Science.gov

Sample records for ability spatial ability

  1. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  2. Predicting cognitive styles from spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on spatial memory reveal that people represent spatial information in 3 different forms: landmark, route, and survey. The aim of this work was to assess spatial abilities in order to predict a person's cognitive style. In order to do this we used 9 different spatial tasks, which were linked with these 3 forms of spatial representations. We found that the 9 spatial tasks are able to distinguish different levels of spatial ability.

  3. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  4. Innovative Allies: Spatial and Creative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steve V.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and creative abilities are important for innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but talents are rarely developed from these abilities by schools, including among gifted children and adolescents who have a high potential to become STEM innovators. This article provides an overview of each ability and makes…

  5. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  6. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  7. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  8. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  9. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  10. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  11. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  12. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  13. Window Presentation Styles and User's Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastecki, Victoria L.; Berry, Louis H.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of spatial ability level and window presentation style of tiled and overlapped computer displays on the achievement of dental hygiene students. Participants were 43 first-term Dental Hygiene students enrolled full-time at a University School of Dental Medicine. Phase one of this project…

  14. Visual-spatial ability in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Gregory P; Okun, Michael S

    2003-09-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) has traditionally been viewed as primarily a disturbance of motor functioning, typically involving tremor, rigidity, hypokinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. More recently, decline in cognitive function has been recognized as a feature of PD. One prominent cognitive symptom of PD involves deficits on tasks of spatial ability. However, findings of visual-spatial deficits in individuals with PD have been inconsistent. There are several methodological issues in this area of research that potentially confound the interpretation of data and need to be taken into consideration, including subject characteristics (e.g., age, sex and education), duration of illness, the current level of disability, the presence of emotional depression, the current level of medications, and the presence of dementia. Further, the tests that have shown visual-spatial deficits in PD are often complex, showing sensitivity to other cognitive processes as well. Another problem in this area of research is the lack of a clear understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie visual-spatial deficits in PD. One theory of cognitive dysfunction in PD suggests that these cognitive deficits are in some way related to disruption of frontal-basal ganglia neural circuits important in executive functions. However, frontal-basal ganglionic dysfunction does not appear to account entirely for the visual-spatial cognitive deficits seen in PD. Subtle differences in performance on executive function measures appear to dissociate individuals with frontal lobe damage from individuals with PD. Findings from two recent studies indicate that PD is indeed associated with deficits in visual-spatial ability. These findings also indicate that the relationship between visual-spatial ability and frontal-executive function in PD is likely complex, and that the visual-spatial deficits in PD may be sensitive to the sex of the individual with PD.

  15. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  16. Spatial ability and training in virtual neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.

  17. The Role of Spatial Ability and Achievement in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Jeffrey R.; Bodner, George M.

    This study investigated the role that spatial ability has in achievement in organic chemistry. Spatial ability was defined as containing two subfactors--spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Spatial visualization is the ability to mentally manipulate pictorially presented stimuli; involved in the processes of manipulation are the…

  18. Visuo-Spatial Ability in Colonoscopy Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Buzink, Sonja N.; Verwey, Willem B.; Jakimowicz, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Visuo-spatial ability is associated with a quality of performance in a variety of surgical and medical skills. However, visuo-spatial ability is typically assessed using "Visualization" tests only, which led to an incomplete understanding of the involvement of visuo-spatial ability in these skills. To remedy this situation, the current study…

  19. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  20. Spatial vs. Nonspatial Reasoning Ability in Chronic Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrence C.; Garber, Judy

    1976-01-01

    Compares spatial with nonspatial reasoning ability within the same patients to determine whether spatial reasoning deficits in schizophrenics are specific to spatial types of tasks or are indicative of generalized reasoning difficulties. (Author/RK)

  1. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  2. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  3. Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates and Choice of Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency…

  4. Spatial Ability in Relatives of Reading-Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Sadie N.

    A Study was conducted to test the hypothesis proposed by J. S. Symmes and J. L. Rapoport that a sex-linked recessive gene might account for the good spatial ability found among dyslexic readers, the familial pattern of the disorder, and the frequently reported sex ratio of three affected males to one female. Spatial/reasoning ability scores were…

  5. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  6. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2016-10-12

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Individual Differences in Spatial Text Processing: High Spatial Ability Can Compensate for Spatial Working Memory Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between spatial ability and visuo-spatial and verbal working memory in spatial text processing. In two experiments, participants listened to a spatial text (Experiments 1 and 2) and a non-spatial text (Experiment 1), at the same time performing a spatial or a verbal concurrent task, or no secondary task.…

  8. Spatial Ability: A Neglected Talent in Educational and Occupational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Harrison J.; Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    For over 60 years, longitudinal research on tens of thousands of high ability and intellectually precocious youth has consistently revealed the importance of spatial ability for hands-on creative accomplishments and the development of expertise in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines. Yet, individual differences in…

  9. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    PubMed

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  10. X-Linkage of Spatial Ability: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, David B.

    1980-01-01

    Critically reviews literature relevant to the hypothesis that a major X-linked gene determines spatial ability in man. It is concluded that belief in the validity of the hypothesis is unfounded. (Author/SS)

  11. When do spatial abilities support student comprehension of STEM visualizations?

    PubMed

    Hinze, Scott R; Williamson, Vickie M; Shultz, Mary Jane; Williamson, Kenneth C; Deslongchamps, Ghislain; Rapp, David N

    2013-05-01

    Spatial visualization abilities are positively related to performance on science, technology, engineering, and math tasks, but this relationship is influenced by task demands and learner strategies. In two studies, we illustrate these interactions by demonstrating situations in which greater spatial ability leads to problematic performance. In Study 1, chemistry students observed and explained sets of simultaneously presented displays depicting chemical phenomena at macroscopic and particulate levels of representation. Prior to viewing, the students were asked to make predictions at the macroscopic level. Eye movement analyses revealed that greater spatial ability was associated with greater focus on the prediction-relevant macroscopic level. Unfortunately, that restricted focus was also associated with lower-quality explanations of the phenomena. In Study 2, we presented the same displays but manipulated whether participants were asked to make predictions prior to viewing. Spatial ability was again associated with restricted focus, but only for students who completed the prediction task. Eliminating the prediction task encouraged attempts to integrate the displays that related positively to performance, especially for participants with high spatial ability. Spatial abilities can be recruited in effective or ineffective ways depending on alignments between the demands of a task and the approaches individuals adopt for completing that task.

  12. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  13. A Look at Spatial Abilities in Undergraduate Women Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    This Study was conducted to determine if women in the sciences were as accurate in spatial abilities as male counterparts. An experiment was also conducted to find if an intervention would improve the visuo-spatial awareness of women as rapidly as men. Data indicated that while women tended to start at a lower level, they were able to learn…

  14. Spatial Abilities during the Circalunar Cycle in Both Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostatnikova, Daniela; Hodosy, Julius; Skoknova, Martina; Putz, Zdenek; Kudela, Matus; Celec, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Spatial abilities vary during the menstrual cycle. The effects of a similar rhythm in men are unknown. Mental rotation and spatial visualization of young healthy volunteers (29 females and 31 males) were tested during the menstrual and periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle in women, and during the low-testosterone and high-testosterone phases…

  15. Sources of Individual Differences in Spatial Visualization Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three hypotheses accounting for individual differences in spatial visualization ability were investigated in 2 experiments with 142 male undergraduates at Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta). Support was found for the preservation-under-transformation hypothesis, suggesting that effectiveness of storage during concurrent information…

  16. Measuring Spatial Ability with a Computer Managed Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    This study presents data augmenting the validity studies of the Wheatley Cube (McDaniel and Kroll, 1984), a computer managed test of spatial visualization. Twenty-one students in pilot training are administered several instruments designed to measure the ability to construct a cognitive three-dimensional space, including: (1) the Wheatley Cube,…

  17. Cultural and Gender Differences in Spatial Ability of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo

    This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…

  18. Effects of Spatial Ability and Instructional Program on Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Robert D.; Truxaw, Mary P.; Vermillion, Jennifer R.; Liu, Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of student spatial ability, as measured by Raven's Progressive Colored Matrices (J. C. Raven, 1938) and type of instructional program on geometry achievement. Sixth-grade students worked through either 6 instructional activities in Geometer's Sketchpad (Key Curriculum Press, 1993), a dynamic geometry program,…

  19. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  20. Preschool Children's Ability to Coordinate Spatial Perspectives Through Linguistic Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, William

    Preschoolers' ability to utilize language in spatial problem solving was tested with 64 predominately middle-class children. The number of correct responses was analyzed using an age/sex/medium analysis of variance. It was found that the verbal response mode leads to substantially more correct responses than do pictures and that girls performed…

  1. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  2. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  3. A longitudinal study of the development of spatial conceptual ability.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H G

    1987-03-01

    During October and November of 1983, three subsamples were selected from three schools in Mesa, Arizona: 34 students in 6th grade, 34 students in 8th grade, and 34 students in 10th grade. A battery of Piagetian-type tasks were individually and randomly administered to each subject. Seven tasks examined projective spatial conceptual abilities, and three tasks examined Euclidean abilities. The same battery of tasks was again administered to the same subjects during November and December of 1984 when all the subjects were in the next grade, that is, 7th, 9th, and 11th. Because of attrition, the number of students tested during the second year were 33, 30, and 28, respectively. To test for significant differences between grade levels, a chi-square one-sample procedure was used. Out of a possible 50 tasks, significant differences were detected in 36 (72%). Those findings, along with an examination of the percentage of students passing each task, support the notion of sequential development of spatial conceptual abilities.

  4. Visualizing topography: Effects of presentation strategy, gender, and spatial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Carla

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different presentation strategies (2-D static visuals, 3-D animated visuals, and 3-D interactive, animated visuals) and gender on achievement, time-spent-on visual treatment, and attitude during a computer-based science lesson about reading and interpreting topographic maps. The study also examined the relationship of spatial ability and prior knowledge to gender, achievement, and time-spent-on visual treatment. Students enrolled in high school chemistry-physics were pretested and given two spatial ability tests. They were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to one of three levels of presentation strategy or the control group. After controlling for the effects of spatial ability and prior knowledge with analysis of covariance, three significant differences were found between the versions: (a) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; (b) the 3-D animated treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; and (c) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the 3-D interactive animated treatment group. Furthermore, the 3-D interactive animated treatment group spent significantly more time on the visual screens than the 2-D static treatment group. Analyses of student attitudes revealed that most students felt the landform visuals in the computer-based program helped them learn, but not in a way they would describe as fun. Significant differences in attitude were found by treatment and by gender. In contrast to findings from other studies, no gender differences were found on either of the two spatial tests given in this study. Cognitive load, cognitive involvement, and solution strategy are offered as three key factors that may help explain the results of this study. Implications for instructional design include suggestions about the use of 2-D static, 3-D animated and 3-D interactive animations as well

  5. Spatial Ability Explains the Male Advantage in Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that females consistently outperform males in exact arithmetic, perhaps due to the former’s advantage in language processing. Much less is known about gender difference in approximate arithmetic. Given that approximate arithmetic is closely associated with visuospatial processing, which shows a male advantage we hypothesized that males would perform better than females in approximate arithmetic. In two experiments (496 children in Experiment 1 and 554 college students in Experiment 2), we found that males showed better performance in approximate arithmetic, which was accounted for by gender differences in spatial ability. PMID:27014124

  6. Influence of Design Training and Spatial Solution Strategies on Spatial Ability Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that spatial ability improves through training. This study investigated the following: (1) whether design training enhances spatial ability and (2) whether differing solution strategies are applied or generated following design training. On the basis of these two research objectives, this study divided the…

  7. Predicting performance in manually controlled rendezvous and docking through spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhui; Tian, Yu; Chen, Shanguang; Tian, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Ting; Du, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Manually controlled rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. This study aims to identify spatial abilities that are critical for accomplishing manual RVD. Based on task analysis, spatial abilities were deduced to be critical for accomplishing manual RVD. 15 Male participants performed manual RVD task simulations and spatial ability tests (the object-manipulation spatial ability and spatial orientation ability). Participants' performance in the test of visualization of viewpoints (which measures the spatial orientation ability) was found to be significantly correlated with their manual RVD performance, indicating that the spatial orientation ability in the sense of perspective taking is particularly important for accomplishing manual RVD.

  8. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  9. A Theoretical Note on Sex Linkage and Race Differences in Spatial Visualization Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence on the poorer spatial visualization ability in various Negro populations compared to the White populations and on the direction and magnitude of sex differences in spatial ability relative to other abilities suggests the genetic hypothesis that spatial ability is enhanced by a sex-linked recessive gene and that, since the 20-30 percent…

  10. An Instrument To Measure Spatial-Symbolic Information Processing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    The ability to recognize, extend, and relate patterns and sequences to numeric, figural, and word representations plays a prominent role in science education. This study provided validation information for an instrument to assess childrens' ability to recognize and extend patterns and sequence in different representational forms. A 57-item…

  11. The Role of Visuo-Spatial Abilities in Recall of Spatial Descriptions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gyselinck, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how visuo-spatial abilities (such as mental rotation--MR--and visuo-spatial working memory--VSWM--) work together to influence the recall of environmental descriptions. We tested a mediation model in which VSWM was assumed to mediate the relationship between MR and spatial text recall. First, 120 participants were…

  12. The Relationship between Spatial Visualization Ability and Students' Ability to Model 3D Objects from Engineering Assembly Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branoff, T. J.; Dobelis, M.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been used as a predictor of success in several engineering and technology disciplines (Strong & Smith, 2001). In engineering graphics courses, scores on spatial tests have also been used to predict success (Adanez & Velasco, 2002; Leopold, Gorska, & Sorby, 2001). Other studies have shown that some type of…

  13. Associations of Timing of Puberty, Spatial Ability, and Lateralization in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studies the relationship between timing of puberty and spatial ability in 53 undergraduate women. Results do not show evidence for greater spatial ability on the part of those who have late maturation. (RJC)

  14. Spatial anxiety relates to spatial abilities as a function of working memory in children.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is a strong predictor of students' pursuit of higher education in science and mathematics. However, very little is known about the affective factors that influence individual differences in spatial ability, particularly at a young age. We examine the role of spatial anxiety in young children's performance on a mental rotation task. We show that even at a young age, children report experiencing feelings of nervousness at the prospect of engaging in spatial activities. Moreover, we show that these feelings are associated with reduced mental rotation ability among students with high but not low working memory (WM). Interestingly, this WM × spatial anxiety interaction was only found among girls. We discuss these patterns of results in terms of the problem-solving strategies that boys versus girls use in solving mental rotation problems.

