Turner, Sherri; Unkefer, Lesley Craig; Cichy, Bryan Ervin; Peper, Christine; Juang, Ju-Ping
The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of young adults with disabilities. Results showed that young adults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…
Freund, Philipp Alexander; Kasten, Nadine
Individuals' perceptions of their own level of cognitive ability are expressed through self-estimates. They play an important role in a person's self-concept because they facilitate an understanding of how one's own abilities relate to those of others. People evaluate their own and other persons' abilities all the time, but self-estimates are also…
Sulheim, Steinar; Ekeland, Arne; Bahr, Roald
Skiing ability is thought to be an important risk factor for injuries, but the best method to classify skiing ability is not known. The objective of this study was to validate five different questions designed to self-report skiing ability for ski injury surveillance. To this end 512 alpine skiers, Telemark skiers, snowboarders and skiboarders were asked to selfestimate their skiing ability using five different questions based on skiing skill, piste difficulty, turning technique, skiing experience and falling frequency, each with four categories. The participants then made a test run to test their skiing ability. Observed and self-reported skiing ability were compared using kappa statistics. The correlation between observed and self-reported skiing ability was low to fair, with kappa values of 0.34 for skiing skill), 0.33 for piste difficulty, 0.38 for turning technique, 0.26 for experience and 0.16 for falling frequency. However, the sensitivity and specificity for each of the questionnaires in discriminating between individuals in the poorest skiing ability category on the test and the rest of the group was relatively good (skiing skill: sensitivity 75%, specificity 91%; piste difficulty 68, 96%; turning technique 75, 91%; experience 75, 90%; falling frequency 61, 97%). The results show that the capacity to self-assess skiing ability is limited, but estimation based upon turning technique or skiing skill seem to be best methods for epidemiological studies on injuries in snow sports.
Objectives To live with heart failure means that life is delimited. Still, people with heart failure can have a desire to stay active in working life as long as possible. Although a number of factors affect sick leave and rehabilitation processes, little is known about sick leave and vocational rehabilitation concerning people with heart failure. This study aimed to identify emotions and encounters with healthcare professionals as possible predictors for the self-estimated ability to return to work in people on sick leave due to heart failure. Design A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Setting The study was conducted in Sweden. Data were collected in 2012 from 3 different sources: 2 official registries and 1 postal questionnaire. Participants A total of 590 individuals were included. Statistics Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and linear multiple regression analysis were used. Results 3 variables, feeling strengthened in the situation (β=−0.21, p=0.02), feeling happy (β=−0.24, p=0.02) and receiving encouragement about work (β=−0.32, p≤0.001), were identified as possible predictive factors for the self-estimated ability to return to work. Conclusions To feel strengthened, happy and to receive encouragement about work can affect the return to work process for people on sick leave due to heart failure. In order to develop and implement rehabilitation programmes to meet these needs, more research is needed. PMID:28186921
Chevalier, Shirley A.
In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…
de la Torre, Jimmy
Recent work has shown that multidimensionally scoring responses from different tests can provide better ability estimates. For educational assessment data, applications of this approach have been limited to binary scores. Of the different variants, the de la Torre and Patz model is considered more general because implementing the scoring procedure…
Stieger, Stefan; Kastner, Cornelia K; Voracek, Martin; von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian
The effects of sex and personality traits on self-estimates of intelligence were examined in a sample of 302 Austrian adults (143 men, 159 women). Confirming previous research, men had higher self-estimates of logical and spatial abilities than did women, and these differences were partly explained in terms of women's higher Neuroticism scores. Neuroticism (negatively) and Openness (positively) accounted significantly for variances in self-estimates of spatial and logical intelligence. However, sex had stronger direct and indirect effects on self-estimates of intelligence. Sex and personality effects appear to be largely independent. Thus, being male, emotionally stable, and open to new experiences is likely to result in higher self-estimates of spatial and logical abilities.
Moody, M. Suzanne
Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…
Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.
Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a
Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric
Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…
Nordgren, Lena; Söderlund, Anne
Younger people with heart failure often experience poor self-rated health. Furthermore, poor self-rated health is associated with long-term sick leave and disability pension. Socio-demographic factors affect the ability to return to work. However, little is known about people on sick leave due to heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between self-rated health, mood, socio-demographic factors, sick leave compensation, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work, for people on sick leave due to heart failure. This population-based investigation had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in Sweden in 2012 from two official registries and from a postal questionnaire. In total, 590 subjects, aged 23-67, responded (response rate 45.8%). Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses (Spearman bivariate analysis) and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations. Poor self-rated health was strongly associated with full sick leave compensation (OR = 4.1, p < .001). Compared self-rated health was moderately associated with low income (OR = .6, p = .003). Good self-rated health was strongly associated with positive encounters with healthcare professionals (OR = 3.0, p = .022) and to the impact of positive encounters with healthcare professionals on self-estimated ability to return to work (OR = 3.3, p < .001). People with heart failure are sicklisted for long periods of time and to a great extent receive disability pension. Not being able to work imposes reduced quality of life. Positive encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers can be supportive when people with heart failure struggle to remain in working life.
Watson, Charles G.; Klett, William G.
In a search for an adequate but efficient substitute, the authors have instituted three evaluations of the relationships between potential WAIS-substitutes and the WAIS itself. The present report describes the first of these researches-- a study of the relationships between the four group ability tests and the WAIS in a mental hospital setting.…
Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.
Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…
Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.
This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…
Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seong
Abstract: Background: Clinical reasoning ability is an important factor in a physician's competence and thus should be taught and tested in medical schools. Medical schools generally use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to measure the clinical competency of medical students. However, it is unknown whether OSCE can also evaluate clinical reasoning ability. In this study, the authors investigated whether OSCE scores reflected students' clinical reasoning abilities. Methods: Sixty-five fourth-year medical students participated in this study. Medical students completed the OSCE with 4 cases using standardized patients. For assessment of clinical reasoning, students were asked to list differential diagnoses and the findings that were compatible or not compatible with each diagnosis. The OSCE score (score of patient encounter), diagnostic accuracy score, clinical reasoning score, clinical knowledge score and grade point average (GPA) were obtained for each student, and correlation analysis was performed. Results: Clinical reasoning score was significantly correlated with diagnostic accuracy and GPA (correlation coefficient = 0.258 and 0.380; P = 0.038 and 0.002, respectively) but not with OSCE score or clinical knowledge score (correlation coefficient = 0.137 and 0.242; P = 0.276 and 0.052, respectively). Total OSCE score was not significantly correlated with clinical knowledge test score, clinical reasoning score, diagnostic accuracy score or GPA. Conclusions: OSCE score from patient encounters did not reflect the clinical reasoning abilities of the medical students in this study. The evaluation of medical students' clinical reasoning abilities through OSCE should be strengthened. PMID:25647834
Napier, John D.
The report describes two experiments involving the ability of preservice social studies teachers to stage score moral thought statements. Stage scoring is defined as keeping a record of statements in accordance with the stages of moral development originated by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg. The two experiments involved the use of three stage…
Napier, John D.
The study examined (1) whether 60 elementary school teachers could score moral thought statements into Kohlberg's moral stages by receiving special training and using a rater manual, and (2) what factors were related to their stage-scoring ability. Major conclusion was that the rater manual and training were ineffective. (Author/ND)
Jones, Tracy Anne
Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn &…
Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa
The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…
Dirir, Mohamed A.; Sinclair, Norma
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of test dimensionality on the stability of examinee ability estimates and item response theory (IRT) based score reports. A simulation procedure based on W. F. Stout's Essential Unidimensionality was used to generate test data with one dominant trait for the whole test and three minor traits…
Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S
Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.
Deng, Qiangyu; Tang, Bihan; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Lv, Yipeng; Zhang, Lulu
Background: Description of the anatomical severity of injuries in trauma patients is important. While the Injury Severity Score has been regarded as the “gold standard” since its creation, several studies have indicated that the New Injury Severity Score is better. Therefore, we aimed to systematically evaluate and compare the accuracy of the Injury Severity Score and the New Injury Severity Score in predicting mortality. Methods: Two researchers independently searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases and included studies from which the exact number of true-positive, false-positive, false-negative, and true-negative results could be extracted. Quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist criteria. The meta-analysis was performed using Meta-DiSc. Meta-regression, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the source(s) of heterogeneity and factor(s) affecting the accuracy of the New Injury Severity Score and the Injury Severity Score in predicting mortality. Results: The heterogeneity of the 11 relevant studies (total n = 11,866) was high (I2 > 80%). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model resulted in sensitivity of 0.64, specificity of 0.93, positive likelihood ratio of 5.11, negative likelihood ratio of 0.27, diagnostic odds ratio of 27.75, and area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.9009 for the Injury Severity Score; and sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.87, positive likelihood ratio of 5.22, negative likelihood ratio of 0.20, diagnostic odds ratio of 24.74, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9095 for the New Injury Severity Score. Conclusion: The New Injury Severity Score and the Injury Severity Score have similar abilities in predicting mortality. Further research is required to determine the appropriate use of the Injury Severity Score or the New Injury Severity Score based on specific
Kremmel, Benjamin; Schmitt, Norbert
The scores from vocabulary size tests have typically been interpreted as demonstrating that the target words are "known" or "learned." But "knowing" a word should entail the ability to use it in real language communication in one or more of the four skills. It should also entail deeper knowledge, such as knowing the…
Legg, Sue M.; Ware, William B.
Student and test characteristics were examined by multiple regression analysis and discriminant function analysis to explain why 171 political science undergraduates scored differently on essay versus objective final examinations. Student characteristics included: (1) patterns of creative, crystallized, and fluid abilities as measured by the…
Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.
In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…
Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J
Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Ly, Thuan V.; Travison, Thomas G.; Castillo, Renan C.; Bosse, Michael J.; MacKenzie, Ellen J.
Background: Lower-extremity injury severity scoring systems were developed to assist surgeons in decision-making regarding whether to amputate or perform limb salvage after high-energy trauma to the lower extremity. These scoring systems have been shown to not be good predictors of limb amputation or salvage. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of the five commonly used lower-extremity injury severity scoring systems as predictors of final functional outcome. Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of patients who participated in a multicenter prospective study of clinical and functional outcomes after high-energy lower-extremity trauma. Injury severity was assessed with use of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score; the Limb Salvage Index; the Predictive Salvage Index; the Nerve Injury, Ischemia, Soft-Tissue Injury, Skeletal Injury, Shock, and Age of Patient Score; and the Hannover Fracture Scale-98. Functional outcomes were measured with use of the physical and psychosocial domains of the Sickness Impact Profile at both six months and two years following hospital discharge. Four hundred and seven subjects for whom the reconstruction regimen was considered successful at six months were included in the analysis. We used partial correlation statistics and multiple linear regression models to quantify the association between injury severity scores and Sickness Impact Profile outcomes with the subjects' ages held constant. Results: The mean age of the patients was thirty-six years (interquartile range, twenty-six to forty-four years); 75.2% were male and 24.8% were female. The median Sickness Impact Profile scores were 15.2 and 6.0 points at six and twenty-four months, respectively. The analysis showed that none of the scoring systems were predictive of the Sickness Impact Profile outcomes at six or twenty-four months to any reasonable degree. Likewise, none were predictive of patient recovery between six and twenty-four months postoperatively as
Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James
This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g"…
Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis
One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gregory, David
Literacy problems are highly prevalent and can persist into adulthood. Yet, the majority of research on the predictive nature of cognitive skills to literacy has primarily focused on development and adolescent populations. The aim of the present study was to extend existing research to investigate the roles of IQ scores and Working Memory…
Foreman, Jennifer L.; Gubbins, E. Jean
Teacher nominations of students are commonly used in gifted and talented identification systems to supplement psychometric measures of reasoning ability. In this study, second grade teachers were requested to nominate approximately one fourth of their students as having high learning potential in the year prior to the students' participation in a…
Allen, Denise A.
Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…
Jones, Dorothy L.
A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…
Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan
The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…
Napoles, Jessica; Babb, Sandra L.; Bowers, Judy; Hankle, Steven; Zrust, Adam
The purpose of this study was to examine and empirically test the pedagogical claim that playing the piano while listening to choral singers impedes error detection ability. In a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55 preservice teachers) either listened to four excerpts of choral hymns or played a single part (soprano/bass) on the piano…
Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo, Urbano
A program for obtaining ability estimates and their standard errors under a variety of psychometric models is documented. The general models considered are (1) classical test theory; (2) item factor analysis for continuous censored responses; and (3) unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory graded response models. (SLD)
Background Injury scoring is important to formulate prognoses for trauma patients. Although scores based on empirical estimation allow for better prediction, those based on expert consensus, e.g. the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) are widely used. We describe how the addition of a variable quantifying the number of injuries improves the ability of NISS to predict mortality. Methods We analyzed 2488 injury cases included into the trauma registry of the Italian region Emilia-Romagna in 2006-2008 and assessed the ability of NISS alone, NISS plus number of injuries, and the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) to predict in-hospital mortality. Hierarchical logistic regression was used. We measured discrimination through the C statistics, and calibration through Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics, Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and calibration curves. Results The best discrimination and calibration resulted from the model with NISS plus number of injuries, followed by NISS alone and then by the maximum AIS (C statistics 0.775, 0.755, and 0.729, respectively; AIC 1602, 1635, and 1712, respectively). The predictive ability of all the models improved after inclusion of age, gender, mechanism of injury, and the motor component of Glasgow Coma Scale (C statistics 0.889, 0.898, and 0.901; AIC 1234, 1174, and 1167). The model with NISS plus number of injuries still showed the best performances, this time with borderline statistical significance. Conclusions In NISS, the same weight is assigned to the three worst injuries, although the contribution of the second and third to the probability of death is smaller than that of the worst one. An improvement of the predictive ability of NISS can be obtained adjusting for the number of injuries. PMID:21504567
Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita
Background The genetic architecture of ADHD is complex, with rare and common variants involved. Common genetic variants (as indexed by a composite risk score) associated with clinical ADHD significantly predict ADHD and autistic-like behavioural traits in children from the general population, suggesting that ADHD lies at the extreme of normal trait variation. ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders share neurocognitive difficulties in several domains (e.g. impaired cognitive ability and executive functions). We hypothesised that ADHD composite genetic risk scores derived from clinical ADHD cases would also contribute to variation in neurocognitive abilities in the general population. Methods Children (N = 6,832) from a UK population cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), underwent neurocognitive testing. Parent-reported measures of their children's ADHD and autistic-like traits were used to construct a behavioural latent variable of ‘neurodevelopmental traits’. Composite genetic risk scores for ADHD were calculated for ALSPAC children based on findings from an independent ADHD case–control genome-wide association study. Structural equation modelling was used to assess associations between ADHD composite genetic risk scores and IQ, working memory, inhibitory control and facial emotion recognition, as well as the latent ‘neurodevelopmental trait’ measure. Results The results confirmed that neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental traits are correlated in children in the general population. Composite genetic risk scores for ADHD were independently associated with lower IQ (β = −.05, p < .001) and working memory performance (β = −.034, p = .013), even after accounting for the relationship with latent neurodevelopmental behavioural trait scores. No associations were found between composite genetic risk scores and inhibitory control or emotion recognition (p > .05). Conclusions These findings suggest that common
Neto, Felix; Ruiz, Fatima; Furnham, Adrian
This study investigated the relationship among sex, attitude toward intelligence, and self-estimation of multiple intelligences for self and parents among Portuguese adolescents in secondary schools. Two hundred and forty-two adolescents estimated their own and their parents' IQ scores on each of Gardner's 10 multiple intelligences: verbal…
Ovesen, C; Christensen, A; Nielsen, J K; Christensen, H
Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator between 2009 and 2011 were included. Upon admission all patients underwent physical and neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale along with non-contrast CT scans and CT angiography. Patients were followed up through the Outpatient Clinic and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.96; p<0.001) and good outcome (mRS 0-2) (AUC-ROC: 0.79; 95% CI 0.73-0.85; p<0.001). When only patients with M1 occlusions were selected the DRAGON scale provided good discriminative capability (AUC-ROC: 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0; p=0.003) for highly unfavourable outcome. We confirmed the validity of the DRAGON scale in predicting outcome after thrombolysis treatment.
Furnham, Adrian; Reeves, Emma; Budhani, Salima
In this study, 156 participants, predominantly White British adults (M age = 44.3 years) rated themselves on overall IQ and on H. Gardner's (1983) 7 intelligence subtypes. Parents (n = 120) also estimated the intelligence of their children. Men's self-estimates were significantly higher than women's (110.15 vs. 104.84). Participants thought their verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence scores were the best indicators of their own overall intelligence. Parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters (115.21 vs. 107.49). Self-estimates and estimates of children's multiple intelligences were higher for men and sons, significantly so for logical-mathematical and spatial intelligence. Parents rated 2nd-born daughters as having significantly higher verbal and musical intelligence than their male counterparts. Higher parental IQ self-estimates corresponded with higher IQ estimates for children. Results for 1st-born children were clearest and showed the most significant differences. The findings are interpreted in terms of sociocultural and familial influences and the possibility of actual sex differences in particular abilities.
Kaufman, James C.
Self-estimated intelligence is a quick way to assess people's conceptions of their own abilities. Furnham (2001) and colleagues have used this technique to make comparisons across culture and gender and different approaches to intelligence (such as "g" or Multiple Intelligences). This study seeks to build on past work in two ways. First, a large,…
Snekhalatha, U; Anburajan, M
Aim of this study is to analyze the functional ability of rheumatoid arthritis among South Indian male and female patients based on HAQ score and forearm ulna-BMD measurement by peripheral DXA, and to investigate the correlation between forearm ulna-BMD and HAQ score among RA patients. Sixty-four patients with RA and 64 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The health assessment questionnaire test was self administered by each RA patients. The bone mineral density (BMD) in forearm ulna region was measured using peripheral Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (osteometer model-DTX200 Meditech.Inc, Hawthorn, California, USA) both for RA patients and for healthy control group. RA patients (n = 64) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 64) were selected, of which 46 (72%) patients were women and 18 (28%) were men. The mean age was 47.75 ± 11.37 years, and a majority of the patients were in the age group of 30-75 years. The mean age of healthy controls was 46.42 ± 10.67 years. For male RA patients, U-BMD shows moderate significance with healthy controls (0.371 ± 0.05 (g cm(2)) [mean ± SD], 0.413 ± 0.05 (g cm(2)), P = 0.03). For female RA patients, U-BMD was highly significant with that of healthy controls (0.300 ± 0.132 (g cm(2)), 0.376 ± 0.05 (g cm(2)), P = 0.0006). Because as U-BMD decreases for RA patients, HAQ score increases, hence, Pearson correlation analysis revealed that U-BMD was negatively correlated with HAQ score (r = -0.732, P < 0.0001). Forearm U-BMD for RA patients is significantly lower than the healthy controls both for male and for female patients. There was a negative correlation found between HAQ score and P-DXA forearm U-BMD.
Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) Preoperative Score Versus Postoperative Score (CAPRA-S): ability to predict cancer progression and decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy.
Seo, Won Ik; Kang, Pil Moon; Kang, Dong Il; Yoon, Jang Ho; Kim, Wansuk; Chung, Jae Il
The University of California, San Francisco, announced in 2011 Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical (CAPRA-S) score which included pathologic data, but there were no results for comparing preoperative predictors with the CAPRA-S score. We evaluated the validation of the CAPRA-S score in our institution and compare the result with the preoperative progression predictor, CAPRA score. Data of 130 patients were reviewed who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 2008 to 2013. Performance of CAPRA-S score in predicting progression free probabilities was assessed through Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression test. Additionally, prediction probability was compared with preoperative CAPRA score by logistic regression analysis. Comparing CAPRA score, the CAPRA-S score showed improved prediction ability for 5 yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.80, P = 0.04). After risk group stratification, 3 group model of CAPRA-S was superior than 3 group model of CAPRA for 3-yr progression free survival and 5-yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.74 vs. 0.70, 0.77 vs. 0.71, P < 0.001). Finally the CAPRA-S score was the more ideal predictor concerned with adjuvant therapy than the CAPRA score through decision curve analysis. The CPARA-S score is a useful predictor for disease progression after radical prostatectomy.
García Sagredo, J M; Vallcorba, I; López-Yarto; Sanchez-Hombre, M D; Resino, M; Ferro, M T
We exposed human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro to 0.3 and 1 Gy of 60Co gamma rays to evaluate whether the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome painting is independent or not to the specific paint probes. To detect structural aberrations (translocations), we painted chromosome spreads simultaneously with two whole-chromosome libraries for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18. To compare the rate of chromosome translocations detected by the different pairs of chromosomes, data were normalized according to the fraction of genome painted and evaluated by unconditional logistic regression. Our results show that any combination of paint probes can be used to score induced chromosomal aberrations. We observed that the amounts of translocations are dose dependent and quite homogeneous within each dose of radiation, independently of chromosomes painted. However, the use of small chromosome probes is not recommended because of the high number of cells to be analyzed due to the small amount of genome painted and because it is more difficult to detect translocations in small chromosomes. PMID:8781367
Einarsson, E; Eythórsdóttir, E; Smith, C R; Jónmundsson, J V
A total of 862 lamb carcasses that were evaluated by both the VIAscan® and the current EUROP classification system were deboned and the actual yield was measured. Models were derived for predicting lean meat yield of the legs (Leg%), loin (Loin%) and shoulder (Shldr%) using the best VIAscan® variables selected by stepwise regression analysis of a calibration data set (n=603). The equations were tested on validation data set (n=259). The results showed that the VIAscan® predicted lean meat yield in the leg, loin and shoulder with an R 2 of 0.60, 0.31 and 0.47, respectively, whereas the current EUROP system predicted lean yield with an R 2 of 0.57, 0.32 and 0.37, respectively, for the three carcass parts. The VIAscan® also predicted the EUROP score of the trial carcasses, using a model derived from an earlier trial. The EUROP classification from VIAscan® and the current system were compared for their ability to explain the variation in lean yield of the whole carcass (LMY%) and trimmed fat (FAT%). The predicted EUROP scores from the VIAscan® explained 36% of the variation in LMY% and 60% of the variation in FAT%, compared with the current EUROP system that explained 49% and 72%, respectively. The EUROP classification obtained by the VIAscan® was tested against a panel of three expert classifiers (n=696). The VIAscan® classification agreed with 82% of conformation and 73% of the fat classes assigned by a panel of expert classifiers. It was concluded that VIAscan® provides a technology that can directly predict LMY% of lamb carcasses with more accuracy than the current EUROP classification system. The VIAscan® is also capable of classifying lamb carcasses into EUROP classes with an accuracy that fulfils minimum demands for the Icelandic sheep industry. Although the VIAscan® prediction of the Loin% is low, it is comparable to the current EUROP system, and should not hinder the adoption of the technology to estimate the yield of Icelandic lambs as it delivered
Weigle, Sara Cushing
Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…
Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Molfese, Victoria J.; Heaton, Ruth; Zhou, Xin; Brown, E. Todd; Prokasky, Amanda; Davis, Erika
The 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study shows average mathematics scores of U.S. fourth graders are lower than children in many Asian countries. There are questions about differences in mathematics skills at younger ages. This study examines differences in score growth for High-, Average-, and Low-performing children in two…
Crowe, Teresa V.
