory: the brain exploits elapsed time during decision formation to combine sensory evidence with prior probability. Elapsed time is useful because (1) decisions that linger tend to arise from less reliable evidence, and (2) the expected accuracy at a given decision time depends on the reliability of the evidence gathered up to that point. These regularities allow the brain to combine prior information with sensory evidence by weighting the latter in accordance with reliability. To test this theory, we manipulated the prior probability of the rewarded choice while subjects performed a reaction-time discrimination of motion direction using a range of stimulus reliabilities that varied from trial to trial. The theory explains the effect of prior probability on choice and reaction time over a wide range of stimulus strengths. We found that prior probability was incorporated into the decision process as a dynamic bias signal that increases as a function of decision time. This bias signal depends on the speed-accuracy setting of human subjects, and it is reflected in the firing rates of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of rhesus monkeys performing this task.

  11. Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the…

  12. A Nonparametric Prior for Simultaneous Covariance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Jeremy T; Daniels, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    In the modeling of longitudinal data from several groups, appropriate handling of the dependence structure is of central importance. Standard methods include specifying a single covariance matrix for all groups or independently estimating the covariance matrix for each group without regard to the others, but when these model assumptions are incorrect, these techniques can lead to biased mean effects or loss of efficiency, respectively. Thus, it is desirable to develop methods to simultaneously estimate the covariance matrix for each group that will borrow strength across groups in a way that is ultimately informed by the data. In addition, for several groups with covariance matrices of even medium dimension, it is difficult to manually select a single best parametric model among the huge number of possibilities given by incorporating structural zeros and/or commonality of individual parameters across groups. In this paper we develop a family of nonparametric priors using the matrix stick-breaking process of Dunson et al. (2008) that seeks to accomplish this task by parameterizing the covariance matrices in terms of the parameters of their modified Cholesky decomposition (Pourahmadi, 1999). We establish some theoretic properties of these priors, examine their effectiveness via a simulation study, and illustrate the priors using data from a longitudinal clinical trial.

  13. Diversity priors for learning early visual features

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hanchen; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how utilizing diversity priors can discover early visual features that resemble their biological counterparts. The study is mainly motivated by the sparsity and selectivity of activations of visual neurons in area V1. Most previous work on computational modeling emphasizes selectivity or sparsity independently. However, we argue that selectivity and sparsity are just two epiphenomena of the diversity of receptive fields, which has been rarely exploited in learning. In this paper, to verify our hypothesis, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are employed to learn early visual features by modeling the statistics of natural images. Considering RBMs as neural networks, the receptive fields of neurons are formed by the inter-weights between hidden and visible nodes. Due to the conditional independence in RBMs, there is no mechanism to coordinate the activations of individual neurons or the whole population. A diversity prior is introduced in this paper for training RBMs. We find that the diversity prior indeed can assure simultaneously sparsity and selectivity of neuron activations. The learned receptive fields yield a high degree of biological similarity in comparison to physiological data. Also, corresponding visual features display a good generative capability in image reconstruction. PMID:26321941

  14. Diversity priors for learning early visual features.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hanchen; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how utilizing diversity priors can discover early visual features that resemble their biological counterparts. The study is mainly motivated by the sparsity and selectivity of activations of visual neurons in area V1. Most previous work on computational modeling emphasizes selectivity or sparsity independently. However, we argue that selectivity and sparsity are just two epiphenomena of the diversity of receptive fields, which has been rarely exploited in learning. In this paper, to verify our hypothesis, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are employed to learn early visual features by modeling the statistics of natural images. Considering RBMs as neural networks, the receptive fields of neurons are formed by the inter-weights between hidden and visible nodes. Due to the conditional independence in RBMs, there is no mechanism to coordinate the activations of individual neurons or the whole population. A diversity prior is introduced in this paper for training RBMs. We find that the diversity prior indeed can assure simultaneously sparsity and selectivity of neuron activations. The learned receptive fields yield a high degree of biological similarity in comparison to physiological data. Also, corresponding visual features display a good generative capability in image reconstruction.

  15. 12 CFR 1208.42 - Administrative offset prior to completion of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... failure to offset would substantially prejudice its ability to collect the debt, and if the time before... OPERATIONS DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 1208.42 Administrative offset prior to completion of...(c), and does not apply when debts are referred to the Department of the Treasury for...

  16. 12 CFR 1208.42 - Administrative offset prior to completion of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... failure to offset would substantially prejudice its ability to collect the debt, and if the time before... OPERATIONS DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 1208.42 Administrative offset prior to completion of...(c), and does not apply when debts are referred to the Department of the Treasury for...

  17. 12 CFR 1208.42 - Administrative offset prior to completion of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... failure to offset would substantially prejudice its ability to collect the debt, and if the time before... OPERATIONS DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 1208.42 Administrative offset prior to completion of...(c), and does not apply when debts are referred to the Department of the Treasury for...

  18. 12 CFR 1208.42 - Administrative offset prior to completion of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... failure to offset would substantially prejudice its ability to collect the debt, and if the time before... OPERATIONS DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 1208.42 Administrative offset prior to completion of...(c), and does not apply when debts are referred to the Department of the Treasury for...

  19. 28 CFR 12.3 - Prior registration with the Foreign Agents Registration Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prior registration with the Foreign Agents Registration Unit. 12.3 Section 12.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE...

  20. 28 CFR 12.3 - Prior registration with the Foreign Agents Registration Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prior registration with the Foreign Agents Registration Unit. 12.3 Section 12.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS HAVING KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE...