Science.gov

Sample records for ability spatial ability

  1. Different Dimensions of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Hauptman, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that spatial ability describes a variety of different behaviors and briefly reviews efforts to define intelligence factors and identify processes involved in solving tasks requiring spatial ability. (DS)

  2. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  3. Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Fralley, Jacqueline S.

    1976-01-01

    The fact that males outperform females on specific spatial tests is not generally disputed, but the explanations for these differences are controversial. This paper highlights unresolved issues, such as definitions of space and measurement of abilities, and illustrates problems of interpretation of research regarding sex differences. (Author/HS)

  4. Mathematics, Spatial Ability and the Sexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    This report defines spatial ability operationally (consisting of three components) and reviews possible sex differences in this ability as reported in the literature. The relationship between mathematical ability and spatial ability is discussed. Researchable hypotheses about how differential spatial ability may effect mathematics achievement are…

  5. Dynamic Spatial Ability and Psychomotor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Chaiken, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic spatial ability is one's ability to estimate when a moving object will reach a destination, or one's skill in making time-to-contact (TTC) judgments. In 2 studies, we investigated the nature of dynamic spatial ability and its role in psychomotor (PM) task performance. In the first study, 405 basic military trainees were given both spatial…

  6. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  7. Innovative Allies: Spatial and Creative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steve V.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and creative abilities are important for innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but talents are rarely developed from these abilities by schools, including among gifted children and adolescents who have a high potential to become STEM innovators. This article provides an overview of each ability and makes…

  8. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  9. Does Spatial Training Improve Children's Mathematics Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The authors' primary aim was to investigate a potential causal relationship between spatial ability and math ability. To do so, they used a pretest-training-posttest experimental design in which children received short-term spatial training and were tested on problem solving in math. They focused on first and second graders because earlier studies…

  10. Why do spatial abilities predict mathematical performance?

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Petrill, Stephen A; Dale, Philip S; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship. PMID:24410830

  11. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  12. Incorporating Spatial Ability Instruction in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Sue E.; Goodman, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a picture of the learning environment that is created for the preservice mathematics teacher and how development of spatial abilities can be incorporated into courses for these students. (Contains 3 figures.)

  13. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  14. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  15. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  16. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  17. Spatial Ability and Cerebral Sensory Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To provide converging support that the proper integration of analog and propositional representational systems is associated with spatial ability, the visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potentials were recorded from 50 right-handed Caucasian males. Sensory interaction indices were derived for these subjects who had taken the Surface…

  18. Improving Spatial Ability with Mentored Sketching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.; Miller, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    As the result of a qualitative investigation into spatial ability, a teaching technique called mentored sketching was found to be effective for teaching visualization skills to freshman engineering students. This contribution describes the technique, how it evolved, and comments made by students as to its effectiveness. While mentored sketching…

  19. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  20. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  1. Anomalous dominance, immune parameters, and spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1993-02-01

    In a sample of male and female subjects in late adolescence, we investigated the relationship of spatial abilities to anomalous dominance and immune parameters as suggested by Geschwind's model of cerebral lateralization (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1985) In addition to the behavioral markers asthma/allergies, migraine, and myopia, we measured IgE and Ig total in blood serum. Atypical handedness, atypical language dominance, and atypical visuospatial dominance were found to be connected with spatial giftedness, and atypical handedness was related to immune vulnerability in males. This outcome provided some support for the Geschwind model in men. In women, spatial giftedness was related to immune vulnerability, but no indicator of anomalous dominance was connected with either giftedness, or immune parameters. Thus, the central thesis of the Geschwind model, i.e., elevated prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain cause anomalous dominance and, as side effects, spatial giftedness and immune vulnerability, and all these consequences should be related to each other, was not confirmed by our data for females.

  2. The Role of Spatial Ability and Achievement in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Jeffrey R.; Bodner, George M.

    This study investigated the role that spatial ability has in achievement in organic chemistry. Spatial ability was defined as containing two subfactors--spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Spatial visualization is the ability to mentally manipulate pictorially presented stimuli; involved in the processes of manipulation are the…

  3. Visuo-Spatial Ability in Colonoscopy Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Buzink, Sonja N.; Verwey, Willem B.; Jakimowicz, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Visuo-spatial ability is associated with a quality of performance in a variety of surgical and medical skills. However, visuo-spatial ability is typically assessed using "Visualization" tests only, which led to an incomplete understanding of the involvement of visuo-spatial ability in these skills. To remedy this situation, the current study…

  4. A Comparison of Student Spatial Abilities Across STEM Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Thad; Cid, Xiimena; Lopez, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) students have higher spatial abilities than students in the liberal arts or humanities. In order to track the change in spatial abilities within a group, studies in physics have examined topics in kinematics, chemistry has examined topics on molecular diagrams, mathematics has examined topics related to geometry, and engineering has developed courses specifically targeting students' spatial abilities. It is understood that students in STEM fields improve their spatial abilities while taking STEM courses, but very few studies have done comparisons amongst the different STEM fields. I will be presenting data comparing different STEM students' spatial ability, assessed using the Mental Rotation Test.

  5. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  6. Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates and Choice of Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency…

  7. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  8. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  9. Spatial Ability: A Neglected Talent in Educational and Occupational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Harrison J.; Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    For over 60 years, longitudinal research on tens of thousands of high ability and intellectually precocious youth has consistently revealed the importance of spatial ability for hands-on creative accomplishments and the development of expertise in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines. Yet, individual differences in…

  10. Spatial Ability, Imagery and Human-Computer Search Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, P. J.

    Online searching is a complex problem solving task requiring the searcher to combine multiple sets into Boolean expressions. Since spatial ability has been correlated with problem solving tasks which involve abstract conceptual associations, this report argues that it is a significant factor in the information user's ability to both comprehend and…

  11. Individual Differences in Spatial Text Processing: High Spatial Ability Can Compensate for Spatial Working Memory Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task.…

  12. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  13. Spatial Abilities during the Circalunar Cycle in Both Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostatnikova, Daniela; Hodosy, Julius; Skoknova, Martina; Putz, Zdenek; Kudela, Matus; Celec, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Spatial abilities vary during the menstrual cycle. The effects of a similar rhythm in men are unknown. Mental rotation and spatial visualization of young healthy volunteers (29 females and 31 males) were tested during the menstrual and periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle in women, and during the low-testosterone and high-testosterone phases…

  14. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed…

  15. Measuring Spatial Ability with a Computer Managed Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    This study presents data augmenting the validity studies of the Wheatley Cube (McDaniel and Kroll, 1984), a computer managed test of spatial visualization. Twenty-one students in pilot training are administered several instruments designed to measure the ability to construct a cognitive three-dimensional space, including: (1) the Wheatley Cube,…

  16. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  17. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  18. Spatial abilities of medical graduates and choice of residency programs.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency program is related to spatial abilities. A cohort of 210 medical graduates was enrolled in a prospective study in a 5-year experiment. Spatial abilities were measured with a redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in two (MRTA) and three (MRTC) dimensions. Medical graduates were enrolled in Family Medicine (n = 76, 36.2%), Internal Medicine (64, 30.5%), Surgery (52, 24.8%), and Anesthesia (18, 8.6%). The assumption was that the level of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills content was higher in Surgery and Anesthesia compared to Family Medicine and Internal Medicine. Mean MRTA score of 12.4 (±SD 4.6), 12.0 (±4.3), 14.1 (±4.3), and 14.6 (±4.0) was obtained in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Anesthesia, respectively (P = 0.0176). Similarly, mean MRTC score of 8.0 (±4.4), 7.5 (±3.6), 8.5 (±3.9), and 7.9 (±4.1) was obtained (P = 0.5647). Although there was a tendency for lower MRTA score in Family Medicine and Internal Medicine compared to Surgery and Anesthesia, no statistically significant main effect of residency, year, sex, or the interactions were observed for the MRTA and MRTC. Studied sample of medical graduates was not found to choose their residency programs based on their innate spatial abilities.

  19. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  20. Sailing experience and sex as correlates of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2004-06-01

    The relationship between sailing experience and men's and women's spatial ability was examined by assessing the sailing history and Mental Rotations Test scores of 230 participants. The 102 men and 128 women came from three groups: college sailors (n =65), members of the general student body (n= 110), and college crew team members (n=55). Participants completed the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test and Lawton's Way-finding Strategy Scale and Spatial Anxiety Scale. Demographic variables and sailing experience were also assessed. Men scored significantly higher on the Mental Rotations Test than did women, and sailing team members scored significantly higher on that test than did student body members and crew team members. Results are discussed in terms of current explanations for sex differences in spatial ability.

  1. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  2. Comparing spatial abilities of collegiate athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    Lord, T R; Garrison, J

    1998-06-01

    Researchers indicated that androgen enhances spatial ability in women but inhibits it in men. Since studies also indicate that athletes have higher than normal levels of androgen, whether spatial perception scores differed for men and women in different sports was examined. Spatial tests (visualization and orientation) were given to 150 men and 150 women collegiate athletes in different varsity sports. Analysis showed the women scored significantly higher than the men. In basketball, a sport common to both sexes, women did significantly better but this was not found in the other mixed-sex sports (baseball, swimming, and track).

  3. Visualizing topography: Effects of presentation strategy, gender, and spatial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Carla

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different presentation strategies (2-D static visuals, 3-D animated visuals, and 3-D interactive, animated visuals) and gender on achievement, time-spent-on visual treatment, and attitude during a computer-based science lesson about reading and interpreting topographic maps. The study also examined the relationship of spatial ability and prior knowledge to gender, achievement, and time-spent-on visual treatment. Students enrolled in high school chemistry-physics were pretested and given two spatial ability tests. They were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to one of three levels of presentation strategy or the control group. After controlling for the effects of spatial ability and prior knowledge with analysis of covariance, three significant differences were found between the versions: (a) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; (b) the 3-D animated treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; and (c) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the 3-D interactive animated treatment group. Furthermore, the 3-D interactive animated treatment group spent significantly more time on the visual screens than the 2-D static treatment group. Analyses of student attitudes revealed that most students felt the landform visuals in the computer-based program helped them learn, but not in a way they would describe as fun. Significant differences in attitude were found by treatment and by gender. In contrast to findings from other studies, no gender differences were found on either of the two spatial tests given in this study. Cognitive load, cognitive involvement, and solution strategy are offered as three key factors that may help explain the results of this study. Implications for instructional design include suggestions about the use of 2-D static, 3-D animated and 3-D interactive animations as well

  4. Spatial Ability Explains the Male Advantage in Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that females consistently outperform males in exact arithmetic, perhaps due to the former’s advantage in language processing. Much less is known about gender difference in approximate arithmetic. Given that approximate arithmetic is closely associated with visuospatial processing, which shows a male advantage we hypothesized that males would perform better than females in approximate arithmetic. In two experiments (496 children in Experiment 1 and 554 college students in Experiment 2), we found that males showed better performance in approximate arithmetic, which was accounted for by gender differences in spatial ability. PMID:27014124

  5. Correlations among ambiguous figures, curiosity, and spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Beer, J

    1990-12-01

    For 29 college students (6 men, 23 women) who passively viewed in each of 6 blocks both the Schroeder stair and the Necker cube for 3 min. apiece with one 3-min. rest between viewings, their frequency of reversals, sex, GPA, scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Information subtest, the two-dimensional Test 8, and the three-dimensional Test 9 of the Multiple Aptitude Test, measuring spatial ability, and three curiosity measures--the Which-to-Discuss Test, the Maze test, and the Ontario Test of Intrinsic Motivation--were not significantly correlated by Pearson's method with the number of ambiguous figure reversals.

  6. Influence of Design Training and Spatial Solution Strategies on Spatial Ability Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that spatial ability improves through training. This study investigated the following: (1) whether design training enhances spatial ability and (2) whether differing solution strategies are applied or generated following design training. On the basis of these two research objectives, this study divided the…

  7. Selection for restraint in competitive ability in spatial competition systems.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Craig R; Seinen, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    The absence of 'super competitors' in nature is usually attributed to organisms facing trade-offs in resource allocation. Here we identify another mechanism, dependent on indirect interactions among species and non-random spatial organization, in which selection favours restraint in competitive ability. In simple spatial models of a three-species intransitive network, indirect interactions favour slower growth and selection limits the difference in growth rate among species. The mechanism involves a trade-off between selection at the individual level, which selects for increased growth rate, and at the community level, which acts to limit growth rate to less than the maximum possible. If the difference in growth rates among species becomes too large, then the community becomes unstable and collapses to a monoculture of the slowest growing species. The mechanism requires both the intransitive network structure and self-organized spatial structure in the system. Similar behaviours arise in more complex systems of more than three species, and where there are reversals in interaction outcomes between species pairs. The work suggests that spatial self-structuring, indirect interactions and selection acting on community properties can be important in evolution. It provides a partial explanation of the high level of species coexistence and apparent restraint in interspecific interactions evident in some assemblages of sessile marine colonial organisms. PMID:11934355

  8. Do high functioning persons with autism present superior spatial abilities?

    PubMed

    Caron, M-J; Mottron, L; Rainville, C; Chouinard, S

    2004-01-01

    This series of experiments was aimed at assessing spatial abilities in high functioning individuals with autism (HFA), using a human-size labyrinth. In the context of recent findings that the performance of individuals with HFA was superior to typically developing individuals in several non-social cognitive operations, it was expected that the HFA group would outperform a typically developing comparison group matched on full-scale IQ. Results showed that individuals with autism performed all spatial tasks at a level at least equivalent to the typically developing comparison group. No differences between groups were found in route and survey tasks. Superior performance for individuals with HFA was found in tasks involving maps, in the form of superior accuracy in graphic cued recall of a path, and shorter learning times in a map learning task. We propose that a superior ability to detect [Human Perception and Performance 27 (3) (2001) 719], match [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34 (1993) 1351] and reproduce [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40 (5) (1999) 743] simple visual elements yields superior performance in tasks relying on the detection and graphic reproduction of the visual elements composing a map. Enhanced discrimination, detection, and memory for visually simple patterns in autism may account for the superior performance of persons with autism on visuo-spatial tasks that heavily involve pattern recognition, either in the form of recognizing and memorizing landmarks or in detecting the similarity between map and landscape features. At a neuro-anatomical level, these findings suggest an intact dorso-lateral pathway, and enhanced performance in non social tasks relying on the infero-temporal pathway. PMID:14728920

  9. A Theoretical Note on Sex Linkage and Race Differences in Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence on the poorer spatial visualization ability in various Negro populations compared to the White populations and on the direction and magnitude of sex differences in spatial ability relative to other abilities suggests the genetic hypothesis that spatial ability is enhanced by a sex-linked recessive gene and that, since the 20-30 percent…

  10. Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

  11. The Relationship between Spatial Visualization Ability and Students' Ability to Model 3D Objects from Engineering Assembly Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branoff, T. J.; Dobelis, M.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been used as a predictor of success in several engineering and technology disciplines (Strong & Smith, 2001). In engineering graphics courses, scores on spatial tests have also been used to predict success (Adanez & Velasco, 2002; Leopold, Gorska, & Sorby, 2001). Other studies have shown that some type of intervention,…

  12. The Role of Visuo-Spatial Abilities in Recall of Spatial Descriptions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gyselinck, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how visuo-spatial abilities (such as mental rotation--MR--and visuo-spatial working memory--VSWM--) work together to influence the recall of environmental descriptions. We tested a mediation model in which VSWM was assumed to mediate the relationship between MR and spatial text recall. First, 120 participants were…

  13. Associations of Timing of Puberty, Spatial Ability, and Lateralization in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studies the relationship between timing of puberty and spatial ability in 53 undergraduate women. Results do not show evidence for greater spatial ability on the part of those who have late maturation. (RJC)

  14. Spatial anxiety relates to spatial abilities as a function of working memory in children.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is a strong predictor of students' pursuit of higher education in science and mathematics. However, very little is known about the affective factors that influence individual differences in spatial ability, particularly at a young age. We examine the role of spatial anxiety in young children's performance on a mental rotation task. We show that even at a young age, children report experiencing feelings of nervousness at the prospect of engaging in spatial activities. Moreover, we show that these feelings are associated with reduced mental rotation ability among students with high but not low working memory (WM). Interestingly, this WM × spatial anxiety interaction was only found among girls. We discuss these patterns of results in terms of the problem-solving strategies that boys versus girls use in solving mental rotation problems.

  15. Visuo-spatial Ability in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Is it Really a Strength?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities – visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. PMID:24755229

  16. Spatial mental representations derived from spatial descriptions: the predicting and mediating roles of spatial preferences, strategies, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate how spatial self-assessments and spatial cognitive abilities jointly influence the construction of mental representations derived from spatial descriptions. Two studies were conducted using the path models approach to test to what extent spatial self-assessments (Study 1, 194 participants) and the combination of the latter with spatial abilities (Study 2, 206 participants) can be modelled to predict memory for spatial descriptions. In both studies, we recorded spatial representation preferences (distinguishing between survey, route, and landmark-focused mode) and self-reported strategies used to memorize descriptions (distinguishing between survey, route, and verbal strategies); in Study 2, we also measured spatial abilities by testing mental rotation (MR) and visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Participants listened to spatial descriptions and then completed recall tasks. In both studies, the final path models showed that spatial preferences influenced spatial recall through the mediation of congruent strategies: that is a survey (route) preference influenced spatial recall mediated by a survey (route) strategy. MR predicted spatial recall, mediated by both VSWM and survey strategy (Study 2). Overall, these findings indicate that spatial preferences (particularly for a survey mode) in association with spatial abilities effectively concur to help form mental representations derived from spatial descriptions.

  17. Effect of Visual-Spatial Ability on Medical Students' Performance in a Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mentally manipulate objects in three dimensions is essential to the practice of many clinical medical specialties. The relationship between this type of visual-spatial ability and performance in preclinical courses such as medical gross anatomy is poorly understood. This study determined if visual-spatial ability is associated with…

  18. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  19. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  20. Getting the Big Picture: Development of Spatial Scaling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Andrea; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial scaling is an integral aspect of many spatial tasks that involve symbol-to-referent correspondences (e.g., map reading, drawing). In this study, we asked 3-6-year-olds and adults to locate objects in a two-dimensional spatial layout using information from a second spatial representation (map). We examined how scaling factor and reference…

  1. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  2. Spatial Visualization Abilities of Field Dependent/Independent Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Ersen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Spatial skills have been a significant area of research in educational psychology for more years and it has two major dimensions as spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Mathematics educators acknowledge the influence of cognitive styles in the learning of mathematics. There are various recognized cognitive styles in the…

  3. Improvement of Spatial Ability Using Innovative Tools: Alternative View Screen and Physical Model Rotator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Brad L.; Towle, Erick; Onyancha, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability, which is positively correlated with retention and achievement in engineering, mathematics, and science disciplines, has been shown to improve over the course of a Computer-Aided Design course or through targeted training. However, which type of training provides the most beneficial improvements to spatial ability and whether other…

  4. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to…

  5. A Review of Spatial Ability Literature, Its Connection to Chemistry, and Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Chemists and scientists use spatial abilities as part of the way they understand and communicate their subject areas. A review of the foundational research literature in spatial ability and its connections to chemistry as a field and chemical education research allows for the formulation of implications for teaching in chemistry. (Contains 7…

  6. The Malleability of Spatial Ability under Treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-Based Robotics Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n = 75)…

  7. A Comparison of the Development of Spatial Conceptual Abilities of Students from Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Herbert G.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated spatial thinking abilities of sixth- and tenth-grade students from two locales--a school on the Navajo reservation and schools in Mesa, Arizona. Overall findings support the contention that there were no substantial time delays or advances in development of selected spatial abilities of Navajo students compared to parallel non-Indian…

  8. Relationships among Preservice Primary Mathematics Teachers' Gender, Academic Success and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate relationships among pre-service primary mathematics teachers' gender, academic success and spatial ability. The study was conducted in Izmir with 193 pre-service primary mathematics teachers of Dokuz Eylul University. In the work, spatial ability test, which consists of two main sub-tests measuring spatial…

  9. A Study of Sex Differences among Art Students on Spatial Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; McWhinnie, Harold

    This study reports data concerning spatial abilities of professional art students. It is part of an ongoing collection of data on spatial abilities on the incoming freshman class at a large major private art school. The battery of eight tests has proven to be highly reliable and valid in previous studies with the specific population. Researchers…

  10. Visuospatial anatomy comprehension: the role of spatial visualization ability and problem-solving strategies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngan; Mulla, Ali; Nelson, Andrew J; Wilson, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the problem-solving strategies of high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners on a novel spatial anatomy task to determine whether differences in strategies contribute to differences in task performance. The results of this study provide further insights into the processing commonalities and differences among learners beyond the classification of spatial visualization ability alone, and help elucidate what, if anything, high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners do differently while solving spatial anatomy task problems. Forty-two students completed a standardized measure of spatial visualization ability, a novel spatial anatomy task, and a questionnaire involving personal self-analysis of the processes and strategies used while performing the spatial anatomy task. Strategy reports revealed that there were different ways students approached answering the spatial anatomy task problems. However, chi-square test analyses established that differences in problem-solving strategies did not contribute to differences in task performance. Therefore, underlying spatial visualization ability is the main source of variation in spatial anatomy task performance, irrespective of strategy. In addition to scoring higher and spending less time on the anatomy task, participants with high spatial visualization ability were also more accurate when solving the task problems.