A study involving 152 college students with deafness found students who had at least one parent with deafness and signed scored significantly higher on self-esteem measures than those with hearing parents who could or who could not sign. Overall, self-esteem scores for all respondents were high. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Kotz, Kasey M.; Watkins, Marley W.; McDermott, Paul A.
Some researchers have argued that discrepant broad index scores invalidate IQs, but others have questioned the fundamental logic of that argument. To resolve this debate, the present study used a nationally representative sample of children (N = 1,200) who were matched individually for IQ. Children with significantly uneven broad index score…
Su, Allan Yen-Lun
This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship…
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali
This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…
Su, Allan Yen-Lun
This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing. Results indicate that individual ability on the preference of team-based learning was affected by the three levels of favorable team member scores. For students with a low level of individual ability, the preference for team-based learning was significant among students with each of three levels of favorable team member scores (p < .05). However, the team-based learning and grading methods was not significant (p > .05). The findings also reveal a negative correlation between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing (p < .05). Findings note the importance of teachers' grading methods, student perceptions of course importance as well as individual ability and favorable team member scores in the team selection process to promote student attitude toward team-based learning.
Bing, Mark N.; Stewart, Susan M.; Davison, H. Kristl
Handheld calculators have been used on the job for more than 30 years, yet the degree to which these devices can affect performance on employment tests of mathematical ability has not been thoroughly examined. This study used a within-subjects research design (N = 167) to investigate the effects of calculator use on test score reliability, test…
Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl
It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922
Pucel, David J.; And Others
Using post-secondary vocational and technical education students as the populations, the objectives of this project were to determine: (1) the ability of standardized instruments to predict the various criteria of success, (2) the relative ability of the different instruments to predict each criterion of success, and (3) which sub-set of all of…
Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia
Claims of changes in the validity coefficients associated with general mental ability (GMA) tests due to the passage of time (i.e., temporal validity degradation) have been the focus of an on-going debate in applied psychology. To evaluate whether and, if so, under what conditions this degradation may occur, we integrate evidence from multiple…
Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…
García-Fernández, Amaya; Roldán, Vanessa; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Marín, Francisco
Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated its role on prognosis in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and determined whether its addition to clinical risk stratification schemes improved event-risk prediction. Consecutive outpatients with non-valvular AF were recruited and rates of thrombotic/cardiovascular events, major bleeding and mortality were recorded. The effect of vWF on prognosis was calculated using a Cox regression model. Improvements in predictive accuracy over current scores were determined by calculating the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), net reclassification improvement (NRI), comparison of receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA). 1215 patients (49% males, age 76 (71–81) years) were included. Follow-up was almost 7 years. Significant associations were found between vWF and cardiovascular events, stroke, mortality and bleeding. Based on IDI and NRI, addition of vWF to CHA2DS2-VASc statistically improved its predictive value, but c-indexes were not significantly different. For major bleeding, the addition of vWF to HAS-BLED improved the c-index but not IDI or NRI. DCA showed minimal net benefit. vWF acts as a simple prognostic biomarker in AF and, whilst its addition to current scores statistically improves prediction for some endpoints, absolute changes and impact on clinical decision-making are marginal. PMID:28134282
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.
Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong
The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…
von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian
This study examines the structure of self-estimates of intelligence (SEI) across 12 nations (Australia, Austria, Brazil, France, Iran, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, UK and US). Participants rated themselves on general and specific abilities from three popular models of intelligence: Gardner's multiple intelligences, Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, and Goleman's emotional intelligence. The results showed that (a) laypeople across nations have similar and invariant concepts of intelligence, (b) concepts of intelligence are cross-culturally closely related to academic notions of intellectual ability and (c) sex differences in general and specific SEI favouring men are consistent across countries. Male hubris and female humility in SEI seem independent of sex differences in actual cognitive ability and national levels of masculinity-femininity. Furthermore, international mean differences in general SEI could not be attributed to discrepancies in national intelligence quotient (IQ) levels or to cultural variations.
Scicchitano, Kristine M.
When entering cartridge case exhibits into the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBISRTM), examiners have the ability to manually manipulate three parameters: lighting intensity, ring selection and exhibit orientation. User guidelines for these settings are subjective, and the effect of examiner variation is largely unknown. If examiner variation negatively affects the returned correlation scores, the ability of the system to return true positives will be compromised. By entering cartridge cases into IBISRTM 88 separate times, using 88 different combinations of parameter settings, the effect of these variables was determined. Analysis of variance testing revealed that no variable has a statistically significant effect on average true positive combined correlation scores or results list position. This did not change when the parameters were tested individually or in combination. Results indicate that examiner variability of cartridge case image acquisition has no effect on the outcome of IBIS RTM. The system's matching algorithm is robust enough to handle exhibit entry and data collection without the intervention of human input. For this reason, acquisition could be completely automated, allowing examiners to focus on the decision making stage of cartridge case comparison.
Bipp, T; Kleingeld, A
An experiment that investigated the interaction effect of Neuroticism and the comparison to different reference groups on self-estimates of intelligence is reported. University students (100 men, 15 women) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and asked to rate their own intelligence on a one-item measure, in IQ points, having been provided with reference values for either the general population or a student sample. Analysis of data confirmed that the accuracy of self-estimates of intelligence was influenced by the variation of the instruction. Participants provided more accurate estimations when confronted with comparison information about fellow students than about the general population. Persons scoring high on Neuroticism estimated their intelligence lower, but only when their estimation was based on a general reference group. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind
The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…
Ockey, Gary J.; Koyama, Dennis; Setoguchi, Eric; Sun, Angela
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which performance on the TOEFL iBT speaking section is associated with other indicators of Japanese university students' abilities to communicate orally in an academic English environment and to determine which components of oral ability for these tasks are best assessed by TOEFL iBT. To…
Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian
In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical-logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance.
Chuderski, Adam; Andrelczyk, Krzysztof
Several existing computational models of working memory (WM) have predicted a positive relationship (later confirmed empirically) between WM capacity and the individual ratio of theta to gamma oscillatory band lengths. These models assume that each gamma cycle represents one WM object (e.g., a binding of its features), whereas the theta cycle integrates such objects into the maintained list. As WM capacity strongly predicts reasoning, it might be expected that this ratio also predicts performance in reasoning tasks. However, no computational model has yet explained how the differences in the theta-to-gamma ratio found among adult individuals might contribute to their scores on a reasoning test. Here, we propose a novel model of how WM capacity constraints figural analogical reasoning, aimed at explaining inter-individual differences in reasoning scores in terms of the characteristics of oscillatory patterns in the brain. In the model, the gamma cycle encodes the bindings between objects/features and the roles they play in the relations processed. Asynchrony between consecutive gamma cycles results from lateral inhibition between oscillating bindings. Computer simulations showed that achieving the highest WM capacity required reaching the optimal level of inhibition. When too strong, this inhibition eliminated some bindings from WM, whereas, when inhibition was too weak, the bindings became unstable and fell apart or became improperly grouped. The model aptly replicated several empirical effects and the distribution of individual scores, as well as the patterns of correlations found in the 100-people sample attempting the same reasoning task. Most importantly, the model's reasoning performance strongly depended on its theta-to-gamma ratio in same way as the performance of human participants depended on their WM capacity. The data suggest that proper regulation of oscillations in the theta and gamma bands may be crucial for both high WM capacity and effective complex
Mushi, Douglas; Byamukama, Denis; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Mach, Robert L; Brunner, K; Farnleitner, Andreas H
Sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ROC was assessed for its capacity to predict bacterial faecal pollution in the investigated well water. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a comprehensive picture of the level and characteristics of faecal pollution (such as vegetative Escherichia coli cells, Clostridium perfringens spores and human-associated sorbitol fermenting Bifidobacteria). ROC scoring demonstrated a remarkable ability to predict bacterial faecal pollution levels in the investigated well water (e.g. 87% of E. coli concentration variations were predicted by ROC scoring). Physicochemical characteristics of the wells were not reflected by the ROC scores. Our results indicate that ROC scoring is a useful tool for supporting health-related well water management in urban and suburban areas of tropical, developing countries. The outcome of this study is discussed in the context of previously published results, and future directions are suggested.
Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Rodríguez-Sotres, Rogelio
Background Despite the remarkable progress of bioinformatics, how the primary structure of a protein leads to a three-dimensional fold, and in turn determines its function remains an elusive question. Alignments of sequences with known function can be used to identify proteins with the same or similar function with high success. However, identification of function-related and structure-related amino acid positions is only possible after a detailed study of every protein. Folding pattern diversity seems to be much narrower than sequence diversity, and the amino acid sequences of natural proteins have evolved under a selective pressure comprising structural and functional requirements acting in parallel. Principal Findings The approach described in this work begins by generating a large number of amino acid sequences using ROSETTA [Dantas G et al. (2003) J Mol Biol 332:449–460], a program with notable robustness in the assignment of amino acids to a known three-dimensional structure. The resulting sequence-sets showed no conservation of amino acids at active sites, or protein-protein interfaces. Hidden Markov models built from the resulting sequence sets were used to search sequence databases. Surprisingly, the models retrieved from the database sequences belonged to proteins with the same or a very similar function. Given an appropriate cutoff, the rate of false positives was zero. According to our results, this protocol, here referred to as Rd.HMM, detects fine structural details on the folding patterns, that seem to be tightly linked to the fitness of a structural framework for a specific biological function. Conclusion Because the sequence of the native protein used to create the Rd.HMM model was always amongst the top hits, the procedure is a reliable tool to score, very accurately, the quality and appropriateness of computer-modeled 3D-structures, without the need for spectroscopy data. However, Rd.HMM is very sensitive to the conformational features of the
... because she is blue and not pink. Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. Because their ... between 8 and 10. A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than ... low scores than infants with normal births. These scores may reflect difficulties ...
Furnham, Adrian; Callahan, Ines; Akande, Debo
Black and White South Africans (n = 181) and Nigerians (n = 135) completed a questionnaire concerning the estimations of their own and their relatives' (father, mother, sister, brother) multiple intelligences as well as beliefs about the IQ concept. In contrast to previous results (A. Furnham, 2001), there were few gender differences in self-estimates. In a comparison of Black and White South Africans, it was clear the Whites gave higher estimates for self, parents, and brothers. However, overall IQ estimates for self and all relatives hovered around the mean of 100. When Black South Africans and Nigerians were compared, there were both gender and nationality differences on the self-estimates with men giving higher self-estimates than women and Nigerians higher self-estimates than South Africans. There were also gender and nationality differences in the answers to questions about IQ. The authors discuss possible reasons for the relatively few gender differences in this study compared with other studies as well as possible reasons for the cross-cultural difference.
... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...
NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase) The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.
Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.
Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…
Ando, S.; Ono, Y.; Shimaoka, M.; Hiruta, S.; Hattori, Y.; Hori, F.; Takeuchi, Y.
OBJECTIVES—To investigate the prevalence of neck, shoulder, and arm pain (NSAP) as well as low back pain (LBP) among hospital nurses, and to examine the association of work tasks and self estimated risk factors with NSAP and LBP. METHODS—A cross sectional study was carried out in a national university hospital in Japan. Full time registered nurses in the wards (n=314) were selected for analysis. The questionnaire was composed of items on demographic conditions, severity of workloads in actual tasks, self estimated risk factors for fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain in the previous month. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by the Cox's proportional hazards model to study the association of pain with variables related to work and demographic conditions. RESULTS—The prevalences of low back, shoulder, neck, and arm pain in the previous month were 54.7%, 42.8%, 31.3%, and 18.6%, respectively. The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among hospital nurses was higher than in previous studies. In the Cox's models for LBP and NSAP, there were no significant associations between musculoskeletal pain and the items related to work and demographic conditions. The RRs for LBP tended to be relatively higher for "accepting emergency patients" and some actual tasks. Some items of self estimated risk factors for fatigue tended to have relatively higher RRs for LBP and NSAP. CONCLUSIONS—It was suggested that musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses may have associations with some actual tasks and items related to work postures, work control, and work organisation. Further studies, however, are necessary, as clear evidence of this potential association was not shown in the study. Keywords: workloads; musculoskeletal pain; nurses PMID:10810105
Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.
Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)
Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…
Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian
Over 120 participants completed three timed intelligence tests, a self-estimated Domain Masculine (DMIQ) Intelligence scale, and a mindset "beliefs about intelligence" measure (Dweck, 2012) to examine correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect (HHE) which shows males believe they are more intelligent than females. As predicted males gave…
Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.
Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…
Weigle, Sara Cushing
Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study addresses two validity-related issues regarding the use of e-rater® with the…
Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin
Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.
Weiss, David J.
The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…
The Effects of Anchor Length, Test Difficulty, Population Ability Differences, Mixture of Populations and Sample Size on the Psychometric Properties of Levine Observed Score Linear Equating Method for Different Assumptions
Carvajal-Espinoza, Jorge E.
The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test equating (NEAT) design is a widely used equating design in large scale testing that involves two groups that do not have to be of equal ability. One group P gets form X and a group of items A and the other group Q gets form Y and the same group of items A. One of the most commonly used equating methods in…
Yuen, Mantak; Furnham, Adrian
A total of 378 Hong Kong adolescents estimated their own and their parents' IQ score on each of Gardner's 10 multiple intelligences: verbal (linguistic), logical (mathematical), spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, spiritual and naturalistic. They answered three simple questions concerning intelligence and…
260 participants rated themselves on 12 items that made up the three types of intelligence as noted by Sternberg, et al. in 1981. There were sex differences on two of the three standardized scores with men rating themselves higher than women on practical and verbal intelligence. This confirms previous studies of sex differences in the ratings of over-all (g) and multiple intelligences.
Collard, Anne; Mélot, France; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre
The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally…
Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan
The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.
Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne
The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…
Gottfredson, Gary D.
Self-beliefs are not measures of ability and skill but they are correlated with interests and activities and are useful predictors of occupational choices. Holland's theory of vocational personalities provides a framework compatible with Social Cognitive Career Theory and goal theory; the Self-Directed Search is a viable means of assessing…
Traditionally, the test score represented by the number of items answered correctly was taken as an indicator of the examinee's ability level. Researchers still tend to think that the number-correct score is a way of ordering individuals with respect to the latent trait. The objective of this study is to depict the benefits of using ability…
Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori
A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…
Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej
Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140
Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.
Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.
A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101
Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M
A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects, and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions, and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well-known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms.
di Nisi, J.; Muzet, A.; Weber, L. D.
Eighty subjects of both sexes were selected according to their self-estimated high or low sensitivity to noise. Noise exposure took place during a mental task ("sound" condition) or during a video film illustrating the noises ("sound and video" condition). The experiments were conducted between 0900 and 1100 hours or between 1500 and 1700 hours. Heart rate response and finger pulse response amplitudes were averaged separately for "sound" and "sound and video" conditions. In the "sound" condition, the average amplitude of the heart rate response differed significantly between noise-sensitivity groups: the low sensitivity group showed a lower average amplitude of heart rate response than the high sensitivity group. A significant interaction between sex and time of the day (morning or afternoon) was observed in both "sound" and "sound and video" conditions. In the "sound" condition, the percentage of noises inducing a finger pulse response appeared higher in female than in male subjects.
The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.
Grégoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L; Jianjun Zhu
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement the pairwise index score comparisons included in the WAIS-IV manuals, this article describes the use of the mean of the four index scores (the average index score) as a baseline for analyzing index score variability and as a method for identifying strengths and weaknesses within an individual's index score pattern. Davis's formula was used to calculate critical values for the identification of index scores with a statistically significant difference from the average index score. Subsequent analysis of the WAIS-IV normative sample indicates that variability in performance at the index score level is not uncommon in the general population. More than 70% of individuals in the normative sample have at least one index score that differs significantly from their mean index score. This variability in index score performance appears to have little relationship to age or gender, but it is strongly related to the full-scale IQ.
Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…
McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.
Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…
Brossman, Bradley Grant
The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted.…
Hirschi, Andreas; Lage, Damian
A frequent applied method in career assessment to elicit clients' self-concepts is asking them to predict their interest assessment results. Accuracy in estimating one's interest type is commonly taken as a sign of more self-awareness and career choice readiness. The study evaluated the empirical relation of accuracy of self-estimation to career…
The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.
McLarty, Joyce R.
The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…
SLACK, CHARLES W.
REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…
Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej
Chronic shortage of ITU beds makes decisions on admission difficult and responsible. The use of computer-based mortality scoring should help in decision-making and for this purpose, a number of different scoring systems have been created; in principle, they should be easy to use, adaptable to all populations of patients and suitable for predicting the risk of mortality during both ITU and hospital stay. Most of existing scales and scoring systems were included in this review. They are frequently used in ITUs and become a necessary tool to describe ITU populations and to explain differences in mortality. As there are several pitfalls related to the interpretation of the numbers supplied by the systems, they should be used with the knowledge on the severity scoring science. Moreover, the cost and significant workload limit the use of scoring systems; in many cases an extra person has to be employed for collection and analysis of data only.
Rudner, Lawrence M.
GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…
Dalca, A V; Brudno, M
While the popular DNA sequence alignment tools incorporate powerful heuristics to allow for fast and accurate alignment of DNA, most of them still optimize the classical Needleman Wunsch scoring scheme. The development of novel scoring schemes is often hampered by the difficulty of finding an optimizing algorithm for each non-trivial scheme. In this paper we define the broad class of rectangle scoring schemes, and describe an algorithm and tool that can align two sequences with an arbitrary rectangle scoring scheme in polynomial time. Rectangle scoring schemes encompass some of the popular alignment scoring metrics currently in use, as well as many other functions. We investigate a novel scoring function based on minimizing the expected number of random diagonals observed with the given scores and show that it rivals the LAGAN and Clustal-W aligners, without using any biological or evolutionary parameters. The FRESCO program, freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/fresco, gives bioinformatics researchers the ability to quickly compare the performance of other complex scoring formulas without having to implement new algorithms to optimize them.
Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna
Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130—HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Results Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). Conclusions siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well. PMID:26745635
Latent trait models introduced the concept of the latent trait, or ability, as distinct from the test score. There is a recent tendency to treat the test score as through it were a substitute for ability, largely because the test score is a convenient way to place individuals in order. F. Samejima (1969) has shown that, in general, the amount of…
Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.
Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)
Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun
The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)
Mohan, Arvind; Vadher, Jane; Ismail, Hiba; Warwick, David
The aim of this study was to construct and validate a simple patient-related outcome score to quantify the disability caused by Dupuytren's disease (DD), thus enabling prioritisation of treatment, to allow reliable audit of surgical outcome and to support future research. The Southampton Dupuytren's Scoring System (SDSS) was developed in a staged fashion according to the recommendations of The Derby Outcomes Conference. (1) Item generation; (2) Item reduction; (3) Internal consistency; (4) Test-re-test; (5) Field management; (6) Sensitivity to change standardised response mean; and (7) Criterion validity: ability of the SDSS to measure what it is supposed to measure. Internal consistency measured with Cronbach's alpha indicated acceptable reliability. The test-re-test correlation coefficient showed high reliability with SDSS. Field-testing showed SDSS ratings to be higher than the QuickDASH (Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand) ratings evaluated by the patients who answered both questionnaires. Standardised response mean was more sensitive for SDSS compared with QuickDASH showing sensitivity to change. Criterion validity was used to assess if the SDSS was measuring what it is supposed to measure comparing the SDSS with QuickDASH. A highly significant correlation was found between the two scoring systems. SDSS is a disease-specific patient-related outcome measure with a good internal consistency and performs better than QuickDASH in terms of test-re-test reliability and sensitivity to change. SDSS shows better field-testing attributes suggesting that it is a relatively more patient and practitioner friendly scoring system. This study proposes to the SDSS is a useful patient-related outcome measure for DD.
Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li
Objectives To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Methods Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience. Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. Results A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). Conclusions This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully. PMID:26897701
This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…
The algorithm develops a single health score for office computers, today just Windows, but we plan to extend this to Apple computers. The score is derived from various parameters, including: CPU Utilization Memory Utilization Various Error logs Disk Problems Disk write queue length It then uses a weighting scheme to balance these parameters and provide an overall health score. By using these parameters, we are not just assessing the theoretical performance of the components of the computer, rather we are using actual performance metrics that are selected to be a more realistic representation of the experience of the person using the computer. This includes compensating for the nature of their use. If there are two identical computers and the user of one places heavy demands on their computer compared with the user of the second computer, the former will have a lower health score. This allows us to provide a 'fit for purpose' score tailored to the assigned user. This is very helpful data to inform the mangers when individual computers need to be replaced. Additionally it provides specific information that can facilitate the fixing of the computer, to extend it's useful lifetime. This presents direct financial savings, time savings for users transferring from one computer to the next, and better environmental stewardship.
Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José
Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028
We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.
The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…
Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.
The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323
To fairly and accurately interpret candidates’ Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores as listed on their official transcripts, it is important to understand how these scores reflect candidates’ performances on cognitive tasks involving the identification, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of information assumed to have been covered in pre-pharmacy science, math, and general education coursework. This paper attempts to facilitate this understanding by explaining how candidates’ responses to PCAT test items relate to their scaled scores and percentile ranks and how their writing scores reflect their performance. This paper also suggests how differences between candidates’ PCAT subtest scores may reflect different personal experiences, educational backgrounds, and cognitive abilities. PMID:28289307
Correia, Luis C. L.; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia
Background The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles. PMID:25029471
Velicer, Wayne F.
Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004
This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…
Davison, Mark L.
The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…
Fleck, R. L.
A risk factor scoring system for early detection, possible prediction, and counseling to coronary heart disease patients is discussed. Scoring data include dynamic EKG, cholesterol levels, triglycerine content, total lipid level, total phospolipid levels, and electrophoretic patterns. Results indicate such a system is effective in identifying high risk subjects, but that the ability to predict exceeds the ability to prevent heart disease or its complications.
Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.
Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.
Zhang, Yanwei Oliver; Yu, Feng; Nandakumar, Ratna
DETECT is a nonparametric, conditional covariance-based procedure to identify dimensional structure and the degree of multidimensionality of test data. The ability composite or conditional score used to estimate conditional covariance plays a significant role in the performance of DETECT. The number correct score of all items in the test (T) and…
Kudo, Masatoshi; Chung, Hobyung; Osaki, Yukio
A clinical staging system for cancer patients provides guidance for patient assessment and making therapeutic decisions. It is useful in deciding whether to treat a patient aggressively, and in avoiding the overtreatment of patients who would not tolerate the treatment or patients whose life expectancy rules out any chance of treatment. Clinical staging is also an essential tool for comparison between groups in therapeutic trials and for comparison between different studies. The current classifications most commonly used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the Okuda stages, the Child-Pugh staging system, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score. Among these, the CLIP score is currently the most commonly used integrated staging score, including both tumor stage and liver disease stage. Although the CLIP score has been well validated by many authors in terms of its prognostic value in HCC patients, this score has some problems and limitations when applied to currently diagnosed HCC patients, who are diagnosed in the early stage of disease. First, the CLIP score can discriminate score 0- to 3-patient populations, but it is not able to discriminate score 4- to 6-patient groups. Second, the definition of tumor morphology in the best prognostic group is too advanced, i.e., uninodular and a tumor extent of less than 50% of the liver. As a result, the prognosis of the CLIP system best prognostic group is not so good. In other words, this system cannot identify the best prognostic group who would benefit from curative and aggressive treatment. Third, nearly 80% of the patient population is classified as having a CLIP score of 0-2, as confirmed by many studies, which shows poor stratification ability. In contrast, a new staging system based on the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ), the Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score is currently proposed in Japan. This staging system combines Child-Pugh grade (grade A
Oestern, H J
For therapeutic recommendations three different kinds of scores are essential: 1. The severity scores for trauma; 2. Severity scores for mangled extremities; 3. Intensive care scores. The severity of polytrauma patients is measurable by the AIS, ISS, RTS, PTS and TRISS which is a combination of RTS, ISS, age, and mechanism of injury. For mangled extremities there are also different scores available: MESI (Mangled Extremity Syndrome Index) and MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score). The aim of these scores is to assist in the indication with regard to amputate or to save the extremity. These scoring indices can be used to evaluate the severity of a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome with respect to multiple organ failure. All scores are dynamic values which are variable with improvement of therapy.
Konstanty, J; Guzik, B; Maleta, P; Korpanty, G; Pfitzner, R
Health estimation was performed in 134 patients (where 67% were women), aged 17-70, mean 42 years, 2-3 years after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II). The study consists of clinical examination and self-estimation of the quality of life with help of a mall questionnaire, with return ratio of 90%. The improvement of health status was declared by 80% of patients, where 23% stated considerable improvement. While 15% did not confirm any significant changes and 5% noticed worsening quality of life status (mainly connected with postoperative pain). The physical condition improved similarly, with range of tolerable physical effort doubled. The frequency of dyspnea, chest pain and palpitation decreased from 72%, 67% and 87% to 47%, 43% and 47%, respectively, as well as their intensity. More over, the frequency of anxiety decreased from 70% to 62% with reduction of its intensity. Both, before and after surgery, the environmental estimation and self-estimation was very good (77% versus 78%, 78% versus 89%) respectively, and predominant were optimistic attitudes. Post-operative improvement of the quality of life correlating to the clinical state, confirms the suitableness of surgical correction of ASD II, independent of age.
Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin
Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.
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Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone
The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by…
Stanley, Julian C.
It is shown that all obtained scores must meet the requirements for classical test-score theory with respect to definitions of true scores and errors of measurement if that frame of reference is to yield valid variance errors of measurement. (DG)
Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.
Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)
Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares
Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.
Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.
The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…
Follman, John; Panther, Edward
Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)
Green, Bert F. Jr.
A summary and interpretation of the recent literature on the indeterminancy of factor scores is given in simple terms. A good index of factor score determinancy is the squared multiple correlation of the factor with the observed variables. (Author)
Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko
This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…
Moriarty, Sandra E.
Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)
O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.
Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had
Yen, Wendy M.; Candell, Gregory L.
Reliabilities are compared for two types of test score data: number correct, and item response patterns. Item-pattern scoring using three-parameter item response theory takes into account how many and which items a student answers correctly. This procedure theoretically results in greater reliability than does number-correct scoring. Empirical…
Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.
Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…
Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.
McCallum, R. Steve; And Others
Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)
Colarusso, Ronald P.; Dangel, Harry
In a study to determine if a classroom teacher with understanding of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities could predict subtest scores comparable to those obtained from administration of the test itself, seven masters-level special educators evaluated 28 learning disabled (LD) children (ages 6 through 11 years). (PHR)
The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)
Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.
Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…
A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227,…
Levin, Henry M.
Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…
Campbell, Michael J
Propensity score methodology is being increasingly used to try and make inferences about treatments when randomised trials are either impossible or not conducted and the only data are from observational studies. This paper reviews the basis of propensity scores and the current state of knowledge about them. It uses and critiques a current paper in the Emergency Medicine Journal to illustrate the methodology.
Looney, Marilyn A.
Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…
Wold, Donald C.
In the 20 years since the federal report on education "A Nation at Risk" appeared, much has been written on test scores of students in the United States versus their counterparts elsewhere. One of the issues is whether their scores are in fact inferior, or merely a statistical difference due to their universal schooling philosophy. Since…
This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…
Thomson, Scott; DeLeonibus, Nancy
The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) identified 34 high schools whose students maintained or improved their SAT scores from 1973 to 1976 or whose mean scores in 1973 were approximately the same as in 1965. In an open-ended questionnaire, the principals of these schools were asked to identify success factors. Their…
Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao
Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.
Allen, Bradford D.
Concept map structure, testing, and scoring methods are discussed and a new scoring methodology is introduced using the breadth and depth of individual concept maps. The scoring method proposed here provides advantages of grading "on a curve" such as the ability to estimate and compare the complexity of different concept maps, the ability to…
Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P
While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.
Hartlage, Lawrence C.; Lucas, David G.
The present study was aimed at developing a method for the transformation of Bender performance into scaled score equivalents and at testing the validity of such scaled score equivalents. The use of scaled scores permits a more direct comparison between Bender performance and performance on measures of intellectual ability. (Author)
Ferrara, Philippe; Gohlke, Holger; Price, Daniel J; Klebe, Gerhard; Brooks, Charles L
An assessment of nine scoring functions commonly applied in docking using a set of 189 protein-ligand complexes is presented. The scoring functions include the CHARMm potential, the scoring function DrugScore, the scoring function used in AutoDock, the three scoring functions implemented in DOCK, as well as three scoring functions implemented in the CScore module in SYBYL (PMF, Gold, ChemScore). We evaluated the abilities of these scoring functions to recognize near-native configurations among a set of decoys and to rank binding affinities. Binding site decoys were generated by molecular dynamics with restraints. To investigate whether the scoring functions can also be applied for binding site detection, decoys on the protein surface were generated. The influence of the assignment of protonation states was probed by either assigning "standard" protonation states to binding site residues or adjusting protonation states according to experimental evidence. The role of solvation models in conjunction with CHARMm was explored in detail. These include a distance-dependent dielectric function, a generalized Born model, and the Poisson equation. We evaluated the effect of using a rigid receptor on the outcome of docking by generating all-pairs decoys ("cross-decoys") for six trypsin and seven HIV-1 protease complexes. The scoring functions perform well to discriminate near-native from misdocked conformations, with CHARMm, DOCK-energy, DrugScore, ChemScore, and AutoDock yielding recognition rates of around 80%. Significant degradation in performance is observed in going from decoy to cross-decoy recognition for CHARMm in the case of HIV-1 protease, whereas DrugScore and ChemScore, as well as CHARMm in the case of trypsin, show only small deterioration. In contrast, the prediction of binding affinities remains problematic for all of the scoring functions. ChemScore gives the highest correlation value with R(2) = 0.51 for the set of 189 complexes and R(2) = 0.43 for the set
Zielke, A; Sitter, H; Rampp, T A; Schäfer, E; Hasse, C; Lorenz, W; Rothmund, M
A diagnostic scoring system, recently published by Ohmann et al. in this journal, was validated by analyzing the clinicopathological data of a consecutive series of 2,359 patients, admitted for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The results of the scoring system were compared to the results of clinical evaluation by junior (provisional) and senior surgeons (final clinical diagnosis). To assess the diagnostic ability of the score, the accuracy and positive predictive value were defined as the major diagnostic performance parameters; the rate of theoretical negative laparotomies and that of diagnostic errors served as the major procedural performance parameters. Of 2,359 patients admitted for suspected acute appendicitis, 662 were proven to have acute appendicitis by histology, for a prevalence of 28%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the provisional clinical diagnosis were 0.50, 0.94, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.82; 0.93, for the score 0.63, 0.93, 0.77, 0.86 and 0.84, and for the final clinical diagnosis 0.90, 0.94, 0.85, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively. Of the main diagnostic performance parameter, the accuracy of the score was significantly better than that of provisional clinical diagnosis (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The score yielded a rate of negative appendecomies and laparotomies of 14.3 and 12.3%. With respect to the rate of overlooked cases of acute apendicitis, the score demonstrated a superior performance, with only 6 cases missed (0.9%). However, the number of patients with acute appendicitis, including those with perforated disease, who were not identified by the score, was almost four times that of the final clinical diagnosis (245 vs 63). With regard to the main procedural performance parameter, the score resulted in a significantly smaller number of diagnostic errors than the provisional clinical investigator (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The results of this study indicate that the diagnostic scoring
Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios
Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…
Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François
Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value. PMID:22149633
Hakstian, A. Ralph
Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)
Pham, Tuan A; Jain, Ajay N
Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.
Pham, Tuan A.; Jain, Ajay N.
Empirical scoring functions used in protein-ligand docking calculations are typically trained on a dataset of complexes with known affinities with the aim of generalizing across different docking applications. We report a novel method of scoring-function optimization that supports the use of additional information to constrain scoring function parameters, which can be used to focus a scoring function's training towards a particular application, such as screening enrichment. The approach combines multiple instance learning, positive data in the form of ligands of protein binding sites of known and unknown affinity and binding geometry, and negative (decoy) data of ligands thought not to bind particular protein binding sites or known not to bind in particular geometries. Performance of the method for the Surflex-Dock scoring function is shown in cross-validation studies and in eight blind test cases. Tuned functions optimized with a sufficient amount of data exhibited either improved or undiminished screening performance relative to the original function across all eight complexes. Analysis of the changes to the scoring function suggest that modifications can be learned that are related to protein-specific features such as active-site mobility.
Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin
Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge.
Strike, Kenneth A.
A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)
This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…
Dever, Bridget V.; Dowdy, Erin; Raines, Tara C.; Carnazzo, Katherine
Universal screening for behavioral and emotional difficulties is integral to the identification of students needing early intervention and prevention efforts. However, unanswered questions regarding the stability of screening scores impede the ability to determine optimal strategies for subsequent screening. This study examined the 2-year…
Schreiber, Deborah A.; Abegg, Gerald L.
This study presents a quantitative method for scoring concept maps generated by students learning introductory college chemistry. Concept maps measure the amount of chemical information the student possesses, reasoning ability in chemistry, and specific misconceptions about introductory and physical chemistry concepts. They provide a visualization…
Rudolph, Kara E; Colson, K Ellicott; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ahern, Jennifer
Propensity score methods, such as subclassification, are a common approach to control for confounding when estimating causal effects in non-randomized studies. Propensity score subclassification groups individuals into subclasses based on their propensity score values. Effect estimates are obtained within each subclass and then combined by weighting by the proportion of observations in each subclass. Combining subclass-specific estimates by weighting by the inverse variance is a promising alternative approach; a similar strategy is used in meta-analysis for its efficiency. We use simulation to compare performance of each of the two methods while varying (i) the number of subclasses, (ii) extent of propensity score overlap between the treatment and control groups (i.e., positivity), (iii) incorporation of survey weighting, and (iv) presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. Both methods perform well in the absence of positivity violations and with a constant treatment effect with weighting by the inverse variance performing slightly better. Weighting by the proportion in subclass performs better in the presence of heterogeneous treatment effects across subclasses. We apply these methods to an illustrative example estimating the effect of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood on risk of past-year anxiety and depressive disorders among U.S. urban adolescents. This example entails practical positivity violations but no evidence of treatment effect heterogeneity. In this case, weighting by the inverse variance when combining across propensity score subclasses results in more efficient estimates that ultimately change inference. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Creighton, Susan Dabney
There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the
Li, Shuai Cheng; Bu, Dongbo; Xu, Jinbo
Abstract Global Distance Test (GDT) is one of the commonly accepted measures to assess the quality of predicted protein structures. Given a set of distance thresholds, GDT maximizes the percentage of superimposed (or matched) residue pairs under each threshold, and reports the average of these percentages as the final score. The computation of GDT score was conjectured to be NP-hard. All available methods are heuristic and do not guarantee the optimality of scores. These heuristic strategies usually result in underestimated GDT scores. Contrary to the conjecture, the problem can be solved exactly in polynomial time, albeit the method would be too slow for practical usage. In this paper we propose an efficient tool called OptGDT to obtain GDT scores with theoretically guaranteed accuracies. Denote ℓ as the number of matched residue pairs found by OptGDT for a given threshold d. Let ℓ′ be the optimal number of matched residues pairs for threshold d/(1 + ε), where ε is a parameter in our computation. OptGDT guarantees that ℓ ≥ ℓ′. We applied our tool to CASP8 (The eighth Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction Techniques) data. For 87.3% of the predicted models, better GDT scores are obtained when OptGDT is used. In some cases, the number of matched residue pairs were improved by at least 10%. The tool runs in time O(n3 log n/ε5) for a given threshold d and parameter ε. In the case of globular proteins, the tool can be improved to a randomized algorithm of O(n log2 n) runtime with probability at least 1 − O(1/n). Released under the GPL license and downloadable from http://bioinformatics.uwaterloo.ca/∼scli/OptGDT/. PMID:21554017
Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…
Kline, P; Cooper, C.
Test scores from Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB) administered to 103 British students were subjected to oblique factor analysis. Six factors were extracted which fitted closely those described by Cattell and colleagues, thus supporting their claims concerning structure of abilities and utility of this American instrument in Great Britain. (CMG)
Decker, Sadie N.
A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…
Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja
Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)
Rowland, Julie Elizabeth
Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up approximately 5% of the school-aged population and they often experience significant difficulties in school, particularly in the areas of academics, disruptive behavior, and social relationships. A diagnosis of ADHD does not provide guidance for creating interventions to address…
Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…
... four PHAS indicators in this part will be scored individually, and then will be used to determine an overall score for the PHA. Components within each of the four PHAS indicators will be scored individually... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's...
Knupp, Tawnya Lee
The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…
Becker, William E.
Provides a single formula for merit-raise salary schemes based on either a fixed cash amount, a percentage of base salary, or any combination of the two. Explains that the formula makes explicit how merit scores, together with prior salaries and the money available for raises, determine individual salaries. (CMK)
We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.
Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.
Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…
Wagner, Joanne M.
Background If disability is the gap between what an individual can do and what that individual would like to be able to do, then measures that assess only current ability fall short of describing the impact of disability on the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to examine a potential measure of disability, the gap between current movement ability and preferred movement ability, as recorded with the Movement Ability Measure (MAM). This investigation was performed by establishing the relationship between self-perceived current ability and other measures and examining the evidence of convergence or divergence between the gap and other measures. Design This investigation was a descriptive study. Methods Thirty people who had multiple sclerosis and were ambulatory completed the MAM and 18 other measures of bodily function, activity, and participation. Item response theory methods were used to generate logit estimates of average current movement ability and separate abilities in the 6 dimensions of movement on the MAM. Pearson correlations were calculated between estimated abilities from the MAM and scores from measures expected to be associated with these estimated abilities, as well as between the MAM and additional measures in exploratory analyses of relationships. Results The average current ability and the separate dimensions correlated moderately to strongly (.5–.8) with many of the measures expected to be related and showed additional moderately strong correlations in exploratory analyses. The average gap between current ability and preferred ability correlated moderately with pain (−.56) and a scale of current ability (.46) but diverged from many of the measures. Limitations The limitations of this study included the lack of an intervention to assess the response of the gap to therapy and the use of multiple statistical tests with a small sample. Conclusions The evidence supports the convergent validity for current ability on the MAM but mostly
Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G
Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.
Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine
The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects.
Useful scales and classifications for patients with pulmonary diseases are discussed. The modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scale (mMRC) is a measure of disability in lung patients. The GOLD classifications, the COPD-Assessment Test (CAT) and the BODE Index are important to classify the severity of COPD and to measure the disability of these patients. The Geneva score is a clinical prediction rule used in determining the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a scoring system used to predict 30 day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is intended to measure daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. The Asthma Controll Test (ACT) determines if asthma symptoms are well controlled.
Müller, Thomas; Meisel, Margareta; Russ, Herrmann; Przuntek, Horst
Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test (FMT) error scores and peg insertion abilities significantly differ between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and controls. Both tasks ask for performance of voluntary movements. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a relation between FMT error scores and peg insertion outcomes. We successively performed both tasks in 28 previously untreated PD patients. The FMT error score was significantly (p=0.016) lower in patients with better peg insertion outcome. A significant (Spearman R=0.47, p=0.012) correlation between peg insertion results and the FMT error scores appeared. Motor impairment influences FMT error scores in PD patients.
Experience Works is a national organization that provides training and employment services to older adults. Its Prime Time Awards Program honors contributions of older workers in their 70s and beyond, demonstrating the continued ability and productivity of this population as well as the benefits they derive from productive work. (SK)
Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.
Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…
Osborne, Alan R.
This article reports one search for factors or conditions shaping the child's growth in logical ability. The search indicated the existence of a relationship between the quantity of teacher talk that contains the language of logic and the change exhibited by students. Implications for classroom practice are discussed. (JA)
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.
Hughes, Meredith M; Linck, Jared A; Bowles, Anita R; Koeth, Joel T; Bunting, Michael F
In the task-switching paradigm, the latency switch-cost score-the difference in mean reaction time between switch and nonswitch trials-is the traditional measure of task-switching ability. However, this score does not reflect accuracy, where switch costs may also emerge. In two experiments that varied in response deadlines (unlimited vs. limited time), we evaluated the measurement properties of two traditional switch-cost scoring methods (the latency switch-cost score and the accuracy switch-cost score) and three alternatives (a rate residual score, a bin score, and an inverse efficiency score). Scores from the rate residual, bin score, and inverse efficiency methods had comparable reliability for latency switch-cost scores without response deadlines but were more reliable than latency switch-cost scores when higher error rates were induced with a response deadline. All three alternative scoring methods appropriately accounted for differences in accuracy switch costs when higher error rates were induced, whereas pure latency switch-cost scores did not. Critically, only the rate residual and bin score methods were more valid indicators of task-switching ability; they demonstrated stronger relationships with performance on an independent measure of executive functioning (the antisaccade analogue task), and they allowed the detection of larger effect sizes when examining within-task congruency effects. All of the three alternative scoring methods provide researchers with a better measure of task-switching ability than do traditional scoring methods, because they each simultaneously account for latency and accuracy costs. Overall, the three alternative scoring methods were all superior to the traditional latency switch-cost scoring method, but the strongest methods were the rate residual and bin score methods.
Wood, Scott J; Reschke, Millard F; Owen Black, F
The equilibrium (EQ) score commonly used in computerized dynamic posturography is normalized between 0 and 100, with falls assigned a score of 0. The resulting mixed discrete-continuous distribution limits certain statistical analyses and treats all trials with falls equally. We propose a simple modification of the formula in which peak-to-peak sway data from trials with falls is scaled according the percent of the trial completed to derive a continuous equilibrium (cEQ) score. The cEQ scores for trials without falls remain unchanged from the original methodology. The cEQ factors in the time before a fall and results in a continuous variable retaining the central tendencies of the original EQ distribution. A random set of 5315 Sensory Organization Test trials were pooled that included 81 falls. A comparison of the original and cEQ distributions and their rank ordering demonstrated that trials with falls continue to constitute the lower range of scores with the cEQ methodology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.997) demonstrates that the cEQ retained near-perfect discrimination between trials with and without falls. We conclude that the cEQ score provides the ability to discriminate between ballistic falls from falls that occur later in the trial. This approach of incorporating time and sway magnitude can be easily extended to enhance other balance tests that include fall data or incomplete trials.
Portman, R J; Carter, B S; Gaylord, M S; Murphy, M G; Thieme, R E; Merenstein, G B
Predicting immediate neonatal morbidity after perinatal asphyxia has been difficult. A review of asphyxiated neonates greater than or equal to 36 weeks' gestation admitted to The Children's Hospital Newborn Intensive Care Unit in 1983 was conducted to devise a scoring system that would rapidly predict organ dysfunction observed in the immediate neonatal period. Comparison of potential score components to morbidity by multiple regression analysis yielded significant association with abnormalities in fetal heart rate monitoring, the 5-minute Apgar score, and neonatal base deficit. A scoring system was devised whose sensitivity (93.8%) and specificity (81.3%) were more predictive than any of its individual components. Prospective analysis in a similar population in 1984 validated its ability to distinguish severe from moderate morbidity after asphyxia. Positive predictive value for the score in the combined study groups (n = 98) was 79% and the negative predictive value was 83%. The scoring system may offer a rapid and accurate prediction of organ dysfunction in the immediate neonatal period after asphyxia.