  15. An Origami Perovskite Photodetector with Spatial Recognition Ability.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huajing; Li, Jiangwei; Ding, Jie; Sun, Yue; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin; Wang, Liduo; Yan, Qingfeng

    2017-03-20

    Flexible photodetectors are attracting substantial attention because of their promising applications in bendable display and smart clothes which cannot be fulfilled by the existing rigid counterparts. In this work, we demonstrate a newly designed photodetector constructed on the common printing paper. Pencil trace was applied as the graphite electrode. With such a simple and convenient method, the as-prepared photodetector exhibited a satisfactory responsivity of 4.4 mA/W, on/off current ratio of 32, coupled with a high response speed of <10 ms. It also demonstrated excellent mechanical flexibility and durability. Most inspiringly, by an ingenious origami, we created the first perovskite photodetector with a 3D configuration. The cubic photodetector array displayed an excellent spatial recognition ability which could not be achieved in all the previously reported 2D photodetectors. Such a fusion of materials science and the art of origami provides a robust strategy for the design of low-cost flexible electronics, especially for the applications in 3D configurations.

  16. Visuo-spatial Ability in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Is it Really a Strength?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities – visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. PMID:24755229

  17. Spatial mental representations derived from spatial descriptions: the predicting and mediating roles of spatial preferences, strategies, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate how spatial self-assessments and spatial cognitive abilities jointly influence the construction of mental representations derived from spatial descriptions. Two studies were conducted using the path models approach to test to what extent spatial self-assessments (Study 1, 194 participants) and the combination of the latter with spatial abilities (Study 2, 206 participants) can be modelled to predict memory for spatial descriptions. In both studies, we recorded spatial representation preferences (distinguishing between survey, route, and landmark-focused mode) and self-reported strategies used to memorize descriptions (distinguishing between survey, route, and verbal strategies); in Study 2, we also measured spatial abilities by testing mental rotation (MR) and visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Participants listened to spatial descriptions and then completed recall tasks. In both studies, the final path models showed that spatial preferences influenced spatial recall through the mediation of congruent strategies: that is a survey (route) preference influenced spatial recall mediated by a survey (route) strategy. MR predicted spatial recall, mediated by both VSWM and survey strategy (Study 2). Overall, these findings indicate that spatial preferences (particularly for a survey mode) in association with spatial abilities effectively concur to help form mental representations derived from spatial descriptions.

  18. Effect of Visual-Spatial Ability on Medical Students' Performance in a Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mentally manipulate objects in three dimensions is essential to the practice of many clinical medical specialties. The relationship between this type of visual-spatial ability and performance in preclinical courses such as medical gross anatomy is poorly understood. This study determined if visual-spatial ability is associated with…

  19. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  20. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  1. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.

  2. Getting the Big Picture: Development of Spatial Scaling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Andrea; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial scaling is an integral aspect of many spatial tasks that involve symbol-to-referent correspondences (e.g., map reading, drawing). In this study, we asked 3-6-year-olds and adults to locate objects in a two-dimensional spatial layout using information from a second spatial representation (map). We examined how scaling factor and reference…

  3. Spatial Visualization Abilities of Field Dependent/Independent Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Ersen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Spatial skills have been a significant area of research in educational psychology for more years and it has two major dimensions as spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Mathematics educators acknowledge the influence of cognitive styles in the learning of mathematics. There are various recognized cognitive styles in the…

  4. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  5. Sex Differences in Verbal Reasoning Are Mediated by Sex Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Contreras, Ma Jose; Arend, Isabel; Leal, Oscar Garcia; Santacreu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown that males outperform females in overall spatial ability, while females outperform males in some verbal ability tests, but not in others. The present article measures sex differences in two computerized tests, one thought to reflect verbal reasoning and one thought to reflect dynamic spatial performance. The sample…

  6. Improvement of Spatial Ability Using Innovative Tools: Alternative View Screen and Physical Model Rotator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Brad L.; Towle, Erick; Onyancha, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability, which is positively correlated with retention and achievement in engineering, mathematics, and science disciplines, has been shown to improve over the course of a Computer-Aided Design course or through targeted training. However, which type of training provides the most beneficial improvements to spatial ability and whether other…

  7. Relationships among Preservice Primary Mathematics Teachers' Gender, Academic Success and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate relationships among pre-service primary mathematics teachers' gender, academic success and spatial ability. The study was conducted in Izmir with 193 pre-service primary mathematics teachers of Dokuz Eylul University. In the work, spatial ability test, which consists of two main sub-tests measuring spatial…

  8. Acquisition of Dental Skills in Preclinical Technique Courses: Influence of Spatial and Manual Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two…

  9. Visual-Spatial Ability: Important in Stem, Ignored in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Visual-spatial ability is a multifaceted component of intelligence that has predictive validity for future achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. Although identification and development of STEM talent is a national priority, visual-spatial ability is rarely measured and relatively neglected in gifted…

  10. An Investigation of Gender Differences in the Components Influencing the Difficulty of Spatial Ability Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; Smith, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the role that gender differences play in the determination of the components influencing the difficulty of spatial ability items. Results for 2,245 examinees taking a spatial ability test that is part of the Dental School Admission Battery show that component difficulties show little variation across gender. (SLD)

  11. Effects of Gender Differences and Spatial Abilities within a Digital Pentominoes Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability is a critical skill in geometric learning. Several studies investigate how to use digital games to improve spatial abilities. However, not every learner favors this kind of support. To this end, there is a need to examine how human factors affect learners' reactions to the use of a digital game to support geometric learning. In…

  12. Virtual Technologies to Develop Visual-Spatial Ability in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca-González, Cristina; Martin-Gutierrez, Jorge; García-Dominguez, Melchor; Carrodeguas, Mª del Carmen Mato

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed a short training experiment to improve spatial abilities using two tools based on virtual technologies: one focused on manipulation of specific geometric virtual pieces, and the other consisting of virtual orienteering game. The two tools can help improve spatial abilities required for many engineering problem-solving…

  13. The Malleability of Spatial Ability under Treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-Based Robotics Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n = 75)…

  14. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  15. A Review of Spatial Ability Literature, Its Connection to Chemistry, and Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Chemists and scientists use spatial abilities as part of the way they understand and communicate their subject areas. A review of the foundational research literature in spatial ability and its connections to chemistry as a field and chemical education research allows for the formulation of implications for teaching in chemistry. (Contains 7…

  16. Spatial Ability: Its Influence on Learning with Visualizations--A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffler, Tim N.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analytical review focuses on the role of spatial ability when learning with pictorial visualizations. By means of selective theoretical review and meta-analysis (the latter regarding 27 different experiments from 19 studies), several sub-factors of spatial ability are considered as well as dynamic and non-dynamic, interactive and…

  17. The Joint Role of Spatial Ability and Imagery Strategy in Sustaining the Learning of Spatial Descriptions under Spatial Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the joint role of spatial ability, imagery strategy and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in spatial text processing. A set of 180 participants, half of them trained on the use of imagery strategy (training vs no-training groups), was further divided according to participants' high or low mental rotation ability…

  18. Visuospatial anatomy comprehension: the role of spatial visualization ability and problem-solving strategies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngan; Mulla, Ali; Nelson, Andrew J; Wilson, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the problem-solving strategies of high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners on a novel spatial anatomy task to determine whether differences in strategies contribute to differences in task performance. The results of this study provide further insights into the processing commonalities and differences among learners beyond the classification of spatial visualization ability alone, and help elucidate what, if anything, high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners do differently while solving spatial anatomy task problems. Forty-two students completed a standardized measure of spatial visualization ability, a novel spatial anatomy task, and a questionnaire involving personal self-analysis of the processes and strategies used while performing the spatial anatomy task. Strategy reports revealed that there were different ways students approached answering the spatial anatomy task problems. However, chi-square test analyses established that differences in problem-solving strategies did not contribute to differences in task performance. Therefore, underlying spatial visualization ability is the main source of variation in spatial anatomy task performance, irrespective of strategy. In addition to scoring higher and spending less time on the anatomy task, participants with high spatial visualization ability were also more accurate when solving the task problems.

  19. Mental rotation training: transfer and maintenance effects on spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    One of the aims of research in spatial cognition is to examine whether spatial skills can be enhanced. The goal of the present study was thus to assess the benefit and maintenance effects of mental rotation training in young adults. Forty-eight females took part in the study: 16 were randomly assigned to receive the mental rotation training (based on comparing pairs of 2D or 3D objects and rotation games), 16 served as active controls (performing parallel non-spatial activities), and 16 as passive controls. Transfer effects to both untrained spatial tasks (testing both object rotation and perspective taking) and visual and verbal tasks were examined. Across the training sessions, the group given mental rotation training revealed benefits in the time it took to make judgments when comparing 3D and 2D objects, but their mental rotation speed did not improve. When compared with the other groups, the mental rotation training group did show transfer effects, however, in tasks other than those practiced (i.e., in object rotation and perspective-taking tasks), and these benefits persisted after 1 month. The training had no effect on visual or verbal tasks. These findings are discussed from the spatial cognition standpoint and with reference to the (rotation) training literature.

  20. Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

  1. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  2. How spatial abilities and dynamic visualizations interplay when learning functional anatomy with 3D anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material presentation formats, spatial abilities, and anatomical tasks. First, to understand the cognitive challenges a novice learner would be faced with when first exposed to 3D anatomical content, a six-step cognitive task analysis was developed. Following this, an experimental study was conducted to explore how presentation formats (dynamic vs. static visualizations) support learning of functional anatomy, and affect subsequent anatomical tasks derived from the cognitive task analysis. A second aim was to investigate the interplay between spatial abilities (spatial visualization and spatial relation) and presentation formats when the functional anatomy of a 3D scapula and the associated shoulder flexion movement are learned. Findings showed no main effect of the presentation formats on performances, but revealed the predictive influence of spatial visualization and spatial relation abilities on performance. However, an interesting interaction between presentation formats and spatial relation ability for a specific anatomical task was found. This result highlighted the influence of presentation formats when spatial abilities are involved as well as the differentiated influence of spatial abilities on anatomical tasks.

  3. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  4. Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the possible relationships among children's extracurricular toy-playing habits, sex-role orientations, spatial abilities, and science achievement. Data were gathered from 282 midwestern, suburban, fifth-grade students. It was found that boys had significantly higher spatial skills than girls. No significant differences in spatial ability were found among students with different sex-role orientations. No significant differences in science achievement were found between girls and boys, or among students with the four different sex-role orientations. Students who had high spatial ability also had significantly higher science achievement scores than students with low spatial ability. Femininely oriented boys who reported low playing in the two-dimensional, gross-body-movement, and proportional-arrangement toy categories scored significantly higher on the test of science achievement than girls with the same sex-role and toy-playing behavior.

  5. Self-Reported Spatial Hearing Abilities Across Different Cochlear Implant Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Perreau, Ann E.; Ou, Hua; Tyler, Richard; Dunn, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine how self-reported spatial hearing abilities differ across various cochlear implant (CI) profiles and to examine the degree of subjective benefit following cochlear implantation across different groups of CI users. Method This was a retrospective study of subjective spatial hearing ability of CI recipients. The subjects consisted of 99 unilateral CI users, 49 bilateral CI users, 32 subjects with a CI and contralateral hearing aid (bimodal users), and 37 short-electrode CI users. All subjects completed the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (Tyler, Perreau, & Ji, 2009), a questionnaire assessing spatial hearing ability, after implantation, and a subset of the subjects completed the questionnaire pre- and postimplantation. Results Subjective spatial hearing ability was rated higher for the bilateral and short electrode CI users compared to the unilateral and bimodal users. There was no significant difference in subjective spatial hearing performance between the bilateral and short electrode CI users and the unilateral CI and bimodal users. A separate analysis of pre- and postimplant performance revealed that all CI groups reported significant improvements in spatial hearing ability after implantation. Conclusion This study suggests that there are substantial differences in perceived spatial hearing ability among unilateral and bimodal CI users compared with bilateral and short electrode CI users. PMID:25093507

  6. Who Benefits from Learning with 3D Models?: The Case of Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huk, T.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies that focus on the impact of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations on learning are to date rare and inconsistent. According to the ability-as-enhancer hypothesis, high spatial ability learners should benefit particularly as they have enough cognitive capacity left for mental model construction. In contrast, the…

  7. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  8. Gender Differences in Gifted Children's Spatial, Verbal, and Quantitative Reasoning Abilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Ling

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…

  9. Spatial ability and its role in organic chemistry: A study of four organic courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Jeffrey R.; Bodner, George M.

    The relationship between spatial ability and performance in organic chemistry was studied in four organic chemistry courses designed for students with a variety of majors including agriculture, biology, health sciences, pre-med, pre-vet, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, chemistry, and chemical engineering.Students with high spatial scores did significantly better on questions which required problem solving skills, such as completing a reaction or outlining a multi-step synthesis, and questions which required students to mentally manipulate two-dimensional representations of a molecule. Spatial ability was not significant, however, for questions which could be answered by rote memory or by the application of simple algorithms.Students who drew preliminary figures or extra figures when answering questions were more likely to get the correct answer. High spatial ability students were more likely to draw preliminary figures, even for questions that did not explicitly require these drawings. When questions required preliminary or extra figures, low spatial ability students were more likely to draw figures that were incorrect. Low spatial ability students were also more likely to draw structures that were lopsided, ill-proportioned, and nonsymmetric.The results of this study are interpreted in terms of a model which argues that high spatial ability students are better at the early stages of problem solving described as understanding the problem. A model is also discussed which explains why students who draw preliminary or extra figures for questions are more likely to get correct answers.

  10. Effects of Spatial Ability Levels and Presentation Platform on Performance of a Pictured Rotation Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manrique, Fernando; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of two levels of spatial ability--high spatial, low spatial--and two different presentation platforms--virtual reality, computer monitor--on performance of a pictured rotation task over two consecutive trials. Performance was measured by response time and accuracy. The 24 male and 8 female subjects (college…

  11. Acquisition of dental skills in preclinical technique courses: influence of spatial and manual abilities.

    PubMed

    Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo

    2016-10-01

    Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two consecutive preclinical technique courses. We measured spatial and manual abilities of applicants to Hamburg Dental School by means of a multiple choice test on Technical Aptitude and a wire-bending test, respectively. Preclinical dental technique tasks were categorized as consistent-simple and inconsistent-complex based on their contents. For analysis, we used robust regression to circumvent typical limitations in dental studies like small sample size and non-normal residual distributions. We found that manual, but not spatial ability exhibited a moderate influence on the performance in consistent-simple tasks during dental skill acquisition in preclinical dentistry. Both abilities revealed a moderate relation with the performance in inconsistent-complex tasks. These findings support the hypotheses which we had postulated on the basis of Ackerman's work. Therefore, spatial as well as manual ability are required for the acquisition of dental skills in preclinical technique courses. These results support the view that both abilities should be addressed in dental admission procedures in addition to cognitive measures.