  11. The Joint Role of Spatial Ability and Imagery Strategy in Sustaining the Learning of Spatial Descriptions under Spatial Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the joint role of spatial ability, imagery strategy and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in spatial text processing. A set of 180 participants, half of them trained on the use of imagery strategy (training vs no-training groups), was further divided according to participants' high or low mental rotation ability…

  12. Mental rotation training: transfer and maintenance effects on spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    One of the aims of research in spatial cognition is to examine whether spatial skills can be enhanced. The goal of the present study was thus to assess the benefit and maintenance effects of mental rotation training in young adults. Forty-eight females took part in the study: 16 were randomly assigned to receive the mental rotation training (based on comparing pairs of 2D or 3D objects and rotation games), 16 served as active controls (performing parallel non-spatial activities), and 16 as passive controls. Transfer effects to both untrained spatial tasks (testing both object rotation and perspective taking) and visual and verbal tasks were examined. Across the training sessions, the group given mental rotation training revealed benefits in the time it took to make judgments when comparing 3D and 2D objects, but their mental rotation speed did not improve. When compared with the other groups, the mental rotation training group did show transfer effects, however, in tasks other than those practiced (i.e., in object rotation and perspective-taking tasks), and these benefits persisted after 1 month. The training had no effect on visual or verbal tasks. These findings are discussed from the spatial cognition standpoint and with reference to the (rotation) training literature.

  13. Developing Spatial Localization Abilities and Children's Interpretation of Where

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoladis, Elena; Cornell, Edward H.; Gates, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Two-year-old children often start asking questions with "where." In this study we test whether children understand "where" to mean route or absolute location and whether the size of the space or elevation made a difference. Previous research has documented developmental changes over the preschool years in children's non-verbal spatial reasoning.…

  14. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  15. How spatial abilities and dynamic visualizations interplay when learning functional anatomy with 3D anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material presentation formats, spatial abilities, and anatomical tasks. First, to understand the cognitive challenges a novice learner would be faced with when first exposed to 3D anatomical content, a six-step cognitive task analysis was developed. Following this, an experimental study was conducted to explore how presentation formats (dynamic vs. static visualizations) support learning of functional anatomy, and affect subsequent anatomical tasks derived from the cognitive task analysis. A second aim was to investigate the interplay between spatial abilities (spatial visualization and spatial relation) and presentation formats when the functional anatomy of a 3D scapula and the associated shoulder flexion movement are learned. Findings showed no main effect of the presentation formats on performances, but revealed the predictive influence of spatial visualization and spatial relation abilities on performance. However, an interesting interaction between presentation formats and spatial relation ability for a specific anatomical task was found. This result highlighted the influence of presentation formats when spatial abilities are involved as well as the differentiated influence of spatial abilities on anatomical tasks.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  17. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  18. Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the possible relationships among children's extracurricular toy-playing habits, sex-role orientations, spatial abilities, and science achievement. Data were gathered from 282 midwestern, suburban, fifth-grade students. It was found that boys had significantly higher spatial skills than girls. No significant differences in spatial ability were found among students with different sex-role orientations. No significant differences in science achievement were found between girls and boys, or among students with the four different sex-role orientations. Students who had high spatial ability also had significantly higher science achievement scores than students with low spatial ability. Femininely oriented boys who reported low playing in the two-dimensional, gross-body-movement, and proportional-arrangement toy categories scored significantly higher on the test of science achievement than girls with the same sex-role and toy-playing behavior.

  19. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  20. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  1. Who Benefits from Learning with 3D Models?: The Case of Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huk, T.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies that focus on the impact of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations on learning are to date rare and inconsistent. According to the ability-as-enhancer hypothesis, high spatial ability learners should benefit particularly as they have enough cognitive capacity left for mental model construction. In contrast, the…

  2. Performance on a virtual reality angled laparoscope task correlates with spatial ability of trainees.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Hamel, Christian; Oertli, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Gantert, Walter A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether trainees' performance on a virtual reality angled laparoscope navigation task correlates with scores obtained on a validated conventional test of spatial ability. 56 participants of a surgery workshop performed an angled laparoscope navigation task on the Xitact LS 500 virtual reality Simulator. Performance parameters were correlated with the score of a validated paper-and-pencil test of spatial ability. Performance at the conventional spatial ability test significantly correlated with performance at the virtual reality task for overall task score (p < 0.001), task completion time (p < 0.001) and economy of movement (p = 0.035), not for endoscope travel speed (p = 0.947). In conclusion, trainees' performance in a standardized virtual reality camera navigation task correlates with their innate spatial ability. This VR session holds potential to serve as an assessment tool for trainees.

  3. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  4. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging. PMID:19413434

  5. The intelligence of observation: improving high school students' spatial ability by means of intervention unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patkin, Dorit; Dayan, Ester

    2013-03-01

    This case study of one class versus a control group focused on the impact of an intervention unit, which is not part of the regular curriculum, on the improvement of spatial ability of high school students (forty-six 12th-graders, aged 17-18, both boys and girls) in general as well as from a gender perspective. The study explored three sub-abilities: mental rotation (MR), spatial visualization (VS) and spatial orientation (SO). Findings indicated that the spatial orientation of the experimental group students had considerably improved. The findings also illustrated a significant gender-based advantage in favour of the boys in some of the spatial abilities even before the implementation of the intervention unit. The hypothesis relating to the reduction of the gender differences was not corroborated.

  6. Understanding the Correlations Among Undergraduates’ Spatial Reasoning Skills and Their Ability to Learn Astronomy Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge

    2012-01-01

    We tacitly assume that astronomy is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students’ spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students’ spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn astronomy content in college science classes are beginning to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning astronomy. In support, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research conducted a first-steps correlational study of 148 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students’ cognition was measured for pretest and posttest gains in astronomy understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they were tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of reliable spatial thinking assessment tools from the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC). Results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work was supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  7. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  8. Visuospatial Anatomy Comprehension: The Role of Spatial Visualization Ability and Problem-Solving Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Mulla, Ali; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the problem-solving strategies of high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners on a novel spatial anatomy task to determine whether differences in strategies contribute to differences in task performance. The results of this study provide further insights into the processing commonalities and differences among…

  9. Spatial Abilities in an Elective Course of Applied Anatomy after a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A concern on the level of anatomy knowledge reached after a problem-based learning curriculum has been documented in the literature. Spatial anatomy, arguably the highest level in anatomy knowledge, has been related to spatial abilities. Our first objective was to test the hypothesis that residents are interested in a course of applied anatomy…

  10. Engineers' Spatial Orientation Ability Development at the European Space for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, C. Carbonell; Perez, J. L. Saorin; Cantero, J. de la Torre; Gonzalez, A. M. Marrero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the new geographic information technologies, included as teaching objectives in the new European Space for Higher Education Engineering degrees, develop spatial abilities. Bearing this in mind, a first year seminar using the INSPIRE Geoportal (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) was…

  11. On Improving Spatial Ability through Computer-Mediated Engineering Drawing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafi, Ahmad; Samsudin, Khairul Anuar; Ismail, Azniah

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-mediated Engineering Drawing instruction in improving spatial ability namely spatial visualisation and mental rotation. A multi factorial quasi experimental design study was employed involving a cohort of 138, 20 year old average undergraduates. Three interventional treatments were…

  12. A Lateralization of Function Approach to Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilea, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). "Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach." "Brain and Cognition," 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex…

  13. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

  14. A Study on Sixth-Grade Turkish Students' Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac; Yolcu, Belma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate sixth-grade Turkish students' spatial visualization ability and to determine the strategies that students employ and the mistakes that they make while solving the problems requiring spatial reasoning. Therefore, the study examined the following achievements: visualizing different view images of…

  15. The malleability of spatial ability under treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-based robotics unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n=75) ages 9-14 was drawn from 16 public school districts' gifted programs, including as many females (n=28) and children from groups traditionally underrepresented in gifted programs (n=18) as available. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental (n=38) and a control group (n=37) for an intervention study. All participants took the CogAT (form 6) Verbal Battery and the Project TALENT Spatial Ability Assessments. The experimental group participated in a simulation of the FIRST LEGO League (FLL) competition for 20 hours total over five consecutive days. All participants took the spatial measure another time. Experimental males evidenced significant and meaningful gains in measured spatial ability (Cohen's d = 0.87). Females did not evidence significant gains in measured spatial ability. This may be due to sampling error, gender differences in prior experience with LEGO, or differences in facets of spatial ability in the treatment or measurements. Further research studies with larger samples of females, other treatments and measurement tools, and longer treatment periods are recommended. The literature review revealed that FLL is beneficial for STEM engagement in both genders and its use in schools is recommended. The present study provides additional evidence for FLL's usefulness in increasing the number of individuals in the STEM pipeline. Keywords: spatial, gilled, talent, robotics, FIRST LEGO League, science

  16. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  17. Spatial and numerical processing in children with high and low visuospatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Crollen, Virginie; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2015-04-01

    In the literature on numerical cognition, a strong association between numbers and space has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, only a few recent studies have been devoted to examine the consequences of low visuospatial abilities on calculation processing. In this study, we wanted to investigate whether visuospatial weakness may affect pure spatial processing as well as basic numerical reasoning. To do so, the performances of children with high and low visuospatial abilities were directly compared on different spatial tasks (the line bisection and Simon tasks) and numerical tasks (the number bisection, number-to-position, and numerical comparison tasks). Children from the low visuospatial group presented the classic Simon and SNARC (spatial numerical association of response codes) effects but showed larger deviation errors as compared with the high visuospatial group. Our results, therefore, demonstrated that low visuospatial abilities did not change the nature of the mental number line but rather led to a decrease in its accuracy. PMID:25618380

  18. Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

  19. Unexpected improvements of spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fengju; Song, Ning; Zhao, Chenyang; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The liposoluble insecticide rotenone is commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor to replicate Parkinson's disease (PD) pathological features. However, there was no assessment of the spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone-induced PD models. In the present study, by rotarod test and Thioflavine T staining, we first noted the impairment of motor coordination in rotenone-treated group for 3 months, as well as alpha-synuclein inclusions in the nigral dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice with intragastrical delivery of rotenone (5 mg/Kg) for 3 months rather than 1 month. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze task in this model. The results showed escape latency reduced in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 3 months, indicating an improvement of learning ability. However, it was delayed slightly but not significantly in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 1 month. Similarly, we demonstrated that spatial memory ability was enhanced in 3-month-treatment group, but impaired in 1-month-treatment group. There were no proliferating cell nuclear antigen and doublecortin positive cells in the hippocampus by double immunofluorescent staining, indicating the absence of hippocampal neurogenesis in rotenone-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that spatial learning and memory abilities are disturbed in chronic rotenone-intoxicated PD model.

  20. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. For the induction of amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 14 days. Morris water maze test for spatial learning ability was conducted. Immonofluorescence for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuri-dine (BrdU) and western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, scopolamine-induced amnesia mice showed deterioration of spatial learning ability. Inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of BDNF and TrkB expressions were observed in the scopolamine-induced amnesia mice. Treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability and increased cell proliferation through activating of BDNF-TrkB pathway in the amnesia mice. These findings offer a possibility that treadmill exercise may provide preventive or therapeutic value for the memory loss induced by variable neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease.

  1. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  2. Spatial Abilities at Different Scales: Individual Differences in Aptitude-Test Performance and Spatial-Layout Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Richardson, Anthony E.; Ishikawa, Toru; Lovelace, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Most psychometric tests of spatial ability are paper-and-pencil tasks at the ''figural'' scale of space, in that they involve inspecting, imagining or mentally transforming small shapes or manipulable objects. Environmental spatial tasks, such as wayfinding or learning the layout of a building or city, are carried out in larger spaces that…

  3. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  4. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  5. Mathematical Skills in Ninth-graders: Relationship with Visuo-spatial Abilities and Working Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuhkala, Minna

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity (particularly visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM)), the ability to mentally rotate three-dimensional objects, and mathematical skills. Explains that in experiment 1, VSWM was examined; and in experiment 2, contributions of other WM components to mathematical skills was examined.…

  6. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  7. Spatial Visualization Ability and Impact of Drafting Models: A Quasi Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jovanovic, Vukica

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was done to determine significant positive effects among three different types of visual models and to identify whether any individual type or combination contributed towards a positive increase of spatial visualization ability for students in engineering technology courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  8. Development of a Self-report Measure of Environmental Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Richardson, Anthony E.; Montello, Daniel R.; Lovelace, Kristin; Subbiah, Ilavanil

    2002-01-01

    Developed a standardized self-report scale of environmental spatial ability, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale and evaluated it in six studies with 544 college students. Results supported the reliability of the scale and suggested that the scale is related to tasks that require one to update location in space as a result of self-motion.…

  9. Real-Time Data Display, Spatial Visualization Ability, and Learning Force and Motion Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Thornton, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined how students' levels of spatial visualization ability interact with learning physics in a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) environment. Undergraduate students who had taken an introductory physics course based on MBL tools were pre- and posttested at the beginning and at the end of the semester on spatial…

  10. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  11. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  12. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  13. Effects of Representation Sequences and Spatial Ability on Students' Scientific Understandings about the Mechanism of Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of representation sequences and spatial ability on students' scientific understandings about the mechanism of breathing in human beings. 130 seventh graders were assigned to two groups with different sequential combinations of static and dynamic representations: SD group (i.e., viewing…

  14. A Dissociation between Mental Rotation and Perspective-Taking Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Waller, David

    2004-01-01

    Recent psychometric results [Mem. Cogn. 29 (2001) 745] have supported a distinction between mental abilities that require a spatial transformation of a perceived object (e.g., mental rotation) and those that involve imagining how a scene looks like from different viewpoints (e.g., perspective taking). Two experiments provide further evidence for…

  15. The Relationship between Visual-Spatial Reasoning Ability and Math and Geometry Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Sean M.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationship between visual-spatial reasoning abilities, as measured by the matrix reasoning and block design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), and geometry and math performance, as measured by geometry and overall math scores from the Massachusetts…

  16. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  17. Spatial Visualization Ability and Laparoscopic Skills in Novice Learners: Evaluating Stereoscopic versus Monoscopic Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Victoria A.; Mistry, Manisha R.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may…

  18. Investigating the Effect of Origami Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Spatial Ability and Geometric Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akayuure, Peter; Asiedu-Addo, S. K.; Alebna, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Whereas origami is said to have pedagogical benefits in geometry education, research is inclusive about its effect on spatial ability and geometric knowledge among preservice teachers. The study investigated the effect of origami instruction on these aspects using pretest posttest quasi-experiment design. The experimental group consisted of 52…

  19. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: The X-Linked Gene Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatter, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Among the many theories attempting to explain sex differences in spatial ability, one of the most highly researched is the X-linked recessive gene theory. This is a review of the major research done on that theory and shows the conflicting nature of the results. (Author)

  20. Spatial visualization ability and laparoscopic skills in novice learners: evaluating stereoscopic versus monoscopic visualizations.

    PubMed

    Roach, Victoria A; Mistry, Manisha R; Wilson, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may confer learning advantages to novices of variant Vz. This study explored laparoscopic skill performance scores in novices with variable spatial ability utilizing stereoscopic and traditional monoscopic visualization paradigms. Utilizing the McGill Inanimate System for Teaching and Evaluating Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS) scoring protocol it was hypothesized that individuals with high spatial visualization ability (HVz) would achieve higher overall and individual MISTELS task scores as compared to low spatial visualization ability (LVz) counterparts. Further, we also hypothesized that a difference would exist between HVz and LVz individual scores based on the viewing modality employed. No significant difference was observed between HVz and LVz individuals for MISTELS tasks scores, overall or individually under both viewing modalities, despite higher average MISTELS scores for HVz individuals. The lack of difference between scores obtained under the stereo modality suggested that the additional depth that is conferred by the stereoscopic visualization may act to enhance performance for individuals with LVz, potentially equilibrating their performance with their HVz peers. Further experimentation is required to better ascertain the effects of stereo visualization in individuals of high and low Vz, though it appears stereoscopic visualizations could serve as a prosthetic to enhance skill performance.

  1. Empowering Visuo-Spatial Ability in Primary School: Results from a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Callai, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The current study was primarily aimed at verifying the effect of a combined computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper training that was developed to empower visuo-spatial abilities in primary school pupils. One hundred and twenty third grade (mean average: eight years old) and fourth grade (mean age: nine years old) students attending several Italian…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Spatial Visualization Ability and Drafting Models for Industrial and Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine significant positive effects among the use of three different types of drafting models, and to identify whether any differences exist towards promotion of spatial visualization ability for students in Industrial Technology and Technology Education courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  3. Treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning ability through suppressing hippocampal apoptosis in Huntington's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, You-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong; Ha, Jonglin; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and characterized as involuntary movement. Quinolinic acid has been used to produce an animal model of Huntington's disease. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial-learning ability and motor coordination focusing on the apoptosis in the hippocampus was investigated using quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Huntington's disease was induced by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2 μL of 100 nmol) using stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 days. Spatial learning ability and motor coordination were determined by radial 8-arm maze test and rota-rod test. Immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were also conducted for the detection of apoptosis. In the present results, spatial learning ability and motor coordination were deteriorated by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid. In contrast, treadmill exercise exerted ameliorating effect on quinolinic acid-induced deterioration of spatial learning ability and motor coordination. Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus was de-creased and expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the hippocampus were increased in the quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Treadmill exercise increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the Huntington's disease rats. The present results showed that treadmill exercise might ameliorate quinolinic acid-induced loss of spatial learning ability and motor coordination by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus. PMID:26171378

  4. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  5. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  6. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material.

    PubMed

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-02-01

    Despite initial expectations, which have emerged with the advancement of computer technology over the last decade of the twentieth century, scientific literature does not contain many relevant references regarding the development and use of innovative items in psychological testing. Our study presents and evaluates two novel item types. One item type is derived from a standard schematic test item used for the assessment of the spatial perception aspect of spatial ability, enhanced by an interactive response module. The performance on this item type is correlated with the performance on its paper and pencil counterpart. The other innovative item type used complex stimuli in the form of a short video of a ride through a city presented in an on-route perspective, which is intended to measure navigation skills and the ability to keep oneself oriented in space. In this case, the scores were related to the capacity of visuo-spatial working memory and also to the overall score in the paper/pencil test of spatial ability. The second relationship was moderated by gender.

  7. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... anniversary throughout 2016... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 5 days ago AgrAbility's ...

  8. Spatial ability as a predictor of math achievement: the importance of sex and handedness patterns.

    PubMed

    Casey, M B; Pezaris, E; Nuttall, R L

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with major theories of handedness and brain organization, differential predictors for math achievement were found as a function of sex and handedness subgroups among eighth graders. Although there was no difference in absolute levels of performance as a function of either sex or handedness, predictive structures did differ. Regression analyses showed that spatial ability predicts math achievement for: (1) girls with anomalous dominance (non-right-handers and right-handers with non-right-handed relatives), and (2) all boys (independent of handedness group). In contrast, for the standard dominance girls who are right-handed with all right-handed relatives (considered strongly left-hemisphere dominant for language), spatial ability did not predict for math achievement. These findings occurred, even when scholastic aptitude and verbal achievement factors were controlled. It was concluded that further studies of sex differences in math achievement should consider subgroup differences within the sexes, based on handedness patterns.

  9. Representing 3D virtual objects: interaction between visuo-spatial ability and type of exploration.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Frank; van den Broek, Egon L

    2010-03-17

    We investigated individual differences in interactively exploring 3D virtual objects. 36 participants explored 24 simple and 24 difficult objects (composed of respectively three and five Biederman geons) actively, passively, or not at all. Both their 3D mental representation of the objects and visuo-spatial ability was assessed. Results show that, regardless of the object's complexity, people with a low VSA benefit from active exploration of objects, where people with a middle or high VSA do not. These findings extend and refine earlier research on interactively learning visuo-spatial information and underline the importance to take individual differences into account. PMID:20116394

  10. Representing 3D virtual objects: interaction between visuo-spatial ability and type of exploration.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Frank; van den Broek, Egon L

    2010-03-17

    We investigated individual differences in interactively exploring 3D virtual objects. 36 participants explored 24 simple and 24 difficult objects (composed of respectively three and five Biederman geons) actively, passively, or not at all. Both their 3D mental representation of the objects and visuo-spatial ability was assessed. Results show that, regardless of the object's complexity, people with a low VSA benefit from active exploration of objects, where people with a middle or high VSA do not. These findings extend and refine earlier research on interactively learning visuo-spatial information and underline the importance to take individual differences into account.

  11. Dispersal Ability Determines the Role of Environmental, Spatial and Temporal Drivers of Metacommunity Structure

    PubMed Central

    Padial, André A.; Ceschin, Fernanda; Declerck, Steven A. J.; De Meester, Luc; Bonecker, Cláudia C.; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio A.; Rodrigues, Liliana; Rodrigues, Luzia C.; Train, Sueli; Velho, Luiz F. M.; Bini, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, community ecologists are focusing on the relative importance of local environmental factors and proxies to dispersal limitation to explain spatial variation in community structure. Albeit less explored, temporal processes may also be important in explaining species composition variation in metacommunities occupying dynamic systems. We aimed to evaluate the relative role of environmental, spatial and temporal variables on the metacommunity structure of different organism groups in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil). We used data on macrophytes, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, periphyton, and phytoplankton collected in up to 36 habitats during a total of eight sampling campaigns over two years. According to variation partitioning results, the importance of predictors varied among biological groups. Spatial predictors were particularly important for organisms with comparatively lower dispersal ability, such as aquatic macrophytes and fish. On the other hand, environmental predictors were particularly important for organisms with high dispersal ability, such as microalgae, indicating the importance of species sorting processes in shaping the community structure of these organisms. The importance of watercourse distances increased when spatial variables were the main predictors of metacommunity structure. The contribution of temporal predictors was low. Our results emphasize the strength of a trait-based analysis and of better defining spatial variables. More importantly, they supported the view that “all-or- nothing” interpretations on the mechanisms structuring metacommunities are rather the exception than the rule. PMID:25340577

  12. The Role of Spatial Ability and Strategy Preference for Spatial Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Ryu, Minjung; Dixon, Bonnie; Hegarty, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In organic chemistry, spatial reasoning is critical for reasoning about spatial relationships in three dimensions and representing spatial information in diagrams. Despite its importance, little is known about the underlying cognitive components of spatial reasoning and the strategies that students employ to solve spatial problems in organic…

  13. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  14. Spatial representations of numbers in children and their connection with calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Lonnemann, Jan; Krinzinger, Helga; Knops, André; Willmes, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Evidence for a connection between number and space processing comes from behavioural, patient, and brain imaging data, but only a few studies have addressed this issue in children. We asked children (n=118) at the age of 8-9 years to decide which one of the two numerical distances in a visually presented number triplet was numerically larger. Numerical and spatial distances were manipulated independently, resulting in congruent, neutral, and incongruent conditions. The spatial distances between the numbers clearly affected the comparison of numerical distances: reactions times were faster and error rates smaller for congruent than for incongruent trials. These findings are in line with the assumption of a spatial layout of mental number representations in third graders. Correlations between the size of the congruity effect and calculation abilities were found to be differently marked for girls and boys: a positive correlation was found for boys, while a marginally negative correlation was obtained for girls. PMID:18387574

  15. Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Di Marco, Mariangela; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Field independence (FI) has been defined as the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field, rather than embedded in the field. It has been proposed to represent a relatively stable pattern in individuals' predisposition towards information processing. In the present study, we assessed the effect of FI on skills underpinning human navigation. Fifty Healthy individuals took part in this study. FI has been assessed by using the group embedded figures test (GEFT). Participants were also asked to perform several visuo-spatial orientation tasks, including the perspective taking/spatial orientation test (PTSOT), the mental rotation task (MRT) and the vividness task, as well as the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, a self-reported questionnaire, which has been found to predict environmental spatial orientation ability. We found that performances on the GEFT significantly predicted performances on the PTSOT and the MRT. This result supports the idea that FI predicts human navigation.

  16. Mental representations derived from spatial descriptions: the influence of orientation specificity and visuospatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the orientation dependence effect and the role of visuospatial abilities in mental representations derived from spatial descriptions. The analysis focused on how the orientation effect and the involvement of visuospatial abilities change when survey and route descriptions are used, and the initial and main orientation of an imaginary tour. In Experiment 1, 48 participants listened to survey or route descriptions in which information was mainly north-oriented (matching the initial heading and main direction of travel expressed in the description). In Experiment 2, 40 participants listened to route descriptions in which the initial orientation (north-oriented) was mismatched with the main direction of travel (east-oriented). Participants performed pointing task while facing north vs south (Exp. 1 and 2), and while facing east vs west (Exp. 2), as well as a map drawing task and several visuospatial measures. In both experiments, the results showed that pointing was easier while facing north than while facing south, and map drawings were arranged with a north-up orientation (with no difference between survey and route descriptions). In Experiment 2, pointing while facing east was easier than in the other pointing conditions. The results obtained with the visuospatial tasks showed that perspective-taking (PT) skill was the main predictor of the ability to imagine positions misaligned with the direction expressed in the descriptions (i.e., pointing while facing south in Experiment 1; pointing while facing north, south or west in Experiment 2). Overall, these findings indicate that mental representations derived from spatial descriptions are specifically oriented and their orientation is influenced by the main direction of travel and by the initial orientation. These mental representations, and the adoption of counter-aligned imaginary orientations, demand visuospatial skills and PT ability in particular.

  17. A comparison of the development of spatial conceptual abilities of students from two cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Herbert G.

    Efforts are underway to determine if there are any ways unique to Navajo thinking and thus to the way that they might learn. Studies have shown a consistent lag in achievement levels for Native Americans. The purpose of this investigation was to examine spatial thinking abilities of sixth and tenth grade students from 2 locales - a school on the Navajo Reservation and schools in Mesa, Arizona. A battery of 10 Piagetian-type tasks were administered individually to the subjects. A chi-square one sample procedure was used to test for significant differences between subsamples at each grade level. Significant differences were detected for two of the tasks at the sixth grade level, and one task at the tenth grade level. The overall findings of this study support the contention that there were no substantial time delays or advances in the development of selected spatial abilities of Navajo sixth and tenth grade students compared to those of parallel non-American Indian students. The concern of modifying instruction in science courses in order to adapt them to supposed 'different' spatial structures possessed by Navajo students appears to be unfounded.

  18. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PMID:25000323

  19. Familial handedness and spatial ability: a study with Chinese students aged 14-24.

    PubMed

    Li, Chieh; Zhu, Wenbin; Nuttall, Ronald L

    2003-04-01

    This study tested Annett's right-shift theory on spatial ability with two samples from China. The Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (MRT), Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and Family Handedness Questionnaire were administered to 266 high school students and 297 undergraduates. We found very few r++ or r-- among Chinese students. Most Chinese are either moderately right-handed or ambidextrous. Consistent with Casey's finding, we found using different methods to classify handedness leads to different conclusions. However, we did not find the effect of familial handedness that Casey found. Visual strategy is related to success on the MRT but handedness is not.

  20. Investigating the Spatial Abilities of Students Taking Physics in Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossu, M. R.; Cid, X.; Lopez, R.

    2010-10-01

    Two independent tests that involve spatial visualization abilities, the PFT (Paper Folding Test) and the MRT (Mental Rotation Test) were given to different sections of introductory level physics students. The results show a strong correlation between the results of the two tests regardless of the different level of mathematics used in instruction (algebra or calculus). A statistically significant difference was found for both tests between the summer semester students (mostly 4-year university students) and the fall semester students (mostly community college students). No correlation was found between the PFT or MRT and FCI (Force Concept Inventory).

  1. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  2. The Influence of Visual Experience on the Ability to Form Spatial Mental Models Based on Route and Survey Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences (i.e. level of performance on spatial tasks) as…

  3. Enhancement of Spatial Ability in Girls in a Single-Sex Environment through Spatial Experience and the Impact on Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarlis, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The test scores of spatial ability for women lag behind those of men in many spatial tests. On the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), a significant gender gap has existed for over 20 years and continues to exist. High spatial ability has been linked to efficiencies in typical computing tasks including Web and database searching, text editing, and…

  4. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  5. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization Ability: Can They Be Accounted for by Differences in Working Memory Capacity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are well documented, but poorly understood. In order to see whether working memory is an important factor in these differences, 50 males and 50 females performed tests of three-dimensional mental rotation and spatial visualization, along with tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Substantial differences…

  6. Environmental enrichment promotes improved spatial abilities and enhanced dendritic growth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Maria Giuseppa; Mandolesi, Laura; Federico, Francesca; Spirito, Francesca; Ricci, Benedetta; Gelfo, Francesca; Petrosini, Laura

    2005-08-30

    An enriched environment consists of a combination of enhanced social relations, physical exercise and interactions with non-social stimuli that leads to behavioral and neuronal modifications. In the present study, we analyzed the behavioral effects of environmental complexity on different facets of spatial function, and we assessed dendritic arborisation and spine density in a cortical area mainly involved in the spatial learning, as the parietal cortex. Wistar rat pups (21 days old) were housed in enriched conditions (10 animals in a large cage with toys and a running wheel), or standard condition (two animals in a standard cage, without objects). At the age of 3 months, both groups were tested in the radial maze task and Morris water maze (MWM). Morphological analyses on layer-III pyramidal neurons of parietal cortex were performed in selected animals belonging to both experimental groups. In the radial maze task, enriched animals exhibited high performance levels, by exploiting procedural competencies and working memory abilities. Furthermore, when the requirements of the context changed, they promptly reorganized their strategies by shifting from prevalently using spatial procedures to applying mnesic competencies. In the Morris water maze, enriched animals more quickly acquired tuned navigational strategies. Environmental enrichment provoked increased dendritic arborisation as well as increased density of dendritic spines in layer-III parietal pyramidal neurons.

  7. Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Di Marco, Mariangela; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Field independence (FI) has been defined as the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field, rather than embedded in the field. It has been proposed to represent a relatively stable pattern in individuals' predisposition towards information processing. In the present study, we assessed the effect of FI on skills underpinning human navigation. Fifty Healthy individuals took part in this study. FI has been assessed by using the group embedded figures test (GEFT). Participants were also asked to perform several visuo-spatial orientation tasks, including the perspective taking/spatial orientation test (PTSOT), the mental rotation task (MRT) and the vividness task, as well as the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, a self-reported questionnaire, which has been found to predict environmental spatial orientation ability. We found that performances on the GEFT significantly predicted performances on the PTSOT and the MRT. This result supports the idea that FI predicts human navigation. PMID:27225254

  8. Using Virtual Reality to Investigate Comparative Spatial Cognitive Abilities in Chimpanzees and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dolins, Francine L.; Klimowicz, Christopher; Kelley, John; Menzel, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of investigating spatial cognitive abilities across two primate species using virtual reality. In this study, we presented four captive adult chimpanzees and sixteen humans (twelve children and four adults) with simulated environments of increasing complexity and size to compare species’ attention to visuo-spatial features during navigation. The specific task required participants to attend to landmarks in navigating along routes in order to localize the goal site. Both species were found to discriminate effectively between positive and negative landmarks. Assessing path efficiency revealed that both species and all age groups used relatively efficient, distance reducing routes during navigation. Compared to the chimpanzees and adult humans however, younger children’s performance decreased as maze complexity and size increased. Surprisingly, in the most complex maze category the humans’ performance was less accurate compared to one female chimpanzee. These results suggest that the method of using virtual reality to test captive primates, and in particular, chimpanzees, affords significant cross-species investigations of spatial cognitive and developmental comparisons. PMID:24390812

  9. Empirical contribution to the question of sex-dependent inheritance of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Gittler, G; Vitouch, O

    1994-04-01

    The X-linked recessive gene hypothesis, a theory to predict the mode of genetic inheritance of spatial ability, was tested using a new Rasch-calibrated space test, the Three-dimensional Cube Test (Gittler, 1990). This allowed solving the homogeneity problem (insufficient unidimensionality of test material) by which earlier research in this field was affected. The empirical correlations from our sample of 134 families were compared with the theoretically predicted values. Present data do no corroborate the model; however, the problems of its general falsification are discussed. The fact that differences in performance in favour of males exist in the parental generation but not in the filial generation accentuates the importance of environmental factors.

  10. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, S Q; Wang, Q; Zheng, Y; Xiao, B; Sun, H W; Gu, X L; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C H; Dong, P X; Wang, X M

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05) by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01), and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01) in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05), and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01) with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  11. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities-defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them-have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are "mental rotation" (rotating mental models) and "visualisation" (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel "Bricks" test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  12. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  13. The Effects of 3-Dimensional CADD Modeling on the Development of the Spatial Ability of Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, K. Lynn; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial abilities are fundamental to human functioning in the physical world. Spatial reasoning allows people to use concepts of shape, features, and relationships in both concrete and abstract ways, to make and use things in the world, to navigate, and to communicate. Surgeons, pilots, architects, engineers, mechanics, builders, farmers, trades…

  14. The Role of Working Memory in Spatial Text Processing: What Benefit of Imagery Strategy and Visuospatial Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyselinck, Valerie; Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the construction of a spatial model in relation to working memory (WM) and visuospatial abilities. Participants were trained to use either imagery or verbal strategies to process route spatial texts. Results obtained on a free recall task, a verification test and a graphic representation task showed the beneficial effect of…

  15. Testing the Ability of TOPMODEL to Assess the Spatial Continuity and Connectivity of Soil Moisture Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G.; Roy, A.

    2006-05-01

    Examining hydrologic connectivity as a major control on stormflow generation has emerged as an important field of research in forest hydrology. Knowledge on this new concept, however, has yet to be incorporated in most hydrological models and to be proven useful to simulate the "on-off" behaviour of small humid temperate catchments. In this study, we examine the hydrologic behaviour of a small headwater forested catchment, the Hermine, located in the Laurentians near Montreal, Quebec. This watershed is a textbook case for the application of the popular TOPMODEL. Still, the model does not perform well, especially following extended dry periods. Several explanations have been proposed regarding this issue, chiefly the existence of two or more preferential states and threshold-like processes associated with the spatio-temporal variations of antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). As these dominantly govern the initiation of stormflow, we test here the ability of the model to differentiate random patterns of soil moisture from organized ones. Using the topographic index distribution and the local storage deficit maps produced at each daily time step, the spatial correlation structure of potentially saturated areas and moisture conditions is studied through the use of geostatistical techniques. We also examine the methods of Western et al. (2001) in reference to the use of connectivity statistics to relate different soil moisture patterns with simulated hydrologic responses. From the spatial patterns of soil moisture simulated, TOPMODEL is capable of isolating several hydrologic preferential states, more or less wet with respect to a threshold value based on the mean catchment deficit. The changes in the disruption of spatial continuity of soil moisture are easier to identify when the correlation length among the patterns exhibits a high degree of seasonality. On the other hand, TOPMODEL falls short of representing some complex spatial patterns of disconnected saturated

  16. Preliminary correlational data on the relationships between undergraduates' spatial reasoning skills and their ability to learn space science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, I.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    We tacitly assume that space science is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students' spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students' spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn space science content in K-12 and college science classes have yet to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning space science. In response, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research describe preliminary data describing a first-steps correlational study of 170 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students' cognition is measured for pretest and posttest gains in space science understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they are tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of an established spatial thinking assessment tools (such as a modified Purdue Rotations Test). Preliminary results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work is supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  17. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L.; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities–defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them–have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are “mental rotation” (rotating mental models) and “visualisation” (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel “Bricks” test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  18. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  19. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  20. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  1. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories…

  2. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia.

  3. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. PMID:23927753

  4. The Differential Relations between Verbal, Numerical and Spatial Working Memory Abilities and Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading…

  5. Individual Differences in Gender Role Beliefs Influence Spatial Ability Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.; Bohon, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The gender role hypothesis posits that performance on a cognitive ability test is influenced by whether the test instructions frame the test as measuring a skill that is consistent or inconsistent with the test taker's gender role beliefs. The Bem sex role inventory was used to measure the gender role of female college students, and the group…

  6. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  7. Acquiring Information from Simple Weather Maps: Influences of Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Visual-Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.; Miller, Christy R.; Power, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The influences of domain-specific meteorological knowledge and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps were examined in a regression-based study involving a sample of participants with relatively low meteorological knowledge and in an experiment involving a contrast between samples of higher- and…

  8. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  9. The Relationship between Learners' Distrust of Scientific Models, Their Spatial Ability, and the Vividness of Their Mental Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationship between learners' distrust of scientific models that represent unseen entities and phenomena, their spatial ability, and the vividness of their mental images. The sample consisted of 302 tenth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman. Three measures were used for this…

  10. The Effect of Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Abilities on the Development of Knowledge of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties in students' understanding of the spherical model of the Earth have been shown in previous studies. One of the reasons for these difficulties lies in beliefs and preliminary knowledge that hinder the interpretation of the scientific knowledge, the other reason may lie in the low level of verbal and visuo-spatial abilities. The study…

  11. Ten-Structure as Strategy of Addition 1-20 by Involving Spatial Structuring Ability for First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmah, Ummy; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design learning activities that can support students to develop strategies for the addition of number 1 to 20 in the first grade by involving students' spatial structuring ability. This study was conducted in Indonesia by involving 27 students. In this paper, one of three activities is discussed namely ten-box activity.…

  12. Seeking Information Online: The Influence of Menu Type, Navigation Path Complexity and Spatial Ability on Information Gathering Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerta Melguizo, Mari Carmen; Vidya, Uti; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information retrieval performance and web disorientation or lostness. Two innovative aspects were included: (a) navigation path relevance and (b) information gathering tasks. As expected we found that, when measuring aspects directly related to navigation…

  13. "Visual Selves": Construction Science Students' Perceptions about Their Abilities to Represent Spatial Related Problems Internally and Externally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Tamera; Ge, Xun

    2013-01-01

    This proposal reports the findings from interviews with construction science students about their visualization of problems in a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional task. The specific research questions focused on the individual characteristics that students identify as influencing their spatial ability to generate internal and external…

  14. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  15. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them.

  16. Cellular ability to sense spatial gradients in the presence of multiple competitive ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Chen, Chia-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Many eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can exhibit remarkable sensing ability under small gradients of chemical compounds. In this study, we approach this phenomenon by considering the contribution of multiple ligands to the chemical kinetics within the Michaelis-Menten model. This work was inspired by the recent theoretical findings of Hu [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.048104 105, 048104 (2010)]. Our treatment with practical binding energies and chemical potentials provides results that are consistent with experimental observations.

  17. Apparent plasticity in functional traits determining competitive ability and spatial distribution: a case from desert.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Gui-Qing; Jenerette, G Darrel; Bai, Yong-fei; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Yan

    2015-07-20

    Species competitive abilities and their distributions are closely related to functional traits such as biomass allocation patterns. When we consider how nutrient supply affects competitive abilities, quantifying the apparent and true plasticity in functional traits is important because the allometric relationships among traits are universal in plants. We propose to integrate the notion of allometry and the classical reaction norm into a composite theoretical framework that quantifies the apparent and true plasticity. Combining the framework with a meta-analysis, a series of field surveys and a competition experiment, we aimed to determine the causes of the dune/interdune distribution patterns of two Haloxylon species in the Gurbantonggut Desert. We found that (1) the biomass allocation patterns of both Haloxylon species in responses to environmental conditions were apparent rather than true plasticity and (2) the allometric allocation patterns affected the plants' competition for soil nutrient supply. A key implication of our results is that the apparent plasticity in functional traits of plants determines their response to environmental change. Without identifying the apparent and true plasticity, we would substantially overestimate the magnitude, duration and even the direction of plant responses in functional traits to climate change.