Napier, John D.
Two experiments were conducted to assess the ability of preservice teachers to score moral thought statements using Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Results indicate that teachers, in general, are not able to rate the statements with consistency. (JKS)
Donlon, Thomas F.
This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing scores. 668.147 Section 668.147 Education...; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.147 Passing scores. Except as provided in §§ 668... education and training offered, the Secretary specifies that the passing score on each approved test is...
Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.
Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…
Prewett, Peter N.; Matavich, Mark A.
Evaluation of mean score differences between the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Fourth Edition) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) (WISC-R) for 126 children with academic difficulties found the Stanford-Binet composite score was significantly higher than the WISC-R score at the lower end of the ability continuum but…
Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur
Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734
Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur
Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System.
Clark, Russell D
This study investigated whether the lack of day-to-day consistency in performance for professional golfers would occur if round ranks were employed instead of round scores. When players' round scores from the 2004 Clark study were converted to round ranks, the results were very similar to those found in that study. It was concluded that the range of abilities for professional golfers is so restricted that the fluctuation in players' scores or rankings will show little consistency from day to day.
A study at one institution found significant correlations between students' scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners test and academic achievement data. Results indicate that it is not always course subject matter that influences the relationship between course grade and board scores, but may instead be the ability to assimilate…
Schulte, Ann; Borich, Gary D.
Presents reliability and standard error of measurement figures for several combinations of ability and achievement measures. Discusses the rates and types of errors that occur when such scores are used to classify children as learning-disabled. Three recommendations for using difference scores are given. (BH)
Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo
The authors propose a concise formula to evaluate the standard error of the estimated latent variable score when the true values of the structural parameters are not known and must be estimated. The formula can be applied to factor scores in factor analysis or ability parameters in item response theory, without bootstrap or Markov chain Monte…
The relation between average deviation, as determined using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, and Stanford-Binet intelligence scores was examined using a preschool sample. Results revealed a curvilinear relation between total average deviation and Stanford-Binet intelligence scores. Use of average deviation as an index of…
Lerch, Sebastian; Jordan, Alexander; Krüger, Fabian
Models in the geosciences are generally surrounded by uncertainty, and being able to quantify this uncertainty is key to good decision making. Accordingly, probabilistic forecasts in the form of predictive distributions have become popular over the last decades. With the proliferation of probabilistic models arises the need for decision theoretically principled tools to evaluate the appropriateness of models and forecasts in a generalized way. Various scoring rules have been developed over the past decades to address this demand. Proper scoring rules are functions S(F,y) which evaluate the accuracy of a forecast distribution F , given that an outcome y was observed. As such, they allow to compare alternative models, a crucial ability given the variety of theories, data sources and statistical specifications that is available in many situations. This poster presents the software package scoringRules for the statistical programming language R, which contains functions to compute popular scoring rules such as the continuous ranked probability score for a variety of distributions F that come up in applied work. Two main classes are parametric distributions like normal, t, or gamma distributions, and distributions that are not known analytically, but are indirectly described through a sample of simulation draws. For example, Bayesian forecasts produced via Markov Chain Monte Carlo take this form. Thereby, the scoringRules package provides a framework for generalized model evaluation that both includes Bayesian as well as classical parametric models. The scoringRules package aims to be a convenient dictionary-like reference for computing scoring rules. We offer state of the art implementations of several known (but not routinely applied) formulas, and implement closed-form expressions that were previously unavailable. Whenever more than one implementation variant exists, we offer statistically principled default choices.
Giovagnoli, A R; Raglio, A
Playing music may involve different cognitive domains, but previous studies of musicians and patients with brain lesions have reported inconsistent associations between music performances and other cognitive functions. Fine musical performance may be associated with high executive and control functions. 21 skilled musicians and 21 age- and education-matched healthy controls with no specific musical competence were compared on attentive, executive, linguistic, perceptual, praxic, memory, and theory of mind functions, using standardized neuropsychological tests. No differences between the musicians and controls, music composers and performers, or between soloists or orchestral players were observed. In musicians, there was no correlation between the test scores and amount of music education. Findings based on these musician groups, carefully evaluated, suggest further exploration of associations of distinct components of music comprehension and expression with different cognitive functions and behavioral aspects.
Veronesi, M C
Perinatal mortality is relatively high in dogs, with deaths peaking around the time of birth and during the first week of age. Among the several causes of canine perinatal mortality, whelping is the greatest cause. Therefore, early neonatal assistance at birth should be mandatory with dogs. In comparison with human neonatology, knowledge and technological ability in canine neonatology is tremendously scarce. The Apgar score for the newborn viability assessment at birth represents a feasible method for the prompt recognition of newborns that will need special assistance immediately after birth. The five parameters of the Apgar score were adapted to the canine species by different studies. Advantages and limits, as well as clinical applications, are presented and discussed in further detail. It was concluded that the Apgar score represents the easiest and simplest, non-invasive and reliable method, that could be performed under every clinical and practical condition, for newborn puppies viability evaluations and short-term survival prognosis.
Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.
Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309
Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon
This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability.
Budinski, K.G. )
A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.
Pillai, R; Parker, RA; Weston, J; Burgess, NA; Ho, ETS; Mills, RD; Rochester, MA
Introduction Discussing and planning the appropriate management for suspicious renal masses can be challenging. With the development of nephrometry scoring methods, we aimed to evaluate the ability of the RENAL nephrometry score to predict both the incidence of postoperative complications and the change in renal function after a partial nephrectomy. Methods This was a retrospective study including 128 consecutive patients who underwent a partial nephrectomy (open and laparoscopic) for renal lesions in a tertiary UK referral centre. Univariate and multivariate ordinal regression models were used to identify associations between Clavien–Dindo classification and explanatory variables. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient was used to examine an association between RENAL nephrometry score and a drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following surgery. Results An increase in the RENAL nephrometry score of one point resulted in greater odds of being in a higher Clavien–Dindo classification after controlling for RENAL suffix and type of surgical procedure (odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.64, p=0.043). Furthermore, a patient with the RENAL suffix ‘p’ (ie posterior location of tumour) had increased odds of developing more serious complications (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.07–6.30, p=0.042). A correlation was shown between RENAL nephrometry score and postoperative drop in eGFR (Kendall’s tau coefficient -0.24, p=0.004). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that has shown the predictive ability of the RENAL nephrometry scoring system in a UK cohort both in terms of postoperative complications and change in renal function. PMID:25198982
Spraggins, Charles C.; Rowsey, Robert E.
High school biology students who were taught by the simulation game method had comparable achievement gains to the students who were taught using worksheets. The three simulation games used in this study were able to teach factual information as well as the worksheet activities. This effect was constant across ability and sex. There were no significant differences in the retention scores of high ability students utilizing gaming. Also, there was no significant difference in the scores of low ability students utilizing worksheets and low ability students using games. Students' sex was significantly related with retention in the three-way interaction of treatment by ability by sex. Low ability females using simulation games scored higher on retention than low ability females utilizing worksheets. Low ability males utilizing worksheets scored higher on retention than low ability males using simulation games.
De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.; Leach, Diane B.
Thirty middle- to upper middle-class monolingual Dutch speaking families consisting of at least a mother and a father completed the Infant Form "Words and Gestures" of the Dutch adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for the same child at 1;1. Considerable inter- and intrafamily variation emerged in how two (or three)…
Vaughn, Michael G.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Wexler, Jade; DeLisi, Matt; Roberts, Gregory J.
Compared to high school graduates, adolescents who drop out of school are more likely to have a range of negative outcomes, including lower verbal capacities; however, the true nature of this association is not well-understood. Dropping out of school could have an important effect on reducing verbal skills, or the link between dropping out of…
describing a test item, and methods used to estimate parameters) we will be even more pleased. * e -32- References Birnbaum, A. Some latent trait models and...IS. SUPPLEMENTARY .- rES A paper presented at an AERA-NCME symposium entitled "Explorations of Latent Trait Models is a Means of Solving Practical...of latent trait moduls is the possibility of specifying a tairget information cumv,’ and thcn selecting items from an item pool to produce a test with
Russian universities rank poorly in international comparisons, and recent suggested reforms will not change this situation. There is an urgent need to find ways to improve the quality of Russia's higher education and to make it more appealing to scientists and to international students. In general, in order for the world to begin to appreciate and…
Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)
Jupiter, Daniel C
Randomized controlled trials are viewed as the optimal study design. In this commentary, we explore the strength of this design and its complexity. We also discuss some situations in which these trials are not possible, or not ethical, or not economical. In such situations, specifically, in retrospective studies, we should make every effort to recapitulate the rigor and strength of the randomized trial. However, we could be faced with an inherent indication bias in such a setting. Thus, we consider the tools available to address that bias. Specifically, we examine matching and introduce and explore a new tool: propensity score matching. This tool allows us to group subjects according to their propensity to be in a particular treatment group and, in so doing, to account for the indication bias.
Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael
Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…
Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Liu, Xiaowen
Background: Top-down mass spectrometry plays an important role in intact protein identification and characterization. Top-down mass spectra are more complex than bottom-up mass spectra because they often contain many isotopomer envelopes from highly charged ions, which may overlap with one another. As a result, spectral deconvolution, which converts a complex top-down mass spectrum into a monoisotopic mass list, is a key step in top-down spectral interpretation. Results: In this paper, we propose a new scoring function, L-score, for evaluating isotopomer envelopes. By combining L-score with MS-Deconv, a new software tool, MS-Deconv+, was developed for top-down spectral deconvolution. Experimental results showedmore » that MS-Deconv+ outperformed existing software tools in top-down spectral deconvolution. Conclusions: L-score shows high discriminative ability in identification of isotopomer envelopes. Using L-score, MS-Deconv+ reports many correct monoisotopic masses missed by other software tools, which are valuable for proteoform identification and characterization.« less
Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Liu, Xiaowen
Background: Top-down mass spectrometry plays an important role in intact protein identification and characterization. Top-down mass spectra are more complex than bottom-up mass spectra because they often contain many isotopomer envelopes from highly charged ions, which may overlap with one another. As a result, spectral deconvolution, which converts a complex top-down mass spectrum into a monoisotopic mass list, is a key step in top-down spectral interpretation. Results: In this paper, we propose a new scoring function, L-score, for evaluating isotopomer envelopes. By combining L-score with MS-Deconv, a new software tool, MS-Deconv+, was developed for top-down spectral deconvolution. Experimental results showed that MS-Deconv+ outperformed existing software tools in top-down spectral deconvolution. Conclusions: L-score shows high discriminative ability in identification of isotopomer envelopes. Using L-score, MS-Deconv+ reports many correct monoisotopic masses missed by other software tools, which are valuable for proteoform identification and characterization.
Kneer, Marian E.
Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)
Individual differences in cognitive decline during normal aging need further delineation. The purpose of this study was to find the score dispersions in the WAIS-III subtests at different ages. Norms presented in the Administration and Scoring Manual [Wechsler, D. (1997). WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation] were used. The WAIS-III was standardized and normalized using 2450 American adults divided into 13 age ranges and 4 education groups. Means and standard deviations for the different WAIS-III subtests were deduced and the ratio Percentage of the mean="(standard deviation/mean)x100" was calculated. It was hypothesized that during normal aging, whereas mean scores decrease, score dispersions increase, pointing to an increased heterogeneity in intellectual abilities in older individuals. In all subtests, except Digit Span, it was found that score dispersions indeed increased during aging. However, in some subtests, increase in dispersion was less than 20% (Block Design, Object Assembly, and Information), whereas in others, increase in dispersion was over 200% (Matrix Reasoning, L-N Sequencing, Digit-Symbol, Picture Completion, and Picture Arrangement). It was proposed that cognitive heterogeneity during normal aging is related to those abilities measured with these latter subtests, basically, executive functions, attention, and selected non-verbal abilities. In other abilities (e.g., visuoconstructive abilities and fund of general information), normal aging is associated with a more homogenous pattern of decline.
Hasegawa, Yuh; Ninomiya, Kazunori; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Sekimoto, Tsuneo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and undergraduate dental students' ability to deal with different situations of communication in a clinical dentistry practical training course of communication skills. Fourth-year students in 2012 and in 2013 at the Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata participated in the survey. The total number of participating students was 129 (88 males and 41 females). The students were asked to complete the Japanese version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in communication skills. Female students tended to have significantly higher EI score than males. The EI score in the group with high-grade academic performers was higher than in the low-grade group. The influence of EI on academic performance appeared to be mainly due to the students' ability to accurately perceiving emotions and to their ability to understand emotional issues. The importance of EI may also lie in its ability to parse out personality factors from more changeable aspects of a person's behavior. Although further studies are required, we believe that dental educators need to assume the responsibility to help students develop their emotional competencies that they will need to prosper in their chosen careers. In our conclusion, dental educators should support low achievers to increase their levels of self-confidence instead of concentrating mainly on improving their technical skill and academic performance. This may lead to upgrading their skills for managing emotions and to changing their learning approach.
We describe a novel knowledge-based protein-ligand scoring function that employs a new definition for the reference state, allowing us to relate a statistical potential to a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. In this way, the LJ potential parameters were generated from protein-ligand complex structural data contained in the PDB. Forty-nine types of atomic pairwise interactions were derived using this method, which we call the knowledge-based and empirical combined scoring algorithm (KECSA). Two validation benchmarks were introduced to test the performance of KECSA. The first validation benchmark included two test sets that address the training-set and enthalpy/entropy of KECSA The second validation benchmark suite included two large-scale and five small-scale test sets to compare the reproducibility of KECSA with respect to two empirical score functions previously developed in our laboratory (LISA and LISA+), as well as to other well-known scoring methods. Validation results illustrate that KECSA shows improved performance in all test sets when compared with other scoring methods especially in its ability to minimize the RMSE. LISA and LISA+ displayed similar performance using the correlation coefficient and Kendall τ as the metric of quality for some of the small test sets. Further pathways for improvement are discussed which would KECSA more sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. PMID:23560465
Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko
This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535
... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composite scores. 414.1260 Section 414.1260 Public... Modifier Under the Physician Fee Schedule § 414.1260 Composite scores. (a)(1) The standardized score for... determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination....
... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composite scores. 414.1260 Section 414.1260 Public... Modifier Under the Physician Fee Schedule § 414.1260 Composite scores. (a)(1) The standardized score for... determine the quality composite: (i) Patient safety. (ii) Patient experience. (iii) Care coordination....
Brown, Dianne C.
The decline in standardized test scores during the 1960s and 1970s is well documented and is seen in both aptitude and achievement test scores. This paper describes and analyzes the test score trends over the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s for five aptitude tests: (1) the Scholastic Aptitude Test; (2) the American College Test; (3) the Preliminary…
Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.
Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…
Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko
Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…
A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…
A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…
Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.
This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…
The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered to be evidence of or a consequence of asphyxia, does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome, and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during a resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.
Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Baker, Leigh; Garrett, Lori; Yelland, Sherry
Objective: To evaluate the time estimation abilities of college students with ADHD on a novel, complex task that approximated academically oriented activities. Method: Totally 20 college students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 20 non-ADHD students. Both groups completed a task, and scores were obtained for time to complete the task, errors…
de Wolf, Virginia A.
On six mathematical subtests studied, males scored higher plus took significantly more algebra, geometry, advanced mathematics, and physics coursework. Females earned higher overall mathematics grades. After statistically controlling for the amount of coursework taken, sex differences disappeared on two quantitative tests and on spatial ability.…
Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…
McBride, James R.; Weiss, David J.
Four monte carlo simulation studies of Owen's Bayesian sequential procedure for adaptive mental testing were conducted. Whereas previous simulation studies of this procedure have concentrated on evaluating it in terms of the correlation of its test scores with simulated ability in a normal population, these four studies explored a number of…
Hom, Harry L., Jr.; And Others
This study investigated children's reasoning about the relationship between praise and ability in an athletic activity. Three groups of young athletes were studied: boys between the ages of 7 and 11, and girls and boys between the ages of 14 and 18. Children read a scenario in which two athletes achieved the same score in an athletic activity. One…
Folsom, Cylde H., Jr.
A samples of 347 secondary school students were administered Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory. They were divided into high and low mental ability groups, and correlations were computed between the VPI scores of subjects within each of the IQ ranges. The results suggest that the VPI's usefulness may be limited to secondary school students…
Gaines, Margie; And Others
A common paradigm in measuring the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion is to present photographs of facial expressions and to ask subjects to identify the emotion. The Affect Blend Test (ABT) uses this method of assessment and is scored for accuracy on specific affects as well as total accuracy. Another method of measuring affect…
Nicewander, W Alan
The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record
Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R
The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.
Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R; Ngu, Jing H; Schultz, Michael; Abazi, Roseta; Zakko, Liam; Thornton, Susan; Wilkinson, Kelly; Khor, Cristopher J L; Murray, Iain A; Laursen, Stig B
Objective To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design International multicentre prospective study. Setting Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania. Participants 3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Main outcome measures Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined. Results The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65
van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…
Branoff, T. J.; Dobelis, M.
Spatial abilities have been used as a predictor of success in several engineering and technology disciplines (Strong & Smith, 2001). In engineering graphics courses, scores on spatial tests have also been used to predict success (Adanez & Velasco, 2002; Leopold, Gorska, & Sorby, 2001). Other studies have shown that some type of…
Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter
The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…
Pongpan, Surangrat; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Namwongprom, Sirianong
Objectives. To develop a simple scoring system to predict dengue infection severity based on patient characteristics and routine clinical profiles. Methods. Retrospective data of children with dengue infection from 3 general hospitals in Thailand were reviewed. Dengue infection was categorized into 3 severity levels: dengue infection (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Coefficients of significant predictors of disease severity under ordinal regression analysis were transformed into item scores. Total scores were used to classify patients into 3 severity levels. Results. Significant clinical predictors of dengue infection severity were age >6 years, hepatomegaly, hematocrit ≥40%, systolic pressure <90 mmHg, white cell count >5000 /μL, and platelet ≤50000 /μL. The derived total scores, which ranged from 0 to 18, classified patients into 3 severity levels: DF (scores <2.5, n = 451, 58.1%), DHF (scores 2.5–11.5, n = 276, 35.5%), and DSS (scores >11.5, n = 50, 6.4%). The derived score correctly classified patients into their original severity levels in 60.7%. An under-estimation of 25.7% and an over-estimation of 13.5% were clinically acceptable. Conclusions. The derived dengue infection severity score classified patients into DF, DHF, or DSS, correctly into their original severity levels. Validation of the score should be reconfirmed before application of routine practice. PMID:24324896
Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A
Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.
Curtis, Alexander E.; Smith, Tanya A.; Ziganshin, Bulat A.; Elefteriades, John A.
Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use. PMID:28097194
I will present data showing that significant performance disparities on the GRE general test exist based on the test taker's race and gender . Because of the belief that high GRE scores qualify one for graduate studies, the diversity issues faced by STEM fields may originate, at least in part, in misuse of the GRE scores by graduate admissions committees. I will quantitatively demonstrate this by showing that the combination of a hard cut-off and the different score distributions leads to the systematic underrepresentation of certain groups. I will present data from USF’s PhD program that shows a lack of correlation between GRE scores and research ability; similar null results are emerging from numerous other programs. I will then discuss how assessing non-cognitive competencies in the selection process may lead to a more enlightened search for the next generation of scientists.  C. W. Miller, "Admissions Criteria and Diversity in Graduate School", APS News Vol 22, Issue 2, The Back Page (2013) http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201302/backpage.cfm
Austin, Elizabeth J
Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.
Talwar, Amani; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Binder, Katherine S.
This study examined whether the spelling abilities of adults with low literacy skills could be predicted by their phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness. Sixty Adult Basic Education (ABE) students completed several literacy tasks. It was predicted that scores on phonological and orthographic tasks would explain variance in spelling scores, whereas scores on morphological tasks may not. Scores on all phonological tasks and on one orthographic task emerged as significant predictors of spelling scores. Additionally, error analyses revealed a limited influence of morphological knowledge in spelling attempts. Implications for ABE instruction are discussed. PMID:25364644
Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance.
Lassiter, Kerry S.; Bell, Nancy L.; Hutchinson, Melody B.; Matthews, T. Darin
Examines the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). A comparison of the sample's mean scores indicates similar GAMA and WAIS-III Performance IQ scores. In contrast, the sample's mean GAMA IQ score was significantly lower than the sample's mean Full…
Staals, Julie; Booth, Tom; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E; Gow, Alan J; Corley, Janie; Redmond, Paul; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause cognitive dysfunction. We tested the association between the combined presence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of SVD and cognitive ability in older age. Cognitive testing and brain MRI were performed in 680 older participants. MRI presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all SVD features combined. We also applied latent variable modeling to test whether the 4 MRI features form a unitary SVD construct. The SVD score showed significant associations with general cognitive ability. Latent variable modeling indicated that the 4 MRI markers formed a unitary construct, which showed consistent associations with cognitive ability compared with the SVD score. Total MRI load of SVD is associated with lower general cognitive ability in older age. The total SVD score performed consistently with the more complex latent variable model, suggesting validity and potential utility in future research for determining total SVD load.
Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.
This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the
Dobson, Ruth; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Topping, Joanne; Smith, Paul; Solanky, Bhavana; Schmierer, Klaus; Chard, Declan; Giovannoni, Gavin
Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) develops as a result of environmental influences on the genetically susceptible. Siblings of people with MS have an increased risk of both MS and demonstrating asymptomatic changes in keeping with MS. We set out to develop an MS risk score integrating both genetic and environmental risk factors. We used this score to identify siblings at extremes of MS risk and attempted to validate the score using brain MRI. Methods 78 probands with MS, 121 of their unaffected siblings and 103 healthy controls were studied. Personal history was taken, and serological and genetic analysis using the illumina immunochip was performed. Odds ratios for MS associated with each risk factor were derived from existing literature, and the log values of the odds ratios from each of the risk factors were combined in an additive model to provide an overall score. Scores were initially calculated using log odds ratio from the HLA-DRB1*1501 allele only, secondly using data from all MS-associated SNPs identified in the 2011 GWAS. Subjects with extreme risk scores underwent validation studies. MRI was performed on selected individuals. Results There was a significant difference in the both risk scores between people with MS, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls (p<0.0005). Unaffected siblings had a risk score intermediate to people with MS and controls (p<0.0005). The best performing risk score generated an AUC of 0.82 (95%CI 0.75–0.88). Interpretations The risk score demonstrates an AUC on the threshold for clinical utility. Our score enables the identification of a high-risk sibling group to inform pre-symptomatic longitudinal studies. PMID:27802296
Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W
The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.
Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario
Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA, known in Italy as TeRaDiC) has been developed to analyse putative basic skills involved in drawing and to plan and monitor outcomes after rehabilitation of visuoconstructional disorders. It encompasses eight tasks assessing both simple "perceptual" abilities, such as line length and line orientation judgments and complex "representational" abilities, such as mental rotation. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for BVA collected in a wide sample of healthy Italian subjects. Three hundred seventeen healthy Italian subjects (173 women and 144 men) of different age classes (age range, 40-95 years) and education level (from primary to university), with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination, completed BVA/TeRaDiC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on most tests of the BVA/TeRaDiC; only line length judgment was not affected by educational level. Gender significantly affected line orientation judgment and mental rotation, with an advantage for males in both tests. From the derived linear equations, a correction grid for adjusting BVA/TeRaDiC raw scores was built. Using a non-parametric technique, inferential cut-off scores were determined and equivalent scores computed. The present study provided Italian normative data for the BVA/TeRaDiC useful for both clinical and research purposes.
Bradberry, Travis R; Su, Lac D
Emotional intelligence has received an intense amount of attention in leadership circles during the last decade and continuing debate exists concerning the best method for measuring this construct. This study analyzed leader emotional intelligence scores, measured via skill and ability methodologies, against leader job performance. Two hundred twelve employees from three organizations participated in this study. Scores on the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, a skill-based assessment, were positively, though not significantly, correlated with scores on the MSCEIT, an ability-based assessment of emotional intelligence. Scores on the MSCEIT did not have a significant relationship with job performance in this study, whereas, scores on the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal had a strong link to leader job performance. The four subcomponents of the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal were examined against job performance. Relationship management was a stronger predictor of leader job performance than the other three subcomponents. Social awareness was the single emotional intelligence skill that did not have a significant link to leader job performance. Factor analyses yielded a two-component model of emotional intelligence encompassing personal and social competence, rather than confirmation of a four-part taxonomy.
Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie
This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…
Gorsuch, Richard L.
Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)
van der Linden, Wim J.
This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…
Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin
Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…
Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes
Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…
Hills, John R.
Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…
Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen
The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…
Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott
This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…
Almehrizi, Rashid S.
The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…
This paper is based on previous studies in applying propensity score methods to study multiple treatment variables to examine the causal moderator effect. The propensity score methods will be demonstrated in a case study to examine the causal moderator effect, where the moderators are categorical and continuous variables. Moderation analysis is an…
Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen
This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.
Zigler, Corwin M; Watts, Krista; Yeh, Robert W; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A; Dominici, Francesca
Methods based on the propensity score comprise one set of valuable tools for comparative effectiveness research and for estimating causal effects more generally. These methods typically consist of two distinct stages: (1) a propensity score stage where a model is fit to predict the propensity to receive treatment (the propensity score), and (2) an outcome stage where responses are compared in treated and untreated units having similar values of the estimated propensity score. Traditional techniques conduct estimation in these two stages separately; estimates from the first stage are treated as fixed and known for use in the second stage. Bayesian methods have natural appeal in these settings because separate likelihoods for the two stages can be combined into a single joint likelihood, with estimation of the two stages carried out simultaneously. One key feature of joint estimation in this context is "feedback" between the outcome stage and the propensity score stage, meaning that quantities in a model for the outcome contribute information to posterior distributions of quantities in the model for the propensity score. We provide a rigorous assessment of Bayesian propensity score estimation to show that model feedback can produce poor estimates of causal effects absent strategies that augment propensity score adjustment with adjustment for individual covariates. We illustrate this phenomenon with a simulation study and with a comparative effectiveness investigation of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy among 123,286 Medicare beneficiaries hospitlized for stroke in 2006 and 2007.
Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.
This report examines the feasibility of scoring essays using computer-based techniques. Essays have been incorporated into many of the standardized testing programs. Issues of validity and reliability must be addressed to deploy automated approaches to scoring fully. Two approaches that have been used to classify documents, surface- and word-based…
This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…
... indicators: Physical condition, financial condition, management operations, and the Capital Fund program... a single score for the physical condition, financial condition, and management operations indicators.... The score for this indicator is obtained as indicated in subpart B of this part. (2) The...
Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.
Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…
Kaiser, Henry F.; Michael, William B.
A formula is derived for ascertaining factor scores for the factor analytic method: Little Jiffy, Mark IV. This formula is then employed to derive a second formula giving an exact determination of the generalized Kuder-Richardson estimate of the reliability of scores on a Little Jiffy factor. (Author/JKS)
Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal
Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores.
factoring of cognitive ability batteries yields primary group factors that are highly g-loaded ( Carroll , 1993). Using military data, Ree and Earles... Carroll , J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities. New York: Cambridge University Press. Detterman, D. K., Daniel, M. H. (1989). Correlations of
19 Male Percentile Equivalence Scores for CogScreen Process Variables .................... 23 20 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for...CogScreen Speed Variables ................... 24 21 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for CogScreen Accuracy Variables ............. 24...22 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for CogScreen Throughput Variables .......... 25 23 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for
Apolinario, Daniel; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Ferretti, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Farfel, José Marcelo; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Jacob-Filho, Wilson
Objective To develop an informant-based instrument that would provide a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. Methods A questionnaire was drafted by focusing on the premorbid period with a 10-year time frame. The initial pool of items was submitted to classical test theory and a factorial analysis. The resulting instrument, named the Premorbid Cognitive Abilities Scale (PCAS), is composed of questions addressing educational attainment, major lifetime occupation, reading abilities, reading habits, writing abilities, calculation abilities, use of widely available technology, and the ability to search for specific information. The validation sample was composed of 132 older Brazilian adults from the following three demographically matched groups: normal cognitive aging (n = 72), mild cognitive impairment (n = 33), and mild dementia (n = 27). The scores of a reading test and a neuropsychological battery were adopted as construct criteria. Post-mortem inter-informant reliability was tested in a sub-study with two relatives from each deceased individual. Results All items presented good discriminative power, with corrected item-total correlation varying from 0.35 to 0.74. The summed score of the instrument presented high correlation coefficients with global cognitive function (r = 0.73) and reading skills (r = 0.82). Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, showing optimal internal consistency without redundancy. The scores did not decrease across the progressive levels of cognitive impairment, suggesting that the goal of evaluating the premorbid state was achieved. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.96, indicating excellent inter-informant reliability. Conclusion The instrument developed in this study has shown good properties and can be used as a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. The applicability of the PCAS, both as an estimate of premorbid intelligence and cognitive
Cham, Heining; West, Stephen G
Propensity score analysis is a method that equates treatment and control groups on a comprehensive set of measured confounders in observational (nonrandomized) studies. A successful propensity score analysis reduces bias in the estimate of the average treatment effect in a nonrandomized study, making the estimate more comparable with that obtained from a randomized experiment. This article reviews and discusses an important practical issue in propensity analysis, in which the baseline covariates (potential confounders) and the outcome have missing values (incompletely observed). We review the statistical theory of propensity score analysis and estimation methods for propensity scores with incompletely observed covariates. Traditional logistic regression and modern machine learning methods (e.g., random forests, generalized boosted modeling) as estimation methods for incompletely observed covariates are reviewed. Balance diagnostics and equating methods for incompletely observed covariates are briefly described. Using an empirical example, the propensity score estimation methods for incompletely observed covariates are illustrated and compared. (PsycINFO Database Record
Li, Fan; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Landrum, Mary Beth
Propensity score methods are being increasingly used as a less parametric alternative to traditional regression to balance observed differences across groups in both descriptive and causal comparisons. Data collected in many disciplines often have analytically relevant multilevel or clustered structure. The propensity score, however, was developed and has been used primarily with unstructured data. We present and compare several propensity-score-weighted estimators for clustered data, including marginal, cluster-weighted, and doubly robust estimators. Using both analytical derivations and Monte Carlo simulations, we illustrate bias arising when the usual assumptions of propensity score analysis do not hold for multilevel data. We show that exploiting the multilevel structure, either parametrically or nonparametrically, in at least one stage of the propensity score analysis can greatly reduce these biases. We applied these methods to a study of racial disparities in breast cancer screening among beneficiaries of Medicare health plans.
Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia
We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances.
The defining attributes of analytic ability as they relate to theoretical cognitive styles were explored in a study using a sample of 492 males aged 16-21 years. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT--Witkin, Oltman, Rasher, and Karp) was used to measure field dependent and independent aptitude. Scores on the GEFT were compared with scores on an…
Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III
The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…
A new analysis of data from 15 cognitive tasks completed by 93 subjects with scores on the Cattell Culture Fair test show that differences in Cattell score systematically affected performance on some tasks more than on others. Implications for theories of local and global differences in mental ability are discussed. (SLD)
Estimates effects of cognitive ability as measured by test scores and educational attainment on young adults' demand for alcohol, using data from a followup survey of high school seniors six years after graduation. For both sexes, graduating from college and test scores negatively affect heavy drinking. (27 references) (MLH)
Delmolino, Lara M.
The utility of Developmental Quotients (DQ) from the Psychoeducational Profile--Revised (PEP-R) to estimate cognitive ability in young children with autism was assessed. DQ scores were compared to scores from the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales--Fourth Edition (SB-FE) for 27 preschool students with autism. Overall and domain DQ's on the PEP-R…
Rice, Amanda K.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Harris, Paige B.; Hawes, Samuel W.
This study examined the field reliability of Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) scores among 21,983 sex offenders and focused on whether rater agreement decreased as scores increased. As expected, agreement was lowest for high-scoring offenders. Initial and most recent Static-99 scores were identical for only about 40% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 6 during their initial evaluations, but for more than 60% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 2 or lower. In addition, the size of the difference between scores increased as scores increased, with pairs of scores differing by 2 or more points for about 30% of offenders scoring in the high-risk range. Because evaluators and systems use high Static-99 scores to identify sexual offenders who may require intensive supervision or even postrelease civil commitment, it is important to recognize that there may be more measurement error for high scores than low scores and to consider adopting procedures for minimizing or accounting for measurement error. PMID:24932647
Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S
The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.
Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.
The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656
Kawase, Yoshiaki; Saito, Naritatsu; Watanabe, Shin; Bao, Bingyuan; Yamamoto, Erika; Watanabe, Hiroki; Higami, Hirooki; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Ueno, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi
We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a scoring balloon catheter in expanding a circumferentially calcified lesion compared to a conventional balloon catheter using an in vitro experiment setting and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this ability using a finite element analysis. True efficacy of the scoring device and the underlying mechanisms for heavily calcified coronary lesions are unclear. We employed a Scoreflex scoring balloon catheter (OrbusNeich, Hong Kong, China). The ability of Scoreflex to dilate a calcified lesion was compared with a conventional balloon catheter using 3 different sized calcium tubes. The thickness of the calcium tubes were 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 mm. The primary endpoints were the successful induction of cracks in the calcium tubes and the inflation pressures required for inducing cracks. The inflation pressure required for cracking the calcium tubes were consistently lower with Scoreflex (p < 0.05, Student t test). The finite element analysis revealed that the first principal stress applied to the calcified plaque was higher by at least threefold when applying the balloon catheter with scoring elements. A scoring balloon catheter can expand a calcified lesion with lower pressure than that of a conventional balloon. The finite element analysis revealed that the concentration of the stress observed in the outside of the calcified plaque just opposite to the scoring element is the underlying mechanism of the increased ability of Scoreflex to dilate the calcified lesion.
Background Whole exome sequencing studies identify hundreds to thousands of rare protein coding variants of ambiguous significance for human health. Computational tools are needed to accelerate the identification of specific variants and genes that contribute to human disease. Results We have developed the Variant Effect Scoring Tool (VEST), a supervised machine learning-based classifier, to prioritize rare missense variants with likely involvement in human disease. The VEST classifier training set comprised ~ 45,000 disease mutations from the latest Human Gene Mutation Database release and another ~45,000 high frequency (allele frequency >1%) putatively neutral missense variants from the Exome Sequencing Project. VEST outperforms some of the most popular methods for prioritizing missense variants in carefully designed holdout benchmarking experiments (VEST ROC AUC = 0.91, PolyPhen2 ROC AUC = 0.86, SIFT4.0 ROC AUC = 0.84). VEST estimates variant score p-values against a null distribution of VEST scores for neutral variants not included in the VEST training set. These p-values can be aggregated at the gene level across multiple disease exomes to rank genes for probable disease involvement. We tested the ability of an aggregate VEST gene score to identify candidate Mendelian disease genes, based on whole-exome sequencing of a small number of disease cases. We used whole-exome data for two Mendelian disorders for which the causal gene is known. Considering only genes that contained variants in all cases, the VEST gene score ranked dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) number 2 of 2253 genes in four cases of Miller syndrome, and myosin-3 (MYH3) number 2 of 2313 genes in three cases of Freeman Sheldon syndrome. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the potential power gain of aggregating bioinformatics variant scores into gene-level scores and the general utility of bioinformatics in assisting the search for disease genes in large-scale exome sequencing studies. VEST is
Singla, Anand; Singla, Satpaul; Singh, Mohinder; Singla, Deeksha
Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.
Mungle, T; Tewary, S; DAS, D K; Arun, I; Basak, B; Agarwal, S; Ahmed, R; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, C
Molecular pathology, especially immunohistochemistry, plays an important role in evaluating hormone receptor status along with diagnosis of breast cancer. Time-consumption and inter-/intraobserver variability are major hindrances for evaluating the receptor score. In view of this, the paper proposes an automated Allred Scoring methodology for estrogen receptor (ER). White balancing is used to normalize the colour image taking into consideration colour variation during staining in different labs. Markov random field model with expectation-maximization optimization is employed to segment the ER cells. The proposed segmentation methodology is found to have F-measure 0.95. Artificial neural network is subsequently used to obtain intensity-based score for ER cells, from pixel colour intensity features. Simultaneously, proportion score - percentage of ER positive cells is computed via cell counting. The final ER score is computed by adding intensity and proportion scores - a standard Allred scoring system followed by pathologists. The classification accuracy for classification of cells by classifier in terms of F-measure is 0.9626. The problem of subjective interobserver ability is addressed by quantifying ER score from two expert pathologist and proposed methodology. The intraclass correlation achieved is greater than 0.90. The study has potential advantage of assisting pathologist in decision making over manual procedure and could evolve as a part of automated decision support system with other receptor scoring/analysis procedure.
Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry
This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test…
Quinlan, Thomas; Higgins, Derrick; Wolff, Susanne
This report evaluates the construct coverage of the e-rater[R[ scoring engine. The matter of construct coverage depends on whether one defines writing skill, in terms of process or product. Originally, the e-rater engine consisted of a large set of components with a proven ability to predict human holistic scores. By organizing these capabilities…
Paatsch, Louise E.; Blamey, Peter J.; Sarant, Julia Z.; Martin, Lois F.A.; Bow, Catherine P.
Open-set word and sentence speech-perception test scores are commonly used as a measure of hearing abilities in children and adults using cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. These tests ore usually presented auditorily with a verbal response. In the case of children, scores are typically lower and more variable than for adults with hearing…
Barchard, Kimberly A; Picker, Caleb J
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlin, 1990 ) is an open-ended measure of the ability to describe emotional reactions. Scoring the LEAS by hand is complex and time consuming (Barchard, Bajgar, Leaf, & Lane, 2010 ). Therefore, Program for Open-Ended Scoring (POES; Leaf & Barchard, 2010 ) was designed to score the LEAS quickly and easily. Using 268 undergraduates, this article compares traditional LEAS hand scoring to 6 POES methods, 2 of which are holistic methods that have never before been examined. Based on split-half reliability, correlations with measures of emotional and social intelligence, and partial correlations once response length and vocabulary were partialed out, we recommend 3 of the POES methods when testing nonclinical samples of young adults. Because POES scoring is fast and efficient, it allows more researchers and clinicians to use the LEAS, thus moving away from self-report measures of emotional awareness.
Pathirana, A A; Bandara, K G M W; Faleel, M A; Kuruppumullage, S D; Solangarachchi, N; Rupasinghe, R D; Karunaratne, N P N; Ranasinghe, D D; Epa, W A; Thusyanthan, V
Prediction of thyroid malignancy with fine needle aspiration cytology or individual ultrasound characteristics has several limitations. This study evaluates the usefulness of a combination of ultrasound characteristics in predicting malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules. We assessed 189 thyroid nodules using ultrasonography and histology. Each nodule was assigned a score based on ultrasonographic characteristics. This score was compared with histology to identify ability to predict malignancy. There were 28 malignant nodules. The scoring system was appropriate for clinical use, obtaining an area under ROC curve of 0.822 [p< 0.0001] 95% confidence. FNAC of nodules with a score of more than 4 can be recommended (100% sensitivity). Nodules with a score less than 8 can be offered total thyroidectomy when FNAC is inconclusive (97.5% sensitivity). A combination of ultrasonographic criteria increase the accuracy of predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules.
Yen, Shu Jing; Walker, Leah
Tests of English Language Proficiency are often designed such that each section of the test measures a single latent ability. For instance an English Proficiency Assessment might consist of sections measuring Speaking, Listening, and Reading ability. However, Overall English Proficiency and composite abilities are naturally multidimensional. This…
Gauer, Jacqueline L.; Wolff, Josephine M.; Jackson, J. Brooks
Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011–2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065). Results The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001). The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001) and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001). In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24). Discussion Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student. PMID:27702431
Gauer, Jacqueline L; Wolff, Josephine M; Jackson, J Brooks
Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011-2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065). Results The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001). The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001) and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001). In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24). Discussion Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student.
Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas
The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…
Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others
Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)
Weiss, David J.
A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the…
Williamson, E J; Morley, R; Lucas, A; Carpenter, J R
Propensity score methods are increasingly used to estimate the effect of a treatment or exposure on an outcome in non-randomised studies. We focus on one such method, stratification on the propensity score, comparing it with the method of inverse-probability weighting by the propensity score. The propensity score--the conditional probability of receiving the treatment given observed covariates--is usually an unknown probability estimated from the data. Estimators for the variance of treatment effect estimates typically used in practice, however, do not take into account that the propensity score itself has been estimated from the data. By deriving the asymptotic marginal variance of the stratified estimate of treatment effect, correctly taking into account the estimation of the propensity score, we show that routinely used variance estimators are likely to produce confidence intervals that are too conservative when the propensity score model includes variables that predict (cause) the outcome, but only weakly predict the treatment. In contrast, a comparison with the analogous marginal variance for the inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimator shows that routinely used variance estimators for the IPW estimator are likely to produce confidence intervals that are almost always too conservative. Because exact calculation of the asymptotic marginal variance is likely to be complex, particularly for the stratified estimator, we suggest that bootstrap estimates of variance should be used in practice.
Vansteelandt, S; Daniel, R M
Propensity scores are widely adopted in observational research because they enable adjustment for high-dimensional confounders without requiring models for their association with the outcome of interest. The results of statistical analyses based on stratification, matching or inverse weighting by the propensity score are therefore less susceptible to model extrapolation than those based solely on outcome regression models. This is attractive because extrapolation in outcome regression models may be alarming, yet difficult to diagnose, when the exposed and unexposed individuals have very different covariate distributions. Standard regression adjustment for the propensity score forms an alternative to the aforementioned propensity score methods, but the benefits of this are less clear because it still involves modelling the outcome in addition to the propensity score. In this article, we develop novel insights into the properties of this adjustment method. We demonstrate that standard tests of the null hypothesis of no exposure effect (based on robust variance estimators), as well as particular standardised effects obtained from such adjusted regression models, are robust against misspecification of the outcome model when a propensity score model is correctly specified; they are thus not vulnerable to the aforementioned problem of extrapolation. We moreover propose efficient estimators for these standardised effects, which retain a useful causal interpretation even when the propensity score model is misspecified, provided the outcome regression model is correctly specified.
Klodin, V M
The present study was designed to reexamine the hypothesis that timed perceptual-integrative performance tests are negatively biased measures of the abilities of the elderly. Unlike an earlier study by Doppelt and Wallace (1955) which did not support this hypothesis, the current study consisted of a college-age group in addition to the elderly group, and also included an additional scoring treatment. Each subject was tested with the WAIS Block Design and Object Assembly. Tests were scored in three ways: (1) Standard scoring (WAIS Manual); (2) "regular" scoring (timed, omitting bonus points); (3) "Irregular" scoring (untimed, omitting bonus points). For both tests, Age, Scoring, and the Age by Scoring ineraction were significant. Post hoc analyses for significant effects suggest that the elderly are helped most by additional solution time, whereas younger adults derive greater benefits from the bonus points for quick performance. The results also suggest that subjects must be of sufficiently high ability to effectively use increased or unlimited solution time.
Meier, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.; Cady, JoAnn
This study considered middle school mathematics teachers use of rubrics to score non-traditional tasks. A group of eighth-grade teachers attended a two-day workshop where they evaluated assessment tasks and discussed the use of an associated scoring rubric. Scored samples of student work submitted by the teachers indicated that they had difficulty…
Hembling, David W.
Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)
Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha
The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…
Auchter, Joan Chikos; Patience, Wayne
The methods used by the General Educational Development Testing Service (GEDTS) to establish and maintain score stability and reading reliability on its direct assessment of writing are described. Using the 1988 site certification and monitoring results of several scoring sites, the focus is on describing how the score scale was established and…
Minkley, N; Westerholt, D M; Kirchner, W H
The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between a school-specific trait (academic self-concept of ability [ASCA]) and hormonal stress response by using a trait-compatible stressor (test). First, we determined 52 students' ASCA scores for biology and measured their salivary cortisol concentration before and after a biology test (experimental group, n=28) or a free writing task (control group, n=24). For participants who took the test, statistical analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between ASCA score and cortisol response. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in cortisol concentrations between test times and no correlation between cortisol concentration and ASCA scores were found. These findings indicated an interaction between ASCA scores and hormonal stress response when an academic-related stressor is present. Furthermore, these variables might influence each other adversely: high cortisol concentrations during a test situation may lead to greater feelings of insecurity, resulting in low ASCA scores and awareness of these low scores may lead to a further increase in cortisol, creating a vicious cycle.
Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee
Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.
Simila, Heidi; Mantyjarvi, Jani; Merilahti, Juho; Lindholm, Mikko; Ermes, Miikka
The objective of the study was to investigate the validity of 3-D-accelerometry-based Berg balance scale (BBS) score estimation. In particular, acceleration patterns of BBS tasks and gait were the targets of analysis. Accelerations of the lower back were measured during execution of the BBS test and corridor walking for 54 subjects, consisting of neurological patients, older adults, and healthy young persons. The BBS score was estimated from one to three BBS tasks and from gait-related data, separately, through assessment of the similarity of acceleration patterns between subjects. The work also validated both approaches' ability to classify subjects into high- and low-fall-risk groups. The gait-based method yielded the best BBS score estimates and the most accurate BBS-task-based estimates were produced with the stand to sit, reaching, and picking object tasks. The proposed gait-based method can identify subjects with high or low risk of falling with an accuracy of 77.8% and 96.6%, respectively, and the BBS-task based method with corresponding accuracy of 89.5% and 62.1%.
Li, Jingguang; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia
Behavioral research has demonstrated that males have a higher capability of regulating their own and others' emotions than females; however, little is known about the sex-specific brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation ability. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural basis underlying emotion regulation ability in a large sample of young adults. Assessment of emotion regulation ability was performed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. As expected, males significantly scored higher in emotion regulation ability than females did. More importantly, we found the sex differences in the neuroanatomical basis of emotion regulation ability. Males showed a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, females demonstrated a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and rGMV in an anatomical cluster that extends from the left brainstem to the left hippocampus, the left amygdala and the insular cortex. The present study provides the first empirical evidence regarding the sex-linked neuroanatomical correlates of emotion regulation ability. These findings may help understand why there is a higher prevalence of affective disorders in females and maladaptive behaviors in males. PMID:24835267
Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes
Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..
Black, Alice A. (Jill)
Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34
Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) is now well accepted as an important fitness component in team-sport performance. It is broadly described as the ability to perform repeated short (~3-4 s, 20-30 m) sprints with only brief (~10-30 s) recovery between bouts. Over the past 25 y a plethora of RSA tests have been trialed and reported in the literature. These range from a single set of ~6-10 short sprints, departing every 20-30 s, to team-sport game simulations involving repeating cycles of walk-jog-stride-sprint movements over 45-90 min. Such a wide range of RSA tests has not assisted the synthesis of research findings in this area, and questions remain regarding the optimal methods of training to best improve RSA. In addition, how RSA test scores relate to player "work rate," match performance, or both requires further investigation to improve the application of RSA testing and training to elite team-sport athletes.
Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy
Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.
Clausing, Gerhard; Senko, Donna
Cloze testing and language performance is discussed as are two techniques for awarding partial credit: the quick performance measurement and feedback technique and the three-stage scoring hierarchy for partial credit. A figure and tables are included. (EJS)
Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.
Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.
The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)
VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel
Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139
... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... § 52.3764 Score sheet. Number, size and kind of container Label (including size declaration)...
Küst, J; Dettmers, C
Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.
The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for
Weiss, David J.
Today's psychological measurement depends almost exclusively on the "standardized test." A certain amount of non-standardization, however, exists in the administration of any standardized test, with the amount unknown for any given test score. Time limits on tests pose a bigger problem since another variable is introduced, pressure. Test taking…
performance in MT environments. Prioritization is a metacognitive task that can only be undertaken if the basic job performance tasks are not using up all of...such as scorable portfolios and essays where the criteria for scoring may not be obvious to the user. 3.15When using a standardized testing format to
Amin, Sameer T.; Morrow, David A.; Braunwald, Eugene; Sloan, Sarah; Contant, Charles; Murphy, Sabina; Antman, Elliott M.
Background Although there are multiple methods of risk stratification for ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), this study presents a prospectively validated method for reclassification of patients based on in‐hospital events. A dynamic risk score provides an initial risk stratification and reassessment at discharge. Methods and Results The dynamic TIMI risk score for STEMI was derived in ExTRACT‐TIMI 25 and validated in TRITON‐TIMI 38. Baseline variables were from the original TIMI risk score for STEMI. New variables were major clinical events occurring during the index hospitalization. Each variable was tested individually in a univariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Variables with P<0.05 were incorporated into a full multivariable Cox model to assess the risk of death at 1 year. Each variable was assigned an integer value based on the odds ratio, and the final score was the sum of these values. The dynamic score included the development of in‐hospital MI, arrhythmia, major bleed, stroke, congestive heart failure, recurrent ischemia, and renal failure. The C‐statistic produced by the dynamic score in the derivation database was 0.76, with a net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 0.33 (P<0.0001) from the inclusion of dynamic events to the original TIMI risk score. In the validation database, the C‐statistic was 0.81, with a NRI of 0.35 (P=0.01). Conclusions This score is a prospectively derived, validated means of estimating 1‐year mortality of STEMI at hospital discharge and can serve as a clinically useful tool. By incorporating events during the index hospitalization, it can better define risk and help to guide treatment decisions. PMID:23525425
Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.
This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…
Garlick, R; Ineichen, B; Hudson, F
Teenage motherhood is often said to be the result of deficient contraceptive and abortion services. Using data from the Public Health Common Data Set (PH CDS) we demonstrate two important effects in a Regional Health Authority: higher rates of conception are related to a live birth rather than an abortion pregnancy outcome; District Health Authorities (DHAs) with high underprivileged area scores (UPA) are more likely to have high rates of conception in the teenage years than those districts with low scores.
Drake, Jennifer E
Some young children are able to create stunningly realistic drawings resembling those of adult artists. What perceptual abilities underlie this talent? This study examined two candidate skills on which adult artists excel: the ability to segment a complex form mentally (measured by the Block Design Task) and the ability to see hidden forms (measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test). Sixty-seven 6- to 13-year-olds with a wide range of drawing abilities completed these tasks as well as an IQ test and an observational drawing task. While children who scored high on drawing realism outperformed those who scored low in drawing realism on both perceptual tasks, only detection of embedded figures predicted drawing realism. This occurred independently of age, gender, years of training, and verbal and non-verbal IQ. There are certainly many contributors to this complex ability, but one component appears to be the tendency to see things more as they really are and thereby recognize the continuous contour of an object despite interference from other overlapping objects.
MacEachron, A E; Janicki, M P
Perske's concept of risk from the perspective of fire safety was examined for approximately 46,000 developmentally disabled persons. The National Bureau of Standards measurement of self-preservation ability was used to define individual risk, resulting in the Evacuation Assistance Score. Environmental risk was measured by grouping residences according to fire safety standards described in the National Fire Protection Association's Life Safety Code. Results indicated that: (a) the Evacuation Assistance Score is best thought of as a single variable that measures any risk that might impede a resident's safe evacuation in a fire emergency, (b) the majority of the developmentally disabled individuals receiving services in New York were totally capable of self-preservation, (c) resident demographic characteristics were not strong predictors of Evacuation Assistance Scores, and (d) the match between individual and physical environment risk vulnerability was not strong.
Petersen, Douglas B; Gillam, Ronald B
This study investigated the predictive validity of a dynamic assessment designed to evaluate later risk for reading difficulty in bilingual Latino children at risk for language impairment. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Latino children completed a dynamic assessment nonsense-word recoding task that yielded pretest to posttest gain scores, residuum gain scores, and modifiability scores. At the end of first grade, the same participants completed criterion reading measures of word identification, decoding, and reading fluency. The dynamic assessment yielded high classification accuracy, with sensitivity and specificity at or above 80% for all three criterion reading measures, including 100% sensitivity for two out of the three first-grade measures. The dynamic assessment used in this study has promise as a means for predicting first-grade word-level reading ability in Latino, bilingual children.
When judging performances in a sequence, the current score is often influenced by the preceding score. Where athletes are perceived to be similar, a judgement is assimilated towards the previous one. However, if judges focus on the differences between the two athletes, this will result in a contrasting influence on their scores. Here, I investigate sequential effects during synchronized diving events at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Although previous research found assimilation in scores of gymnasts, the current data showed contrast effects—current scores benefited from following a poor performance but were at a disadvantage if they followed a high-scoring performance. One explanation may be that the processes involved in judging synchronized pairs results in a focus on the differences between athletes, producing a contrast effect across dives. That the specific direction of this sequential bias may depend on the particular sport has implications for how judges might approach their roles in a context-dependent manner, as well as how such biases should be addressed. PMID:28280583
Roach, Victoria A; Mistry, Manisha R; Wilson, Timothy D
Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may confer learning advantages to novices of variant Vz. This study explored laparoscopic skill performance scores in novices with variable spatial ability utilizing stereoscopic and traditional monoscopic visualization paradigms. Utilizing the McGill Inanimate System for Teaching and Evaluating Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS) scoring protocol it was hypothesized that individuals with high spatial visualization ability (HVz) would achieve higher overall and individual MISTELS task scores as compared to low spatial visualization ability (LVz) counterparts. Further, we also hypothesized that a difference would exist between HVz and LVz individual scores based on the viewing modality employed. No significant difference was observed between HVz and LVz individuals for MISTELS tasks scores, overall or individually under both viewing modalities, despite higher average MISTELS scores for HVz individuals. The lack of difference between scores obtained under the stereo modality suggested that the additional depth that is conferred by the stereoscopic visualization may act to enhance performance for individuals with LVz, potentially equilibrating their performance with their HVz peers. Further experimentation is required to better ascertain the effects of stereo visualization in individuals of high and low Vz, though it appears stereoscopic visualizations could serve as a prosthetic to enhance skill performance.
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Assouline, Susan G.; Fosenburg, Staci
Researchers investigated the self-concept profiles of twice-exceptional students in relationship to their cognitive ability and participation in educational services. All subjects (N = 64) had high ability (IQ score at or above the 90th percentile) and were diagnosed with either an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 53) or specific learning…
Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.
Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…
Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.
There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…
Stalnacke, Jannica; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
In Sweden, special needs of high-ability individuals have received little attention. For this purpose, adult Swedes with superior general mental ability (GMA; N = 302), defined by an IQ score greater than 130 on tests of abstract reasoning, answered a questionnaire regarding their views of themselves and their giftedness. The participants also…
Dunn, Jane A.
A study compared the mean reading abilities of one college's entering freshmen students with the readability levels of several freshman-level mathematics and English textbooks assigned to them. The mean student reading ability was ascertained through an analysis of reading test scores, while text readability levels were determined through the use…
This study tested the hypothesis that children with weaker speech ability have greater difficulties in perception, powers of reasoning and spatial orientation than children with better speech ability, and assessed the value of Apgar scores as a predictive measure of later linguistic disorders. Subjects were 100 children born in 1970 who attended…
Parameswaran, Gowri; Hom, Harry L.
Finds that, in contrast to American children, Indian children (between the ages of 6 and 12) attributed a successful performance to effort rather than to ability, and referred to external attributions (teacher bias and copying) rather than internal attributions (ability) when asked to explain why two children might obtain the same score with…
Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Carri, Louis
This study examined the scores obtained by 21 elementary-level gifted students on 4 different intellectual measures--Stanford-Binet (LM), Stanford-Binet (Fourth Edition), Otis-Lennon School Abilities Test, and the Cognitive Abilities Test. Results showed that the population of gifted students identified will vary greatly depending upon which test…
Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L
The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In this cross-sectional study, 43 non-ambulatory Duchenne males from ages 10 to 30 years and on long-term glucocorticoid treatment were enrolled. Cardiac and pulmonary function test results were analyzed to assess cardiopulmonary function, and Egen Klassifikation scores were analyzed to assess functional ability. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlated with pulmonary function measures and had inverse correlation with Egen Klassifikation scores. There was no correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction. Body mass index and decreased joint range of motion affected total Performance of the Upper Limb scores and should be considered in clinical trial designs.
to carry on abstract thinking ( Terman ) the ability to learn (Buckingham) the capacity to acquire capacity (Woodrow). 1For the remainder of this report...predictive validity (the test score predicts the progress of school children, especially for those with low intelligence) (Matarazzo, 1972). In 1916, Lewis ... Terman , working at Stanford University in California, translated and revised the Binet-Simon scale into English. The new version was called the
Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G; Bavin, Edith L; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl
Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.
Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl
Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597
Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan
Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.
Buring, Shauna M.; Papas, Elizabeth
Objective. To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. Methods. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Results. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. Conclusions. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students’ overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations. PMID:23966727
Yadav, Jitin; Yadav, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Baxla, Ranjan George; Sinha, Dipendra Kumar; Bodra, Pankaj; Besra, Ram Chandra; Baski, Babu Mani; Prakash, Om; Anand, Abhinav
Objective: Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of the bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP) score in predicting mortality, as well as intermediate markers of severity, in a tertiary care centre in east central India, which caters mostly for an economically underprivileged population. Methods: A total of 119 consecutive cases with acute pancreatitis were admitted to our institution between November 2012 and October 2014. BISAP scores were calculated for all cases, within 24 hours of presentation. Ranson’s score and computed tomography severity index (CTSI) were also established. The respective abilities of the three scoring systems to predict mortality was evaluated using trend and discrimination analysis. The optimal cut-off score for mortality from the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the development of persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis (PNec). Results: Of the 119 cases, 42 (35.2%) developed organ failure and were classified as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), 47 (39.5%) developed PNec, and 12 (10.1%) died. The area under the curve (AUC) results for BISAP score in predicting SAP, PNec, and mortality were 0.962, 0.934 and 0.846, respectively. Ranson’s score showed a slightly lower accuracy for predicting SAP (AUC 0.956) and mortality (AUC 0.841). CTSI was the most accurate in predicting PNec, with an AUC of 0.958. The sensitivity and specificity of BISAP score, with a cut-off of ≥3 in predicting mortality, were 100% and 69.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The BISAP score represents a simple way of identifying, within 24 hours of presentation, patients at greater risk of dying and the development of intermediate markers of severity. This risk stratification method can be utilized to improve clinical care and facilitate enrolment in clinical trials. PMID:25733696
Schurr, Kenton T.; Brookover, Wilbur B.
To investigate change in the general self concept of ability of educable mentally retarded special class students, four equally spaced interviews were conducted with 51 students (mean age 11.63) over a 2-year period. Pupils answered questions about their academic ability from the General Self-Concept of Ability Scale; scores showed an ascending…
Nykiforuk, Candace I J; McGetrick, Jennifer Ann; Crick, Katelynn; Johnson, Jeffrey A
Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada. In 2015, using street-level systematic observations collected in Bonnyville, Medicine Hat, and North Central Edmonton in 2008 (part of the Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project), we reverse engineered 2181 scores with the network Walk Score® algorithm. We computed means, 95% confidence intervals, and t-tests (α = 0.05) for both sets of scores. Applying the Clifford-Richardson adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, we calculated Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients (rho, rs) and adjusted p-values to measure the strength of association between the derived scores and original network scores provided by Walk Score®. Spearman's rho for scores were very high for Bonnyville (rs = 0.950, adjusted p < 0.001), and high for Medicine Hat (rs = 0.790, adjusted p < 0.001) and North Central Edmonton (rs = 0.763, adjusted p < 0.001). High to very high correlations between derived scores and Walk Scores® field validated this metric across small, medium, and large population centres in Alberta, Canada. However, we suggest caution in interpreting Walk Score® for planning and evaluating health promotion interventions, since the strength of association between destinations and walking may vary across different municipal types.
Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. Conclusions The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here. PMID:25780509
af Klint, Erik; Catrina, Anca I; Matt, Peter; Neregråd, Petra; Lampa, Jon; Ulfgren, Ann-Kristin; Klareskog, Lars; Lindblad, Staffan
Introduction Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique for retrieving synovial biopsies in rheumatology during the past 20 years. Vital for its use is continual evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Important for sampling is the fact of intraarticular variation for synovial markers. For microscopic measurements scoring systems have been developed and validated, but for macroscopic evaluations there is a need for further comprehensive description and validation of equivalent scoring systems. Methods We studied the complication rate and yield of arthroscopies performed at our clinic between 1998 and 2005. We also created and evaluated a macroscopic score set of instructions for synovitis. Results Of 408 procedures, we had two major and one minor complication; two haemarthrosis and one wound infection, respectively. Pain was most often not a problem, but 12 procedures had to be prematurely ended due to pain. Yield of biopsies adequate for histology were 83% over all, 94% for knee joints and 34% for smaller joints. Video printer photographs of synovium taken during arthroscopy were jointly and individually reviewed by seven raters in several settings, and intra and inter rater variation was calculated. A macroscopic synovial scoring system for arthroscopy was created (Macro-score), based upon hypertrophy, vascularity and global synovitis. These written instructions were evaluated by five control-raters, and when evaluated individual parameters were without greater intra or inter rater variability, indicating that the score is reliable and easy to use. Conclusions In our hands rheumatologic arthroscopy is a safe method with very few complications. For knee joints it is a reliable method to retrieve representative tissue in clinical longitudinal studies. We also created an easy to use macroscopic score, that needs to be validated against other methodologies. We hope it will be of value in further developing international standards in this area. PMID:19490631
Austin, Peter C; Jembere, Nathaniel; Chiu, Maria
Researchers are increasingly using complex population-based sample surveys to estimate the effects of treatments, exposures and interventions. In such analyses, statistical methods are essential to minimize the effect of confounding due to measured covariates, as treated subjects frequently differ from control subjects. Methods based on the propensity score are increasingly popular. Minimal research has been conducted on how to implement propensity score matching when using data from complex sample surveys. We used Monte Carlo simulations to examine two critical issues when implementing propensity score matching with such data. First, we examined how the propensity score model should be formulated. We considered three different formulations depending on whether or not a weighted regression model was used to estimate the propensity score and whether or not the survey weights were included in the propensity score model as an additional covariate. Second, we examined whether matched control subjects should retain their natural survey weight or whether they should inherit the survey weight of the treated subject to which they were matched. Our results were inconclusive with respect to which method of estimating the propensity score model was preferable. In general, greater balance in measured baseline covariates and decreased bias was observed when natural retained weights were used compared to when inherited weights were used. We also demonstrated that bootstrap-based methods performed well for estimating the variance of treatment effects when outcomes are binary. We illustrated the application of our methods by using the Canadian Community Health Survey to estimate the effect of educational attainment on lifetime prevalence of mood or anxiety disorders.
Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; Kora, Guruprasad H.; Hauser, Loren J.; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.
More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.
Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran; ...
More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). In this study, we have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes hadmore » quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing “all published genomes” and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Finally and unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an ‘A’ (codons ending with a ‘U’) are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.« less
Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario
The present study aimed at exploring relationships among the visuospatial tasks included in the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA), and at assessing the relative contribution of different facets of visuospatial processing on tests tapping constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. One hundred forty-four healthy subjects with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination completed the BVA plus Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Constructional Apraxia test. We used Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis to investigate relationships among the BVA visuospatial tasks, and performed regression analyses to assess the visuospatial contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis revealed two eigenvalues exceeding 1, accounting for about 60% of the variance. A 2-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 included sub-tests exploring "complex" visuospatial skills, whereas Factor 2 included two subtests tapping "simple" visuospatial skills. Regression analyses revealed that both Factor 1 and Factor 2 significantly affected performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, whereas only the Factor 1 affected performance on Constructional Apraxia test. Our results supported functional segregation proposed by De Renzi, suggesting clinical caution to utilize a single test to assess visuospatial domain, and qualified the visuospatial contribution in drawing and non-verbal intelligence test.
Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing
This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed.
Sireci, Stephen G.; Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.
In the United States, when English language learners (ELLs) are tested, they are usually tested in English and their limited English proficiency is a potential cause of construct-irrelevant variance. When such irrelevancies affect test scores, inaccurate interpretations of ELLs' knowledge, skills, and abilities may occur. In this article, we…
Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.
This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…
Brown, Les; And Others
A Group of children were given the Otis Lennon Mental Abilities Tests in grades 3, 5, and 7, to measure the degree of score consistency over time. The test predicted future academic success only moderately well in grade 5 and slightly, if at all, in grade 3. (Author/SJL)
Barnett, Jerrold E.; Hixon, Jon E.
Interviews with elementary students before and after tests in three subjects investigated how grade level and subject affected students' ability to predict test scores. Results found a significant grade-subject area interaction for predictions prior to testing. Posttest predictions differed only slightly from pretest. Prediction accuracy was…
Harris, Heather; Horst, S. Jeanne
Propensity score matching techniques are becoming increasingly common as they afford applied practitioners the ability to account for systematic bias related to self-selection. However, "best practices" for implementing these techniques in applied settings is scattered throughout the literature. The current article aims to provide a…
Livingston, Samuel A.
In this study, I investigated 2 procedures intended to create test-taker groups of equal ability by poststratifying on a composite variable created from demographic information. In one procedure, the stratifying variable was the composite variable that best predicted the test score. In the other procedure, the stratifying variable was the…
Nelson, Annabelle; Lalemi, Bisi
Among 40 second and sixth graders in a Bureau of Indian Affairs reservation school, those who participated in 6 15-minute sessions of imagery training had significantly higher posttest scores on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, compared to controls. Such training may increase children's problem-solving ability. Contains 24 references. (SV)
Matejko, Anna A; Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel
Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure.
Pongpan, Surangrat; Patumanond, Jayanton; Wisitwong, Apichart; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Namwongprom, Sirianong
Objective To validate a simple scoring system to classify dengue viral infection severity to patients in different settings. Methods The developed scoring system derived from 777 patients from three tertiary-care hospitals was applied to 400 patients in the validation data obtained from another three tertiary-care hospitals. Percentage of correct classification, underestimation, and overestimation was compared. The score discriminative performance in the two datasets was compared by analysis of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Patients in the validation data were different from those in the development data in some aspects. In the validation data, classifying patients into three severity levels (dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome) yielded 50.8% correct prediction (versus 60.7% in the development data), with clinically acceptable underestimation (18.6% versus 25.7%) and overestimation (30.8% versus 13.5%). Despite the difference in predictive performances between the validation and the development data, the overall prediction of the scoring system is considered high. Conclusion The developed severity score may be applied to classify patients with dengue viral infection into three severity levels with clinically acceptable under- or overestimation. Its impact when used in routine clinical practice should be a topic for further study. PMID:24623999
Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.
Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256
Espinós, Juan J; Calaf, Joaquim; Estadella, Josep; Checa, Miguel A
In a clinical series of 68 women with polycystic ovary syndrome in which the reason for consultation was hirsutism, the mean (standard error of the mean) hirsutism score of the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method was 15.1 (6.8), compared with 12.0 (4.4) for clinicians' scoring. In the multivariable analysis, clinicians' scoring of hirsutism was the only independent variable significantly associated with increased testosterone free index levels.
TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS
THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO IDENTIFY VARIABLES RELATED TO EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATION IN MILITARY OPERATIONS. THE GOAL WAS TO DEVELOP TESTS TO CLASSIFY OFFICERS AND AIRMEN, BASED UPON ALL OF THE BROAD COMMUNICATION ABILITIES NEEDED IN THE AIR FORCE. THE RESEARCH OUTLINE CONSISTED OF REVIEWING COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND OTHER TESTS, PREPARING A REDUCED…
Quiroga, Rodrigo; Villarreal, Marcos A
Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address.
The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.
Villarreal, Marcos A.
Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address. PMID:27171006
Tamerler, Timothy; Dowling, James A.; Dillow, Michael A.; Sebesta, Henry R.
The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory is developing the High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) to investigate acquisition, tracking, and pointing concepts to be employed in engagements against boosting missiles in near-space environments. In its most stressing test, HABE employs the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit to provide inertially stabilized line-of-sights (LOSs) for an illuminator laser, active fine track camera, and the marker scoring. The latter serves to measure and score the payload's laser pointing performance. HABE's LOS stabilization subsystem and marker laser pointing are required to demonstrate jitter and drift which is below 1 (mu) rad RMS, a requirement which stresses testing capabilities. At present, a system does not exist to characterize and score the lasers used on this and other experiments at the target plane. This paper will address a concept to provide accurate characterization of laser systems in the far-field target plane.
Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.
This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the learners were solving problems associated with spatial information. To serve this purpose, we conducted case studies on nine students who were sampled from high-scoring, moderate-scoring, and low-scoring students. Our findings point to five characteristics of mental modeling ability that distinguish students in the high-, moderate-, and low-ability groups from one another. Although the levels of mental modeling abilities have been described in categories (high, moderate, and low), they can be thought of as a continuum with the low-ability group reflecting students who have very limited ability to generate and use mental models whereas students in the high-ability group not only construct and use mental models as a thinking tool, but also analyze the problems to be solved, evaluate their mental models, and oversee entire mental modeling processes. Cross-case comparisons for students with different levels of mental modeling ability indicate that experiences of generating and manipulating a mental model based on imposed propositions are crucial for a learner's efforts to incorporate content knowledge with visual-spatial thinking skills. This paper summarizes potential factors that undermine learners' comprehension of molecular geometry and polarity and that influence mastery of this mental modeling ability.
Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Gamble, Greg; Kang, Nicholas; Pemberton, James
Decision making regarding surgery for acute bacterial endocarditis is complex given its heterogeneity and often fatal course. Few studies have investigated the utility of operative risk scores in this setting. Endocarditis-specific scores have recently been developed. We assessed the prognostic utility of contemporary risk scores for mortality and morbidity after endocarditis surgery. Additive and logistic EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II, additive Society of Thoracic Surgeon's (STS) Endocarditis Score and additive De Feo-Cotrufo Score were retrospectively calculated for patients undergoing surgery for endocarditis during 2005-2011. Pre-specified primary outcomes were operative mortality, composite morbidity and mortality during follow-up. A total of 146 patients were included with an operative mortality of 6.8 % followed for 4.1 ± 2.4 years. Mean scores were additive EuroSCORE I: 8.0 ± 2.5, logistic EuroSCORE I: 13.2 ± 10.1 %, EuroSCORE II: 9.1 % ± 9.4 %, STS Score: 32.2 ± 13.5 and De Feo-Cotrufo Score: 14.6 ± 9.2. Corresponding areas under curve (AUC) for operative mortality 0.653, 0.645, 0.656, 0.699 and 0.744; for composite morbidity were 0.623, 0.625, 0.720, 0.714 and 0.774; and long-term mortality 0.588, 0.579, 0.686, 0.735 and 0.751. The best tool for post-operative stroke was EuroSCORE II: AUC 0.837; for ventilation >24 h and return to theatre the De Feo-Cotrufo Scores were: AUC 0.821 and 0.712. Pre-operative inotrope or intra-aortic balloon pump treatment, previous coronary bypass grafting and dialysis were independent predictors of operative and long-term mortality. In conclusion, risk models developed specifically from endocarditis surgeries and incorporating endocarditis variables have improved prognostic ability of outcomes, and can play an important role in the decision making towards surgery for endocarditis.
Lee, Seunghyun; Yeo, Hye Ju; Yoon, Seong Hoon; Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Woo Hyun; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Yun Seong; Son, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Hyung
Recently, several prognostic scoring systems for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been published. The aim of this study was to validate the established scoring systems for outcome prediction in Korean patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 50 patients on ECMO therapy in our center from 2012 to 2014. A calculation of outcome prediction scoring tools was performed and the comparison across various models was conducted. In our study, the overall hospital survival was 46% and successful weaning rate was 58%. The Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V-V ECMO (PRESERVE) score showed good discrimination of mortality prediction for patients on ECMO with AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.90). The respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival prediction (RESP) score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II score also showed fair prediction ability with AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.89) and AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.88), respectively. However, the ECMOnet score failed to predict mortality with AUC of 0.51 (95% CI 0.37-0.66). When evaluating the predictive accuracy according to optimal cut-off point of each scoring system, RESP score had a best specificity of 91.3% and 66.7% of sensitivity, respectively. This study supports the clinical usefulness of the prognostic scoring tools for severe ARDS with ECMO therapy when applying to the Korean patients receiving ECMO.
Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer
We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926
Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars
Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts. PMID:25254105
Pardeller, Silvia; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex
In order to expand on previous research, this cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive abilities in healthy adults with a special focus on potential sex differences. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), whereas cognitive abilities were investigated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), which measures key aspects of cognitive functioning, i.e. verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. 137 subjects (65% female) with a mean age of 38.7 ± 11.8 years were included into the study. While males and females were comparable with regard to EI, men achieved significantly higher BACS composite scores and outperformed women in the BACS subscales motor speed, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Verbal fluency significantly predicted EI, whereas the MSCEIT subscale understanding emotions significantly predicted the BACS composite score. Our findings support previous research and emphasize the relevance of considering cognitive abilities when assessing ability EI in healthy individuals.
Czarnolewski, Mark Y; Eliot, John
Test scores of 119 students, attending either a public four-year college or a technical school, were related to their proportionality and detail drawing scores on the Memory for Designs Test. In regression models, the ETS Maze Tracing, Eliot-Price Mental Rotations, and Bender-Gestalt tests were consistent predictors of proportionality scores, with the latter two tests uniquely related to these. The ETS Shapes Memory Test and the Form Board Test were the strongest predictors for detail accuracy scores. The Shapes test predicted proportionality when the CTY Visual Memory Test BB was excluded. The models then provided support for the hypothesis that drawing designs from memory, a critical skill in drawing, regardless of whether one focuses on accuracy for proportionality scores or for detail scores, is jointly related to the measures of recognition, production, and traditional spatial ability measures. This study identified multifaceted skills in drawing from memory.
Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun
Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between
McIntosh, J A; Belter, R W; Saylor, C F; Finch, A J; Edwards, G L
The present study was designed to evaluate the relative efficacy of two different scoring systems (Koppitz, 1975; Lacks, 1984) for use in evaluating Bender-Gestalt performance by adolescents. Normative data are presented for the two scoring systems with a sample of "normal" controls (N = 150), emotionally disturbed (N = 140), and mentally retarded/neurologically impaired adolescents (N = 47), aged 12-17. Results suggested that age and psychopathology were not related to the quality of the Bender-Gestalt reproductions of these subjects. An inverse relationship was found between cognitive ability and visual motor skills. Data obtained from these samples of adolescents showed a high degree of consistency between the scoring systems, which suggests that either scoring procedure is suitable for evaluating the Bender-Gestalt performance of adolescents.
Rocco, Piazza; Daniele, Ramazzotti; Roberta, Spinelli; Alessandra, Pirola; Luca, De Sano; Pierangelo, Ferrari; Vera, Magistroni; Nicoletta, Cordani; Nitesh, Sharma; Carlo, Gambacorti-Passerini
The complicated, evolving landscape of cancer mutations poses a formidable challenge to identify cancer genes among the large lists of mutations typically generated in NGS experiments. The ability to prioritize these variants is therefore of paramount importance. To address this issue we developed OncoScore, a text-mining tool that ranks genes according to their association with cancer, based on available biomedical literature. Receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC) metrics on manually curated datasets confirmed the excellent discriminating capability of OncoScore (OncoScore cut-off threshold = 21.09; AUC = 90.3%, 95% CI: 88.1–92.5%), indicating that OncoScore provides useful results in cases where an efficient prioritization of cancer-associated genes is needed. PMID:28387367
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.25 Physical condition scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. Under the physical condition indicator, a score will be.... (b) Overall PHA physical condition indicator score. The overall physical condition indicator score...
Siciliano, Mattia; Trojano, Luigi; Trojsi, Francesca; Greco, Roberta; Santoro, Manuela; Basile, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Fausta; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Mariarosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella
Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific). ECAS total score ranges from 0 (worst performance) to 136 (best performance). Moreover, a brief caregiver interview provides an assessment of behaviour changes and psychotic symptoms usually associated with ALS patients. The aim of the present study was to provide normative values for ECAS total score and sub-scores in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and seventy-seven Italian healthy subjects (151 women and 126 men; age range 30-79 years; educational level from primary school to university) underwent ECAS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ECAS total score and sub-scale scores. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off scores were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between adjusted ECAS total scores with adjusted MoCA total scores (r rho = 0.669, p < 0.0001). The present study provided normative data for the ECAS in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.
Musch, Jochen; Ehrenberg, Katja
According to the probability misjudgment account of paranormal belief (Blackmore & Troscianko, 1985), believers in the paranormal tend to wrongly attribute remarkable coincidences to paranormal causes rather than chance. Previous studies have shown that belief in the paranormal is indeed positively related to error rates in probabilistic reasoning. General cognitive ability could account for a relationship between these two variables without assuming a causal role of probabilistic reasoning in the forming of paranormal beliefs, however. To test this alternative explanation, a belief in the paranormal scale (BPS) and a battery of probabilistic reasoning tasks were administered to 123 university students. Confirming previous findings, a significant correlation between BPS scores and error rates in probabilistic reasoning was observed. This relationship disappeared, however, when cognitive ability as measured by final examination grades was controlled for. Lower cognitive ability correlated substantially with belief in the paranormal. This finding suggests that differences in general cognitive performance rather than specific probabilistic reasoning skills provide the basis for paranormal beliefs.
Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.
School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…
The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…
Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.
While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased…
Kim, Jwa K.; Nicewander, W. Alan
Bias, standard error, and reliability of five ability estimators were evaluated using Monte Carlo estimates of the unknown conditional means and variances of the estimators. Results indicate that estimates based on Bayesian modal, expected a posteriori, and weighted likelihood estimators were reasonably unbiased with relatively small standard…
Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo
The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…
Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin
As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHAS scoring. 902.9 Section 902.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...
Masters, Geoff N.
An extension of the Rasch model for partial credit scoring of test items is presented. An unconditional maximum likelihood procedure for estimating the model parameters is developed. The relationship of this model to Andrich's Rating Scale model and Samejima's Graded Response model are discussed. (Author/JKS)
Ryan, Joseph J; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Kane, Alexa
Forty-three students were administered on two occasions approximately 11 months apart the complete Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, including the seven process components of Block Design No Time Bonus, Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), Cancellation Random (CAR), Cancellation Structured (CAS), Longest Digit Span Forward (LDSF), and Longest Digit Span Backward (LDSB). Mean ages at first and second testing were 7.77 years (SD = 1.91) and 8.74 years (SD = 1.93), respectively. Mean Full-Scale IQ at initial testing was 111.63 (SD = 10.71). Process score stability coefficients ranged from .75 on DSF to .32 on CAS. Discrepancy score stabilities ranged from .45 on DSF minus DSB to .05 on CAS minus CAR. Approximately 21% of participants increased their LDSF on retest, and 16.3% showed a gain on LDSB. Caution must be exercised when interpreting process scores, and interpretation of discrepancy scores should probably be avoided.
Ahn, Soyeon; Becker, Betsy Jane
This paper examines the impact of quality-score weights in meta-analysis. A simulation examines the roles of study characteristics such as population effect size (ES) and its variance on the bias and mean square errors (MSEs) of the estimators for several patterns of relationship between quality and ES, and for specific patterns of systematic…
Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.
Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.
This book of scoring guides and national percentages is part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national survey measuring the…
For the All-Day screener, scoring involves a series of operations that are shown below and implemented in the All-Day Screener Pyramid Servings SAS Program and the All-Day Screener MyPyramid Cup Equivalents SAS Program.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet. 52.3764 Section 52.3764 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... (including size declaration) Container mark or identification Net weight (ounces) Vacuum (inches)...
Ulmer, Connie; Truett, Carol; Matzen, Nita
Today's media specialist can and should become an integral part of the school's efforts to improve student reading and test scores. A media specialist can have an influence on student reading in many ways. One should always remember that the ultimate goal of media specialists is to develop in their students a love of reading as a pleasurable…
Home Energy Score is a simulation-based rating method for existing homes. Home Performance XML (HPXML) is a data transfer standard for home energy audit and retrofit data used throughout the industry. This software receives an HPXML document and translates the building characteristics into HEScore inputs compliant with their API.
Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco
The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.
GACH, PENELOPE J.; AND OTHERS
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS IS DESCRIBED. THREE PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS WERE DEVELOPED--(1) A METAL FOIL ACTIVATING AN ELECTRICAL PROBE, (2) A METAL FOIL REACTING WITH A MAGNETIC PROBE, AND (3) INVISIBLE FLUORESCENT INK REVEALED BY THE APPLICATION OF LONGWAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. (MS)
Jencks, Christopher, Ed.; Phillips, Meredith, Ed.
The 15 chapters of this book address issues related to the continuing test score gap between black and white students. The editors argue against traditional explanations which emphasize differences in economic resources and demographic factors, and they urge that more emphasis be put on psychological and cultural factors. The book suggests studies…
Campbell, Ian M.; And Others
Undertook a factorial analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on a sample of male cardiac outpatients (N=214) to investigate whether the BDI factor structure is dependent on the range of BDI scores selected. Results indicated that, in general, the subgroups' factor structures provided no clear interpretation. (LLL)
Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan
The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…
Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro
Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.
Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.
In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…
Filleron, Thomas; Kwiatowski, Fabrice
In clinical research, the reference method to evaluate treatment benefit without bias is the randomized trial. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to realize one, as for example in surgery or for particular observational studies. In these cases, Rosenbaum and Rubin introduced in 1983 a new methodology: the calculation of a propensity score. When several treatments are compared, this calculation enables to take into account confusion bias using a score that synthesizes the influence on treatment choice of clinical parameters evaluated before. This article describes how to build this score, to estimate its validity, and how to use it: as a new variable into a multivariate analysis, as a matching criterion, or as a stratification parameter. Examples are given to illustrate each case and point out the limitations of such a methodology. This approach, although innovative and useful, cannot reach the level of evidence of randomized clinical trials: simulations have demonstrated this fact in several situations. On the other hand, it can be compared to standard multivariate analysis which permits in a non-randomized context, to limit evaluation bias of treatments by adjusting on potential confusion factors. Some guidelines are given in the last chapter to help researchers decide whether to use a propensity score or a standard multivariate analysis.
A central issue in nonexperimental studies is identifying comparable individuals to remove selection bias. One common way to address this selection bias is through propensity score (PS) matching. PS methods use a model of the treatment assignment to reduce the dimensionality of the covariate space and identify comparable individuals. parallel to…
Fan, Xitao; Nowell, Dana L.
This methodological brief introduces the readers to the propensity score matching method, which can be used for enhancing the validity of causal inferences in research situations involving nonexperimental design or observational research, or in situations where the benefits of an experimental design are not fully realized because of reasons beyond…
Miller, Steven C.
The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which eighth-grade…
Current thinking on validity suggests that educational institutions and individuals should evaluate their uses of test scores in the context of their fundamental goals. Regression coefficients and other traditional criterion-related validity statistics provide relevant information, but often do not, by themselves, address the fundamental reasons…
... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring applications... of individually-owned household water well systems and ground water. Up to 30 points (2) Degree of... rural residents, the amount of funds requested in relation to the amount of needs demonstrated in...
DeMars, Christine E.
This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…
2000-2010 Annual State-Scale Service and Domain scores used to support the approach for forecasting EPA's Human Well-Being Index. A modeling approach was developed based relationship function equations derived from select economic, social and ecosystem final goods and service scores and calculated human well-being index and related domain scores. These data are being used in a secondary capacity. The foundational data and scoring techniques were originally described in: a) U.S. EPA. 2012. Indicators and Methods for Constructing a U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) for Ecosystem Services Research. Report. EPA/600/R-12/023. pp. 121; and b) U.S. EPA. 2014. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning. Report. EPA/600/R-14/184. pp. 174. Mode Smith, L. M., Harwell, L. C., Summers, J. K., Smith, H. M., Wade, C. M., Straub, K. R. and J.L. Case (2014).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Summers , K., L. Harwell , and L. Smith. A Model For Change: An Approach for Forecasting Well-Being From Service-Based Decisions. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 69: 295-309, (2016).
Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia
This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…
There are no bibliometric formulas currently available to measure the intrinsic quality of scientific publications. Nonetheless, publication assessment is an inescapable feature of academic and professional evaluation although it is not always done fairly. This paper proposes a scoring system that combines several of the variables most often used for evaluation: article length, inclusion in biomedical databases, impact factor of the journals publishing the articles, and number of citations received during the 2 years following publication. Articles can be classified in 20 categories and assigned scores depending on how the factors are combined. The scoring system's advantage is that it limits excessive weight given to extreme impact factors and corrects differences due to varying citing behaviors in different Science Citation Index categories. Finally, scores are classified by type of article, number of co-authors, and arthorship order. When applying this system, it would be sufficient to evaluate candidates' 5 best articles in order to establish quantitative differences between them, reducing administrative costs and the workloads of assessment committees.
Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…
Steinheiser, Frederick H., Jr.; Hirshfeld, Stephen L.
The scientific implications and practical applications of the Stein estimator approach for estimating true scores from observed scores are of potentially great importance. The conceptual complexity is not much greater than that required for more conventional regression models. The empirical Bayesian aspect allows the examiner to incorporate…
Wolfe, Edward W.; Kao, Chi-Wen
This paper reports the results of an analysis of the relationship between scorer behaviors and score variability. Thirty-six essay scorers were interviewed and asked to perform a think-aloud task as they scored 24 essays. Each comment made by a scorer was coded according to its content focus (i.e. appearance, assignment, mechanics, communication,…
Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku
This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…
Cizek, Gregory J.
Advances in validity theory and alacrity in validation practice have suffered because the term "validity" has been used to refer to two incompatible concerns: (1) the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e. intended score meaning) and (2) the degree of support for specified applications (i.e. intended test…
Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…
Schafer, William D.; Hou, Xiaodong
This study discusses and presents an example of a use of spline functions to establish and report test scores using a moderated system of any number of cut scores. Our main goals include studying the need for and establishing moderated standards and creating a reporting scale that is referenced to all the standards. Our secondary goals are to make…
The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…
Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick
The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)
Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Tani, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Nami; Yamashita, Akira; Mori, Nobuhiko; Oku, Kosuke; Murakami, Yoshikazu; Nomura, Shohei; Tamaru, Yoshiki; Nagano, Kiyoshi
[Purpose] This study investigated whether it is possible to predict return to home at discharge from a rehabilitation hospital in Japan using the home care score of patients with cerebrovascular or osteoarticular disease and low activities of daily living at admission. [Subjects and Methods] The home care score and functional independent measurement were determined for 226 patients at admission and at discharge from five hospitals, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted. [Results] The home care score cutoff point for the prediction of return to home at admission and at discharge was 11, and the area under the curve was more than 0.8. The area under the curve of the home care score was 0.77 for patients with low activities of daily living and within this group, the probability of return to home was approximately 50%, as predicted by the functional independent measurement. The home care score increased after receiving intervention at a rehabilitation hospital. [Conclusion] The home care score is useful for the prediction of return to home from a rehabilitation hospital, although prediction using the functional independent measurement is difficult for patients with low activities of daily living. Moreover, comprehensive interventions provided by the rehabilitation hospitals improve the ability to provide home care of the patient’s family, which is assessed by the home care score. PMID:27821925
Zambelli-Simões, Letícia; Martins, Maria Cleusa; Possari, Juliana Carneiro da Cunha; Carvalho, Greice Borges; Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho; Cipriano, Sonia Lucena; de Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael
Abstract Objective: To validate two scores quantifying the ability of patients to use metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs); to identify the most common errors made during their use; and to identify the patients in need of an educational program for the use of these devices. Methods: This study was conducted in three phases: validation of the reliability of the inhaler technique scores; validation of the contents of the two scores using a convenience sample; and testing for criterion validation and discriminant validation of these instruments in patients who met the inclusion criteria. Results: The convenience sample comprised 16 patients. Interobserver disagreement was found in 19% and 25% of the DPI and MDI scores, respectively. After expert analysis on the subject, the scores were modified and were applied in 72 patients. The most relevant difficulty encountered during the use of both types of devices was the maintenance of total lung capacity after a deep inhalation. The degree of correlation of the scores by observer was 0.97 (p < 0.0001). There was good interobserver agreement in the classification of patients as able/not able to use a DPI (50%/50% and 52%/58%; p < 0.01) and an MDI (49%/51% and 54%/46%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The validated scores allow the identification and correction of inhaler technique errors during consultations and, as a result, improvement in the management of inhalation devices. PMID:26398751
Belsky, Daniel W; Israel, Salomon
The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest-hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry.