  12. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  13. The intelligence of observation: improving high school students' spatial ability by means of intervention unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patkin, Dorit; Dayan, Ester

    2013-03-01

    This case study of one class versus a control group focused on the impact of an intervention unit, which is not part of the regular curriculum, on the improvement of spatial ability of high school students (forty-six 12th-graders, aged 17-18, both boys and girls) in general as well as from a gender perspective. The study explored three sub-abilities: mental rotation (MR), spatial visualization (VS) and spatial orientation (SO). Findings indicated that the spatial orientation of the experimental group students had considerably improved. The findings also illustrated a significant gender-based advantage in favour of the boys in some of the spatial abilities even before the implementation of the intervention unit. The hypothesis relating to the reduction of the gender differences was not corroborated.

  14. Understanding the Correlations Among Undergraduates’ Spatial Reasoning Skills and Their Ability to Learn Astronomy Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge

    2012-01-01

    We tacitly assume that astronomy is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students’ spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students’ spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn astronomy content in college science classes are beginning to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning astronomy. In support, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research conducted a first-steps correlational study of 148 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students’ cognition was measured for pretest and posttest gains in astronomy understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they were tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of reliable spatial thinking assessment tools from the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC). Results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work was supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  15. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  16. On Improving Spatial Ability through Computer-Mediated Engineering Drawing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafi, Ahmad; Samsudin, Khairul Anuar; Ismail, Azniah

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-mediated Engineering Drawing instruction in improving spatial ability namely spatial visualisation and mental rotation. A multi factorial quasi experimental design study was employed involving a cohort of 138, 20 year old average undergraduates. Three interventional treatments were…

  17. A Lateralization of Function Approach to Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilea, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). "Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach." "Brain and Cognition," 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex…

  18. Engineers' Spatial Orientation Ability Development at the European Space for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, C. Carbonell; Perez, J. L. Saorin; Cantero, J. de la Torre; Gonzalez, A. M. Marrero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the new geographic information technologies, included as teaching objectives in the new European Space for Higher Education Engineering degrees, develop spatial abilities. Bearing this in mind, a first year seminar using the INSPIRE Geoportal (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) was…

  19. Visuospatial Anatomy Comprehension: The Role of Spatial Visualization Ability and Problem-Solving Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Mulla, Ali; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the problem-solving strategies of high- and low-spatial visualization ability learners on a novel spatial anatomy task to determine whether differences in strategies contribute to differences in task performance. The results of this study provide further insights into the processing commonalities and differences among…

  20. Spatial Abilities in an Elective Course of Applied Anatomy after a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A concern on the level of anatomy knowledge reached after a problem-based learning curriculum has been documented in the literature. Spatial anatomy, arguably the highest level in anatomy knowledge, has been related to spatial abilities. Our first objective was to test the hypothesis that residents are interested in a course of applied anatomy…

  1. Sex Differences in Spatial Competence: The Ability of Young Children to Map 'Primed' Unfamiliar Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reports a study designed to investigate the effects of gender upon the acquisition of spatial and environmental skills among primary grade children. Results showed boys performed better on complex tasks and lend support to those who argue that more extensive movements of boys through the environment leads to superior spatial ability. (Author/JDH)

  2. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn &…

  3. The role of spatial abilities and age in performance in an auditory computer navigation task.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2006-01-01

    Age-related differences in spatial ability have been suggested as a mediator of age-related differences in computer-based task performance. However, the vast majority of tasks studied have primarily used a visual display (e.g., graphical user interfaces). In the current study, the relationship between spatial ability and performance in a non-visual computer-based navigation task was examined in a sample of 196 participants ranging in age from 18 to 91. Participants called into a simulated interactive voice response system and carried out a variety of transactions. They also completed measures of attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. The results showed that age-related differences in spatial ability predicted a significant amount of variance in performance in the non-visual computer task, even after controlling for other abilities. Understanding the abilities that influence performance with technology may provide insight into the source of age-related performance differences in the successful use of technology.

  4. The role of spatial abilities and age in performance in an auditory computer navigation task

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Richard; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in spatial ability have been suggested as a mediator of age-related differences in computer-based task performance. However, the vast majority of tasks studied have primarily used a visual display (e.g., graphical user interfaces). In the current study, the relationship between spatial ability and performance in a non-visual computer-based navigation task was examined in a sample of 196 participants ranging in age from 18 to 91. Participants called into a simulated interactive voice response system and carried out a variety of transactions. They also completed measures of attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. The results showed that age-related differences in spatial ability predicted a significant amount of variance in performance in the non-visual computer task, even after controlling for other abilities. Understanding the abilities that influence performance with technology may provide insight into the source of age-related performance differences in the successful use of technology. PMID:18997876

  5. The Abilities of Understanding Spatial Relations, Spatial Orientation, and Spatial Visualization Affect 3D Product Design Performance: Using Carton Box Design as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Kun-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) product design is an essential ability that students of subjects related to product design must acquire. The factors that affect designers' performance in 3D design are numerous, one of which is spatial abilities. Studies have reported that spatial abilities can be used to effectively predict people's performance in…

  6. The malleability of spatial ability under treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-based robotics unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n=75) ages 9-14 was drawn from 16 public school districts' gifted programs, including as many females (n=28) and children from groups traditionally underrepresented in gifted programs (n=18) as available. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental (n=38) and a control group (n=37) for an intervention study. All participants took the CogAT (form 6) Verbal Battery and the Project TALENT Spatial Ability Assessments. The experimental group participated in a simulation of the FIRST LEGO League (FLL) competition for 20 hours total over five consecutive days. All participants took the spatial measure another time. Experimental males evidenced significant and meaningful gains in measured spatial ability (Cohen's d = 0.87). Females did not evidence significant gains in measured spatial ability. This may be due to sampling error, gender differences in prior experience with LEGO, or differences in facets of spatial ability in the treatment or measurements. Further research studies with larger samples of females, other treatments and measurement tools, and longer treatment periods are recommended. The literature review revealed that FLL is beneficial for STEM engagement in both genders and its use in schools is recommended. The present study provides additional evidence for FLL's usefulness in increasing the number of individuals in the STEM pipeline. Keywords: spatial, gilled, talent, robotics, FIRST LEGO League, science

  7. Effects of a classroom intervention with spatial play materials on children's object and viewer transformation abilities.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-02-01

    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current study investigated the effects of explicitly providing spatial play activities in the school setting on different types of spatial ability. We presented 8- to 10-year-old children with a short and easy-to-adopt classroom intervention comprising a set of different spatial play materials. The design involved a pretest-posttest comparison between the intervention group (n = 70) and a control group without intervention (n = 70). Effects were examined on object transformation ability (i.e., a paper-and-pencil mental rotation and paper folding task) and viewer transformation ability (i.e., a hands-on 3D spatial perspective-taking task). Results showed specific effects: there were no differences between the intervention and control group in progress on the two object transformation tasks. Substantial improvements were found for the intervention group compared to the control group on the viewer transformation task. Training progress was not related to sex and socioeconomic background of the child. These findings support the value of spatial play in the classroom for the spatial development of children between 8 and 10 years of age. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  9. Spatial and numerical processing in children with high and low visuospatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Crollen, Virginie; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2015-04-01

    In the literature on numerical cognition, a strong association between numbers and space has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, only a few recent studies have been devoted to examine the consequences of low visuospatial abilities on calculation processing. In this study, we wanted to investigate whether visuospatial weakness may affect pure spatial processing as well as basic numerical reasoning. To do so, the performances of children with high and low visuospatial abilities were directly compared on different spatial tasks (the line bisection and Simon tasks) and numerical tasks (the number bisection, number-to-position, and numerical comparison tasks). Children from the low visuospatial group presented the classic Simon and SNARC (spatial numerical association of response codes) effects but showed larger deviation errors as compared with the high visuospatial group. Our results, therefore, demonstrated that low visuospatial abilities did not change the nature of the mental number line but rather led to a decrease in its accuracy.

  10. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Braun, Joseph M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, -99, and -100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -9.3, -1.1), 4.5s (95% CI -8.1, -0.9), and 4.7s (95% CI -9.0, -0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4s, 95% CI -0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, -47, -99, and -100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations.

  11. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  12. Which spatial abilities and strategies predict males' and females' performance in the object perspective test?

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether different spatial abilities and strategies sustain perspective-taking (PT) performance in males and females. The PT task used was the Object Perspective Test (OPT, Kozhevnikov and Hegarty in Mem Cogn 29:745-756, 2001; Hegarty and Waller in Intelligence 32:175-191, 2004). A sample of 40 males and 40 females completed the OPT and several other visuo-spatial tasks and questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis showed that OPT performance was predicted positively by a spatial imagery preference and negatively by the specific use of mental rotation strategy (i.e. turning the sheet of paper). Gender interacted with the Embedded Figure Test (EFT), a spatial visualization task, since high EFT scores only positively predicted the OPT results in males. Overall, our results show that OPT performance is sustained by specific spatial abilities and strategies modulated, at least in part, by gender.

  13. The Role of Visual-Spatial Abilities in Dyslexia: Age Differences in Children’s Reading?

    PubMed Central

    Giovagnoli, Giulia; Vicari, Stefano; Tomassetti, Serena; Menghini, Deny

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a highly complex process in which integrative neurocognitive functions are required. Visual-spatial abilities play a pivotal role because of the multi-faceted visual sensory processing involved in reading. Several studies show that children with developmental dyslexia (DD) fail to develop effective visual strategies and that some reading difficulties are linked to visual-spatial deficits. However, the relationship between visual-spatial skills and reading abilities is still a controversial issue. Crucially, the role that age plays has not been investigated in depth in this population, and it is still not clear if visual-spatial abilities differ across educational stages in DD. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual-spatial abilities in children with DD and in age-matched normal readers (NR) according to different educational stages: in children attending primary school and in children and adolescents attending secondary school. Moreover, in order to verify whether visual-spatial measures could predict reading performance, a regression analysis has been performed in younger and older children. The results showed that younger children with DD performed significantly worse than NR in a mental rotation task, a more-local visual-spatial task, a more-global visual-perceptual task and a visual-motor integration task. However, older children with DD showed deficits in the more-global visual-perceptual task, in a mental rotation task and in a visual attention task. In younger children, the regression analysis documented that reading abilities are predicted by the visual-motor integration task, while in older children only the more-global visual-perceptual task predicted reading performances. Present findings showed that visual-spatial deficits in children with DD were age-dependent and that visual-spatial abilities engaged in reading varied across different educational stages. In order to better understand their potential role in affecting reading

  14. Comparing matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Young, G D; Wilson, J F

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine whether girls and boys show patterns of problem-solving ability similar to those attributed by Kimura in 1992 to women and men, respectively. Subjects were 28 girls and 24 boys, aged 5-11 years, who were tested individually on matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency, tasks on which women reportedly outperform men. No significant gender differences in these problem-solving abilities were found. On ideational fluency, the youngest girls were seven times more likely than young boys to give whimsical responses, but older girls were then times less likely than older boys to give whimsical responses. These results suggest that the patterns of visuospatial problem-solving abilities that Kimura ascribed to women and men are not present in preadolescent girls and boys.

  15. Spatial Abilities at Different Scales: Individual Differences in Aptitude-Test Performance and Spatial-Layout Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Richardson, Anthony E.; Ishikawa, Toru; Lovelace, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Most psychometric tests of spatial ability are paper-and-pencil tasks at the ''figural'' scale of space, in that they involve inspecting, imagining or mentally transforming small shapes or manipulable objects. Environmental spatial tasks, such as wayfinding or learning the layout of a building or city, are carried out in larger spaces that…

  16. Effects of Representation Sequences and Spatial Ability on Students' Scientific Understandings about the Mechanism of Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of representation sequences and spatial ability on students' scientific understandings about the mechanism of breathing in human beings. 130 seventh graders were assigned to two groups with different sequential combinations of static and dynamic representations: SD group (i.e., viewing…

  17. Spatial Visualization Ability and Laparoscopic Skills in Novice Learners: Evaluating Stereoscopic versus Monoscopic Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Victoria A.; Mistry, Manisha R.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may…

  18. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  19. The Relationship between Visual-Spatial Reasoning Ability and Math and Geometry Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Sean M.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationship between visual-spatial reasoning abilities, as measured by the matrix reasoning and block design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), and geometry and math performance, as measured by geometry and overall math scores from the Massachusetts…

  20. A Dissociation between Mental Rotation and Perspective-Taking Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Waller, David

    2004-01-01

    Recent psychometric results [Mem. Cogn. 29 (2001) 745] have supported a distinction between mental abilities that require a spatial transformation of a perceived object (e.g., mental rotation) and those that involve imagining how a scene looks like from different viewpoints (e.g., perspective taking). Two experiments provide further evidence for…

  1. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  2. Neurobiological and Endocrine Correlates of Individual Differences in Spatial Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandi, Carmen; Cordero, M. Isabel; Merino, Jose J.; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Regan, Ciaran M.; Murphy, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) has been implicated in activity-dependent synaptic remodeling and memory formation. Here, we questioned whether training-induced modulation of PSA-NCAM expression might be related to individual differences in spatial learning abilities. At 12 h posttraining, immunohistochemical analyses…

  3. Investigating the Effect of Origami Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Spatial Ability and Geometric Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akayuure, Peter; Asiedu-Addo, S. K.; Alebna, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Whereas origami is said to have pedagogical benefits in geometry education, research is inclusive about its effect on spatial ability and geometric knowledge among preservice teachers. The study investigated the effect of origami instruction on these aspects using pretest posttest quasi-experiment design. The experimental group consisted of 52…

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Spatial Visualization Ability and Drafting Models for Industrial and Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine significant positive effects among the use of three different types of drafting models, and to identify whether any differences exist towards promotion of spatial visualization ability for students in Industrial Technology and Technology Education courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  5. Computer-Aided Design Training and Spatial Visualization Ability in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Warren E.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental group of 20 gifted adolescents received 3 weeks of computer-assisted design (CAD) instruction. Comparison of their scores on Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board test with those of 20 gifted controls showed CAD did not improve spatial visualization ability. Possible causes were differential computer experience, lack of random…

  6. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  7. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  8. Differences in Learning Geometry among High and Low Spatial Ability Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Hasan; Jakubowski, Elizabeth; Corey, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize the geometric thinking and understanding of four pre-service middle and secondary mathematics teachers while considering their spatial ability levels. To investigate the differences, if any, that existed among these pre-service middle and secondary teachers with different spatial…

  9. Spatial visualization ability and laparoscopic skills in novice learners: evaluating stereoscopic versus monoscopic visualizations.