  18. Apparent plasticity in functional traits determining competitive ability and spatial distribution: a case from desert

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Gui-Qing; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bai, Yong-fei; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Species competitive abilities and their distributions are closely related to functional traits such as biomass allocation patterns. When we consider how nutrient supply affects competitive abilities, quantifying the apparent and true plasticity in functional traits is important because the allometric relationships among traits are universal in plants. We propose to integrate the notion of allometry and the classical reaction norm into a composite theoretical framework that quantifies the apparent and true plasticity. Combining the framework with a meta-analysis, a series of field surveys and a competition experiment, we aimed to determine the causes of the dune/interdune distribution patterns of two Haloxylon species in the Gurbantonggut Desert. We found that (1) the biomass allocation patterns of both Haloxylon species in responses to environmental conditions were apparent rather than true plasticity and (2) the allometric allocation patterns affected the plants’ competition for soil nutrient supply. A key implication of our results is that the apparent plasticity in functional traits of plants determines their response to environmental change. Without identifying the apparent and true plasticity, we would substantially overestimate the magnitude, duration and even the direction of plant responses in functional traits to climate change. PMID:26190745

  19. Apparent plasticity in functional traits determining competitive ability and spatial distribution: a case from desert.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Gui-Qing; Jenerette, G Darrel; Bai, Yong-fei; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Species competitive abilities and their distributions are closely related to functional traits such as biomass allocation patterns. When we consider how nutrient supply affects competitive abilities, quantifying the apparent and true plasticity in functional traits is important because the allometric relationships among traits are universal in plants. We propose to integrate the notion of allometry and the classical reaction norm into a composite theoretical framework that quantifies the apparent and true plasticity. Combining the framework with a meta-analysis, a series of field surveys and a competition experiment, we aimed to determine the causes of the dune/interdune distribution patterns of two Haloxylon species in the Gurbantonggut Desert. We found that (1) the biomass allocation patterns of both Haloxylon species in responses to environmental conditions were apparent rather than true plasticity and (2) the allometric allocation patterns affected the plants' competition for soil nutrient supply. A key implication of our results is that the apparent plasticity in functional traits of plants determines their response to environmental change. Without identifying the apparent and true plasticity, we would substantially overestimate the magnitude, duration and even the direction of plant responses in functional traits to climate change. PMID:26190745

  20. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  1. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  2. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  3. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  4. The Comparison of the Visuo-Spatial Abilities of Dyslexic and Normal Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K.…

  5. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Methods Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience.  Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. Results A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). Conclusions This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.  PMID:26897701

  6. Effects of developmental perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure on spatial learning and memory ability of rats and mechanism associated with synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on cognitive function in developing rats and the underlying mechanism associated with synaptic plasticity. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed with 0, 5, and 15 mg/L of PFOS via drinking water during gestation and lactation. Offspring were exposed to PFOS on prenatal and/or postnatal days by cross-fostering. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested from postnatal day (PND) 35. We also analyzed the expression pattern of the synaptic plasticity-related genes and proteins in the hippocampus on PND7 and PND35. Results revealed that PFOS exposure reduced the spatial learning and memory abilities of the offspring, particularly of those with prenatal exposure. Meanwhile, protein levels of growth-associated protein-43, neural cell adhesion molecule 1, nerve growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor decreased on PND35, which are involved in the formation of synaptic plasticity. In contrast, significant increase in gap-43, ncam1, and bdnf genes on the mRNA level was observed on PND7, possibly due to the post-transcriptional mechanism. Results of both behavioral effects and molecular endpoints suggested the high risk of prenatal PFOS exposure. The decline of spatial learning and memory abilities induced by developmental PFOS exposure was closely related to synaptic plasticity.

  7. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial intelligence, and…

  8. Improved Spatial Ability Correlated with Left Hemisphere Dysfunction in Turner's Syndrome. Implications for Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    This study contrasts the performance of a 17-year-old female subject with Turner's syndrome before and after developing left temporal lobe seizures, as a means of identifying the mechanism responsible for the Turner's syndrome spatial impairment. The results revealed a deficit in spatial processing before onset of the seizure disorder. Results…

  9. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  10. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  11. An fMRI Study of the Impact of Block Building and Board Games on Spatial Ability.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D; Hansen, Mitchell T; Gutierrez, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that block play, board games, and puzzles result in better spatial ability. This study focused on examining the differential impact of structured block play and board games on spatial processing. Two groups of 8-year-old children were studied. One group participated in a five session block play training paradigm and the second group had a similar training protocol but played a word/spelling board game. A mental rotation task was assessed before and after training. The mental rotation task was performed during fMRI to observe the neural changes associated with the two play protocols. Only the block play group showed effects of training for both behavioral measures and fMRI measured brain activation. Behaviorally, the block play group showed improvements in both reaction time and accuracy. Additionally, the block play group showed increased involvement of regions that have been linked to spatial working memory and spatial processing after training. The board game group showed non-significant improvements in mental rotation performance, likely related to practice effects, and no training related brain activation differences. While the current study is preliminary, it does suggest that different "spatial" play activities have differential impacts on spatial processing with structured block play but not board games showing a significant impact on mental rotation performance. PMID:27621714

  12. Exploring Empathic Space: Correlates of Perspective Transformation Ability and Biases in Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Brugger, Peter; Park, Sohee

    2009-01-01

    Separate lines of research have noted recruitment of parietal cortex during tasks involving visuo-spatial processes and empathy. To explore the relationship between these two functions, a self-other perspective transformation task and a task of spatial attention (line bisection) were administered to 40 healthy participants (19 women). Performance on these tasks was examined in relation to self-reported empathy. Rightward biases in line bisection correlated positively with trait-level self-reported empathic concern, suggesting a left hemisphere mediation of this prosocial personality trait. Unexpectedly, speed of perspective taking in the self-other transformation task correlated negatively with empathic concern, but only in women, which we interpret in light of gender differences in empathy and strategies for egocentric mental transformations. Together, the findings partially support the commonalities in visuo-spatial attention, perspective-taking and empathy. More broadly, they shed additional light on the relationship between basic cognitive functions and complex social constructs. PMID:19516894

  13. Individual Differences in Spatial Relation Processing: Effects of Strategy, Ability, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Borst, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Categorical relations are propositional and abstract, and often related to a left hemisphere advantage. Coordinate relations specify the metric information of the relative locations of objects, and can be linked to right hemisphere processing.…

  14. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  15. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  16. The Importance of Spatial Ability and Mental Models in Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    2011-01-01

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing…

  17. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, William J.

    Due to the call of current science education reform for the integration of engineering practices within science classrooms, design-based instruction is receiving much attention in science education literature. Although some aspect of modeling is often included in well-known design-based instructional methods, it is not always a primary focus. The purpose of this study was to better understand how design-based instruction with an emphasis on scientific modeling might impact students' spatial abilities and their model-based argumentation abilities. In the following mixed-method multiple case study, seven seventh grade students attending a secular private school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States underwent an instructional intervention involving design-based instruction, modeling and argumentation. Through the course of a lesson involving students in exploring the interrelatedness of the environment and an animal's form and function, students created and used multiple forms of expressed models to assist them in model-based scientific argument. Pre/post data were collected through the use of The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotation, the Mental Rotation Test and interviews. Other data included a spatial activities survey, student artifacts in the form of models, notes, exit tickets, and video recordings of students throughout the intervention. Spatial abilities tests were analyzed using descriptive statistics while students' arguments were analyzed using the Instrument for the Analysis of Scientific Curricular Arguments and a behavior protocol. Models were analyzed using content analysis and interviews and all other data were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings in the area of spatial abilities included increases in spatial reasoning for six out of seven participants, and an immense difference in the spatial challenges encountered by students when using CAD software instead of paper drawings to create models. Students perceived 3D printed

  18. An fMRI Study of the Impact of Block Building and Board Games on Spatial Ability

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Hansen, Mitchell T.; Gutierrez, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that block play, board games, and puzzles result in better spatial ability. This study focused on examining the differential impact of structured block play and board games on spatial processing. Two groups of 8-year-old children were studied. One group participated in a five session block play training paradigm and the second group had a similar training protocol but played a word/spelling board game. A mental rotation task was assessed before and after training. The mental rotation task was performed during fMRI to observe the neural changes associated with the two play protocols. Only the block play group showed effects of training for both behavioral measures and fMRI measured brain activation. Behaviorally, the block play group showed improvements in both reaction time and accuracy. Additionally, the block play group showed increased involvement of regions that have been linked to spatial working memory and spatial processing after training. The board game group showed non-significant improvements in mental rotation performance, likely related to practice effects, and no training related brain activation differences. While the current study is preliminary, it does suggest that different “spatial” play activities have differential impacts on spatial processing with structured block play but not board games showing a significant impact on mental rotation performance.

  19. An fMRI Study of the Impact of Block Building and Board Games on Spatial Ability

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Hansen, Mitchell T.; Gutierrez, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that block play, board games, and puzzles result in better spatial ability. This study focused on examining the differential impact of structured block play and board games on spatial processing. Two groups of 8-year-old children were studied. One group participated in a five session block play training paradigm and the second group had a similar training protocol but played a word/spelling board game. A mental rotation task was assessed before and after training. The mental rotation task was performed during fMRI to observe the neural changes associated with the two play protocols. Only the block play group showed effects of training for both behavioral measures and fMRI measured brain activation. Behaviorally, the block play group showed improvements in both reaction time and accuracy. Additionally, the block play group showed increased involvement of regions that have been linked to spatial working memory and spatial processing after training. The board game group showed non-significant improvements in mental rotation performance, likely related to practice effects, and no training related brain activation differences. While the current study is preliminary, it does suggest that different “spatial” play activities have differential impacts on spatial processing with structured block play but not board games showing a significant impact on mental rotation performance. PMID:27621714

  20. An experimental test of "the mozart effect": does listening to his music improve spatial ability?

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Rosenbach, J H; Burns, K L; Latimer, B C; Matocha, H R; Vogt, E R

    1995-12-01

    This experiment was designed as a test of the 1993 findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky who reported a positive effect of listening to classical music on spatial reasoning. Present results do not demonstrate the "Mozart effect." In our study, 114 students were pretested on items from the Raven's Progressive Matrices--Advanced Form, then instructed to listen to either 8 min. of Mozart's music, relaxation instructions, or silence. Then subjects were posttested on an equivalent set of Raven's items. The subjects were also asked to provide information about their musical background and preferences. All instructions and treatments were audiotaped and played to individual subjects through earphones in the university language laboratory, ensuring standardization of procedures. Subjects in all 3 treatment groups showed a practice effect, but this improvement in Raven's scores was not dependent on the type of treatment received. There were no differences in Raven's scores among groups before or after treatment so our results do not confirm the prior ones. There was no evidence that the brief music had a different effect on subsequent problem solving according to listeners' musical background and training. PMID:8684937

  1. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  2. Treadmill exercise alleviates prenatal noise stress-induced impairment of spatial learning ability through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Shin, Mal-Soon; Park, Joon-Ki; Shin, Mi-Ai; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lee, Sam-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Stress alters brain cell properties and then disturbs cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the effect of postnatal treadmill exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning ability of rat pups following prenatal noise stress. The impact of exercise intensity (mild-intensity exercise vs heavy-intensity exercise) was also compared. The pregnant rats in the stress-applied group were exposed to a 95 dB supersonic machine sound for 1 h once a day from the 15th day after mating until delivery. After birth, the rat pups in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 7 consecutive days, starting 4 weeks after birth. The spatial learning ability was tested using radial-arm maze task and hippocampal neurogenesis was determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. The rat pups born from the stress-applied maternal rats spent more time for the seeking of water and showed higher number of error in the radial-arm maze task compared to the control group. These rat pups showed suppressed neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In contrast, the rat pups performed postnatal treadmill exercise saved time for seeking of water and showed lower number of error compared to the stress-applied group. Postnatal treadmill exercise also enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The mild-intensity exercise showed more potent impact compared to the heavy-intensity exercise. The present results reveal that postnatal treadmill exercise lessens prenatal stress-induced deterioration of brain function in offspring.

  3. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Edward C; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children's performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults.

  4. The relation between children’s constructive play activities, spatial ability, and mathematical word problem-solving performance: a mediation analysis in sixth-grade students

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, Meike; Boonen, Anton J. H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children’s spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children’s constructive play and their performance on mathematical word problems is, however, not reported yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial ability acted as a mediator in the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance in 128 sixth-grade elementary school children. This mediating role of spatial ability was tested by utilizing the current mediation approaches suggested by Preacher and Hayes (2008). Results showed that 38.16% of the variance in mathematical word problem-solving performance is explained by children’s constructive play activities and spatial ability. More specifically, spatial ability acted as a partial mediator, explaining 31.58% of the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance. PMID:25101038

  5. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  6. Treadmill exercise improves spatial learning ability by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Im; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Choi, Seung Wook

    2014-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients show learning difficulty and impulsiveness. Exercise is known to improve learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in ADHD rats. For this study, radial 8-arm maze test and western blot for BDNF and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were used as the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as the control rats. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min once a day for 28 consecutive days. ADHD rats displayed impairment of spatial learning ability, in contrast treadmill exercise ameliorated impairment of spatial learning ability. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day showed most potent ameliorating effect on impairment of spatial learning ability. BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus were decreased in the ADHD rats, in contrast treadmill exercise enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions. Treadmill exercise for 30 min and for 60 min per day showed enhancing effects on BDNF and TrkB expressions. Treadmill exercise alleviated deficits in the spatial learning ability through enhancing BDNF and TrkB expressions in the ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day can be considered as the most effective therapeutic modality for the ADHD symptoms. PMID:25061595

  7. Treadmill exercise improves spatial learning ability by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Im; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Choi, Seung Wook

    2014-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients show learning difficulty and impulsiveness. Exercise is known to improve learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in ADHD rats. For this study, radial 8-arm maze test and western blot for BDNF and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were used as the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as the control rats. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min once a day for 28 consecutive days. ADHD rats displayed impairment of spatial learning ability, in contrast treadmill exercise ameliorated impairment of spatial learning ability. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day showed most potent ameliorating effect on impairment of spatial learning ability. BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus were decreased in the ADHD rats, in contrast treadmill exercise enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions. Treadmill exercise for 30 min and for 60 min per day showed enhancing effects on BDNF and TrkB expressions. Treadmill exercise alleviated deficits in the spatial learning ability through enhancing BDNF and TrkB expressions in the ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day can be considered as the most effective therapeutic modality for the ADHD symptoms.

  8. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Spaceborne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  9. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  10. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  11. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  12. [Work ability: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to present a literature review on work ability and functional ageing. An extensive search of publications from 1966 to 2006 was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Several aspects of work ability are presented in this manuscript: the historical context when the theme emerged, the theoretical framework, the determinant factors and an explanatory model, the current methodology to evaluate and monitor the work ability, the importance of its promotion. Highlights of the current situation about the research, practice and future perspectives regarding the theme are also discussed. In the context of the workforce aging, the work ability became an important indicator because their consequences to the worker's health, well-being and employability, with impacts to the individuals, organizations and society. In spite of their relevance, there is a lack of attention to the issues about work ability and functional ageing.

  13. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  14. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  15. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  16. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  17. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  18. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  19. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.

  20. A Reply to Halpern's Commentary: Theory-Driven Methods for Classifying Groups Can Reveal Individual Differences in Spatial Ability within Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M. Beth

    1996-01-01

    Notes Halpern's general support for Casey's model. Addresses differences in Casey's and McKeever's findings on familial handedness and females' spatial ability by performing another experiment in which data are analyzed according to two different theoretical assumptions. Addresses the question of the heritability of handedness by noting that what…

  1. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  2. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability.

    PubMed

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control.

  3. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  4. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  5. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  6. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  7. Performance Equals Ability and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.

    The results of several research studies designed to evaluate different theories of work motivation are presented. Graen (1967), through hiring 169 high school girls to do a clerical task, showed that ability measures can account for far more performance variance than motivation variables such as expectancy and instrumentality. Similar results were…

  8. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  9. The Structure of Mathematical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneaux, W. D.; Rees, Ruth

    1978-01-01

    A mathematics test and the Thurstone PMA Battery were administered to 225 technical students. The item/item correlations were analyzed using both a principal components and a maximum-likelihood method. After varimax rotation, the same structure emerged from both. Results suggest a "mathematical ability" factor independent of "g." (Author/SJL)

  10. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  11. Visual Discriminatory Ability Among Prereaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.

    The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…

  12. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  13. Children with developmental coordination disorder demonstrate a spatial mismatch when estimating coincident-timing ability with tools.

    PubMed

    Caçola, Priscila; Ibana, Melvin; Ricard, Mark; Gabbard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Coincident timing or interception ability can be defined as the capacity to precisely time sensory input and motor output. This study compared accuracy of typically developing (TD) children and those with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) on a task involving estimation of coincident timing with their arm and various tool lengths. Forty-eight (48) participants performed two experiments where they imagined intercepting a target moving toward (Experiment 1) and target moving away (Experiment 2) from them in 5 conditions with their arm and tool lengths: arm, 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm. In Experiment 1, the DCD group overestimated interception points approximately twice as much as the TD group, and both groups overestimated consistently regardless of the tool used. Results for Experiment 2 revealed that those with DCD underestimated about three times as much as the TD group, with the exception of when no tool was used. Overall, these results indicate that children with DCD are less accurate with estimation of coincident-timing; which might in part explain their difficulties with common motor activities such as catching a ball or striking a baseball pitch.

  14. Have Sex Differences in Spatial Ability Evolved from Male Competition for Mating and Female Concern for Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, Isabelle; Robert, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles…

  15. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  16. Vertebrate Dissimilarity Due to Turnover and Richness Differences in a Highly Beta-Diverse Region: The Role of Spatial Grain Size, Dispersal Ability and Distance

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M.; Moreno, Claudia E.; Pineda-López, Rubén; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana

    2013-01-01

    We explore the influence of spatial grain size, dispersal ability, and geographic distance on the patterns of species dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, separating the dissimilarity explained by species replacement (turnover) from that resulting from richness differences. With data for 905 species of terrestrial vertebrates distributed in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, classified into five groups according to their taxonomy and dispersal ability, we calculated total dissimilarity and its additive partitioning as two components: dissimilarity derived from turnover and dissimilarity derived from richness differences. These indices were compared using fine (10 x 10 km), intermediate (20 x 20 km) and coarse (40 x 40 km) grain grids, and were tested for any correlations with geographic distance. The results showed that total dissimilarity is high for the terrestrial vertebrates in this region. Total dissimilarity, and dissimilarity due to turnover are correlated with geographic distance, and the patterns are clearer when the grain is fine, which is consistent with the distance-decay pattern of similarity. For all terrestrial vertebrates tested on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec both the dissimilarity derived from turnover and the dissimilarity resulting from richness differences make important contributions to total dissimilarity, and dispersal ability does not seem to influence the dissimilarity patterns. These findings support the idea that conservation efforts in this region require a system of interconnected protected areas that embrace the environmental, climatic and biogeographic heterogeneity of the area. PMID:24324840

  17. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Spatial Learning, Memory Ability, and Cortical Capillaries in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sanrong; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Chunxia; Xiu, Yun; Wang, Feifei; Zhou, Chunni; Luo, Yanmin; Xiao, Qian; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the effects of long-term running exercise on spatial learning, spatial memory, and cortical capillaries in aged rats. Material/Methods Fourteen-month-old female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into an exercised group (EG) and a non-exercised group (NG). The EG rats were trained on treadmill running for 4 or 14 months. The NG rats were housed under identical conditions without running. Spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze. The cortical capillary parameters were quantitatively investigated using immunohistochemical and stereological methods. Results The escaped latencies of the EG were significantly different from those of the NG in 18-month-old females and 28-month-old males (p<0.05). However, 28-month-old females and 18-month-old males showed no differences in escape latency between the EG and NG (p>0.05). In 28-month-old female rats, stereological techniques showed significant differences between the EG and NG in the cortical capillary volume (median, 22.55 vs. 11.42, p<0.05) and the cortical capillary surface area (median, 7474.13 vs. 3935.90, p<0.05). In 28-month-old male rats, the EG had a significantly longer total cortical capillary length (median, 530.35 vs. 156.27, p<0.05), significantly larger cortical capillary volume (median, 16.47 vs. 3.65, p<0.01), and a significantly larger cortical capillary total surface area (median, 7885.79 vs. 1957.16, p<0.01) compared with the NG group. Conclusions These data demonstrate that exercise improved spatial learning, memory capacity and cortical capillaries in aged rats. PMID:25828032

  18. Early-blind subjects' spatial abilities in the locomotor space: exploratory strategies and reaction-to-change performance.