Sepsis is responsible for the utilisation of a significant proportion of healthcare resources and has high mortality rates. Early diagnosis and prompt interventions are associated with better outcomes but is impeded by a lack of diagnostic tools and the heterogeneous and enigmatic nature of sepsis. The recently updated definitions of sepsis have moved away from the centrality of inflammation and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria which have been shown to be non-specific. Sepsis is now defined as a “life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection”. The Quick (q) Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is proposed as a surrogate for organ dysfunction and may act as a risk predictor for patients with known or suspected infection, as well as being a prompt for clinicians to consider the diagnosis of sepsis. Early warning scores (EWS) are track and trigger physiological monitoring systems that have become integrated within many healthcare systems for the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. The recent study by Churpek and colleagues sought to compare qSOFA to more established alerting criteria in a population of patients with presumed infection, and compared the ability to predict death or unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission. This perspective paper discusses recent advances in the diagnostic criteria for sepsis and how qSOFA may fit into the pre-existing models of acute care and sepsis quality improvement. PMID:28149888
Belsky, Daniel W.; Israel, Salomon
The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public-use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry. PMID:25343363
Hegde, Madhav; Rajendran, Ravindran
Objectives: To study the conventional coronary angiogram ( CA) findings in patients with high coronary calcium on multidetector computed tomogram. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with coronary calcium high enough in its extent and location to interfere with the interpretation of a contrast-filled coronary artery for a significant lesion were studied with conventional CA. Framingham risk score (FRS), computed tomography (CT) coronary calcium score (CCS), and SYNTAX score (SS) from the CA were calculated by separate investigators who were blinded to other scores. Effectively, 250 coronary arteries (left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery and posterior descending artery in each subject) with calcium scores were studied for lesions on CA. Results: Thirty-five subjects had high FRS, 10 had intermediate FRS, and 5 had low FRS. Eight subjects of 25 (32%) with CCS between 350 and 1000 had no significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Overall, the CCS and the SS had a strong agreement with each other (r = 0.68, P < 0.01) that persisted in those with very high scores >1000 (r = 0.55, P < 0.01, n = 30), but only a nonsignificant weak correlation with scores between 350 and 1000 (r = 0.1, P = 0.62, n = 20). Individual vessel calcium scores correlated strongly for the presence of any lesion (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) in the same artery but only weakly for a significant lesion (r = 0.29, P = 0.05). Conclusion: High CT CCS in this cohort of intermediate to high (Framingham score) risk patients correlated strongly with the subject's global burden of the CAD as derived by the SS, more so for subjects with very high scores. Similarly, CCS correlated strongly with the presence of any lesion but only weakly for a significant stenosis; also, about one-third of patients with CCS between 350 and 1000 may not have significant disease on conventional CA. PMID:28028450
Krach, S. Kathleen; Loe, Scott A.; Jones, W. Paul; Farrally, Autumn
Validity studies with the Reynolds Intellectual Ability scales (RIAS) indicated that RIAS composite intelligence index (CIX) and verbal intelligence index (VIX) scores have moderate-to-high correlation with comparable scores on other instruments. The authors of the RIAS described the VIX scale as a measure of crystallized ability and the nonverbal…
George, Antony; Jagannath, Pushpa; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; Jagadeesh, A. M.
Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC) score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD) of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001) for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]). Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. PMID:26139742
Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Jin-Hee
Case-based learning (CBL) is a teaching strategy which promotes clinical problem-solving ability. This research was performed to investigate the effects of CBL on problem-solving ability of graduate nurses. This research was a quasi-experimental design using pre-test, intervention, and post-test with a non-synchronized, non-equivalent control group. The study population was composed of 190 new graduate nurses from university hospital A in Korea. Results of the research indicate that there was a statistically significant difference in objective problem-solving ability scores of CBL group demonstrating higher scores. Subjective problem-solving ability was also significantly higher in CBL group than in the lecture-based group. These results may suggest that CBL is a beneficial and effective instructional method of training graduate nurses to improve their clinical problem-solving ability.
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.
The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…
Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.
Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas
The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.
Reynolds, Matthew R
The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor (g) have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the g loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate whether the g loadings of composite scores from the Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.) (DAS-II, C. D. Elliott, 2007a, Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) were nonlinear and (b) if they were nonlinear, to compare them with linear g loadings to demonstrate how SLODR alters the interpretation of these loadings. Linear and nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were used to model Nonverbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability, Visual Spatial Ability, Working Memory, and Processing Speed composite scores in four age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-13, and 14-17) from the DAS-II norming sample. The nonlinear CFA models provided better fit to the data than did the linear models. In support of SLODR, estimates obtained from the nonlinear CFAs indicated that g loadings decreased as g level increased. The nonlinear portion for the nonverbal reasoning loading, however, was not statistically significant across the age groups. Knowledge of general ability level informs composite score interpretation because g is less likely to produce differences, or is measured less, in those scores at higher g levels. One implication is that it may be more important to examine the pattern of specific abilities at higher general ability levels.
Ronzhina, Marina; Janoušek, Oto; Kolářová, Jana; Nováková, Marie; Honzík, Petr; Provazník, Ivo
Rapid development of computer technologies leads to the intensive automation of many different processes traditionally performed by human experts. One of the spheres characterized by the introduction of new high intelligence technologies substituting analysis performed by humans is sleep scoring. This refers to the classification task and can be solved - next to other classification methods - by use of artificial neural networks (ANN). ANNs are parallel adaptive systems suitable for solving of non-linear problems. Using ANN for automatic sleep scoring is especially promising because of new ANN learning algorithms allowing faster classification without decreasing the performance. Both appropriate preparation of training data as well as selection of the ANN model make it possible to perform effective and correct recognizing of relevant sleep stages. Such an approach is highly topical, taking into consideration the fact that there is no automatic scorer utilizing ANN technology available at present.
Hembling, D W
Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes.
Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber
Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.
Gabel, Joffrey; Desaphy, Jérémy; Rognan, Didier
Training machine learning algorithms with protein-ligand descriptors has recently gained considerable attention to predict binding constants from atomic coordinates. Starting from a series of recent reports stating the advantages of this approach over empirical scoring functions, we could indeed reproduce the claimed superiority of Random Forest and Support Vector Machine-based scoring functions to predict experimental binding constants from protein-ligand X-ray structures of the PDBBind dataset. Strikingly, these scoring functions, trained on simple protein-ligand element-element distance counts, were almost unable to enrich virtual screening hit lists in true actives upon docking experiments of 10 reference DUD-E datasets; this is a a feature that, however, has been verified for an a priori less-accurate empirical scoring function (Surflex-Dock). By systematically varying ligand poses from true X-ray coordinates, we show that the Surflex-Dock scoring function is logically sensitive to the quality of docking poses. Conversely, our machine-learning based scoring functions are totally insensitive to docking poses (up to 10 Å root-mean square deviations) and just describe atomic element counts. This report does not disqualify using machine learning algorithms to design scoring functions. Protein-ligand element-element distance counts should however be used with extreme caution and only applied in a meaningful way. To avoid developing novel but meaningless scoring functions, we propose that two additional benchmarking tests must be systematically done when developing novel scoring functions: (i) sensitivity to docking pose accuracy, and (ii) ability to enrich hit lists in true actives upon structure-based (docking, receptor-ligand pharmacophore) virtual screening of reference datasets.
Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.
Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947
Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti
several years, Bruce Williams and I have been presenting applications of a new approach to measurement, which we call formula scoring. Our presentations to...shorter version is being prepared for publication. 0 Tnanks to Bruce Williams and Fritz Drasgow there are many data-based applications1 of formula...item pool is replenished. 2. Drasgow, F., Levine, M.V., Williams , B., McLaughlin, M.E., and Candell, G.L. Modelling incorrect responses with
Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK) doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE). Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ) items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK) medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%). NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also. PMID:27907983
quadratic rule used by Do Finetti has f(x,l) - (x - 1)2 and f(x,O) - x2 and is clearly proper. As an example of an improper rule 4 4consider f(x,l) w...unable to see how, or even if it is possible, to extend the notion of a score to an enumerable infinity of statements. 23 REFERENCES DE FINETTI , B. (1974
Chitale, Meghana; Khan, Ishita K.; Kihara, Daisuke
Reconstructing metabolic and signaling pathways is an effective way of interpreting a genome sequence. A challenge in a pathway reconstruction is that often genes in a pathway cannot be easily found, reflecting current imperfect information of the target organism. In this work, we developed a new method for finding missing genes, which integrates multiple features, including gene expression, phylogenetic profile, and function association scores. Particularly, for considering function association between candidate genes and neighboring proteins to the target missing gene in the network, we used Co-occurrence Association Score (CAS) and PubMed Association Score (PAS), which are designed for capturing functional coherence of proteins. We showed that adding CAS and PAS substantially improve the accuracy of identifying missing genes in the yeast enzyme-enzyme network compared to the cases when only the conventional features, gene expression, phylogenetic profile, were used. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the accuracy improves by considering indirect neighbors to the target enzyme position in the network using a proper network-topology-based weighting scheme. PMID:27552989
Daw, E Warwick; Wijsman, Ellen M; Thompson, Elizabeth A
Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) techniques have shown promise in dissecting complex genetic traits. The methods introduced by Heath (, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61:748-760), and implemented in the program Loki, have been able to localize genes for complex traits in both real and simulated data sets. Loki estimates the posterior probability of quantitative trait loci (QTL) at locations on a chromosome in an iterative MCMC process. Unfortunately, interpretation of the results and assessment of their significance have been difficult. Here, we introduce a score, the log of the posterior placement probability ratio (LOP), for assessing oligogenic QTL detection and localization. The LOP is the log of the posterior probability of linkage to the real chromosome divided by the posterior probability of linkage to an unlinked pseudochromosome, with marker informativeness similar to the marker data on the real chromosome. Since the LOP cannot be calculated exactly, we estimate it in simultaneous MCMC on both real and pseudochromosomes. We investigate empirically the distributional properties of the LOP in the presence and absence of trait genes. The LOP is not subject to trait model misspecification in the way a lod score may be, and we show that the LOP can detect linkage for loci of small effect when the lod score cannot. We show how, in the absence of linkage, an empirical distribution of the LOP may be estimated by simulation and used to provide an assessment of linkage detection significance.
Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie
Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.
Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.
Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577
Ropovik, Ivan; Bobakova, Monika; Ferjencik, Jan; Filickova, Marta; Kovalcikova, Iveta; Slavkovska, Miriam
Although the measurement of cognitive performance usually relies on achievement sum scores, a growing body of research suggests that the analysis of errors made may have a predictive validity beyond that provided by the number of items correct. This study examined the validity related to one such kind of error scores--the set-loss errors--in the general population of 8- to 11-year-old children. Set-loss errors (also called rule violations) can be conceptualized as a breakdown in the adherence to task-specific rules, and in clinical populations, the propensity to make these errors has shown some specificity for identifying disorders connected with frontal lobes dysfunction. The results, however, indicate that set-loss errors derived from distinct tests could not be effectively explained by a single latent dimension; hence, they do not tap a single construct that could be called set loss or the ability to maintain set. At the same time, there were only few weak associations between various kinds of error scores as well as between the set-loss error scores and relevant constructs such as the ability to learn, attentional control, working memory, fluid and crystallized intelligence, and executive functions-related real-world behaviors, indicating an overrepresentation of construct-irrelevant variance in these kinds of scores. These indications were further accentuated by the analysis of sensitivity and specificity where any elevated number of set-loss error scores was unable to classify individuals on theoretically relevant constructs beyond chance levels. The evidence thus speaks against the use of set-loss error scores in the general population of 8- to 11-year-old children.
Crane, Paul K; Carle, Adam; Gibbons, Laura E; Insel, Philip; Mackin, R Scott; Gross, Alden; Jones, Richard N; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Curtis, S McKay; Harvey, Danielle; Weiner, Michael; Mungas, Dan
We sought to develop and evaluate a composite memory score from the neuropsychological battery used in the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used modern psychometric approaches to analyze longitudinal Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 2 versions), AD Assessment Schedule - Cognition (ADAS-Cog, 3 versions), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Logical Memory data to develop ADNI-Mem, a composite memory score. We compared RAVLT and ADAS-Cog versions, and compared ADNI-Mem to RAVLT recall sum scores, four ADAS-Cog-derived scores, the MMSE, and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes. We evaluated rates of decline in normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, ability to predict conversion from MCI to AD, strength of association with selected imaging parameters, and ability to differentiate rates of decline between participants with and without AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signatures. The second version of the RAVLT was harder than the first. The ADAS-Cog versions were of similar difficulty. ADNI-Mem was slightly better at detecting change than total RAVLT recall scores. It was as good as or better than all of the other scores at predicting conversion from MCI to AD. It was associated with all our selected imaging parameters for people with MCI and AD. Participants with MCI with an AD CSF signature had somewhat more rapid decline than did those without. This paper illustrates appropriate methods for addressing the different versions of word lists, and demonstrates the additional power to be gleaned with a psychometrically sound composite memory score.
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian
Purpose In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children’s exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children’s Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock–Muñoz Language Survey—Revised (Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Results Sizeable percentages of variation in children’s English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children’s exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children’s story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Conclusions Children’s exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals’ language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system. PMID:22337497
Bresić, Jozo; Knezević, Bojana; Milosević, Milan; Tomljanović, Tomislav; Golubić, Rajna; Golubović, Rajna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
This cross-sectional study conducted between March and June 2006 examined stress at work and work ability of 180 people with different workplaces within an oil company. Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers were invited to complete the "Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire--the Oil Industry Version and Work Ability Index (WAI) Questionnaire". The overall response rate was 69.4%, and the final sample size was 125 workers who completed the questionnaires (57 office, 41 laboratory, 27 oil-field workers). Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers differed significantly with respect to age (P<0.001). The oldest were oil-field workers and the youngest were office workers. The average WAI score for office workers was 44.9, for laboratory workers 43.2 and for field workers 39.7, indicating satisfying work ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was still significant (P<0.001). Over 75% of all workers believed their job was stressful, but the perception of specific stressors depended on the workplace.
The experience of cognitive decline can be a potent source of anxiety and concern for many people. While an IQ consistent with estimated optimal levels or previously recorded scores may indicate no significant change in cognitive function, the patient may be accurately reporting a normal age-related deterioration in actual ability. The aim of this article is to chart the age-related changes in intellectual abilities evident on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The norms from the WAIS-IV manual were examined to plot the age-related changes in Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and composite scores across the adult life span, while holding actual ability level constant across the age groups. Here we present a graphical representation of the normal cognitive developments and declines in FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed across the adult life span. This graphical representation provides a rational basis for the identification of atypical profiles/complaints of cognitive deterioration that may require further specialist neuropsychological evaluation. These graphs can be used to provide reassurance for healthy adults with concerns of cognitive decline and as an educative tool for their referring agencies.
Lin, Miao-Hsiang; Hsiung, Chao A.
Two simple empirical approximate Bayes estimators are introduced for estimating domain scores under binomial and hypergeometric distributions respectively. Criteria are established regarding use of these functions over maximum likelihood estimation counterparts. (SLD)
Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon
This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.
Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick
It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…
DeJong, G; Branch, L G
The objective of this paper is to identify those variables that best predict a stroke patient's ability to live independently following his/her discharge from medical rehabilitation. The paper draws heavily on a formal research model grounded in independent living (IL) theory. Independent living is defined and operationalized as (1) the patient's ability to live in a nonrestrictive environment and (2) the patient's ability to live productively--not only in terms of gainful employment but also in terms of other contributions to community and family life. The main data source for the study is an extensive computer file of 84 stroke patients discharged from 8 medical rehabilitation centers. The multivariate statistical analysis indicates that 56 to 80 percent of the variance in a patient's ability to live independently can be explained or predicted mainly by the patient's marital status, age, Barthel score, communication impairments, and the ability to get into a motor vehicle. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for medical rehabilitation and public policy.
Thompson, L A; Detterman, D K; Plomin, R
Three recent studies have used twin data to explore the possibility of differential contributions of heritability and environmentality to individual differences in cognitive ability as a function of ability level (Detterman, D. K., et al., Behav. Genet. 20:369-384; 1990; Bailey, M. J. and Revelle, W., Behav. Genet. 21:397-404, 1991; Cherny, S. S., et al., Behav. Genet. 22:153-162, 1992). All arrived at different conclusions: higher heritability at the low end, higher heritability at the high end, and no differential influence, respectively. The current report involves a sample of 148 identical and 135 fraternal twin pairs from the Western Twin Project who were tested on a battery of intelligence and achievement tests to further explore the issue. The results suggest no significant differences in heritability at either the high or the low end, although a trend toward higher heritability for children of higher ability is evident. Individual differences for a composite ability/achievement score showed significantly greater influence of shared family environment at the low end than the rest of the distribution. In general, results for cognitive ability and academic achievement were highly similar.
Alhan, C; Westers, T M; Cremers, E M P; Cali, C; Witte, B I; Ossenkoppele, G J; van de Loosdrecht, A A
The prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is currently estimated by using the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Several studies have shown that further refinement of prognostication for MDS can be achieved by adding flow cytometric parameters. However, widespread implementation of flow cytometry for the prognosis of MDS is hampered by complexity of the analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to construct a robust and practical flow cytometric score that could be implemented as a routine procedure. To achieve this, bone marrow aspirates of 109 MDS patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. A second cohort consisting of 103 MDS patients was used to validate the MDS flow cytometric score (MFS). The parameters forming the MFS were sideward light scatter and CD117 expression of myeloid progenitor cells and CD13 expression on monocytes. Three MFS risk categories were formed. Patients with MDS and intermediate MFS scores had significantly better overall survival (OS) compared with the patients with high MFS scores. The MFS further refined prognostication within the IPSS-R low-risk category, by identifying patients with worse OS in case of high MFS. In conclusion, a practical three parameter flow cytometric prognostic score was constructed enabling further refinement of prognostication of MDS.
Patel, Naina; Stone, Margaret; Barber, Shaun; Gray, Laura; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh
Aims. To apply and assess the suitability of a model consisting of commonly used cross-cultural translation methods to achieve a conceptually equivalent Gujarati language version of the Leicester self-assessment type 2 diabetes risk score. Methods. Implementation of the model involved multiple stages, including pretesting of the translated risk score by conducting semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of volunteers. Interviews were conducted on an iterative basis to enable findings to inform translation revisions and to elicit volunteers' ability to self-complete and understand the risk score. Results. The pretest stage was an essential component involving recruitment of a diverse sample of 18 Gujarati volunteers, many of whom gave detailed suggestions for improving the instructions for the calculation of the risk score and BMI table. Volunteers found the standard and level of Gujarati accessible and helpful in understanding the concept of risk, although many of the volunteers struggled to calculate their BMI. Conclusions. This is the first time that a multicomponent translation model has been applied to the translation of a type 2 diabetes risk score into another language. This project provides an invaluable opportunity to share learning about the transferability of this model for translation of self-completed risk scores in other health conditions. PMID:27703985
Aghbar, Ali A.; Tang, Huixing
A study was undertaken to develop a partial credit scheme for scoring cloze-type questions on an English collocation test, obtain construct validity evidence for the test and the scoring scheme using the Rasch Partial Credit Model, and compare partial credit scoring with the more commonly used dichotomous scoring with the same test instrument.…
The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...
Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan
Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…
Mullis, Ina V.S.
Scoring systems for direct writing assessment are described. In holistic scoring, a global quality judgment of the writing sample is made. Primary trait scoring, developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress, is conducted in accordance with specific goals. Analytic scoring identifies characteristics and quality of writing. These…
Grosse, Martin E.
Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Examined the concurrent validity of holistic scores by comparing four teachers' holistic scores with their analytic ratings of writing samples from four eighth graders. After training in the evaluation procedures, holistic scores were highly correlated with analytic scores for the same samples. (RJC)
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Financial Condition Indicator § 902.35 Financial condition scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. (1) Under the financial condition indicator, a score will be...-weighted average of project scores. (b) Subindicators of the financial condition indicator....
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. The Management Operations Indicator score...
The two symposium articles extend "USA Today" SAT state ranking efforts by examining which states have the highest achievers, add the most value to enrolled students, and use resources most effectively. Dynarski and Gleason show that this test measures educational achievement more than innate ability. Graham and Husted adjust rankings…
Young, John W.; Klieger, David; Bochenek, Jennifer; Li, Chen; Cline, Fred
Scores from the "GRE"® revised General Test provide important information regarding the verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities and analytical writing skills of applicants to graduate programs. The validity and utility of these scores depend upon the degree to which the scores predict success in graduate and business school in…
McIsaac, W J; White, D; Tannenbaum, D; Low, D E
comparing the 2 approaches is recommended to determine the ability of the score approach to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics during routine clinical encounters. PMID:9475915
Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath
Purpose To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. Methods This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1–4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). Result There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p<0.001. The ACSSg was associated with need for >1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p<0.001. An ACSSg score>12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7–5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19–2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. Conclusion The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately. PMID:27788183
Evans, David M; Brion, Marie Jo A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Munafò, Marcus; Whitfield, John B; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Martin, Nicholas G; Dehghan, Abbas; Hirschhorn, Joel; Smith, George Davey
It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we indexed three biological intermediates where the results of large GWAS meta-analyses were available: body mass index, C-reactive protein and low density lipoprotein levels. We generated allelic scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in publicly available data from the first Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared the explanatory ability of allelic scores in terms of their capacity to proxy for the intermediate of interest, and the extent to which they associated with disease. We found that allelic scores derived from known variants and allelic scores derived from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers explained significant portions of the variance in biological intermediates of interest, and many of these scores showed expected correlations with disease. Genome-wide allelic scores however tended to lack specificity suggesting that they should be used with caution and perhaps only to proxy biological intermediates for which there are no known individual variants. Power calculations confirm the feasibility of extending our strategy to the analysis of tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes in large genome-wide meta-analyses. We conclude that our method represents a simple way in which potentially tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes could be screened for causal relationships with disease without having to expensively measure