    PubMed

    Roach, Victoria A; Mistry, Manisha R; Wilson, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may confer learning advantages to novices of variant Vz. This study explored laparoscopic skill performance scores in novices with variable spatial ability utilizing stereoscopic and traditional monoscopic visualization paradigms. Utilizing the McGill Inanimate System for Teaching and Evaluating Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS) scoring protocol it was hypothesized that individuals with high spatial visualization ability (HVz) would achieve higher overall and individual MISTELS task scores as compared to low spatial visualization ability (LVz) counterparts. Further, we also hypothesized that a difference would exist between HVz and LVz individual scores based on the viewing modality employed. No significant difference was observed between HVz and LVz individuals for MISTELS tasks scores, overall or individually under both viewing modalities, despite higher average MISTELS scores for HVz individuals. The lack of difference between scores obtained under the stereo modality suggested that the additional depth that is conferred by the stereoscopic visualization may act to enhance performance for individuals with LVz, potentially equilibrating their performance with their HVz peers. Further experimentation is required to better ascertain the effects of stereo visualization in individuals of high and low Vz, though it appears stereoscopic visualizations could serve as a prosthetic to enhance skill performance.

  10. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  11. Patterned-String Tasks: Relation between Fine Motor Skills and Visual-Spatial Abilities in Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals. PMID:24376885

  12. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: The X-Linked Gene Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatter, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Among the many theories attempting to explain sex differences in spatial ability, one of the most highly researched is the X-linked recessive gene theory. This is a review of the major research done on that theory and shows the conflicting nature of the results. (Author)

  13. Spatial Visualization Ability and Impact of Drafting Models: A Quasi Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jovanovic, Vukica

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was done to determine significant positive effects among three different types of visual models and to identify whether any individual type or combination contributed towards a positive increase of spatial visualization ability for students in engineering technology courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  14. Empowering Visuo-Spatial Ability in Primary School: Results from a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Callai, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The current study was primarily aimed at verifying the effect of a combined computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper training that was developed to empower visuo-spatial abilities in primary school pupils. One hundred and twenty third grade (mean average: eight years old) and fourth grade (mean age: nine years old) students attending several Italian…

  15. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  16. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  17. Treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning ability through suppressing hippocampal apoptosis in Huntington's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, You-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong; Ha, Jonglin; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and characterized as involuntary movement. Quinolinic acid has been used to produce an animal model of Huntington's disease. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial-learning ability and motor coordination focusing on the apoptosis in the hippocampus was investigated using quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Huntington's disease was induced by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2 μL of 100 nmol) using stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 days. Spatial learning ability and motor coordination were determined by radial 8-arm maze test and rota-rod test. Immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were also conducted for the detection of apoptosis. In the present results, spatial learning ability and motor coordination were deteriorated by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid. In contrast, treadmill exercise exerted ameliorating effect on quinolinic acid-induced deterioration of spatial learning ability and motor coordination. Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus was de-creased and expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the hippocampus were increased in the quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Treadmill exercise increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the Huntington's disease rats. The present results showed that treadmill exercise might ameliorate quinolinic acid-induced loss of spatial learning ability and motor coordination by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus.

  18. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  19. Trade-off in object versus spatial visualization abilities: restriction in the development of visual-processing resources.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Previous research indicates relative independence between the ventral and dorsal visual pathways, associated with object and spatial visual processing, respectively. The present research shows that, at the individual-differences level, there is a trade-off, rather than independence, between object and spatial visualization abilities. Across five different age groups with different professional specializations, participants with above-average object visualization abilities (artists) had below-average spatial visualization abilities, and the inverse was true for those with above-average spatial visualization abilities (scientists). No groups showed both above-average object and above-average spatial visualization abilities. Furthermore, while total object and spatial visualization resources increase with age and experience, the trade-off relationship between object and spatial visualization abilities does not. These results suggest that the trade-off originates through a bottleneck that restricts the development of overall visualization resources, rather than through preferential experience in one type of visualization.

  20. Effect of spatial ability and sex on EEG power in high school students.

    PubMed

    Arce, C; Ramos, J; Guevara, M A; Corsi-Cabrera, M

    1995-06-01

    Performance at eight cognitive tests and EEG spectral power at rest was computed in 2 groups of men and women, between 17 and 21 years of age, with extreme degrees of spatial ability (SA) evaluated by the spatial relations subtest of the DAT: a low spatial ability group (10 men, 10 women) with scores below percentile 30 and a high spatial ability group (10 men, 10 women) with scores above percentile 80. Ten EEG artifact free samples, 4.096 sec each, were analyzed and absolute (AP) and relative power (RP) were obtained for 5 frequency bands using an FFT. EEG was submitted to principal component analysis and two way ANOVAs. High SA showed lower AP in the entire spectrum with eyes open and closed, and lower alpha 1 RP with eyes open than low SA group regardless of sex. The difference between low and high SA was better explained by high alpha AP at all derivations and high theta AP at right derivations and at left central and occipital regions. Women showed higher beta 1 and beta 2 AP at all derivations except at temporal regions than men regardless of SA scores.

  1. Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Thomas E; Richardson, Cassandra

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology to control construction task complexity and examined the relationships between construction performance and spatial and mathematical abilities in children. The study included three groups of children (N = 96); ages 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14 years. Each group constructed seven pre-specified objects. The study replicated and extended previous findings that indicated that the extent of component symmetry and variety, and the number of components for each object and available for selection, significantly predicted construction task difficulty. Results showed that this methodology is a valid and reliable technique for assessing and predicting construction play task difficulty. Furthermore, construction play performance predicted mathematical attainment independently of spatial ability.

  2. Creative musical behavior and sex hormones: musical talent and spatial ability in the two sexes.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1992-01-01

    Creative musical behavior, musical intelligence, and spatial ability were investigated in relation to salivary testosterone (T). In a cross-sectional study with 117 adults and in an 8-yr longitudinal study with 120 adolescents, composers, instrumentalists, and nonmusicians of both sexes were compared by analyses of variance. Results indicate that an optimal T range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. This range may be at the bottom of normal male T range and at the top of normal female T range. In addition, musicians were found to attain significantly higher spatial test scores than nonmusicians, both, in an 8-yr-period of adolescent development and in adulthood.

  3. How directions of route descriptions influence orientation specificity: the contribution of spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Muffato, Veronica; Varotto, Diego; De Beni, Rossana

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies found mental representations of route descriptions north-up oriented when egocentric experience (given by the protagonist's initial view) was congruent with the global reference system. This study examines: (a) the development and maintenance of representations derived from descriptions when the egocentric and global reference systems are congruent or incongruent; and (b) how spatial abilities modulate these representations. Sixty participants (in two groups of 30) heard route descriptions of a protagonist's moves starting from the bottom of a layout and headed mainly northwards (SN description) in one group, and headed south from the top (NS description, the egocentric view facing in the opposite direction to the canonical north) in the other. Description recall was tested with map drawing (after hearing the description a first and second time; i.e. Time 1 and 2) and South-North (SN) or North-South (NS) pointing tasks; and spatial objective tasks were administered. The results showed that: (a) the drawings were more rotated in NS than in SN descriptions, and performed better at Time 2 than at Time 1 for both types of description; SN pointing was more accurate than NS pointing for the SN description, while SN and NS pointing accuracy did not differ for the NS description; (b) spatial (rotation) abilities were related to recall accuracy for both types of description, but were more so for the NS ones. Overall, our results showed that the way in which spatial information is conveyed (with/without congruence between the egocentric and global reference systems) and spatial abilities influence the development and maintenance of mental representations.

  4. The Role of Spatial Ability and Strategy Preference for Spatial Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Ryu, Minjung; Dixon, Bonnie; Hegarty, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In organic chemistry, spatial reasoning is critical for reasoning about spatial relationships in three dimensions and representing spatial information in diagrams. Despite its importance, little is known about the underlying cognitive components of spatial reasoning and the strategies that students employ to solve spatial problems in organic…

  5. A lateralization of function approach to sex differences in spatial ability: a reexamination.

    PubMed

    Rilea, Stacy L

    2008-07-01

    The current study assessed the lateralization of function hypothesis (Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach. Brain and Cognition, 56, 332-343) which suggested that it was the interaction of brain organization and the type of spatial task that led to sex differences in spatial ability. A second purpose was to evaluate explanations for their unexpected findings on the mental rotation task. In Experiment 1, participants completed the Water Level, Paper Folding, and mental rotation tasks (using an object-based or self-based perspective), presented bilaterally. Sex differences were only observed on the Water Level Task; a right hemisphere advantage was observed on Water Level and mental rotation tasks. In Experiment 2, a human stick figure or a polygon was mentally rotated. Men outperformed women when rotating polygons, but not when rotating stick figures. Men demonstrated a right hemisphere advantage when rotating polygons; women showed no hemisphere differences for either stimulus. Thus, hemisphere processing, task complexity, and stimulus type may influence performance for men and women across different spatial measures.

  6. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  7. Spatial Abilities and the Effects of Computer Animation on Short-Term and Long-Term Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    To determine if different levels of graphic presentation affected understanding, 131 middle school science students with high and low spatial ability were shown programs teaching concepts of molecular diffusion with no graphics, static graphics, or animated graphics. Students with low spatial ability benefited from animated presentations. Spatial…

  8. Maturation rate and spatial, verbal, and musical abilities: a seven-year-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1991-06-01

    We traced spatial, verbal and musical abilities through a seven-year period of adolescence. When we started our study, 60 boys had reached a mean age of 11.72, 60 girls were 11.52 on average. Menarche and mutation served as markers for maturation. We found that early, mid, and late maturers differed on spatial orientation and on tactile-visual discrimination as measured with the Witelson task. No differences between the maturational groups emerged on verbal fluency and on Wing's Standardized Tests of Musical Intelligence. At some stages, sex differences on spatial, verbal, and musical tests emerged, and disappeared at others. The sex differences in performance levels were not associated with a sex-specific relationship between maturation rate and performance levels. We found indications of the usefulness of sex hormone measurement in relation to cognitive and musical development in adolescence.

  9. Spatial ability mediates the gender difference in middle school students' science performance.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Colleen M; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In (N = 113), the findings showed that mental rotation ability mediated gender differences in physical science and technology/engineering test scores. In (N = 73,245), science performance was examined in a state population of eighth-grade students. As in , the results revealed larger gender differences on items that showed higher correlations with mental rotation. These findings underscore the importance of considering spatial training interventions aimed at reducing gender differences in the science performance of school-aged children.

  10. Mental representations derived from spatial descriptions: the influence of orientation specificity and visuospatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the orientation dependence effect and the role of visuospatial abilities in mental representations derived from spatial descriptions. The analysis focused on how the orientation effect and the involvement of visuospatial abilities change when survey and route descriptions are used, and the initial and main orientation of an imaginary tour. In Experiment 1, 48 participants listened to survey or route descriptions in which information was mainly north-oriented (matching the initial heading and main direction of travel expressed in the description). In Experiment 2, 40 participants listened to route descriptions in which the initial orientation (north-oriented) was mismatched with the main direction of travel (east-oriented). Participants performed pointing task while facing north vs south (Exp. 1 and 2), and while facing east vs west (Exp. 2), as well as a map drawing task and several visuospatial measures. In both experiments, the results showed that pointing was easier while facing north than while facing south, and map drawings were arranged with a north-up orientation (with no difference between survey and route descriptions). In Experiment 2, pointing while facing east was easier than in the other pointing conditions. The results obtained with the visuospatial tasks showed that perspective-taking (PT) skill was the main predictor of the ability to imagine positions misaligned with the direction expressed in the descriptions (i.e., pointing while facing south in Experiment 1; pointing while facing north, south or west in Experiment 2). Overall, these findings indicate that mental representations derived from spatial descriptions are specifically oriented and their orientation is influenced by the main direction of travel and by the initial orientation. These mental representations, and the adoption of counter-aligned imaginary orientations, demand visuospatial skills and PT ability in particular.

  11. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... summary report available... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 12 hours ago Good ...

  12. A comparison of the development of spatial conceptual abilities of students from two cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Herbert G.

    Efforts are underway to determine if there are any ways unique to Navajo thinking and thus to the way that they might learn. Studies have shown a consistent lag in achievement levels for Native Americans. The purpose of this investigation was to examine spatial thinking abilities of sixth and tenth grade students from 2 locales - a school on the Navajo Reservation and schools in Mesa, Arizona. A battery of 10 Piagetian-type tasks were administered individually to the subjects. A chi-square one sample procedure was used to test for significant differences between subsamples at each grade level. Significant differences were detected for two of the tasks at the sixth grade level, and one task at the tenth grade level. The overall findings of this study support the contention that there were no substantial time delays or advances in the development of selected spatial abilities of Navajo sixth and tenth grade students compared to those of parallel non-American Indian students. The concern of modifying instruction in science courses in order to adapt them to supposed 'different' spatial structures possessed by Navajo students appears to be unfounded.