    PubMed

    Gaunet, F; Thinus-Blanc, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at analysing the effect of the lack of visual experience in the human subject in detecting the rearrangement of objects after a free exploration in the locomotor space. Exploratory patterns and performance levels were recorded. Distance processing was affected by early blindness. The early-blind group's patterns of exploration differed significantly from those of the visually experienced groups. Significant correlations were found between the performance level and the use of systematic patterns of exploration but not with individual features. These data are discussed in the light of the importance of early vision on the development of spatial cognition.

  19. The change of spatial cognition ability in depression rat model and the possible association with down-regulated protein expression of TRPC6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of researches have focused on the cognitive changes in depression patients. Here, we observed impaired cognitive ability in a rat depression model along with down-regulated expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) protein. The cognitive defect could be rescued by treatment with hyperforin, which can invoke TRPC6 activation. This study was designed as following: rats were randomly divided into control, stressed and stressed+hyperforin groups. Chronic unpredictable stress combined with isolation rearing was applied on rats for three weeks, except for control group. Morris water maze was applied to evaluate spatial cognitive ability while long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded to test the synaptic plasticity. Results showed that both spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity were impaired in stress group while improved after hyperforin treatment in stressed+hyperforin group, meanwhile, Western blot assay showed that TRPC6 expression was decreased in stressed group. The histological data also presented the decline of dendritic length, dendritic spine density and the number of excitatory synapses in stress group while they were increased in stressed+hyperforin group. These results suggest that there is a well potential of TRPC6 to become a new target for selecting promising new candidates as antidepressants with therapeutically effect on impaired cognition.

  20. The change of spatial cognition ability in depression rat model and the possible association with down-regulated protein expression of TRPC6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of researches have focused on the cognitive changes in depression patients. Here, we observed impaired cognitive ability in a rat depression model along with down-regulated expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) protein. The cognitive defect could be rescued by treatment with hyperforin, which can invoke TRPC6 activation. This study was designed as following: rats were randomly divided into control, stressed and stressed+hyperforin groups. Chronic unpredictable stress combined with isolation rearing was applied on rats for three weeks, except for control group. Morris water maze was applied to evaluate spatial cognitive ability while long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded to test the synaptic plasticity. Results showed that both spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity were impaired in stress group while improved after hyperforin treatment in stressed+hyperforin group, meanwhile, Western blot assay showed that TRPC6 expression was decreased in stressed group. The histological data also presented the decline of dendritic length, dendritic spine density and the number of excitatory synapses in stress group while they were increased in stressed+hyperforin group. These results suggest that there is a well potential of TRPC6 to become a new target for selecting promising new candidates as antidepressants with therapeutically effect on impaired cognition. PMID:26248296

  1. The Role of Cognitive Abilities in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J. M. C.; Miedema, H. A. T.; Broeders, I. A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general…

  2. Improvement of Speaking Ability through Interrelated Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.

  3. Measuring Musical Abilities of Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Edward; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Three normal children with reported musical ability and three autistic children (all Ss 14 to 18 years old) were tested for the ability to imitate individual tones and series of tones delivered by voice, piano, and synthesizer. (Author)

  4. Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159988.html Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain People with ... 20, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alzheimer's disease may affect people's ability to recognize when ...

  5. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Children's Reading Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianatasio, Deborah

    This study investigated parents' perceptions of their child's reading abilities. Parents of 92 fourth grade students completed questionnaires to measure the perception parents held of their child's reading ability in relation to the ability of their child based on standardized test scores. Correlations between the Terra Nova Standardized Test and…

  7. A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

  8. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  9. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  10. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  11. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  12. Ability of oral bacteria to degrade fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, M; Linde, A

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-degrading ability of 116, mainly oral, strains was assayed by using plasma-derived fibronectin adsorbed to a polystyrene surface. Ability to degrade fibronectin was revealed in strains of Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius, Bacteroides loeschii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Peptococcus prevotii, Clostridium sporogenes, and Propionibacterium acnes. The fibronectinolytic activity of subgingival bacteriological samples was found to be related to the presence of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius. In addition, strains of the nonoral Bacteroides species B. asaccharolyticus and B. fragilis showed fibronectin-degrading ability. No such ability was detected in the oral strains tested of Streptococcus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, or Haemophilus species. PMID:3943910

  13. The Development, Testing, and Use of a Computer Interface To Evaluate an Information Processing Model Describing the Rates of Encoding and Mental Rotation in High School Students of High and Low Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Frederick Loye

    This study investigated the speed of encoding and rotation of images during simple spatial rotational operations to discover any similarities or differences in groups of differing spatial ability. This project was subdivided into five basic subproblems. First, research was done to arrive at a simple, easily testable information processing model…

  14. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Space-Borne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  15. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  16. Ability Explorer: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Anne

    The Ability Explorer (AE) is a newly developed self-report inventory of abilities that is appropriate for group or individual administration. There are machine-scorable and hand-scorable versions of the test, and there are two levels. Level 1 is for students from junior high to high school, and Level 2 is for high school students and adults.…

  17. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  18. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  19. Linguistic Ability: Some Myths and Some Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gail L.

    "Linguistic ability" is a widely misused term in foreign language literature. This confusion prompted an investigation into language aptitude testing, the specific goals of which included determining: the distribution of language aptitude across ability range; the validity of Pimsleur's suggestions of combined verbal and auditory scores; and…

  20. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  1. Purpose in Life among High Ability Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; Finch, W. Holmes; Talib, Tasneem L.

    2010-01-01

    Leading high ability scholars have proposed theories that suggest a purpose in life may be particularly prevalent among high ability youth; however, the prevalence of purpose has not been empirically assessed among this population. Therefore using in-depth interviews the present study established the prevalence of purpose among a sample of high…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S ABILITY TO COORDINATE PERSPECTIVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JACK W.

    THE PERSPECTIVE ABILITY TEST INVOLVED 285 CHILDREN BETWEEN 66 AND 155 MONTHS OF AGE. TO MEASURE ABILITY TO COORDINATE PERSPECTIVE, THE RESEARCHER BUILT A CIRCULAR TABLE WITH AN ISLAND DISC MODELED AND PAINTED TO REPRESENT WATERS AND MOUNTAINOUS LAND. TWENTY COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS WERE TAKEN FROM DIFFERENT EQUALLY SPACED VANTAGE POINTS. THE SUBJECTS…

  3. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  4. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  5. Developing the Ability for Making Evaluative Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that a more specific emphasis should be placed in undergraduate education on the explicit development of the ability to make evaluative judgements. This higher level cognitive ability is highlighted as the foundation for much sound and successful personal and professional development throughout education, and in lifelong…

  6. Japanese College Students' English Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    A series of six studies of the reading ability of Japanese high school and college students investigated the ability of students to process various literary forms and the types of questions students have difficulty with at different levels of reading proficiency. Over 25,000 students completed various versions of an English reading comprehension…

  7. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  8. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  9. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7...

  10. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  11. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that...

  12. General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

  13. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  14. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  15. Assessing temporal and spatial variation in sensitivity of communities of periphyton sampled from agroecosystem to, and ability to recover from, atrazine exposure.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Brain, Richard A; Malia Andrus, J; Hosmer, Alan J; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

    2015-08-01

    Lotic systems in agriculturally intensive watersheds can experience short-term pulsed exposures of pesticides as a result of runoff associated with rainfall events following field applications. Of special interest are herbicides that could potentially impair communities of primary producers, such as those associated with periphyton. Therefore, this study examined agroecosystem-derived lotic periphyton to assess (1) variation in community sensitivity to, and ability to recover from, acute (48h) exposure to the photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide atrazine across sites and time, and (2) attempt to determine the variables (e.g., community structure, hydrology, water quality measures) that were predictive for observed differences in sensitivity and recovery. Periphyton were sampled from six streams in the Midwestern U.S. on four different dates in 2012 (April to August). Field-derived periphyton were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of atrazine ranging from 10 to 320μg/L for 48h, followed by untreated media for evaluation of recovery for 48h. Effective quantum yield of PSII was measured after 24h and 48h exposure and 24h and 48h after replacement of media. Inhibition of PSII EC50 values ranged from 53 to >320µg/L. The majority of periphyton samples (16 out of 22) exposed to atrazine up to 320µg/L recovered completely by 48h after replacement of media. Percent inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII in periphyton (6 of 22 samples) exposed to 320µg/L atrazine that were significantly lower than controls after 48h ranged from 2% to 24%. No distinct spatial or temporal trends in sensitivity and recovery potential were observed over the course of the study. Conditional inference forest analysis and variation partitioning were used to investigate potential associations between periphyton sensitivity to and ability to recover from exposure to atrazine. Although certain environmental variables (i.e., proximity of high flow/velocity events and

  16. Exploring the association between visual perception abilities and reading of musical notation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Horng-Yih

    2012-06-01

    In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.

  17. On the Scientific Basis of Ability Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Horn, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that despite aberrations, false starts, misapplications, and unfortunate crystallizations of methods and interpretations, the differential psychology of cognitive abilities is an important part of psychological knowledge about human beings. (Author/GC)

  18. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  19. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  20. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  1. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  2. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Ability Settings.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason; Filson Moses, Jennifer; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that one person's expectations can influence the behavior of another person, thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This study examined the effects of ability-based expectations in an experiment in which some participants ("coaches") were assigned false expectations of the basketball free-throw shooting ability of other participants ("players"). Coaches allocated more opportunities to players for whom the false expectation was positive, and fewer shots to players for whom the false expectation was negative. In turn, players who were allocated more shots made a higher percentage of them, thereby confirming their coaches' expectations about their shooting ability, and were more confident in their shooting ability following the task, than players who were allocated fewer shots.

  3. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy

    PubMed Central

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish an ability from a propensity to empathize. We argue that (a) this ability-propensity distinction is critical to characterize empathy in psychiatric disorders such as psychopathy and autism, (b) that costly helping might be best predicted by the propensity for empathy and (c) suggest how social neuroscientists can start exploring this distinction. PMID:24484764

  4. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. PMID:22663773

  5. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed.

  6. Assessing the Gap Between Current Movement Ability and Preferred Movement Ability as a Measure of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background If disability is the gap between what an individual can do and what that individual would like to be able to do, then measures that assess only current ability fall short of describing the impact of disability on the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to examine a potential measure of disability, the gap between current movement ability and preferred movement ability, as recorded with the Movement Ability Measure (MAM). This investigation was performed by establishing the relationship between self-perceived current ability and other measures and examining the evidence of convergence or divergence between the gap and other measures. Design This investigation was a descriptive study. Methods Thirty people who had multiple sclerosis and were ambulatory completed the MAM and 18 other measures of bodily function, activity, and participation. Item response theory methods were used to generate logit estimates of average current movement ability and separate abilities in the 6 dimensions of movement on the MAM. Pearson correlations were calculated between estimated abilities from the MAM and scores from measures expected to be associated with these estimated abilities, as well as between the MAM and additional measures in exploratory analyses of relationships. Results The average current ability and the separate dimensions correlated moderately to strongly (.5–.8) with many of the measures expected to be related and showed additional moderately strong correlations in exploratory analyses. The average gap between current ability and preferred ability correlated moderately with pain (−.56) and a scale of current ability (.46) but diverged from many of the measures. Limitations The limitations of this study included the lack of an intervention to assess the response of the gap to therapy and the use of multiple statistical tests with a small sample. Conclusions The evidence supports the convergent validity for current ability on the MAM but mostly

  7. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    PubMed

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  8. Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = −0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

  9. Exploring the general motor ability construct.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Halijah; Heard, N Paul; Blanksby, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Malaysian students ages 12 to 15 years (N = 330; 165 girls, 165 boys) took the Australian Institute of Sport Talent Identification Test (AIST) and the Balance and Movement Coordination Test (BMC), developed specifically to identify sport talent in Malaysian adolescents. To investigate evidence for general aptitude ("g") in motor ability, a higher-order factor analysis was applied to the motor skills subtests from the AIST and BMC. First-order principal components analysis indicated that scores for the adolescent boys and girls could be described by similar sets of specific motor abilities. In particular, sets of skills identified as Movement Coordination and Postural Control were found, with Balancing Ability also emerging. For the girls, a factor labeled Static Balance was indicated. However, for the boys a more general balance ability labeled Kinesthetic Integration was found, along with an ability labeled Explosive Power. These first-order analyses accounted for 45% to 60% of the variance in the scores on the motor skills tests for the boys and girls, respectively. Separate second-order factor analyses for the boys and girls extracted a single higher-order factor, which was consistent with the existence of a motoric "g". PMID:22185064

  10. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  11. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  12. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  13. Memory for Words and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Ruth

    This paper examines the relationship between strategies for recall of verbal material and the reading ability of 10-to-13-year-old children. Sixty-five fifth and sixth graders, whose reading levels were determined by the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Test (1964), were given an orally presented word-string repetition task. While performance on…

  14. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than... assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  15. Cognitive Correlates of Map-Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholl, M. Jeanne; Egeth, Howard E.

    1982-01-01

    When the mathematics and extended range vocabulary subtests on the Relief Format Assessment Test were factor analyzed, altitude estimation (predicted by mathematics aptitude) and terrain analysis (predicted by vocabulary skills) were found to underly map-reading performance. Solutions were found to be dependent on verbal-analytic ability more than…

  16. Assessment of Problem-Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, J.

    1977-01-01

    Problem-solving ability has been assessed within the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners through the use of patient management problems (PMPs) in both medical and surgical areas. It is shown that the highest marks in PMPs are being achieved by students who arrive at the correct diagnosis without accumulating excessive information and…

  17. Basic Structure of Work-Relevant Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Dale J.

    This study sought to determine whether the dimensions underlying a comprehensive set of 15 work-relevant abilities were similar to the Data/Ideas and Things/People Work Task Dimensions (D. J. Prediger, 1996) underlying J. L. Holland's (1997) hexagonal model of interest and occupational types. The work task dimensions and a general ability…

  18. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  19. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  20. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  1. Brain iron deposits and lifespan cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Ritchie, Stuart; Glatz, Andreas; Allerhand, Mike; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Gow, Alan J; Royle, Natalie A; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have reported associations between brain iron deposits and cognitive status, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases in older individuals, but the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We explored the associations between regional brain iron deposits and different factors of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence, speed and memory) in a large sample (n = 662) of individuals with a mean age of 73 years. Brain iron deposits in the corpus striatum were extracted automatically. Iron deposits in other parts of the brain (i.e., white matter, thalamus, brainstem and cortex), brain tissue volume and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed separately and semi-automatically. Overall, 72.8 % of the sample had iron deposits. The total volume of iron deposits had a small but significant negative association with all three cognitive ability factors in later life (mean r = -0.165), but no relation to intelligence in childhood (r = 0.043, p = 0.282). Regression models showed that these iron deposit associations were still present after control for a variety of vascular health factors, and were separable from the association of WMH with cognitive ability. Iron deposits were also associated with cognition across the lifespan, indicating that they are relevant for cognitive ability only at older ages. Iron deposits might be an indicator of small vessel disease that affects the neuronal networks underlying higher cognitive functioning.

  2. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  3. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  4. Development of Calculation Abilities in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan Cohen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Children aged four through six years were given identical addition and subtraction calculations presented in three problem-type formats: nonverbal problems, story problems, and number-fact problems. Results suggest that children's earliest calculation ability is based on experiences combining and separating sets of objects. Contains 34 references.…

  5. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  6. Psycholinguistic Abilities in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Isser, Aldine

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities was administered to 22 children (mean age=90 months) with petit mal epilepsy and 28 children (mean age=85 months) evidencing mixed seizures to determine whether any differences would be found when these two groups were compared either with each other or with a randomly selected group of nonepileptic…

  7. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  8. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  9. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  10. Teacher Approval and Disapproval by Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Marc Stephen

    This study investigated teachers' use of verbal approval and disapproval as a function of subject matter (mathematics, social studies) and class ability; the use of these behaviors in instructional versus managerial contexts was studied. Five mathematics and five social studies teachers in an inner-city junior high school were observed for 6…

  11. Enhancing Readers' Analysis-by-Synthesis Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    A variety of techniques for improving readers' analysis-by-synthesis abilities (rapid, efficient reading typical of highly skilled readers) are presented in this paper. The techniques discussed in the first part emphasize improving reading comprehension and include the following: (1) modifications of the cloze procedure (encouraging readers to use…

  12. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  13. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  14. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  15. STUDENT ABILITIES, GROUPING PATTERNS, AND CLASSROOM INTERACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREWS, ELIZABETH M.

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF HETEROGENEOUS AND HOMOGENEOUS GROUPING IN NINTH-GRADE ENGLISH CLASSES. ON THE BASES OF IQ AND READING LANGUAGE SKILLS, STUDENTS WERE GROUPED AT THREE ABILITY LEVELS AND PLACE IN HETEROGENEOUS, HOMOGENEOUS SUPERIOR, HOMOGENEOUS SLOW, AND HOMOGENEOUS AVERAGE CLASSES. TEACHER VARIABLES WERE REDUCED BY…

  16. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  17. Designing Playgrounds for Children of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltsman, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Provides performance criteria for creating accessibility for and integration of children of all abilities within school playgrounds. Included are recommendations for accessible route designs; play equipment; sand and water play; gathering places and outdoor classrooms; entrances and signage; and fences, enclosures, and barriers. Proposed changes…

  18. Math Ability: Proof of Sexual Parity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, W.

    1982-01-01

    A test of 1,366 high school students revealed no significant sex differences in the ability to perform geometrical proofs. Boys did outscore girls on overall achievement in geometry, but the results are believed to reflect differential exposure to mathematics outside the classroom. (MP)

  19. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  20. Learning ability in children with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elefant, Cochavit; Wigram, Tony

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present results of a research study examining learning ability in individuals with Rett syndrome. The material for this article was drawn from a more extensive doctoral study, designed to investigate intentional communication in this population, through the use of songs in music therapy. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from an X-linked mutation, affecting mainly females, and found across racial and ethnic groups worldwide. One of the main areas affecting functioning in individuals with Rett syndrome is a severe impairment of receptive and expressive communication. This creates difficulties when attempting to reveal their potential learning abilities. This population has been observed as very responsive to music hence music therapy intervention has been advocated in promoting and motivating them to communicate and to learn. Seven girls with Rett syndrome, between ages 4 and 10 participated in the study. A single subject, multiple probe design was applied during 30-min trials, three times per week and lasted 8 months. During the trials the participants were asked to choose from a selection of 18 familiar and unfamiliar songs, while their ability to learn was observed and measured. Findings revealed that all seven girls demonstrated an ability to learn and to sustain learning over time. This intervention demonstrated that individuals with Rett syndrome could be promoted and motivated to communicate and learn when therapeutically employed by a trained music therapists.

  1. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  2. Evaluating Business School Undergraduates' Situation Analytical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ghee-Soon

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to test students' ability to analyze business situations was administered to 120 undergraduates. Level of study, achievement in business curriculum, and stress resilience were associated with test performance. Gender, age, family income, and high school results were not related to performance. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  3. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  4. 21st Century Conceptions of Musical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored conceptions of musical ability using an inventory derived from previous qualitative research. Participants included 102 musicians, 95 educators, 132 adult amateur musicians, 60 adults who were not actively engaged in making music, 193 children actively engaged in making music in addition to their engagement with the school…

  5. Models of Problem Solving Processes and Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; Guthrie, Virginia A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews current models of problem solving to identify results relevant to teachers or instructional developers. Four areas are covered: information processing models, approaches stressing human abilities and factors, creative problem solving models, and other aspects of problem solving. Part of a theme issue on intelligence. (Author/SJL)

  6. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities.

    PubMed

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities.

  7. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  8. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  9. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  10. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  11. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  12. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  13. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  14. Memory Abilities in Williams Syndrome: Dissociation or Developmental Delay Hypothesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampaio, Adriana; Sousa, Nuno; Fernandez, Montse; Henriques, Margarida; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder often described as being characterized by a dissociative cognitive architecture, in which profound impairments of visuo-spatial cognition contrast with relative preservation of linguistic, face recognition and auditory short-memory abilities. This asymmetric and dissociative cognition…

  15. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  16. High School Mathematics Preparation and Sex Differences in Quantitative Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    1981-01-01

    On six mathematical subtests studied, males scored higher plus took significantly more algebra, geometry, advanced mathematics, and physics coursework. Females earned higher overall mathematics grades. After statistically controlling for the amount of coursework taken, sex differences disappeared on two quantitative tests and on spatial ability.…

  17. Hearing ability decreases in ageing locusts.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shira D; Windmill, James F C

    2015-07-01

    Insects display signs of ageing, despite their short lifespan. However, the limited studies on senescence emphasize longevity or reproduction. We focused on the hearing ability of ageing adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. Our results indicate that the youngest adults (2 weeks post-maturity) have a greater overall neurophysiological response to sound, especially for low frequencies (<10 kHz), as well as a shorter latency to this neural response. Interestingly, when measuring displacement of the tympanal membrane that the receptor neurons directly attach to, we found movement is not directly correlated with neural response. Therefore, we suggest the enhanced response in younger animals is due to the condition of their tissues (e.g. elasticity). Secondly, we found the sexes do not have the same responses, particularly at 4 weeks post-adult moult. We propose female reproductive condition reduces their ability to receive sounds. Overall our results indicate older animals, especially females, are less sensitive to sounds.