  13. The Influence of Visual Experience on the Ability to Form Spatial Mental Models Based on Route and Survey Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Zuidhoek, Sander; Postma, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: the first objective is to evaluate the importance of visual experience for the ability to form a spatial representation (spatial mental model) of fairly elaborate spatial descriptions. Secondly, we examine whether blind people exhibit the same preferences (i.e. level of performance on spatial tasks) as…

  14. Enhancement of Spatial Ability in Girls in a Single-Sex Environment through Spatial Experience and the Impact on Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarlis, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The test scores of spatial ability for women lag behind those of men in many spatial tests. On the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), a significant gender gap has existed for over 20 years and continues to exist. High spatial ability has been linked to efficiencies in typical computing tasks including Web and database searching, text editing, and…

  15. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on spatial learning ability in hypothyroid rats: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, MinYoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyroid function were measured in each group by blood analysis and open field and Morris water maze tests. [Results] After four weeks, blood analysis revealed that the thyroid hormone levels had returned to normal in the aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups, whereas the open field and Morris water maze tests showed that the aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups had faster recovery compared to that of the control group. In addition, comparison of aerobic and anaerobic groups showed that the anaerobic exercise group had faster recovery compared to that of the aerobic group. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that exercise helped to improve lethargy and deteriorated spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism and to recover function in rats. Anaerobic exercise was more beneficial than aerobic exercise in alleviating symptoms. PMID:28174480

  16. Spatial working memory and planning ability: contrasts between schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Johanna C; Michiel, Patricia T; Rock, Danny

    2005-12-01

    Working memory may be conceptualized as a multi-component system involving the active maintenance and manipulation of stored information in the service of planning/guiding behaviour. Impaired spatial working memory is a robust finding in schizophrenia patients which has been related to an impairment in frontostriatal connectivity. The purpose of this study was to examine the specificity of this impairment by comparing the mnemonic and executive aspects of working memory performance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic features, focusing particularly on the functional dynamics between task components. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia, 14 patients with bipolar I disorder (manic phase) and 33 healthy control subjects were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): including the spatial working memory (between search errors and strategy scores) spatial span (storage capacity) and spatial planning (Stockings of Cambridge: accuracy and latency) tasks. Both patient groups were impaired on the spatial span task, which requires the maintenance and retrieval of stored information. In contrast, only schizophrenia patients showed a significant deficit in between search errors, which requires both maintenance and manipulation of information in working memory. That is, they exhibited both a mnemonic and an executive dysfunction. Spatial span was particularly important to accurate planning ability in bipolar patients. In contrast, in patients with schizophrenia poor spatial working memory was a significant predictor of planning impairments, consistent with failures in goal selection, evaluation and/or execution. Furthermore, initial planning time was positively correlated with the latency to complete a planning sequence. This pattern of slow cognitive processing in schizophrenia patients only, resembled that reported previously in patients with basal ganglia disorders. These findings are discussed in terms of a possible

  17. The Relation between Childhood Spatial Activities and Spatial Abilities in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Randi A.; Voyer, Daniel; Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between childhood spatial activities and cognitive gender differences in adults through the validation of the Childhood Activities Questionnaire developed by Cherney and Voyer (2010). A sample of 403 (133 males, 270 females) undergraduates in Introductory Psychology courses at University of New Brunswick, NB,…

  18. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  19. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood.

  20. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults' driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on "Target Mid" and "Distractor Only" trials in comparison to "Target 1st" trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40-49 and 60-69 years group in comparison to the 21-30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and improve this ability would be

  1. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults’ driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21–30, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on “Target Mid” and “Distractor Only” trials in comparison to “Target 1st” trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40–49 and 60–69 years group in comparison to the 21–30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and

  2. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization Ability: Can They Be Accounted for by Differences in Working Memory Capacity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are well documented, but poorly understood. In order to see whether working memory is an important factor in these differences, 50 males and 50 females performed tests of three-dimensional mental rotation and spatial visualization, along with tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Substantial differences…

  3. Using virtual reality to investigate comparative spatial cognitive abilities in chimpanzees and humans.

    PubMed

    Dolins, Francine L; Klimowicz, Christopher; Kelley, John; Menzel, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of investigating spatial cognitive abilities across two primate species using virtual reality. In this study, we presented four captive adult chimpanzees and 16 humans (12 children and 4 adults) with simulated environments of increasing complexity and size to compare species' attention to visuo-spatial features during navigation. The specific task required participants to attend to landmarks in navigating along routes in order to localize the goal site. Both species were found to discriminate effectively between positive and negative landmarks. Assessing path efficiency revealed that both species and all age groups used relatively efficient, distance reducing routes during navigation. Compared to the chimpanzees and adult humans however, younger children's performance decreased as maze complexity and size increased. Surprisingly, in the most complex maze category the humans' performance was less accurate compared to one female chimpanzee. These results suggest that the method of using virtual reality to test captive primates, and in particular, chimpanzees, affords significant cross-species investigations of spatial cognitive and developmental comparisons.

  4. Spatial ability in secondary school students: intra-sex differences based on self-selection for physical education.

    PubMed

    Tlauka, Michael; Williams, Jennifer; Williamson, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated consistent sex differences with men typically outperforming women on tests of spatial ability. However, less is known about intra-sex effects. In the present study, two groups of female students (physical education and non-physical education secondary students) and two corresponding groups of male students explored a large-scale virtual shopping centre. In a battery of tasks, spatial knowledge of the shopping centre as well as mental rotation ability were tested. Additional variables considered were circulating testosterone levels, the ratio of 2D:4D digit length, and computer experience. The results revealed both sex and intra-sex differences in spatial ability. Variables related to virtual navigation and computer ability and experience were found to be the most powerful predictors of group membership. Our results suggest that in female and male secondary students, participation in physical education and spatial skill are related.

  5. Exploratory study of the relations between spatial ability and drawing from memory.

    PubMed

    Czarnolewski, Mark Y; Eliot, John

    2012-04-01

    Test scores of 119 students, attending either a public four-year college or a technical school, were related to their proportionality and detail drawing scores on the Memory for Designs Test. In regression models, the ETS Maze Tracing, Eliot-Price Mental Rotations, and Bender-Gestalt tests were consistent predictors of proportionality scores, with the latter two tests uniquely related to these. The ETS Shapes Memory Test and the Form Board Test were the strongest predictors for detail accuracy scores. The Shapes test predicted proportionality when the CTY Visual Memory Test BB was excluded. The models then provided support for the hypothesis that drawing designs from memory, a critical skill in drawing, regardless of whether one focuses on accuracy for proportionality scores or for detail scores, is jointly related to the measures of recognition, production, and traditional spatial ability measures. This study identified multifaceted skills in drawing from memory.

  6. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  7. Bamboo leaf extract improves spatial learning ability in a rat model with senile dementia*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Zhu, Min-ying; Feng, Ci-yuan; Ding, Hai-bin; Zhan, Ying; Zhao, Zhan; Ding, Yue-min

    2015-01-01

    Senile dementia (SD) is a syndrome characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Treatment for the disease is still under investigation. Bamboo leaf extract (B-extract) has been known for its biological efficacy in anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, study on B-extract for its protection against dementia is very limited. The effect of B-extract on a rat model with SD was examined. B-extract improved spatial learning ability of the dementia rats. The hippocampus of dementia model rats showed reduced levels of acetylcholine (ACh), epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), and increased activities of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). Treatment with B-extract 20 mg/(kg·d) for 7 weeks significantly inhibited the enzyme activity compared with untreated dementia rats, and raised the levels of ACh, E, and DA in the hippocampus. In addition, treatment with B-extract elevated the level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but reduced the level of glutamate (Glu) in the brain. These data suggest that B-extract might be a potential drug in treating impairment of spatial memory in dementia rats by regulating the central neurotransmitter function. PMID:26160717

  8. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  9. The Effects of 3-Dimensional CADD Modeling on the Development of the Spatial Ability of Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, K. Lynn; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial abilities are fundamental to human functioning in the physical world. Spatial reasoning allows people to use concepts of shape, features, and relationships in both concrete and abstract ways, to make and use things in the world, to navigate, and to communicate. Surgeons, pilots, architects, engineers, mechanics, builders, farmers, trades…

  10. Interaction of Spatial Visualization and General Reasoning Abilities with Instructional Treatment in Quadratic Inequalities: A Further Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Phillip M.; Carry, L. Ray

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were randomly assigned to a deductively structured verbal-symbolic-numeric treatment or an inductively structured verbal-spatial-numeric treatment for a unit on quadratic inequalities. Success on the deductive symbolic approach was associated with general reasoning ability; success on the inductive spatial approach was associated with…

  11. The Relationship Between Spatial Ability of Native Speakers of Japanese and Their Coding Strategy When Reading Kanji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaga, Sachiko; Crosby, Martha E.

    1997-01-01

    Reports research using eye-tracking methods to investigate how native Japanese speakers read kanji script. Focus is on the relationship between phonology in reading kanji and the spatial ability of the reader. Findings suggest, that regardless of the reader's spatial orientation, phonological coding is an important factor in understanding kanji.…

  12. The Role of Working Memory in Spatial Text Processing: What Benefit of Imagery Strategy and Visuospatial Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyselinck, Valerie; Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the construction of a spatial model in relation to working memory (WM) and visuospatial abilities. Participants were trained to use either imagery or verbal strategies to process route spatial texts. Results obtained on a free recall task, a verification test and a graphic representation task showed the beneficial effect of…

  13. Testing the Ability of TOPMODEL to Assess the Spatial Continuity and Connectivity of Soil Moisture Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G.; Roy, A.

    2006-05-01

    Examining hydrologic connectivity as a major control on stormflow generation has emerged as an important field of research in forest hydrology. Knowledge on this new concept, however, has yet to be incorporated in most hydrological models and to be proven useful to simulate the "on-off" behaviour of small humid temperate catchments. In this study, we examine the hydrologic behaviour of a small headwater forested catchment, the Hermine, located in the Laurentians near Montreal, Quebec. This watershed is a textbook case for the application of the popular TOPMODEL. Still, the model does not perform well, especially following extended dry periods. Several explanations have been proposed regarding this issue, chiefly the existence of two or more preferential states and threshold-like processes associated with the spatio-temporal variations of antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). As these dominantly govern the initiation of stormflow, we test here the ability of the model to differentiate random patterns of soil moisture from organized ones. Using the topographic index distribution and the local storage deficit maps produced at each daily time step, the spatial correlation structure of potentially saturated areas and moisture conditions is studied through the use of geostatistical techniques. We also examine the methods of Western et al. (2001) in reference to the use of connectivity statistics to relate different soil moisture patterns with simulated hydrologic responses. From the spatial patterns of soil moisture simulated, TOPMODEL is capable of isolating several hydrologic preferential states, more or less wet with respect to a threshold value based on the mean catchment deficit. The changes in the disruption of spatial continuity of soil moisture are easier to identify when the correlation length among the patterns exhibits a high degree of seasonality. On the other hand, TOPMODEL falls short of representing some complex spatial patterns of disconnected saturated

  14. Exendin-4 antagonizes Aβ1-42-induced attenuation of spatial learning and memory ability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wang, Li; Jiang, Ruirui; Xu, Yunyun; Zhao, Xueling; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    β-amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation in cerebral centers involved in cognition and memory is a pivotal pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The onset process of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a number of similarities compared with AD. Thus, it is hypothesized that the pharmacological therapy employed for the treatment of T2DM may help to prevent and ameliorate the symptoms of AD. This study demonstrated that Exendin-4, which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue which is used as a therapeutic drug for T2DM, markedly antagonized Aβ fragment-induced attenuation of spatial learning and memory ability, as indicated by a Morris water maze experiment. In addition, we investigated the potential underlying electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms. The results indicate that Exendin-4 rescued long-term potentiation from Aβ1-42-induced damage in the rat hippocampal CA1 region in vivo, and antagonized Aβ1-42-induced reduction of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and phosphorylated-cAMP response element-binding protein in rat hippocampal tissue using ELISA and western blot analysis, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study provide theoretical support for the application of Exendin-4 for improving AD. PMID:27882091

  15. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia.

  16. Individual Differences in Gender Role Beliefs Influence Spatial Ability Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.; Bohon, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The gender role hypothesis posits that performance on a cognitive ability test is influenced by whether the test instructions frame the test as measuring a skill that is consistent or inconsistent with the test taker's gender role beliefs. The Bem sex role inventory was used to measure the gender role of female college students, and the group…

  17. The Influence of Visual-Spatial Ability and Study Procedures on Map Learning Skill.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    that are relatively enduring and resistant to change. Ability scores have historically predicted performance on a variety of school -related learning...Karp, 1962,1974). Specifically, Fl individuals can achieve alternative viewpoints in perspectivism tasks, show conservation on Piagetian ...stables in both location and content b) stochastic Subject does not define a -studies apartments, starting point, but shifts moves to school , park, focus

  18. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories…

  19. The Differential Relations between Verbal, Numerical and Spatial Working Memory Abilities and Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading…

  20. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  1. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  2. Ten-Structure as Strategy of Addition 1-20 by Involving Spatial Structuring Ability for First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmah, Ummy; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design learning activities that can support students to develop strategies for the addition of number 1 to 20 in the first grade by involving students' spatial structuring ability. This study was conducted in Indonesia by involving 27 students. In this paper, one of three activities is discussed namely ten-box activity.…

  3. The Relationship between Learners' Distrust of Scientific Models, Their Spatial Ability, and the Vividness of Their Mental Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationship between learners' distrust of scientific models that represent unseen entities and phenomena, their spatial ability, and the vividness of their mental images. The sample consisted of 302 tenth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman. Three measures were used for this…

  4. The Effect of Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Abilities on the Development of Knowledge of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties in students' understanding of the spherical model of the Earth have been shown in previous studies. One of the reasons for these difficulties lies in beliefs and preliminary knowledge that hinder the interpretation of the scientific knowledge, the other reason may lie in the low level of verbal and visuo-spatial abilities. The study…

  5. The Intelligence of Observation: Improving High School Students' Spatial Ability by Means of Intervention Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkin, Dorit; Dayan, Ester

    2013-01-01

    This case study of one class versus a control group focused on the impact of an intervention unit, which is not part of the regular curriculum, on the improvement of spatial ability of high school students (forty-six 12th-graders, aged 17-18, both boys and girls) in general as well as from a gender perspective. The study explored three…

  6. Acquiring Information from Simple Weather Maps: Influences of Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Visual-Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.; Miller, Christy R.; Power, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The influences of domain-specific meteorological knowledge and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps were examined in a regression-based study involving a sample of participants with relatively low meteorological knowledge and in an experiment involving a contrast between samples of higher- and…

  7. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  8. Seeking Information Online: The Influence of Menu Type, Navigation Path Complexity and Spatial Ability on Information Gathering Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerta Melguizo, Mari Carmen; Vidya, Uti; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of menu type, navigation path complexity and spatial ability on information retrieval performance and web disorientation or lostness. Two innovative aspects were included: (a) navigation path relevance and (b) information gathering tasks. As expected we found that, when measuring aspects directly related to navigation…

  9. The nootropic compound BMY-21502 improves spatial learning ability in brain injured rats.

    PubMed

    Pierce, J E; Smith, D H; Eison, M S; McIntosh, T K

    1993-10-08

    Although long-lasting cognitive dysfunction often follows clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI), few pharmacologic regimens have been developed to treat post-traumatic cognitive deficits. We have previously shown that, in the rat, experimental lateral fluid-percussion (FP) brain injury induces a profound impairment in retrograde memory. In the present study, we characterized alterations in the ability of rats to learn a novel task following lateral FP brain injury and examined the potential modulatory effects of the nootropic cognitive enhancer BMY-21502 on post-injury learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral (parasagittal) FP brain injury of moderate severity (2.4 atm) or sham surgery (no injury). On days 7 and 8 post-injury, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for their ability to learn to navigate to a submerged, invisible platform using external visual cues. BMY-21502 (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered 30 min prior to the first trial on both days. A highly significant (P < 0.001) impairment in post-injury learning was observed in vehicle-treated brain-injured animals compared with vehicle-treated sham animals. Injured animals treated with BMY-21502 at one week post-injury showed significantly (P < 0.05) improvement in post-injury learning ability compared to injured animals treated with vehicle. Paradoxically, in uninjured control animals BMY-21502 treatment appeared to worsen learning scores. The results of this study indicate that BMY-21502 may be useful for attenuating the dysfunction in learning ability that occurs following TBI.

  10. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them.

  11. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability.

  12. Apparent plasticity in functional traits determining competitive ability and spatial distribution: a case from desert

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Gui-Qing; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bai, Yong-fei; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Species competitive abilities and their distributions are closely related to functional traits such as biomass allocation patterns. When we consider how nutrient supply affects competitive abilities, quantifying the apparent and true plasticity in functional traits is important because the allometric relationships among traits are universal in plants. We propose to integrate the notion of allometry and the classical reaction norm into a composite theoretical framework that quantifies the apparent and true plasticity. Combining the framework with a meta-analysis, a series of field surveys and a competition experiment, we aimed to determine the causes of the dune/interdune distribution patterns of two Haloxylon species in the Gurbantonggut Desert. We found that (1) the biomass allocation patterns of both Haloxylon species in responses to environmental conditions were apparent rather than true plasticity and (2) the allometric allocation patterns affected the plants’ competition for soil nutrient supply. A key implication of our results is that the apparent plasticity in functional traits of plants determines their response to environmental change. Without identifying the apparent and true plasticity, we would substantially overestimate the magnitude, duration and even the direction of plant responses in functional traits to climate change. PMID:26190745

  13. Is learning ability and spatial memory in rats influenced by single dose of nicotine?

    PubMed

    Hralová, M; Marešová, D; Riljak, V

    2011-01-01

    A lot of studies have been concentrated on an effect of a short or a long-term administration of nicotine in humans or in animals. The negative effects on the human organism have been known for a long time, but these health problems are known especially from observing smokers. The number of tasks in human and in animals with accent on positive effect of nicotine has increased especially with regard to improvement of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate, how much a single dose of nicotine can influence the learning ability in rats. Male Wistar albino rats, 25-day-old, were studied. Two groups of animals received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of nicotine in two different doses (0.75 mg/kg and 1.00 mg/kg b.w.). The third group received a single i.p. injection of saline in the equal volume (the control group). After the drug application the escape latency and the path length were measured and assessed in two periods of sessions in the Morris water maze. In our study no explicit changes of learning ability after a single nicotine injection was confirmed. Only at the third day of the task the trajectory was shorter (p<0.05) but this result appears too isolated. So we cannot exclude that such improvement was caused by other factors than by the nicotine administration.

  14. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.

  15. A study of two measures of spatial ability as predictors of success in different levels of general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Carolyn S.; Larussa, Mary A.; Bodner, George M.

    Preliminary data (Bodner and McMillen, 1986) suggested a correlation between spatial ability and performance in a general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. This correlation was seen not only on highly spatial tasks such as predicting the structures of ionic solids (r = 0.29), but also on tasks such as multiple-choice stoichiometry questions (r = 0.32) that might not be expected to involve spatial skills. To further investigate the relationship between spatial ability and performance in introductory chemistry courses, two spatial tests were given to 1648 students in a course for science and engineering majors (Carter, 1984) and 850 students in a course for students from nursing and agriculture (La-Russa, 1985) at Purdue. Scores on the spatial tests consistently contributed a small but significant amount to success on measures of performance in chemistry. Correlations were largest, however, for subscores that grouped questions that tested problem solving skills rather than rote memory or the application of simple algorithms, and correlations were also large for verbally complex questions thaty required the students to disembed and restructure relevant information.

  16. The Comparison of the Visuo-Spatial Abilities of Dyslexic and Normal Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K.…

  17. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Methods Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience.  Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. Results A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). Conclusions This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.  PMID:26897701

  18. Ability Is Ageless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Experience Works is a national organization that provides training and employment services to older adults. Its Prime Time Awards Program honors contributions of older workers in their 70s and beyond, demonstrating the continued ability and productivity of this population as well as the benefits they derive from productive work. (SK)

  19. Computerized Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…

  20. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  1. Promoting Logical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Alan R.

    1973-01-01

    This article reports one search for factors or conditions shaping the child's growth in logical ability. The search indicated the existence of a relationship between the quantity of teacher talk that contains the language of logic and the change exhibited by students. Implications for classroom practice are discussed. (JA)

  2. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  3. Effects of developmental perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure on spatial learning and memory ability of rats and mechanism associated with synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on cognitive function in developing rats and the underlying mechanism associated with synaptic plasticity. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed with 0, 5, and 15 mg/L of PFOS via drinking water during gestation and lactation. Offspring were exposed to PFOS on prenatal and/or postnatal days by cross-fostering. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested from postnatal day (PND) 35. We also analyzed the expression pattern of the synaptic plasticity-related genes and proteins in the hippocampus on PND7 and PND35. Results revealed that PFOS exposure reduced the spatial learning and memory abilities of the offspring, particularly of those with prenatal exposure. Meanwhile, protein levels of growth-associated protein-43, neural cell adhesion molecule 1, nerve growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor decreased on PND35, which are involved in the formation of synaptic plasticity. In contrast, significant increase in gap-43, ncam1, and bdnf genes on the mRNA level was observed on PND7, possibly due to the post-transcriptional mechanism. Results of both behavioral effects and molecular endpoints suggested the high risk of prenatal PFOS exposure. The decline of spatial learning and memory abilities induced by developmental PFOS exposure was closely related to synaptic plasticity.

  4. Effects of a Classroom Intervention with Spatial Play Materials on Children's Object and Viewer Transformation Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current study investigated the effects of explicitly…

  5. Prediction of seizure incidence probability in PTZ model of kindling through spatial learning ability in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Narges-Al-Sadat; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Sadegh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Zohre; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by periodic seizures. Cognitive deficits and impairments in learning and memory are also associated with epilepsy. Neuronal changes and synaptic modifications in kindling model of epilepsy are similar to those occur during the learning procedure and memory formation. Herein we investigated whether seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of kindling is predictable based on the learning ability in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in male and female rats. Allocentric learning was tested using MWM in present of light while egocentric learning was evaluated by MWM in dark room. The results indicated no significant differences in allocentric learning abilities between male and female rats. However, male rats were able to memorize the location of the platform more effectively compared to females in egocentric test. In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between learning abilities (working memory) and seizure susceptibility in male rats was found while this correlation was positive in female rats. On the other hand, although there was no significant correlation between retrieval (reference memory) of spatial memories and seizure parameters in male rats, female rats showed a significant negative correlation. These findings may provide some evidences for prediction of seizure susceptibility according to learning ability and memory retention.

  6. Improved Spatial Ability Correlated with Left Hemisphere Dysfunction in Turner's Syndrome. Implications for Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    This study contrasts the performance of a 17-year-old female subject with Turner's syndrome before and after developing left temporal lobe seizures, as a means of identifying the mechanism responsible for the Turner's syndrome spatial impairment. The results revealed a deficit in spatial processing before onset of the seizure disorder. Results…

  7. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  8. Specific Transitions in the Development of Spatial Perspective-Taking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coie, John D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Children 5 to 11 were given Piagetian spatial perspective tasks in a study of the development of egocentrism. Results indicated a more complex development of egocentrism than earlier Piagetian studies have suggested. (ST)

  9. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Satellite Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to reduced uncertainty in estimates of the global carbon budget. An overview of possible strategies for measuring CO2 from space will be presented, including IR and nearby measurements, active sensors and broad band and narrow band passive sensors. The ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios will be illustrated using a combination of surface data, aircraft data and model results.

  10. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  11. The Importance of Spatial Ability and Mental Models in Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    2011-01-01

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing…

  12. Verbal and visual-spatial working memory and mathematical ability in different domains throughout primary school.

    PubMed

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2015-04-01

    The relative importance of visual-spatial and verbal working memory for mathematics performance and learning seems to vary with age, the novelty of the material, and the specific math domain that is investigated. In this study, the relations between verbal and visual-spatial working memory and performance in four math domains (i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) at different ages during primary school are investigated. Children (N = 4337) from grades 2 through 6 participated. Visual-spatial and verbal working memory were assessed using online computerized tasks. Math performance was assessed at the start, middle, and end of the school year using a speeded arithmetic test. Multilevel Multigroup Latent Growth Modeling was used to model individual differences in level and growth in math performance, and examine the predictive value of working memory per grade, while controlling for effects of classroom membership. The results showed that as grade level progressed, the predictive value of visual-spatial working memory for individual differences in level of mathematics performance waned, while the predictive value of verbal working memory increased. Working memory did not predict individual differences between children in their rate of performance growth throughout the school year. These findings are discussed in relation to three, not mutually exclusive, explanations for such age-related findings.

  13. Improving 8th Grades Spatial Thinking Abilities through a 3D Modeling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toptas, Veli; Celik, Serkan; Karaca, E. Tugce

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of emerging technology in sub disciplines of mathematics education provides a potential for educators to elaborate the capacity of digitized learning for human being. Spatial thinking is considered as a factor of scientific deduction from a multi disciplinary point of view. This paper reports a study aimed at exploring the effect of…

  14. Perspective-Taking Ability in Bilingual Children: Extending Advantages in Executive Control to Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Bellana, Buddhika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual and bilingual 8-year-olds performed a computerized spatial perspective-taking task. Children were asked to decide how an observer saw a four-block array from one of three different positions (90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees counter-clockwise from the child's position) by selecting one of four responses--the correct response,…

  15. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  16. Individual Differences in Spatial Relation Processing: Effects of Strategy, Ability, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Borst, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial relations. Categorical relations are propositional and abstract, and often related to a left hemisphere advantage. Coordinate relations specify the metric information of the relative locations of objects, and can be linked to right hemisphere processing.…

  17. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  18. The relation between crawling and 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in spatial object processing.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Claudia; Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2017-06-01

    We examined whether 9-month-old infants' visual prediction abilities in the context of spatial object processing are related to their crawling ability. A total of 33 9-month-olds were tested; half of them crawled for 7.6weeks on average. A new visual prediction paradigm was developed during which a three-dimensional three-object array was presented in a live setting. During familiarization, the object array rotated back and forth along the vertical axis. While the array was moving, two target objects of it were briefly occluded from view and uncovered again as the array changed its direction of motion. During the test phase, the entire array was rotated around 90° and then rotated back and forth along the horizontal axis. The targets remained at the same position or were moved to a modified placement. We recorded infants' eye movements directed at the dynamically covered and uncovered target locations and analyzed infants' prediction rates. All infants showed higher prediction rates at test and when the targets' placement was modified. Most importantly, the results demonstrated that crawlers had higher prediction rates during test trials as compared with non-crawlers. Our study supports the assumption that crawling experience might enhance 9-month-old infants' ability to correctly predict complex object movement.

  19. Residual abilities in age-related macular degeneration to process spatial frequencies during natural scene categorization.

    PubMed

    Musel, Benoit; Hera, Ruxandra; Chokron, Sylvie; Alleysson, David; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by a central vision loss. We explored the relationship between the retinal lesions in AMD patients and the processing of spatial frequencies in natural scene categorization. Since the lesion on the retina is central, we expected preservation of low spatial frequency (LSF) processing and the impairment of high spatial frequency (HSF) processing. We conducted two experiments that differed in the set of scene stimuli used and their exposure duration. Twelve AMD patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 1 and 10 different AMD patients and 10 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 2 performed categorization tasks of natural scenes (Indoors vs. Outdoors) filtered in LSF and HSF. Experiment 1 revealed that AMD patients made more no-responses to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. In addition, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes only for indoors. Healthy participants' performance was not differentially affected by spatial frequency content of the scenes. In Experiment 2, AMD patients demonstrated the same pattern of errors as in Experiment 1. Furthermore, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. Again, spatial frequency processing was equivalent for healthy participants. The present findings point to a specific deficit in the processing of HSF information contained in photographs of natural scenes in AMD patients. The processing of LSF information is relatively preserved. Moreover, the fact that the deficit is more important when categorizing HSF indoors, may lead to new perspectives for rehabilitation procedures in AMD.

  20. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, William J.

    Due to the call of current science education reform for the integration of engineering practices within science classrooms, design-based instruction is receiving much attention in science education literature. Although some aspect of modeling is often included in well-known design-based instructional methods, it is not always a primary focus. The purpose of this study was to better understand how design-based instruction with an emphasis on scientific modeling might impact students' spatial abilities and their model-based argumentation abilities. In the following mixed-method multiple case study, seven seventh grade students attending a secular private school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States underwent an instructional intervention involving design-based instruction, modeling and argumentation. Through the course of a lesson involving students in exploring the interrelatedness of the environment and an animal's form and function, students created and used multiple forms of expressed models to assist them in model-based scientific argument. Pre/post data were collected through the use of The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotation, the Mental Rotation Test and interviews. Other data included a spatial activities survey, student artifacts in the form of models, notes, exit tickets, and video recordings of students throughout the intervention. Spatial abilities tests were analyzed using descriptive statistics while students' arguments were analyzed using the Instrument for the Analysis of Scientific Curricular Arguments and a behavior protocol. Models were analyzed using content analysis and interviews and all other data were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings in the area of spatial abilities included increases in spatial reasoning for six out of seven participants, and an immense difference in the spatial challenges encountered by students when using CAD software instead of paper drawings to create models. Students perceived 3D printed

  1. Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Gorrell, J

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.

  2. An fMRI Study of the Impact of Block Building and Board Games on Spatial Ability

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Hansen, Mitchell T.; Gutierrez, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that block play, board games, and puzzles result in better spatial ability. This study focused on examining the differential impact of structured block play and board games on spatial processing. Two groups of 8-year-old children were studied. One group participated in a five session block play training paradigm and the second group had a similar training protocol but played a word/spelling board game. A mental rotation task was assessed before and after training. The mental rotation task was performed during fMRI to observe the neural changes associated with the two play protocols. Only the block play group showed effects of training for both behavioral measures and fMRI measured brain activation. Behaviorally, the block play group showed improvements in both reaction time and accuracy. Additionally, the block play group showed increased involvement of regions that have been linked to spatial working memory and spatial processing after training. The board game group showed non-significant improvements in mental rotation performance, likely related to practice effects, and no training related brain activation differences. While the current study is preliminary, it does suggest that different “spatial” play activities have differential impacts on spatial processing with structured block play but not board games showing a significant impact on mental rotation performance. PMID:27621714

  3. Imagery Ability and Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    size of the dots was varied to test visual * . acuity , the number of dots was varied to test the ability to maintain complex images, and the trajectory...REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Technical Report #2 Ti b i / V Q/) _ 4. TITLE ( amd Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT...Mental imagery Visual thinking Spatial reasoning . 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide If necesery mid identify by block numtber) Kosslyn, Brunn

  4. Ability Grouping in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1982-01-01

    Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)

  5. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial…

  6. An experimental test of "the mozart effect": does listening to his music improve spatial ability?

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Rosenbach, J H; Burns, K L; Latimer, B C; Matocha, H R; Vogt, E R

    1995-12-01

    This experiment was designed as a test of the 1993 findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky who reported a positive effect of listening to classical music on spatial reasoning. Present results do not demonstrate the "Mozart effect." In our study, 114 students were pretested on items from the Raven's Progressive Matrices--Advanced Form, then instructed to listen to either 8 min. of Mozart's music, relaxation instructions, or silence. Then subjects were posttested on an equivalent set of Raven's items. The subjects were also asked to provide information about their musical background and preferences. All instructions and treatments were audiotaped and played to individual subjects through earphones in the university language laboratory, ensuring standardization of procedures. Subjects in all 3 treatment groups showed a practice effect, but this improvement in Raven's scores was not dependent on the type of treatment received. There were no differences in Raven's scores among groups before or after treatment so our results do not confirm the prior ones. There was no evidence that the brief music had a different effect on subsequent problem solving according to listeners' musical background and training.