  18. Team effectiveness: beyond skills and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Neuman, G A; Wright, J

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance. At the individual level of analysis, measures of personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted peer ratings of team member performance beyond measures of job-specific skills and general cognitive ability. Similarly, at the group level of analysis, both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted supervisor ratings of work team performance, objective measures of work team accuracy, and work completed. At both the individual and group levels, the trait of Agreeableness predicted Interpersonal Skills. PMID:10380418

  19. [Do neural networks revolutionize our predictive abilities?].

    PubMed

    Brause, R W

    1999-01-01

    This paper claims for a rational treatment of patient data. It investigates data analysis with the aid of artificial neural networks. Successful example applications show that human diagnosis abilities are significantly worse than those of neural diagnosis systems. For the example of a newer architecture using RBF nets the basic functionality is explained and it is shown how human and neural expertise can be coupled. Finally, the applications and problems of this kind of systems are discussed.

  20. Changing Reasoning Ability in College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Data from several years and several different classes have shown that student scores on the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning don't change much over the course of a single semester, and are strongly correlated with FCI gains. So what does change Lawson scores? We have new data that we think shows that more interaction with materials that demand reasoning (and not just clicker questions and end of chapter Homework problems) improves reasoning ability and subsequently conceptual development.

  1. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  2. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  3. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  4. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  5. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  6. Comparing masticatory performance and mixing ability.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Mojet, J; Tekamp, F A; Abbink, J H

    2010-02-01

    Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been used as test foods for the quantification of the mixing ability. The aim of our study was to compare the results obtained with the comminution of an artificial test food and the results obtained from mixing of a two-coloured chewing gum. The degree of mixing of the colours of the chewing gum was quantified with an optical method. Twenty young subjects with a natural dentition (average age 24 years) and twenty elderly subjects, mostly with complete dentures (average age 72 years), participated in the study. Significant differences in masticatory performance between the two groups were detected with both methods. However, the comminution test was better in discriminating the masticatory performance of the two groups. The mixing ability test with the two-coloured chewing gum proofed to be a good method to determine masticatory function in subjects with a compromised masticatory performance (elderly subjects). However, the method appeared to be less suitable for subjects with a good masticatory performance (young subjects).

  7. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  8. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  9. Enhanced mental rotation ability in time-space synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Miller, Luke E; McQuire, Marguerite; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2013-11-01

    Time-space synesthesia is a variant of sequence-space synesthesia and involves the involuntary association of months of the year with 2D and 3D spatial forms, such as arcs, circles, and ellipses. Previous studies have revealed conflicting results regarding the association between time-space synesthesia and enhanced spatial processing ability. Here, we tested 15 time-space synesthetes, and 15 non-synesthetic controls matched for age, education, and gender on standard tests of mental rotation ability, spatial working memory, and verbal working memory. Synesthetes performed better than controls on our test of mental rotation, but similarly to controls on tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Results support a dissociation between visuo-spatial imagery and spatial working memory capacity, and suggest time-space synesthesia is associated only with enhanced visuo-spatial imagery. These data are consistent with the time-space connectivity thesis that time-space synesthesia results from enhanced connectivity in the parietal lobe between regions supporting the representation of temporal sequences and those underlying visuo-spatial imagery.

  10. Assessing Visuospatial Abilities in Healthy Aging: A Novel Visuomotor Task

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Natalie; Bryant, Devon C.; MacLean, Jessica N.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18–25 years) and older adults (60–82 years) to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualization abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating: (1) developmental; (2) sex-based; and (3) pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain. PMID:26869918

  11. Electronic and Spatial Structures of Water-Soluble Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Thiol-Containing Ligands Underlying Their Ability to Act as Nitric Oxide and Nitrosonium Ion Donors

    PubMed Central

    Vanin, Anatoly F.; Burbaev, Dosymzhan Sh.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of mononuclear dinitrosyl iron commplexes (M-DNICs) with thiolate ligands to act as NO donors and to trigger S-nitrosation of thiols can be explain only in the paradigm of the model of the [Fe+(NO+)2] core ({Fe(NO)2}7 according to the Enemark-Feltham classification). Similarly, the {(RS−)2Fe+(NO+)2}+ structure describing the distribution of unpaired electron density in M-DNIC corresponds to the low-spin (S = 1/2) state with a d7 electron configuration of the iron atom and predominant localization of the unpaired electron on MO(dz2) and the square planar structure of M-DNIC. On the other side, the formation of molecular orbitals of M-DNIC including orbitals of the iron atom, thiolate and nitrosyl ligands results in a transfer of electron density from sulfur atoms to the iron atom and nitrosyl ligands. Under these conditions, the positive charge on the nitrosyl ligands diminishes appreciably, the interaction of the ligands with hydroxyl ions or with thiols slows down and the hydrolysis of nitrosyl ligands and the S-nitrosating effect of the latter are not manifested. Most probably, the S-nitrosating effect of nitrosyl ligands is a result of weak binding of thiolate ligands to the iron atom under conditions favoring destabilization of M-DNIC. PMID:22505886

  12. Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

    1982-01-01

    Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

  13. Estimation abilities of large numerosities in Kindergartners.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Sandrine; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education). The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5-6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children's early number competence as well as schools' socio-economic index (SEI). This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8-64). In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1-12) at the end of the 2nd (N = 42) and the 3rd (N = 32) Kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on) extending far beyond children's symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd Kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd Kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children's estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from preschool on. PMID:24009591

  14. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  15. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  16. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  17. Sex, handedness, mathematical ability, and biological causation.

    PubMed

    Peters, M

    1991-09-01

    An important part of Benbow's (1988) assertion that sex differences in mathematical ability are primarily due to biological factors is the link between a trait that is assumed to reflect differences in brain organization (left-handedness) and mathematical giftedness. It is shown that the link between mathematical giftedness and an increased prevalence of left-handedness is not convincing. However, Benbow's (1986) data do show a convincing link between strong right-handedness and the lack of mathematical giftedness, in agreement with Annett and Manning's (1990a, 1990b) recent work.

  18. Measure of the ability to rotate mental images.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an innovative test to measure the ability to rotate mental images. An unfolded cube was designed, which participants had to reassemble mentally, prior to mentally rotating the image, and answering 23 questions concerning the cube. The Measure of the Ability to Rotate Mental Images (MARMI) test was administered to 354 participants. Cronbach alpha was .90, and high correlations between this test and other image rotation and spatial image tests were found. However, poor correlations were observed between test scores and the responses to the visual imagery vividness questionnaire. Both test reliability and validity underscore that it is a good instrument for measuring the ability to rotate mental images.

  19. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  20. The development of perceptual motor sequencing ability.

    PubMed

    Zaichkowsky, L D

    1974-12-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to investigate the possibility that short-term memory may be a limiting factor in the development of perceptual-motor sequencing ability, (b) to determine whether sex differences exist in sequencing ability, (c) to determine whether organized information facilitates serial recall, and (d) to ascertain whether the recall of serial perceptual-motor responses results in a bow-shaped serial-position curve. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design was used to analyze the independent variables of age, sex, and pattern organization. Further, an age × serial position ANOVA was performed to investigate the serial-position curve. Serial recall improved with age; however young children experienced difficulty in recalling a complex task. The poor recall performance of 5-yr.-old children was discussed in terms of the possibility that young children fail to use labeling strategies to facilitate recall. No sex differences were found. A primacy effect was obtained on the complex task.

  1. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. PMID:27287074

  2. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only. PMID:21336738

  3. [Can specialized sperm analysis predict fertilization ability?].

    PubMed

    Hakima, N; Sermondade, N; Sifer, C

    2012-09-01

    Conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF) is an assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedure, which requires both a sufficient number of motile sperm to be inseminated around the oocyte but also an optimal fertilizing ability of the inseminated sperm. Thus, the frequency of the risk that this method leads to a failure of fertilization varies depending on the cIVF indication and is enhanced if no factor of infertility was found in the first-line examination, suggesting a "qualitative" incapacity of the sperm to fertilize. Thus, many secondary sperm tests have been studied to know whether they could predict such fertilization failure The aim of this review is then to analyze the literature interested on these secondary specialized explorations sperm and their ability to predict the fertilization rate following cIVF, especially when an idiopathic (normal conventional sperm examination, including normal pelvic laparoscopy) or a pseudo-idiopathic infertility (normal conventional sperm examination, but non-done pelvic laparoscopy) are suspected.

  4. Change in Cognitive Abilities in Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Marquez, David X; Amofa, Priscilla; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cognitive decline in older Latinos and non-Latinos. At annual intervals for a mean of 5.7 years, older Latino (n=104) and non-Latino (n=104) persons of equivalent age, education, and race completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which previously established composite measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability were derived. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education, performance declined over time in each cognitive domain, but there were no ethnic group differences in initial level of function or annual rate of decline. There was evidence of retest learning following the baseline evaluation, but neither the magnitude nor duration of the effect was related to Latino ethnicity, and eliminating the first two evaluations, during which much of retest learning occurred, did not affect ethnic group comparisons. Compared to the non-Latino group, the Latino group had more diabetes (38.5% vs. 25.0; χ2[1]=4.4; p=.037), fewer histories of smoking (24.0% vs. 39.4%, χ2[1]=5.7; p=.017), and lower childhood household socioeconomic level (-0.410 vs. -0.045, t[185.0]=3.1; p=.002), but controlling for these factors did not affect results. Trajectories of cognitive aging in different abilities are similar in Latino and non-Latino individuals of equivalent age, education, and race. (JINS, 2016, 22, 58-65).

  5. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  6. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  7. [Psychotropic drugs and driving ability--fundamentals].

    PubMed

    Schaumann, Hans H

    2011-05-01

    Drug therapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of mental disorders. Analogously, driving a motor vehicle plays a key factor in full reintegration into occupational and social life. In a professional assessment of driving ability, the specific drug involved is less important than as comprehensive an evaluation as possible of all traffic-medicine-relevant factors. Among others, the individual's driving history, the impact of the underlying psychiatric condition, effects and side effects in different stages of therapy, possible effects of combination with other drugs, and possible substance use need to be taken into account. Experience shows, however, that a positive appraisal of driving ability is almost always possible thanks to use of an appropriate, safe medication. As only a few specific studies have been conducted, in the individual assessment, the extensive experience and opportunities of a recognized traffic medicine institute should be drawn upon, in order to obtain additional legal coverage and to safeguard the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:21506088

  8. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors.

  9. Development of a mathematical ability test: a validity and reliability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Sefa; Temel, Hasan; Gündüz, Nazan

    2016-10-01

    The identification of talented students accurately at an early age and the adaptation of the education provided to the students depending on their abilities are of great importance for the future of the countries. In this regard, this study aims to develop a mathematical ability test for the identification of the mathematical abilities of students and the determination of the relationships between the structure of abilities and these structures. Furthermore, this study adopts test development processes. A structure consisting of the factors of quantitative ability, causal ability, inductive/deductive reasoning ability, qualitative ability and spatial ability has been obtained following this study. The fit indices of the finalized version of the mathematical ability test of 24 items indicate the suitability of the test.

  10. Cognitive abilities in reading-disabled children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; Decker, S N; DeFries, J C

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (9.4 +/- 1.3 and 14.8 +/- 1.2 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results of a two-factor (GROUP X TIME), mixed-model, multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed and spatial reasoning abilities at both ages. Although both reading-disabled and control children were found to improve significantly between the two testing sessions, the lack of a significant GROUP X TIME interaction on measures of academic achievement and spatial reasoning abilities indicated that the rate of development was similar for the two groups. For measures of symbolic processing speed, however, differences between reading-disabled and control children were somewhat greater at the later age.

  11. The role of timbre in pitch matching abilities and pitch discrimination abilities with complex tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert E.; Watts, Christopher R.; Zhang, Fawen

    2001-05-01

    Control of fundamental frequency (F0) is important for singing in-tune and is an important factor related to the perception of a talented singing voice. One purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pitch-matching skills, which is one method of testing F0 control, and pitch discrimination skills. It was observed that there was a relationship between pitch matching abilities and pitch discrimination abilities. Those subjects that were accurate pitch matchers were also accurate pitch discriminators (and vice versa). Further, timbre differences appeared to play a role in pitch discrimination accuracy. A second part of the study investigated the effect of timbre on speech discrimination. To study this, all but the first five harmonics of complex tones with different timbre were removed for the pitch discrimination task, thus making the tones more similar in timbre. Under this condition no difference was found between the pitch discrimination abilities of those who were accurate pitch matchers and those who were inaccurate pitch matchers. The results suggest that accurate F0 control is at least partially dependent on pitch discrimination abilities, and timbre appears to play an important role in differences in pitch discrimination ability.

  12. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children’s precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the present study we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of two years. Additionally, at the last time point, we tested children’s informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3; Ginsburg & Baroody, 2003). We found that children’s numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned, non-symbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematical reasoning that children come to master through instruction. PMID:24076381

  13. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction.

  14. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  15. Children's ability to impute inferentially based knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rai, Roshan; Mitchell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Do young children appreciate the importance of access to premises when judging what another person knows? In Experiment 1, 5-year-olds (N=31) were sensitive to another person's access to premises when predicting that person's ability to point to a target after eliminating alternatives in a set of 3 cartoon characters. Experiment 2 replicated the finding when 5- to 6-year-olds (N=102) judged who the other person thought the target was, and whether the other person knew who the target was. Experiment 3 demonstrated that children aged 5-7 years (N=107) more successfully imputed inference by elimination than syllogistical inferential knowledge. Findings suggest that an early understanding of inference by elimination offers a route into understanding that people can sometimes gain knowledge without direct perceptual access.

  16. Does music instruction improve fine motor abilities?

    PubMed

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2005-12-01

    The fine motor abilities of children who participated in two years of piano instruction and those who had never received formal music training were compared before and after the instruction. A significant improvement in fine motor skills was found only for the children who received the lessons, and a significant difference in the speed of response was found between the two groups at the end of the two years of instruction. The innumerable opportunities to assess, refine, and time their motor responses to specific stimuli during musical practice and the availability of constant evaluative feedback (i.e., sound) may allow musicians to improve the accuracy and speed of perceiving and responding to relevant stimuli.

  17. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  18. Linking Abilities, Interests, and Sex via Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The few studies that have examined associations between measured interests and abilities have suffered from small sample sizes, restricted ranges of ability and background, preconceived groupings of interests, and measures of ability that confound general and specific cognitive abilities. In this study of 425 adults from diverse backgrounds, the…

  19. Investigation and Evaluation of the open source ETL tools GeoKettle and Talend Open Studio in terms of their ability to process spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Kristin; Quedenau, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    Integration and harmonization of large spatial data sets is not only since the introduction of the spatial data infrastructure INSPIRE a big issue. The process of extracting and combining spatial data from heterogeneous source formats, transforming that data to obtain the required quality for particular purposes and loading it into a data store, are common tasks. The procedure of Extraction, Transformation and Loading of data is called ETL process. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can take over many of these tasks but often they are not suitable for processing large datasets. ETL tools can make the implementation and execution of ETL processes convenient and efficient. One reason for choosing ETL tools for data integration is that they ease maintenance because of a clear (graphical) presentation of the transformation steps. Developers and administrators are provided with tools for identification of errors, analyzing processing performance and managing the execution of ETL processes. Another benefit of ETL tools is that for most tasks no or only little scripting skills are required so that also researchers without programming background can easily work with it. Investigations on ETL tools for business approaches are available for a long time. However, little work has been published on the capabilities of those tools to handle spatial data. In this work, we review and compare the open source ETL tools GeoKettle and Talend Open Studio in terms of processing spatial data sets of different formats. For evaluation, ETL processes are performed with both software packages based on air quality data measured during the BÄRLIN2014 Campaign initiated by the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS). The aim of the BÄRLIN2014 Campaign is to better understand the sources and distribution of particulate matter in Berlin. The air quality data are available in heterogeneous formats because they were measured with different instruments. For further data analysis

  20. Two Fifth Grade Measures of Cognitive Abilities. A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Pamela Elizabeth

    Two fifth grade measures of the ability to deal with symbolic relationships were developed for use in future factor analytic research concerning the nature of intelligence. Circle Reasoning was adopted from an adult level test by modifying the number of symbols and the nature of the principles on which the items were based. Item analysis results…

  1. The Developmental Change of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics in Relation to Their Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is a multidimensional construct with two main dimensions: knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. The present study aimed to model the development of young pupils' metacognitive abilities in mathematics in relation to processing efficiency, working memory and mathematical performance. We developed instruments measuring…

  2. A Detailed Analysis of DanceAbility's Contribution to Mixed-Abilities Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Amanda; Chatfield, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960s a visible shift in the ideology of contemporary dancers and choreographers took place. A desire for a dance language that rejected the need for the classical dancerly body paved the way for dance that was open to a more diverse population of participants. DanceAbility emerged in that late 1980s as a method of making dance accessible…

  3. Impacts of Niche Breadth and Dispersal Ability on Macroevolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huijie; Saupe, Erin E; Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend; Myers, Corinne E

    2016-08-01

    We describe a spatially explicit simulation experiment designed to assess relative impacts of macroecological traits on patterns of biological diversification under changing environmental conditions. Using a simulation framework, we assessed impacts of species' niche breadth (i.e., the range of their abiotic tolerances) and dispersal ability on resulting patterns of speciation and extinction and evaluated how these traits, in conjunction with environmental change, shape biological diversification. Simulation results supported both niche breadth and dispersal ability as important drivers of diversification in the face of environmental change, and suggested that the rate of environmental change influences how species interact with the extrinsic environment to generate diversity. Niche breadth had greater effects on speciation and extinction than dispersal ability when climate changed rapidly, whereas dispersal ability effects were elevated when climate changed slowly. Our simulations provide a bottom-up perspective on the generation and maintenance of diversity under climate change, offering a better understanding of potential interactions between species' intrinsic macroecological characteristics and a dynamic extrinsic environment in the process of biological diversification.

  4. Impacts of Niche Breadth and Dispersal Ability on Macroevolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huijie; Saupe, Erin E; Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend; Myers, Corinne E

    2016-08-01

    We describe a spatially explicit simulation experiment designed to assess relative impacts of macroecological traits on patterns of biological diversification under changing environmental conditions. Using a simulation framework, we assessed impacts of species' niche breadth (i.e., the range of their abiotic tolerances) and dispersal ability on resulting patterns of speciation and extinction and evaluated how these traits, in conjunction with environmental change, shape biological diversification. Simulation results supported both niche breadth and dispersal ability as important drivers of diversification in the face of environmental change, and suggested that the rate of environmental change influences how species interact with the extrinsic environment to generate diversity. Niche breadth had greater effects on speciation and extinction than dispersal ability when climate changed rapidly, whereas dispersal ability effects were elevated when climate changed slowly. Our simulations provide a bottom-up perspective on the generation and maintenance of diversity under climate change, offering a better understanding of potential interactions between species' intrinsic macroecological characteristics and a dynamic extrinsic environment in the process of biological diversification. PMID:27420781

  5. Working memory, worry, and algebraic ability.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    Math anxiety (MA)-working memory (WM) relationships have typically been examined in the context of arithmetic problem solving, and little research has examined the relationship in other math domains (e.g., algebra). Moreover, researchers have tended to examine MA/worry separate from math problem solving activities and have used general WM tasks rather than domain-relevant WM measures. Furthermore, it seems to have been assumed that MA affects all areas of math. It is possible, however, that MA is restricted to particular math domains. To examine these issues, the current research assessed claims about the impact on algebraic problem solving of differences in WM and algebraic worry. A sample of 80 14-year-old female students completed algebraic worry, algebraic WM, algebraic problem solving, nonverbal IQ, and general math ability tasks. Latent profile analysis of worry and WM measures identified four performance profiles (subgroups) that differed in worry level and WM capacity. Consistent with expectations, subgroup membership was associated with algebraic problem solving performance: high WM/low worry>moderate WM/low worry=moderate WM/high worry>low WM/high worry. Findings are discussed in terms of the conceptual relationship between emotion and cognition in mathematics and implications for the MA-WM-performance relationship.