  7. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  8. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  9. Effects of LEGO Mindstorms on convergent and divergent problem-solving and spatial abilities in fifth and sixth grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbon, Lance W.

    In this quasi-experimental study, 142 fifth and sixth grade students at a suburban elementary school in Northwest Washington State participated in a week-long, 10-hour project using the LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System (RIS). Partners constructed and programmed one robot from visually-based LEGO instructions and a second of their own creation and then shared them at a culminating event. The study is built upon on the constructionist philosophy of Seymour Papert (1980; 1990; 1993; 1999) and an investigation of problem-solving and LEGO robotics by Debra and David Palumbo (1993). A modified switching-replications design provided 3 complete replications within the study and allowed all participants to receive the treatment. Pre and posttests were given. Convergent problem-solving and spatial ability were measured by the Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPM) and divergent problem-solving ability was measured by the Fluency and Flexibility Measure (FFM). The FFM was constructed by the researcher. The development process, piloting, and implementation of this instrument are reported. Overall, Mindstorms did not have a significant effect on convergent problem-solving and spatial reasoning as measured by the RPM. However, infrequent LEGO's users made greater gains on the RPM during the treatment than frequent users, but frequent LEGO users made notable gains during the comparison condition. The multiplicative interaction effect of Testing, Group, and LEGO Use across replications on the RPM is significant, p<.001 ( p=.264 x p=.620 x p=.001). The FFM provides two scores: Fluency, or the number of responses, and Flexibility, or the number of categories into which those responses fit. The findings for Fluency were strong in two replications, p<.005, and frequent LEGO users scored higher than the comparison group on Fluency for all three replications (p=.384, p=.035, p=.090). There was no clear pattern of gender differences on the RPM or FFM. This study provides tentative

  10. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Spaceborne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  11. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    factoring of cognitive ability batteries yields primary group factors that are highly g-loaded ( Carroll , 1993). Using military data, Ree and Earles... Carroll , J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities. New York: Cambridge University Press. Detterman, D. K., Daniel, M. H. (1989). Correlations of

  12. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  13. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  14. Strategies of Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the…

  15. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  16. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  17. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific entities and…

  18. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The…

  19. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.

  20. Evaluation of Tests of Processing Speed, Spatial Ability, and Working Memory for use in Military Occupational Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    gF, measured by the RAPM and the Cattell Culture Fair Test ( Cattell , 1973) produced I-CA brain activity that was depicted in a path model with both...1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. NY: Houghton Mifflin. Cattell , R. B. (1973). Measuring intelligence with the culture fair ...given unfamiliar (non-academic) content of the problem ( Cattell , 1971, p.99). In this regard gF tests could be more important than crystallized

  1. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  2. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON COMMUNICATION ABILITIES AND CREATIVE ABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO IDENTIFY VARIABLES RELATED TO EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATION IN MILITARY OPERATIONS. THE GOAL WAS TO DEVELOP TESTS TO CLASSIFY OFFICERS AND AIRMEN, BASED UPON ALL OF THE BROAD COMMUNICATION ABILITIES NEEDED IN THE AIR FORCE. THE RESEARCH OUTLINE CONSISTED OF REVIEWING COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND OTHER TESTS, PREPARING A REDUCED…

  3. The measurement of enhancement in mathematical abilities as a result of joint cognitive trainings in numerical and visual- spatial skills: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, M.; Mascia, M. L.; Fastame, M. C.; Melis, V.; Pilloni, M. C.; Penna, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    A body of literature shows the significant role of visual-spatial skills played in the improvement of mathematical skills in the primary school. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of a combined visuo-spatial and mathematical training on the improvement of mathematical skills in 146 second graders of several schools located in Italy. Participants were presented single pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial or mathematical trainings, computerised version of the above mentioned treatments, as well as a combined version of computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings, respectively. Experimental groups were presented with training for 3 months, once a week. All children were treated collectively both in computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper modalities. At pre and post-test all our participants were presented with a battery of objective tests assessing numerical and visuo-spatial abilities. Our results suggest the positive effect of different types of training for the empowerment of visuo-spatial and numerical abilities. Specifically, the combination of computerised and pencil-and-paper versions of visuo-spatial and mathematical trainings are more effective than the single execution of the software or of the pencil-and-paper treatment.

  4. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  5. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  6. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

    2006-01-01

    While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased…

  8. Ability Estimation for Conventional Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jwa K.; Nicewander, W. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Bias, standard error, and reliability of five ability estimators were evaluated using Monte Carlo estimates of the unknown conditional means and variances of the estimators. Results indicate that estimates based on Bayesian modal, expected a posteriori, and weighted likelihood estimators were reasonably unbiased with relatively small standard…

  9. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  10. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  11. Visual Discriminatory Ability Among Prereaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.

    The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…

  12. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  13. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  14. Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Cognitive Styles in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Trajectories in Relation to Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report instrument, the Children's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (C-OSIVQ), was designed to assess cognitive styles in younger populations (8-17 years old). The questionnaire was based on the previously developed adult version of the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ; Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov,…

  15. Have Sex Differences in Spatial Ability Evolved from Male Competition for Mating and Female Concern for Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, Isabelle; Robert, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles…

  16. Memory abilities in children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vicari, S; Brizzolara, D; Carlesimo, G A; Pezzini, G; Volterra, V

    1996-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic condition characterised by intellectual disability, typical facial dysmorphology and several medical anomalies. A specific neuropsychological profile with a dissociation between language (relatively preserved) and visuo-spatial abilities (more seriously impaired) has been hypothesised in these children. Memory abilities of these patients have not been adequately investigated, although they may substantially contribute to better understanding their neuropsychological profile. The present study aimed at investigating verbal and spatial memory in patients with WS (N = 16). Their performance was compared with that of normally developing children on tasks of verbal and spatial span and immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visuo-perceptual materials. Memory abilities of WS children appear to be characterised by defective visuo-spatial memory, both in the short-term and long-term domain, and a dissociation between normal short- but deficient long-term verbal learning. Results are interpreted by supporting the thesis that intellectual disability reflects the defective functioning of a complex system in which some cognitive competencies may be disrupted more than others (Detterman, 1987; Vicari, Albertini and Caltagirone, 1992).

  17. Vertebrate Dissimilarity Due to Turnover and Richness Differences in a Highly Beta-Diverse Region: The Role of Spatial Grain Size, Dispersal Ability and Distance

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M.; Moreno, Claudia E.; Pineda-López, Rubén; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana

    2013-01-01

    We explore the influence of spatial grain size, dispersal ability, and geographic distance on the patterns of species dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, separating the dissimilarity explained by species replacement (turnover) from that resulting from richness differences. With data for 905 species of terrestrial vertebrates distributed in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, classified into five groups according to their taxonomy and dispersal ability, we calculated total dissimilarity and its additive partitioning as two components: dissimilarity derived from turnover and dissimilarity derived from richness differences. These indices were compared using fine (10 x 10 km), intermediate (20 x 20 km) and coarse (40 x 40 km) grain grids, and were tested for any correlations with geographic distance. The results showed that total dissimilarity is high for the terrestrial vertebrates in this region. Total dissimilarity, and dissimilarity due to turnover are correlated with geographic distance, and the patterns are clearer when the grain is fine, which is consistent with the distance-decay pattern of similarity. For all terrestrial vertebrates tested on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec both the dissimilarity derived from turnover and the dissimilarity resulting from richness differences make important contributions to total dissimilarity, and dispersal ability does not seem to influence the dissimilarity patterns. These findings support the idea that conservation efforts in this region require a system of interconnected protected areas that embrace the environmental, climatic and biogeographic heterogeneity of the area. PMID:24324840

  18. "Elastic" property of mesoporous silica shell: for dynamic surface enhanced Raman scattering ability monitoring of growing noble metal nanostructures via a simplified spatially confined growth method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Wang, Yunqing; Sun, Xiuyan; Wang, Wenhai; Chen, Lingxin

    2015-04-15

    The Raman enhancing ability of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is an important factor for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate screening, which is generally evaluated by simply mixing as-prepared NPs with Raman reporters for Raman signal measurements. This method usually leads to incredible results because of the NP surface coverage nonuniformity and reporter-induced NP aggregation. Moreover, it cannot realize in situ, continuous SERS characterization. Herein, we proposed a dynamic SERS monitoring strategy for NPs with precisely tuned structures based on a simplified spatially confined NP growth method. Gold nanorod (AuNR) seed NPs were coated with a mesoporous silica (mSiO2) shell. The permeability of mSiO2 for both reactive species and Raman reporters rendered the silver overcoating reaction and SERS indication of NP growth. Additionally, the mSiO2 coating ensured monodisperse NP growth in a Raman reporter-rich reaction system. Moreover, "elastic" features of mSiO2 were observed for the first time, which is crucial for holding the growing NP without breakage. This feature makes the mSiO2 coating adhere to metal NPs throughout the growing process, providing a stable Raman reporter distribution microenvironment near the NPs and ensuring that the substrate's SERS ability comparison is accurate. Three types of NPs, i.e., core-shell Au@AgNR@mSiO2, Au@AuNR@mSiO2, and yolk-shell Au@void@AuNR@mSiO2 NPs, were synthesized via core-shell overgrowth and galvanic replacement methods, showing the versatility of the approach. The living cell SERS labeling ability of Au@AgNR@mSiO2-based tags was also demonstrated. This strategy addresses the problems of multiple batch NP preparation, aggregation, and surface adsorption differentiation, which is a breakthrough for the dynamic comparison of SERS ability of metal NPs with precisely tuned structures and optical properties.

  19. The Role of Cognitive Abilities in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J. M. C.; Miedema, H. A. T.; Broeders, I. A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general…

  20. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant.

  1. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction. PMID:26328685

  2. Ability to Consent to Parkinson Disease Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... asked the participants questions about their understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and choice. These 4 areas make up decision- ... decision-making capacity Types of abilities Understanding Appreciation Reasoning Choice Meaning of abilities Know the basic facts ...

  3. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... AgrAbility Services Equipment and Vehicle Modifications Financing-Related Matters Other Modifications Other Disability and Agricultural-related questions Main Menu Home About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & ...

  4. Improvement of Speaking Ability through Interrelated Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.

  5. Drawing Abilities of Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: Prediction of Expert Judgments by Self-Report Responses and Spatial Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The drawing abilities of 297 Hong Kong Chinese students were assessed by two expert judges based on two drawings done by each student, using two drawing tasks originally used in Clark's Drawing Abilities Test. These expert ratings were examined in relation to students' self-ratings on the same drawings, self-reports on their involvement in drawing…

  6. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  7. The Stratified Adaptive Computerized Ability Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This report describes the stratified adaptive (stradaptive) test as a strategy for tailoring an ability test to individual differences in testee ability; administration of the test is controlled by a time-shared computer system. The rationale of this method is described as it derives from Binet's strategy of ability test administration and…

  8. Urine concentrating and diluting ability during aging.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Urine concentrating ability is reduced during normal aging in people and rats. The abundance of many of the key transport proteins that contribute to urine concentrating ability is reduced in the kidney medulla of aged rats. The reductions in water, sodium, and urea transport protein abundances, and their reduced response to water restriction, contribute to the reduced ability of aged rats to concentrate their urine and conserve water. If similar mechanisms occur in human kidneys, it would provide a molecular explanation for the reduced urine concentrating ability in aging and may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to improve urine concentrating ability and/or nocturnal polyuria.

  9. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical…

  10. Ability, Disability, and Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    2001-01-01

    Addresses selecting materials for children who have deficits or strengths in their use of certain learning modes based on Howard Gardner's seven types of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and internal and external personal intelligence. Describes one picture book for each category. (Author/LRW)

  11. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  12. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  13. The Development, Testing, and Use of a Computer Interface To Evaluate an Information Processing Model Describing the Rates of Encoding and Mental Rotation in High School Students of High and Low Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Frederick Loye

    This study investigated the speed of encoding and rotation of images during simple spatial rotational operations to discover any similarities or differences in groups of differing spatial ability. This project was subdivided into five basic subproblems. First, research was done to arrive at a simple, easily testable information processing model…

  14. Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N=133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement.

  15. The relationship between comprehension and metacomprehension ability.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Jonas, D; Kallod, M

    1994-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between the ability to comprehend text and the ability to predict future performance and to assess past performance on text. Subjects were poor at predicting performance, which may be why prediction accuracy did not relate to measures of comprehension ability. Measures of comprehension ability did relate to the accuracy with which subjects assessed their performance on tests. Better and faster comprehenders judged their relative levels of test performance over sections of text more accurately than did poorer and slower comprehenders.

  16. An Assessment of the Ability of Potential Space-Borne Instruments to Resolve Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mounting concern regarding the possibility that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will initiate climate change has stimulated interest in the feasibility of measuring CO2 mixing ratios from satellites. Currently, the most comprehensive set of atmospheric CO2 data is from the NOAA CMDL cooperative air sampling network, consisting of more than 40 sites where flasks of air are collected approximately weekly. Sporadic observations in the troposphere and stratosphere from airborne in situ and flask samplers are also available. Although the surface network is extensive, there is a dearth of data in the Southern Hemisphere and most of the stations were intentionally placed in remote areas, far from major sources. Sufficiently precise satellite observations with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would substantially increase our knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution and would undoubtedly lead to improved understanding of the global carbon budget. We use a 3-D chemical transport model to investigate the ability of potential satellite instruments with a variety of orbits, horizontal resolution and vertical weighting functions to capture the variation in the modeled CO2 fields. The model is driven by analyzed winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. Simulated CO2 fields are compared with existing surface and aircraft data, and the effects of the model convection scheme and representation of the planetary boundary layer are considered.