  6. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  7. Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Vitoria T.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Miranda, Mônica C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25076000

  8. Nature versus nurture in determining athletic ability.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban J

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the truism that both nature and nurture determine human athletic ability. The major thesis developed is that environmental effects work through the process of growth and development and interact with an individual's genetic background to produce a specific adult phenotype, i.e. an athletic or nonathletic phenotype. On the nature side (genetics), a brief historical review is provided with emphasis on several areas that are likely to command future attention including the rise of genome-wide association as a mapping strategy, the problem of false positives using association approaches, as well as the relatively unknown effects of gene-gene interaction(epistasis), gene-environment interaction, and genome structure on complex trait variance. On the nurture side (environment), common environmental effects such as training-level and sports nutrition are largely ignored in favor of developmental environmental effects that are channeled through growth and development processes. Developmental effects are difficult to distinguish from genetic effects as phenotypic plasticity in response to early life environmental perturbation can produce lasting effects into adulthood. In this regard, the fetal programming (FP) hypothesis is reviewed in some detail as FP provides an excellent example of how developmental effects work and also interact with genetics. In general, FP has well-documented effects on adult body composition and the risk for adult chronic disease, but there is emerging evidence that FP affects human athletic performance as well. PMID:19696505

  9. The supercooling ability of ticks (Acari, Ixodoidea).

    PubMed

    Dautel, H; Knülle, W

    1996-01-01

    The supercooling capacity of nine laboratory-held species of ticks originating from different geographical areas, as well as five field-collected species from Germany, was investigated. All but one tick species showed mean supercooling points between about -17 and -23 degrees C, suggesting that the capacity to supercool to temperatures of < or = -17 degrees C might be an inherent property of many tick species unrelated to their geographic origin. Photoperiod did not influence the mean supercooling point in any of the species and there was also no distinct seasonal pattern of supercooling in seasonally acclimatized Dermacentor marginatus. Thus, the supercooling ability was independent of the presence/absence of diapause. The finding of thermal hysteresis in D. marginatus hemolymph raises the question of whether or not anti-freeze proteins are involved in the supercooling capacity of that species. An interspecies comparison revealed a weak negative correlation between relative water content and supercooling point of the ticks and an even weaker correlation between body mass or body water mass and the supercooling point. Since the ticks exhibited low supercooling points both before and shortly after feeding, the blood used as food should lack potent ice nucleators.

  10. Complexity and Ability in Ising Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ayax; George, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In previous work [1, 2], we discussed various facets of designs in games, and considered the evolution [2] of Ising games. The traditional aspect of game theory, with its focus on rational decisions, was not considered in this work. Instead, there was a predominant interest in the time evolution of design toward a goal design, and resulting levels of frustration. There was also a concern with time- reversal properties. In the new work, our goal is to consider the molecular structureof the Ising model as it evolves, and to associate this molecular structure with feedback into the structure that can be understood in algorithmic terms. We develop an analogy with the famous Malthusian argument concerning exponential population increase, associating ability to cope with complexity, and algorithmic complexity, and discuss biological implications of the ideas associated with these games. [1] M. George, A nonequilibrium statistical model based on latin squares, paper presented at WorldComp'07, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 25-28, 2007. [2] M. George, Classical and quantum Ising games, paper presented at Fourth International Conference in Applied Mathematics and Computing, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, August, 2007.

  11. Mechanisms underlying an ability to behave ethically.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Donald W; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists have anticipated the union of neural and behavioral science with ethics (Gazzaniga 2005). The identification of an ethical rule--the dictum that we should treat others in the manner in which we would like to be treated--apparently widespread among human societies suggests a dependence on fundamental human brain mechanisms. Now, studies of neural and molecular mechanisms that underlie the feeling of fear suggest how this form of ethical behavior is produced. Counterintuitively, a new theory presented here states that it is actually a loss of social information that leads to sharing others' fears with our own, thus allowing us to treat others as we would like to be treated. Adding to that hypothetical mechanism is the well-studied predilection toward affiliative behaviors. Thus, even as Chomsky hypothesizes that humans are predisposed to utter grammatical sentences, we propose that humans are 'wired for reciprocity'. However, these two neural forces supporting ethical behavior do not explain individual or collective violence. At any given moment, the ability to produce behavior that obeys this ethical rule is proposed to depend on a balance between mechanisms for prosocial and antisocial behaviors. That balance results not only from genetic influences on temperament but also from environmental effects particularly during critical neonatal and pubertal periods.

  12. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465]. PMID:15474175

  13. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  14. Competitive ability in male house mice (Mus musculus): genetic influences.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Christopher B; Ruff, James S; Chase, Kevin; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2013-03-01

    Conspecifics of many animal species physically compete to gain reproductive resources and thus fitness. Despite the importance of competitive ability across the animal kingdom, specific traits that influence or underpin competitive ability are poorly characterized. Here, we investigate whether there are genetic influences on competitive ability within male house mice. Additionally, we examined if litter demographics (litter size and litter sex ratio) influence competitive ability. We phenotyped two generations for a male's ability to possess a reproductive resource--a prime nesting site--using semi-natural enclosures with mixed sex groupings. We used the "Animal Model" coupled with an extensive pedigree to estimate several genetic parameters. Competitive ability was found to be highly heritable, but only displayed a moderate genetic correlation to body mass. Interestingly, litter sex ratio had a weak negative influence on competitive ability. Litter size had no significant influence on competitive ability. Our study also highlights how much remains unknown about the proximal causes of competitive ability.

  15. Spatial attention and reading ability: ERP correlates of flanker and cue-size effects in good and poor adult phonological decoders.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-12-01

    To investigate facilitatory and inhibitory processes during selective attention among adults with good (n=17) and poor (n=14) phonological decoding skills, a go/nogo flanker task was completed while EEG was recorded. Participants responded to a middle target letter flanked by compatible or incompatible flankers. The target was surrounded by a small or large circular cue which was presented simultaneously or 500ms prior. Poor decoders showed a greater RT cost for incompatible stimuli preceded by large cues and less RT benefit for compatible stimuli. Poor decoders also showed reduced modulation of ERPs by cue-size at left hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and by flanker compatibility at right hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and frontal sites (N2), consistent with processing differences in fronto-parietal attention networks. These findings have potential implications for understanding the relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in dyslexia. PMID:26562794

  16. Spatial attention and reading ability: ERP correlates of flanker and cue-size effects in good and poor adult phonological decoders.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-12-01

    To investigate facilitatory and inhibitory processes during selective attention among adults with good (n=17) and poor (n=14) phonological decoding skills, a go/nogo flanker task was completed while EEG was recorded. Participants responded to a middle target letter flanked by compatible or incompatible flankers. The target was surrounded by a small or large circular cue which was presented simultaneously or 500ms prior. Poor decoders showed a greater RT cost for incompatible stimuli preceded by large cues and less RT benefit for compatible stimuli. Poor decoders also showed reduced modulation of ERPs by cue-size at left hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and by flanker compatibility at right hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and frontal sites (N2), consistent with processing differences in fronto-parietal attention networks. These findings have potential implications for understanding the relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in dyslexia.

  17. Childhood Cognitive Ability: Relationship to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poorer cognitive ability in children born to mothers with GDM compared to children born to non-GDM mothers in India. Methods During 1997-98 maternal GDM status was assessed at 30±2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007-2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32-offspring of GDM mothers (ODM’s); 483-offspring of non-GDM mothers (controls)) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-second edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results Compared to controls, ODM’S scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p=0.008), reasoning (p=0.02), verbal ability (p=0.01) and attention and concentration (p=0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child’s age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity, BMI, parent’s socio-economic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (β=0.4SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.75); p=0.042) and verbal ability (β=0.5SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.83); p=0.015) and not with other test scores. Conclusions/interpretation In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM’s. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM’s. PMID:20614102

  18. Effects of opioids on driving ability.

    PubMed

    Galski, T; Williams, J B; Ehle, H T

    2000-03-01

    Driving has been regarded as an activity of daily living that is important in maintaining a person's independence in the community, access to employment, and social activities. Many patients, however, using opioid medications on a regular basis (Chronic Opioid Analgesic Therapy: COAT) to ameliorate their intractable pain have been restricted from driving out of concern that skills would be impaired and driving safety compromised by these medications. Yet there are no driving studies which have explored the effects of using opioid analgesics for an extended period of time. This pilot study was designed to determine the effects of medically prescribed, stable opioid use on the driving abilities of patients with persistent, nonmalignant pain. Sixteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain on COAT, who met criteria for participation in the study, underwent a comprehensive off-road driving evaluation using measures which have been shown to be sensitive in predicting on-road driving performance. The evaluation consisted of a pre-driver evaluation (PDE), a simulator evaluation (SDE), and behavioral observation during simulator performance. Patients in the COAT group were compared to a historical control group of 327 cerebrally compromised patients (CComp) who had undergone the same evaluation and then passed an on-road, behind-the-wheel evaluation (BTW Pass; n = 162) or failed (BTW Fail; n = 165). Results revealed that COAT patients generally outperformed the CComp patients as a group by equaling or exceeding PDE and SDE scores of the BTW Fail patients as well as the BTW Pass patients on all measures that differentiated the groups. Notably, COAT patients had a relatively poorer performance than CComp patients on specific neuropsychometric tests in the PDE; however, the differences were not statistically significant and did not imply a systematic pattern of scores that reflected domain-specific deficits. Behaviorally, COAT patients were generally superior to CComp

  19. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

  20. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  1. Narrative Fiction and Expository Nonfiction Differentially Predict Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Rain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Although reading is known to be an important contributor to language abilities, it is not yet well established whether different text genres are uniquely associated with verbal abilities. We examined how exposure to narrative fiction and expository nonfiction predict language ability among university students. Exposure was measured both with…

  2. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  3. 50 CFR 253.13 - Ability and experience requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ability and experience requirements. 253... Obligation Guarantee Program § 253.13 Ability and experience requirements. A notemaker and the majority of its principals must generally have the ability, experience, resources, character, reputation,...

  4. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  5. Intonation Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; van Ewijk, Lizet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated expressive and receptive intonation abilities in children with Williams syndrome (WS) and the relation of these abilities to other linguistic abilities. Method: Fourteen children with WS, 14 typically developing children matched to the WS group for receptive language (LA), and 15 typically developing children…

  6. Visual scanning and reading ability in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Mazzotti, S; Brizzolara, D

    2008-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the development of visual search of aligned stimuli in relation to normal reading acquisition and in developmental dyslexia. In this study we used a new computerised experimental task which requires a visuo-motor response (RT) to a target appearing unpredictably in one out of seven different spatial positions on a horizontally aligned array of 18 geometrical figures. The aims of the study were to investigate: 1) the visual scanning development in normal children from pre-school to school age; 2) whether visual scanning performance in kindergarten children could predict reading acquisition; 3) the visual scanning abilities in a group of developmental dyslexic children. The main results were: 1) a significant decrement of RTs with age and a progressive increase of the left-to-right gradient with reading experience; 2) visual scanning abilities in kindergarten proved to be a good predictor of reading acquisition; 3) dyslexics were slow scanners and did not present the left-to-right strategy typical of normal readers. The results support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual scanning and reading abilities.

  7. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  8. Experience, Spatial Abilities, and Chess Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne D.; Morgan, David

    A study examined chess expertise in 113 children in grades 1-12 who played competitive chess. Specific attention was given to the relationship between experience, as measured by number of games played, and skill, as measured by national chess ratings. For the top 15 players, emphasis was placed on relationships among chess skill, spatial…

  9. No association between music ability and hand preference in children.

    PubMed

    Piro, Joseph; Ortiz, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Hand preference was studied in 2 groups of children-children with musical ability and children without musical ability-to examine whether particular markers that may connect with handedness patterns, such as bias away from dextrality or mixed-handedness, stabilize during childhood and are associated with musical ability. Children were administered the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory to determine levels of right, left, and mixed handedness. Results demonstrated no differences in hand preference between both cohorts of children, suggesting the relative independence of musical ability and handedness. However, the inclusion of handedness as a motor marker for musical ability in children in conjunction with other preexisting neurocognitive factors cannot be entirely discounted.

  10. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  11. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  12. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  13. Visual processing of nonlinguistic strings: redundancy effects and reading ability.

    PubMed

    Mason, M; Katz, L

    1976-12-01

    Visual redundancy effects were investigated in two experiments using nonalphabetic material. Experiment 1 had adult subjects search for the presence or absence of a predetermined target symbol through single six-symbol linear arrays. Reaction times were significantly faster in both a distributional redundancy and a spatial redundancy condition than in a no-redundancy condition. Experiment 2 had good and poor sixth-grade readers serve in the no-redundancy and spatial redundancy conditions of Experment 1. Poor readers were equivalent to good readers in the no-redundancy condition but were significantly slower in the spatial redundancy condition. Thus, spatial redundancy was shown to be operative in single symbol search time in a paradigm that avoided confounding by higher order linguistic variables. The present experiments, in conjunction with prior findings that good and poor readers differ in letter search time by their ability to use spatial redundancy, suggest that processes involved in the component skill of letter identification cannot be considered trivial to the reading process.

  14. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children.

  15. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children. PMID:25818537

  16. [Treadmill running enhances the ability of learning in young rats.].

    PubMed

    Lou, Shu-Jie; Liu, Jin-Yan; Yang, Ruo-Yu; Chen, Pei-Jie

    2006-08-25

    To investigate the effect of treadmill running on the ability of learning in young rats, male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks of age) were used for the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into the control and running groups (n=15 in each group). The rats in running group were made run on a motor-driven treadmill for 1 week at a speed of 2 m/min for the first 5 min, at a speed of 5 m/min for the next 5 min, then at a speed of 8 m/min for the last 20 min. Then the Morris water maze was used to observe learning and memory ability of rats in both groups. The tests consisted of place navigation and spatial probe test. We found that, in place navigation training, the latency of rats in running group was less than that in control group (P<0.05); and from the third training session on, there was significant difference between the rats in control and running groups in swimming velocity (P<0.01); furthermore, it was observed that the rats in running group had stronger motivation and more exact orientation in searching for platform, which could be indicated by the index of turn angle and angular velocity. In spatial probe test, there was no significant difference between the two groups in swimming velocity, percentage of swimming distance and frequency of crossing platform in D quadrant, where the platform situated (P>0.05). These findings suggest that low speed treadmill running can enhance the ability of learning in young rats.

  17. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered.

  18. Children with Williams Syndrome: Developmental Trajectories for Intellectual Abilities, Vocabulary Abilities, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Pitts, C. Holley

    2016-01-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4 – 15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (> 7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (< 7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  19. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  20. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  1. On the Primary Factors Affecting Linguistic Ability in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alahuhta, Eila

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with weaker speech ability have greater difficulties in perception, powers of reasoning and spatial orientation than children with better speech ability, and assessed the value of Apgar scores as a predictive measure of later linguistic disorders. Subjects were 100 children born in 1970 who attended…

  2. Leavening ability of baker's yeast exposed to hyperosmotic media.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, R; Yokoigawa, K

    2001-01-15

    To develop a simple and rapid method for enhancing the leavening ability of baker's yeast, we examined the fermentation ability of baker's yeast exposed to hyperosmotic media. When baker's yeast cells were incubated at 25 degrees C for 1 h in a hyperosmotic medium containing 0.5% yeast extract, 0.5% peptone and 20% sucrose, the cells showed a higher fermentation ability in the subsequent fermentation test than those untreated. The increased ratios were from 40 to 60% depending on the strains used. Glucose and fructose showed a similar effect to that of sucrose, but sorbitol was less effective. A high correlation between the intracellular glycerol content and fermentation ability after the osmotic treatment suggested that glycerol accumulated during the hyperosmotic treatment was used in the subsequent fermentation as a substrate, lessened the lag time, and consequently enhanced the fermentation ability. Various baker's yeasts also showed a high leavening ability in dough after the hyperosmotic treatment.

  3. Probe on training the practical ability of undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiaohui; Meng, Xiuxia; Leng, Bing

    2010-07-01

    Practical ability means physical and psychological characteristics that ensure the individual to make use of the knowledge and skills to solve the practical problems smoothly. Only with practical ability, the man can sum up experience from practice, at the same time he can identify problems and make innovation. This article describes the meaning and characteristics of practice and introduces how to build the capacity of the practical ability of students in foreign university. As well as the article put forward how to set up a practical training teaching system which can improve practical ability of college students and a series of training programs to help Chinese universities students to improve the student's practical ability and cultivate student's with a strong practical ability and high-quality talent.

  4. Mental ability and common sense in an artificial society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    Having equally valid premises pro and contra, what does a rational human being prefer? The answer is: nothing. We designed a test of this kind and applied it to an artificial society, characterized by a given level of mental ability. A stream of messages from media is supplemented by ongoing interpersonal communication. The result is that high ability leads to wellbalanced opinions, while low ability produces extreme opinions.

  5. Is Approximate Number Precision a Stable Predictor of Math Ability?

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that children’s ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We also administered attention and memory span tasks to ask whether the previously reported association between ANS acuity and math ability is ANS-specific or attributable to domain-general cognitive skills. We found that early ANS acuity predicted math ability six months later, even when controlling for individual differences in age, expressive vocabulary, and math ability at the initial testing. In addition, ANS acuity was a unique concurrent predictor of math ability above and beyond expressive vocabulary, attention, and memory span. These findings of a predictive relationship between early ANS acuity and later math ability add to the growing evidence for the importance of early numerical estimation skills. PMID:23814453

  6. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  7. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  8. Impaired empathic abilities and reduced white matter integrity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Junya; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Miyata, Jun; Sugihara, Genichi; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Empathic abilities are impaired in schizophrenia. Although the pathology of schizophrenia is thought to involve disrupted white matter integrity, the relationship between empathic disabilities and altered white matter in the disorder remains unclear. The present study tested associations between empathic disabilities and white matter integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of impaired empathy in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 69 age-, gender-, handedness-, education- and IQ level-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Empathic abilities were assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), the associations between empathic abilities and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, were examined in the patient group within brain areas that showed a significant FA reduction compared with the controls. The patients with schizophrenia reported lower perspective taking and higher personal distress according to the IRI. The patients showed a significant FA reduction in bilateral deep white matter in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, a large portion of the corpus callosum, and the corona radiata. In schizophrenia patients, fantasy subscales positively correlated with FA in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and anterior thalamic radiation, and personal distress subscales negatively correlated with FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that disrupted white matter integrity in these regions constitutes a pathology underpinning specific components of empathic disabilities in schizophrenia, highlighting that different aspects of empathic impairments in the disorder would have, at least partially, distinct neuropathological bases.

  9. Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish.

    PubMed

    Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Moberg, Olav; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Jensen, Knut Helge; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2013-09-22

    Different kinds of experience during early life can play a significant role in the development of an animal's behavioural phenotype. In natural contexts, this influences behaviours from anti-predator responses to navigation abilities. By contrast, for animals reared in captive environments, the homogeneous nature of their experience tends to reduce behavioural flexibility. Studies with cage-reared rodents indicate that captivity often compromises neural development and neural plasticity. Such neural and behavioural deficits can be problematic if captive-bred animals are being reared with the intention of releasing them as part of a conservation strategy. Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in the use of environmental enrichment to promote behavioural flexibility in animals that are bred for release. Here, we describe the positive effects of environmental enrichment on neural plasticity and cognition in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Exposing fish to enriched conditions upregulated the forebrain expression of NeuroD1 mRNA and improved learning ability assessed in a spatial task. The addition of enrichment to the captive environment thus promotes neural and behavioural changes that are likely to promote behavioural flexibility and improve post-release survival.

  10. Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish

    PubMed Central

    Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Moberg, Olav; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Jensen, Knut Helge; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Different kinds of experience during early life can play a significant role in the development of an animal's behavioural phenotype. In natural contexts, this influences behaviours from anti-predator responses to navigation abilities. By contrast, for animals reared in captive environments, the homogeneous nature of their experience tends to reduce behavioural flexibility. Studies with cage-reared rodents indicate that captivity often compromises neural development and neural plasticity. Such neural and behavioural deficits can be problematic if captive-bred animals are being reared with the intention of releasing them as part of a conservation strategy. Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in the use of environmental enrichment to promote behavioural flexibility in animals that are bred for release. Here, we describe the positive effects of environmental enrichment on neural plasticity and cognition in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Exposing fish to enriched conditions upregulated the forebrain expression of NeuroD1 mRNA and improved learning ability assessed in a spatial task. The addition of enrichment to the captive environment thus promotes neural and behavioural changes that are likely to promote behavioural flexibility and improve post-release survival. PMID:23902903

  11. Language Ability Predicts the Development of Behavior Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children’s schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children. PMID:23713507

  12. Student Perceptions of Science Ability, Experiences, Expectations, and Career Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherney, Michael; Cherney, I.

    2006-12-01

    The decision to study physics or astronomy is affected by many factors, including preferences, motivations, and expectations for success. Differing cognitive profiles contribute to the learning of science through a complex process in which intrinsic capacities are tuned both by everyday experience and by instruction. In an attempt to identify the developmental pathways and intrinsic factors that most strongly influence the choice to study science, we administered an extensive survey to a sample of 400 students. The survey questions were based on Eccles et al.’s model of achievement-related choices and findings showing that previous play experiences, spatial experiences, task beliefs, as well as perceived mathematics ability, motivational and personality characteristics affect mathematics achievement and science career choices. The perceptions of students planning a science career are compared with those planning a career in other areas. Gender differences are also discussed.

  13. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  14. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  15. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  16. An Investigation into the Sex-Race-Ability Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch, Barry

    In a recent article Jensen proposed the existence of what was termed the sex x race x ability interaction in which the differences in mental ability between the black sexes were larger than the corresponding differences among whites. Three large sources of data that were analyzed failed to reveal the interaction. Since Jensen's own work suggested…

  17. Understanding the Female Adolescent's Self Perceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Constance L.

    1985-01-01

    Self-perceptions of math ability and four social abilities reported by 284 gifted and talented female adolescents on the Self Directed Search were examined to test two sets of hypotheses. Results supported the second set of hypotheses, that the Personal Attributes Questionnaire M and F scales are measures of socioaffective instrumental and…

  18. Profiling Communication and Symbolic Abilities in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherby, Amy M.; Prizant, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for sampling communication and symbolic abilities in young children who are not yet talking or who are at early language stages, placing emphasis on caregiver involvement. The paper points out that profiling a young child's communication and symbolic abilities can contribute to the early identification of language…

  19. My Convictions about the Nature of Abilities, Gifts, and Talents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Francoys

    1999-01-01

    Presents a set of 22 sequentially structured statements on the nature and origin of human abilities, gifts, and talents. The statements are grouped into three sections: the nature of human abilities, individual differences and their origins, and the specific case of gifts and talents. (Author/CR)

  20. Economic Assessment: A Model for Assessing Ability to Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Patricia; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the client's ability to pay is the cornerstone to fee collections in any service organization. York County Counseling Services implemented a new method of fee assessment and collection based on the principles of providing a service worth paying for, accurate assessment of ability to pay, and a budget-payment system. (Author)

  1. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  2. Interpretation of the 1961 Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara D.

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) is treated in terms of the ability measured, hints for administration and scoring, and questions often asked for each of the nine subtests. Typical profiles are described and analyzed for mentally retarded, kindergarteners, slow learners, culturally disadvantaged, Negroes, good and poor…

  3. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  4. The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate. Volume 2, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    Tracking and ability grouping are common practices that are often harshly criticized. Both practices group students of similar achievement levels for instruction, but they differ in how this task is accomplished. Elementary schools typically use ability grouping in reading instruction, with instruction targeted to the reading level of each group.…

  5. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  6. Differential V-Q Ability: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, S. Viterbo

    1975-01-01

    The initial portion of this paper addresses itself to some of the methodological concerns associated with Verbal-Quantitative (V-Q) research. The second section focuses on studies using differential V-Q ability as an independent variable. The final section focuses on reasearch using V-Q ability measures as dependent variables. (Author/BJG)

  7. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with…

  8. Tracking, Ability Grouping and the Gifted. PAGE Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler-Brand, Ellen; Lange, Richard E.; Winebrenner, Susan

    This brief bulletin addresses seven "myths" of tracking or ability grouping with gifted students in response to what is seen as a current movement against both ability grouping and tracking, which are characterized by the "anti-tracking" movement as inflexible and unaccommodating of a varied schedule. The following myths are countered: (1)…

  9. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  10. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  11. Ability Grouping in the Schools: A National Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Stanley

    Recent research points out that ability grouping is educationally unsound. It is alien to the principle that students must be provided with continuous educational experiences adjusted to individual rates of development, needs, interests, and personal meaning. In addition, ability grouping leads to stereotyped and stratified roles, and parental,…

  12. An Expert System for Abilities-Oriented Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark A.; Zalewski, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Compares two methods for evaluating abilities required for the job of mental retardation technician, an expert system prototype and ability rating scales. Results are analyzed to determine similarity of findings, personal preference, ease of understanding, accuracy of job description, and time required. (Contains 19 references.) (LRW)

  13. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and…

  14. Patterns of Perceived Language Ability and Use in Arctic Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald M.; Caron, M.; McAlpine, L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on mothers of school children living in small isolated communities in arctic Quebec. Patterns of perceived language ability and use in three languages, Inuttitut, English, and French, for both themselves and their children were examined. The pattern of perceived language ability was similar across the three languages. Results are discussed…

  15. Mental Abilities of Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Blanka; Belmont, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Examines pattern of mental abilities exhibited by first-grade, Israeli-born children whose parents emigrated from Europe, Iraq, North Africa, and Yemen. Results indicate that the groups of culturally different children tended to exhibit different patterns of cognitive abilities. Concludes that historical-cultural background of a population has a…

  16. Trainee Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability and Couples Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Allison M.; Prieto, Loreto R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature on the assessment of multicultural counseling competence has been concerned only with counselors' abilities when working with individual clients. We expanded this line of research by investigating trainees' multicultural case conceptualization ability in the context of working with couples. Despite the fact that trainees…

  17. Developing Emotional Intelligence Abilities through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    A few studies have appeared in the literature suggesting that team learning might be an effective means for developing emotional intelligence (EI) abilities in the workplace. This study investigated the effects of attending a one-day emotional intelligence training session followed by participating in team-based learning on ability-based measures…

  18. A Physical Education Program for Preschoolers of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Julienne K.; Randall, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    Preschool physical education (PPE) that integrates developmentally appropriate activities can benefit children of all abilities. The paper presents a multi-task activity, Trails in the Jungle, that has been used successfully by children of varying abilities. Trails in the Jungle incorporates different types of movement as well as imagination and…

  19. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  20. 48 CFR 18.107 - AbilityOne specification changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes. 18.107 Section 18.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... AbilityOne specification changes. Contracting officers are not held to the notification required when changes in AbilityOne specifications or descriptions are required to meet emergency needs. (See 8.712(d).)...

  1. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  2. Abilities and Skill Acquisition: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Wittmann, Werner W.; Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between abilities and skill acquisition has been the subject of numerous controversies in psychology. However, while most researchers implicitly or explicitly accept the idea that abilities and skill acquisition should be related, empirical research has failed to provide evidence for a consistently strong correlation between the…

  3. Teacher Verbal Ability and School Outcomes: Where Is the Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloe, Ariel M.; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2009-01-01

    Many have claimed that teachers' verbal ability is among the most important predictors of school outcomes. Teachers' verbal ability has been thought to predict student achievement ever since the relationship was found in the classic "Equality of Educational Opportunity" (EEO) study by Coleman et al. By way of meta-analysis the authors examine the…

  4. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  5. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving. (MP)

  6. Prosodic Abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulen, Sjoek Van Der; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study that compared the receptive and expressive prosodic abilities of 30 Dutch children (ages 4-6) with language impairments to the abilities of typical children, found they performed less accurately on a prosodic imitation task but did not differ on an emotion identification task. Children performed better with increasing age. (Author/CR)

  7. Emotion Recognition Abilities and Empathy of Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Sarah; Wolke, Dieter; Nowicki, Stephen; Hall, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Bullying is a form of systematic abuse by peers with often serious consequences for victims. Few studies have considered the role of emotion recognition abilities and empathic behaviour for different bullying roles. This study investigated physical and relational bullying involvement in relation to basic emotion recognition abilities,…

  8. Teacher Perceptions of Heterogeneous Ability Grouping in Secondary Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Nicole Cox

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide the best academic opportunities for all students, many high schools create heterogeneous classes by removing existing academic tracks or by offering only 1 level of course. Research has indicated that separating students by ability often exacerbates existing academic inequity; however, mixed ability classes can also create…

  9. The Allocation of Educational Environment, Ability Grouping, and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank; Smith, Elsie

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of ability grouping in relation to equal educational opportunity as provided for by the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In view of the disproportionate numbers of minorities assigned to low ability groups, is grouping legal? (Author/JM)

  10. Teachers Perceptions of Ability Grouping Practices in Middle Level Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Data from 31 middle school teachers were categorized through the use of qualitative research to determine what teachers perceive to be the advantages and disadvantages of ability grouping as well as alternative grouping practices. Found that most teachers were knowledgeable about ability grouping through experience or professional development;…

  11. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an individual to be able to work during the week of unemployment claimed if the individual is able to work...

  12. Indicators of Teacher Ability to Relate to Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dene R.

    The purpose of this study was to find teacher behaviors which correlate significantly with a criterion measure of teacher ability to relate to students. Videotapes of 50 teacher interns were shown to 100 high school students of three different ethnic backgrounds--white, black and oriental. Teachers were rated on ability to relate to students.…

  13. Language and the Ability to Evaluate Contradictions and Tautologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osherson, Daniel N.

    1974-01-01

    Results of two experiments support these hypotheses: 1) children tend to treat contradictions and tautologies as empirical statements, due to their nonempirical character, not merely to the logical words occurring in them; and 2) the ability to examine language objectively is necessary for the ability to correctly evaluate nonempirical statements.…

  14. Making a Difference? Education and "Ability" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings a speculative, sociological perspective to the nature of "ability" in physical education (PE) and asks why this aspect of embodiment, with notable exceptions, has received so little critical attention in the professional discourse of PE and associated research in recent years. It is suggested that thinking about "ability" has…

  15. Ability Climates in Europe as Socially Represented Notability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study whether ability climate was a useful construct in exploring the possible pattern by which abilities were valued in the countries and cultures of Europe. Based on Moscovici's theory of social representations lists of famous and notable individuals published by the "Wikipedia Encyclopedia" were analyzed.…

  16. The Ability of Children to Generalize Selected Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study to assess ability of children from different age groups (N=144) to generalize two hierarchically related concepts (Insect and Animal) with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. Also examined effects of age, I.Q., and sex on ability to generalize these concepts. (Author/JN)

  17. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  18. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  19. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  20. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  1. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  2. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  3. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  4. Cooperative Learning and Ability Grouping: An Issue of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Carol J.; Durden, William G.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on cooperative learning and ability grouping for gifted students and concludes that grouping, in and of itself, does not affect achievement and that grouping decisions need to be based on educational choices according to students' individual needs. Schools are encouraged to provide both ability grouping and…

  5. Thinking around the Corner: The Development of Planning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaller, Cristopher P.; Rahm, Benjamin; Spreer, Joachim; Mader, Irina; Unterrainer, Josef M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to plan and search ahead is essential for problem solving in most situations in everyday life. To investigate the development of planning and related processes, a sample of four- and five-year-old children was examined in a variant of the Tower of London, a frequently used neuropsychological assessment tool of planning abilities. The…

  6. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  7. Laterality and Intellectual Ability: A Just Not Noticeable Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardyck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on laterality and intellectual abilities suggests that left-handed persons may be divided into two categories: one not discriminably different from those who are right-handed, and one deficient in intellectual and cognitive abilities. 7688 children were tested on handedness, intellectual performance, and scholastic aptitude in order to…

  8. Metaphoric Competence, Second Language Learning, and Communicative Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Low, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in cognitive linguistics have highlighted the importance as well as the ubiquity of metaphor in language. Despite this, the ability of second language learners to use metaphors is often still not seen as a core ability. In this paper, we take a model of communicative competence that has been widely influential in both language…

  9. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  10. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  11. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  12. Low (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe--particle radiation lead to a persistent reduction in the spatial learning ability of rats.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Davis, Leslie K; Johnson, Angela M; Keeney, Sonia; Siegel, Andrew; Sanford, Larry D; Singletary, Sylvia J; Lonart, György

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is considered to be a potential health risk in long-term space travel, and it represents a significant risk to the central nervous system (CNS). The most harmful component of GCR is the HZE [high-mass, highly charged (Z), high-energy] particles, e.g. (56)Fe. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to high doses of HZE-particle radiation induced pronounced deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rodents. Recent data suggest that glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal synaptosomes is impaired after low (60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles, which could lead to impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. To assess the effects of mission-relevant (20-60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, male Wistar rats either received sham treatment or were irradiated and tested 3 months later in the Barnes maze test. Compared to the controls, rats that received 20, 40 and 60 cGy 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles showed significant impairments in their ability to locate the escape box in the Barnes maze, which was manifested by progressively increasing escape latency times over the 3 days of testing. However, this increase was not due to a lack of motivation of the rats to escape, because the total number of head pokes (and especially incorrect head pokes) remained constant over the test period. Given that rats exposed to X rays did not exhibit spatial memory impairments until >10 Gy was delivered, the RBE for 1 GeV/u (56)Fe-particle-induced hippocampal spatial memory impairment is ∼50. These data demonstrate that mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles can result in severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent neurocognitive tasks, and the extreme sensitivity of these processes to 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles must arise due to the perturbation of multiple processes in addition to killing neuronal cells.

  13. Low (20 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe--particle radiation lead to a persistent reduction in the spatial learning ability of rats.

    PubMed

    Britten, Richard A; Davis, Leslie K; Johnson, Angela M; Keeney, Sonia; Siegel, Andrew; Sanford, Larry D; Singletary, Sylvia J; Lonart, György

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is considered to be a potential health risk in long-term space travel, and it represents a significant risk to the central nervous system (CNS). The most harmful component of GCR is the HZE [high-mass, highly charged (Z), high-energy] particles, e.g. (56)Fe. In previous ground-based experiments, exposure to high doses of HZE-particle radiation induced pronounced deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rodents. Recent data suggest that glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal synaptosomes is impaired after low (60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles, which could lead to impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. To assess the effects of mission-relevant (20-60 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, male Wistar rats either received sham treatment or were irradiated and tested 3 months later in the Barnes maze test. Compared to the controls, rats that received 20, 40 and 60 cGy 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles showed significant impairments in their ability to locate the escape box in the Barnes maze, which was manifested by progressively increasing escape latency times over the 3 days of testing. However, this increase was not due to a lack of motivation of the rats to escape, because the total number of head pokes (and especially incorrect head pokes) remained constant over the test period. Given that rats exposed to X rays did not exhibit spatial memory impairments until >10 Gy was delivered, the RBE for 1 GeV/u (56)Fe-particle-induced hippocampal spatial memory impairment is ∼50. These data demonstrate that mission-relevant doses of 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles can result in severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent neurocognitive tasks, and the extreme sensitivity of these processes to 1 GeV/u (56)Fe particles must arise due to the perturbation of multiple processes in addition to killing neuronal cells. PMID:22077338

  14. Five- to 7-Year-Olds’ Finger Gnosia and Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds’ finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children’s representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation. PMID:22171220

  15. Ability of surface and subsurface death assemblages to track km-scale spatial and decade-scale temporal variability in living communities: Tests using the urban southern California continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Susan M.; Tomasovych, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Actualistic analysis of death assemblages has always focused on quantifying, and achieving a mechanistic understanding of, the reliability of deep-time records, and is now additionally motivated to assess natural conditions before human impacts. The southern California continental shelf permits us to evaluate the ability of time-averaged death assemblages to detect known variability in urban nutrients, which increased from the early 20th Century up until the 1972 Clean Water Act. Biomonitoring since then documents strong declines in populations of pollution- and hypoxia-tolerant species, especially the chemosymbiontic lucinid bivalve Parvilucina tenuisculpta. This shelf is taphonomically challenging -- median shell ages are 50-100 y, only 1% of shells survive, the mixed-zone is ~25 cm thick, and siliciclastic accumulation is slow, in contrast to sediment-trapping estuaries and lagoons. Nonetheless, both surficial death and buried core assemblages capture first-order urban trends, albeit with significant damping of the large, spatially localized mid-20th Century pulse in Parvilucina abundance. Paleoecologists will thus detect but under-estimate the original magnitude of even strong past excursions in community composition, an important bounding condition for both recent- and deep-time analysis.

  16. The role of placekeeping ability in fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Altmann, Erik M

    2015-08-01

    The question of what underlies individual differences in general intelligence has never been satisfactorily answered. The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of an executive function that we term placekeeping ability-the ability to perform the steps of a complex task in a prescribed order without skipping or repeating steps. Participants completed a newly developed test of placekeeping ability, called the UNRAVEL task. The measure of placekeeping ability from this task (error rate) predicted a measure of fluid intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices score), above and beyond measures of working memory capacity, task switching, and multitasking. An existing model of Raven's performance suggests that placekeeping ability supports the systematic exploration of hypotheses under problem-solving conditions.

  17. Songbirds possess the spontaneous ability to discriminate syntactic rules.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kentaro; Watanabe, Dai

    2011-08-01

    Whether the computational systems in language perception involve specific abilities in humans is debated. The vocalizations of songbirds share many features with human speech, but whether songbirds possess a similar computational ability to process auditory information as humans is unknown. We analyzed their spontaneous discrimination of auditory stimuli and found that the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica) can use the syntactical information processing of syllables to discriminate songs). These finches were also able to acquire artificial grammatical rules from synthesized syllable strings and to discriminate novel auditory information according to them. We found that a specific brain region was involved in such discrimination and that this ability was acquired postnatally through the encounter with various conspecific songs. Our results indicate that passerine songbirds spontaneously acquire the ability to process hierarchical structures, an ability that was previously supposed to be specific to humans. PMID:21706017

  18. Ability of nucleus cochlear implantees to recognize music.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Ito, J

    1999-07-01

    Eight adults with cochlear implants participated in experiments to test their ability to recognize music. Some subjects showed good ability to recognize songs that were sung with instrumental accompaniment but poor ability to recognize songs played on an electronic keyboard without verbal cues, indicating that they were recognizing the songs by verbal cues rather than by musical qualities such as tones and melodic intervals. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that subjects were barely able to distinguish between songs with the same rhythm and pitch range, and they showed poor ability to discriminate musical intervals. (The closest discrimination was 4 semitones.) Subjects had good ability to distinguish among the synthesized sounds of various musical instruments played on the electronic keyboard. We speculate that subjects could distinguish the various musical instruments in the same way they distinguish among human voices using spectrographic patterns such as formants or maxima.

  19. Dissociation of function between the dorsal and the ventral hippocampus in spatial learning abilities of the rat: a within-subject, within-task comparison of reference and working spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Pothuizen, Helen H J; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana L; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2004-02-01

    Lesions restricted to the dorsal, but not the ventral, hippocampus severely impair the formation of spatial memory. This dissociation was first demonstrated using the water maze task. The present study investigated whether the dorsal and the ventral hippocampus are involved differentially in spatial reference and spatial working memory using a four-baited/four-unbaited version of the eight-arm radial maze task. This test allows the concurrent evaluation of reference and working memory with respect to the same set of spatial cues, and thereby enables a within-subjects within-task comparison between the two forms of memory functions. Rats with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus or both were compared with sham and unoperated controls. We showed that dorsal lesions were as effective as complete lesions in severely disrupting both reference and working spatial memory, whereas rats with ventral lesions performed at a level comparable with controls. These results lend further support to the existence of a functional dissociation between the dorsal and the ventral hippocampus, with the former being preferentially involved in spatial learning.

  20. Correlation between depressive symptoms and subjective mastication ability and ability to pronunciation among Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors. METHODS The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study’s participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112) aged ≥65 years. Those with a CES-D score ≥16 were rated ‘depressed.’ SAS version 9.3 was used for the data analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms increased as the participants socioeconomic status decreased, number of health issues increased, health behavior worsened, and chewing and pronunciation discomfort increased. Males with chewing difficulties were found to have 1.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.63) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, while males with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.97 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.76 to 2.20). Females with chewing difficulty were found to have 1.50 times (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.61) greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without, and females with pronunciation discomfort were found to have 1.55 times greater risk of depressive symptoms than those without (95% CI, 1.44 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS Intervention programs designed to help with oral health management and alleviate depressive symptoms in seniors are urgently needed. As the prevalence of depressive symptoms may vary geographically, research examining potential variance at city, district, and town levels would be beneficial. PMID:27457065