  17. Assessing temporal and spatial variation in sensitivity of communities of periphyton sampled from agroecosystem to, and ability to recover from, atrazine exposure.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Brain, Richard A; Malia Andrus, J; Hosmer, Alan J; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

    2015-08-01

    Lotic systems in agriculturally intensive watersheds can experience short-term pulsed exposures of pesticides as a result of runoff associated with rainfall events following field applications. Of special interest are herbicides that could potentially impair communities of primary producers, such as those associated with periphyton. Therefore, this study examined agroecosystem-derived lotic periphyton to assess (1) variation in community sensitivity to, and ability to recover from, acute (48h) exposure to the photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide atrazine across sites and time, and (2) attempt to determine the variables (e.g., community structure, hydrology, water quality measures) that were predictive for observed differences in sensitivity and recovery. Periphyton were sampled from six streams in the Midwestern U.S. on four different dates in 2012 (April to August). Field-derived periphyton were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of atrazine ranging from 10 to 320μg/L for 48h, followed by untreated media for evaluation of recovery for 48h. Effective quantum yield of PSII was measured after 24h and 48h exposure and 24h and 48h after replacement of media. Inhibition of PSII EC50 values ranged from 53 to >320µg/L. The majority of periphyton samples (16 out of 22) exposed to atrazine up to 320µg/L recovered completely by 48h after replacement of media. Percent inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII in periphyton (6 of 22 samples) exposed to 320µg/L atrazine that were significantly lower than controls after 48h ranged from 2% to 24%. No distinct spatial or temporal trends in sensitivity and recovery potential were observed over the course of the study. Conditional inference forest analysis and variation partitioning were used to investigate potential associations between periphyton sensitivity to and ability to recover from exposure to atrazine. Although certain environmental variables (i.e., proximity of high flow/velocity events and

  18. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  19. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  20. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  1. Adolescents' Conceptions of Ability and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.

    Adolescents' developing sense of competence is based on two domains, ability and intelligence. Intelligence testing generally presumes a conception of ability as current capacity that limits the extent to which effort can improve performance. Conceptions of intelligence, and other skills, involve implications about the nature of different forms of…

  2. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  3. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  4. Improving Learning Ability Through Compensatory Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    This book presents a procedure for improving, through the medium of physical education activities, the learning ability of children. Rather than using systematic exercises for the correction of certain perceptual-motor deficiencies, learning ability can be enhanced through active games, rhythmic activities, and self-testing activities. Covering a…

  5. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  6. Assessing Social Ability in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James; Lin, Guan Yu; Lin, Yimei

    2006-01-01

    Education is a social practice and the ability to interact socially is important to social cognitive learning and social learning. Online education is frequently criticized because it lacks social interaction, a sense of social engagement, and the benefits of learning with others. Social ability with computer-mediated social mechanisms is key to…

  7. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  8. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window…

  9. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation.

    PubMed

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers' attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants' verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.

  10. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  11. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree.

  12. Different Approaches for Teaching Volume and Students' Visualization Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Enochs, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a study which was designed to examine if spatial-visual skills are related to learning the volume concept and if a particular mode of presentation for teaching volume is preferable for students of differing spatial ability. Results indicate that students of low visual orientation benefit if volume is taught before area and length. (ML)

  13. The Relationship between the Ability To Divide Attention and Standard Measures of General Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Sheffer, Limor

    2001-01-01

    Studied individual differences in the ability to allocate processing resources among competing tasks and its relationship with general cognitive ability for 50 Israeli undergraduates performing single and dual tasks. Results suggest that the unique ability to perform dual tasks may become more automatic and less controlled with practice so that…

  14. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  15. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Ability Settings.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason; Filson Moses, Jennifer; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that one person's expectations can influence the behavior of another person, thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This study examined the effects of ability-based expectations in an experiment in which some participants ("coaches") were assigned false expectations of the basketball free-throw shooting ability of other participants ("players"). Coaches allocated more opportunities to players for whom the false expectation was positive, and fewer shots to players for whom the false expectation was negative. In turn, players who were allocated more shots made a higher percentage of them, thereby confirming their coaches' expectations about their shooting ability, and were more confident in their shooting ability following the task, than players who were allocated fewer shots.

  16. Generalist genes and high cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The concept of generalist genes operating across diverse domains of cognitive abilities is now widely accepted. Much less is known about the etiology of the high extreme of performance. Is there more specialization at the high extreme? Using a representative sample of 4,000 12-year-old twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study, we investigated the genetic and environmental overlap between web-based tests of general cognitive ability, reading, mathematics and language performance for the top 15% of the distribution using DF extremes analysis. Generalist genes are just as evident at the high extremes of performance as they are for the entire distribution of abilities and for cognitive disabilities. However, a smaller proportion of the phenotypic intercorrelations appears to be explained by genetic influences for high abilities.

  17. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed.

  18. Assessing the Gap Between Current Movement Ability and Preferred Movement Ability as a Measure of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background If disability is the gap between what an individual can do and what that individual would like to be able to do, then measures that assess only current ability fall short of describing the impact of disability on the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to examine a potential measure of disability, the gap between current movement ability and preferred movement ability, as recorded with the Movement Ability Measure (MAM). This investigation was performed by establishing the relationship between self-perceived current ability and other measures and examining the evidence of convergence or divergence between the gap and other measures. Design This investigation was a descriptive study. Methods Thirty people who had multiple sclerosis and were ambulatory completed the MAM and 18 other measures of bodily function, activity, and participation. Item response theory methods were used to generate logit estimates of average current movement ability and separate abilities in the 6 dimensions of movement on the MAM. Pearson correlations were calculated between estimated abilities from the MAM and scores from measures expected to be associated with these estimated abilities, as well as between the MAM and additional measures in exploratory analyses of relationships. Results The average current ability and the separate dimensions correlated moderately to strongly (.5–.8) with many of the measures expected to be related and showed additional moderately strong correlations in exploratory analyses. The average gap between current ability and preferred ability correlated moderately with pain (−.56) and a scale of current ability (.46) but diverged from many of the measures. Limitations The limitations of this study included the lack of an intervention to assess the response of the gap to therapy and the use of multiple statistical tests with a small sample. Conclusions The evidence supports the convergent validity for current ability on the MAM but mostly

  19. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  20. Quantitative abilities in a reptile (Podarcis sicula).

    PubMed

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Fraccaroli, Isabel; Gariboldi, Francesco; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    The ability to identify the largest amount of prey available is fundamental for optimizing foraging behaviour in several species. To date, this cognitive skill has been observed in all vertebrate groups except reptiles. In this study we investigated the spontaneous ability of ruin lizards to select the larger amount of food items. In Experiment 1, lizards proved able to select the larger food item when presented with two alternatives differing in size (0.25, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.75 ratio). In Experiment 2 lizards presented with two groups of food items (1 versus 4, 2 versus 4, 2 versus 3 and 3 versus 4 items) were unable to select the larger group in any contrast. The lack of discrimination in the presence of multiple items represents an exception in numerical cognition studies, raising the question as to whether reptiles' quantitative abilities are different from those of other vertebrate groups.

  1. Emotional intelligence: new ability or eclectic traits?

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R

    2008-09-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in which some researchers focus on EI as a distinct group of mental abilities, and other researchers instead study an eclectic mix of positive traits such as happiness, self-esteem, and optimism. Clarifying what EI is and is not can help the field by better distinguishing research that is truly pertinent to EI from research that is not. EI--conceptualized as an ability--is an important variable both conceptually and empirically, and it shows incremental validity for predicting socially relevant outcomes.

  2. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan.

  3. Prudence, Emotional State, Personality, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Breaban, Adriana; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Noussair, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment to consider the emotional correlates of prudent decision making. In the experiment, we present subjects with lotteries and measure their emotional response with facial recognition software. They then make binary choices between risky lotteries that distinguish prudent from imprudent individuals. They also perform tasks to measure their cognitive ability and a number of personality characteristics. We find that a more negative emotional state correlates with greater prudence. Higher cognitive ability and less conscientiousness is also associated with greater prudence. PMID:27840616

  4. Generalization ability of perceptrons with continuous outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bös, S.; Kinzel, W.; Opper, M.

    1993-02-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of different input-output relations on the generalization ability of a single-layer perceptron. The input-output relations can be linear, binary, or sigmoid. With this choice we take into account most of the cases which are of present interest. The generalization problem will be realizable or unrealizable if the input-output relations for teacher and student are identical or not. We show that sometimes it can have a positive effect on the generalization ability, if one learns with errors.

  5. Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments.

    PubMed

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.

  6. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  7. 21st Century Conceptions of Musical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored conceptions of musical ability using an inventory derived from previous qualitative research. Participants included 102 musicians, 95 educators, 132 adult amateur musicians, 60 adults who were not actively engaged in making music, 193 children actively engaged in making music in addition to their engagement with the school…

  8. Pragmatic Ability and Disability as Emergent Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A holistic approach to pragmatic ability and disability is outlined which takes account both of the behaviour of individuals involved in the communicative process, and also of the underlying factors which contribute to such behaviour. Rather than being seen as resulting directly from a dysfunction in some kind of discrete pragmatic "module" or…

  9. Designing Playgrounds for Children of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltsman, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Provides performance criteria for creating accessibility for and integration of children of all abilities within school playgrounds. Included are recommendations for accessible route designs; play equipment; sand and water play; gathering places and outdoor classrooms; entrances and signage; and fences, enclosures, and barriers. Proposed changes…

  10. 13 CFR 120.382 - Repayment ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... doubts concerning the small business' proposed business plan for transition to non-defense-related... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repayment ability. 120.382 Section 120.382 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special...

  11. 13 CFR 120.382 - Repayment ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... doubts concerning the small business' proposed business plan for transition to non-defense-related... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repayment ability. 120.382 Section 120.382 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special...

  12. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  13. An Informal Assessment of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; Dangel, Harry

    1978-01-01

    In a study to determine if a classroom teacher with understanding of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities could predict subtest scores comparable to those obtained from administration of the test itself, seven masters-level special educators evaluated 28 learning disabled (LD) children (ages 6 through 11 years). (PHR)

  14. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  15. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  16. Teacher Knowledge-Ability and Pupil Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

    The effectiveness of schools and the levels of investment in schooling have been in question since the 1966 Coleman report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." Based on a theory of "knowledge-ability," this study challenges the assumption that given "inputs" will yield equivalent effects or "outputs." In…

  17. Helping the Student of Low Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, William

    1977-01-01

    A Spanish course is described in which reading ability was gained as a preliminary to a conventional first-year language course. Through passive learning, recognition of vocabulary and grammatical structure was achieved, and correct pronunciation and writing drills reinforced learning. Good results were obtained in the subsequent conventional…

  18. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  19. Age Norms for Straw-Drinking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lauren; Lewis, Danielle; Reisel, Sharon; Waldrup, Lanae; Wooster, Donna M. Adam

    2000-01-01

    A study of 28 infants (ages 8-12 months) investigated their ability to drink from a straw. Results indicate 22 percent were not able to drink from a straw, whereas 78 percent were able to do so. Data failed to reveal any significant differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity. (Contains nine references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  1. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects.

  2. Immigrants, English Ability and the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiroshi; Zavodny, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent and causes of inequalities in information technology ownership and use between natives and immigrants in the United States, with particular focus on the role of English ability. The results indicate that, during the period 1997-2003, immigrants were significantly less likely to have access to or use a computer and…

  3. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  4. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  5. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  6. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  7. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  8. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  9. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  10. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  11. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  12. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  13. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception.

    PubMed

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  14. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  15. Learning ability in children with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elefant, Cochavit; Wigram, Tony

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present results of a research study examining learning ability in individuals with Rett syndrome. The material for this article was drawn from a more extensive doctoral study, designed to investigate intentional communication in this population, through the use of songs in music therapy. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from an X-linked mutation, affecting mainly females, and found across racial and ethnic groups worldwide. One of the main areas affecting functioning in individuals with Rett syndrome is a severe impairment of receptive and expressive communication. This creates difficulties when attempting to reveal their potential learning abilities. This population has been observed as very responsive to music hence music therapy intervention has been advocated in promoting and motivating them to communicate and to learn. Seven girls with Rett syndrome, between ages 4 and 10 participated in the study. A single subject, multiple probe design was applied during 30-min trials, three times per week and lasted 8 months. During the trials the participants were asked to choose from a selection of 18 familiar and unfamiliar songs, while their ability to learn was observed and measured. Findings revealed that all seven girls demonstrated an ability to learn and to sustain learning over time. This intervention demonstrated that individuals with Rett syndrome could be promoted and motivated to communicate and learn when therapeutically employed by a trained music therapists.

  16. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  17. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  18. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies…

  19. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  20. Test Reliability by Ability Level of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy; Sax, Gilbert

    Achievement test reliability as a function of ability was determined for multiple sections of a large university French class (n=193). A 5-option multiple-choice examination was constructed, least attractive distractors were eliminated based on the instructor's judgment, and the resulting three forms of the examination (i.e. 3-, 4-, or 5-choice…

  1. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  2. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  3. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  4. Research on Assessing Human Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Harry H.

    The primary objectives of this project commonly refereed to as "Assessing Human Abilities" were: (1) to provide reference measures for cognitive factors; and (2) to provide a guide to reference measures for self-report temperament factors. The overall objective was to conduct research in the area of factor analysis directed toward the…

  5. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  6. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-02-03

    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied.

  7. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  8. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  9. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    PubMed

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  11. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  12. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  13. High School Mathematics Preparation and Sex Differences in Quantitative Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    1981-01-01

    On six mathematical subtests studied, males scored higher plus took significantly more algebra, geometry, advanced mathematics, and physics coursework. Females earned higher overall mathematics grades. After statistically controlling for the amount of coursework taken, sex differences disappeared on two quantitative tests and on spatial ability.…

  14. Memory Abilities in Williams Syndrome: Dissociation or Developmental Delay Hypothesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampaio, Adriana; Sousa, Nuno; Fernandez, Montse; Henriques, Margarida; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder often described as being characterized by a dissociative cognitive architecture, in which profound impairments of visuo-spatial cognition contrast with relative preservation of linguistic, face recognition and auditory short-memory abilities. This asymmetric and dissociative cognition…

  15. [Hypoglycaemia unawareness: judge driving ability prudently].

    PubMed

    Stork, Alexander D M

    2011-01-01

    Several factors can influence the ability to drive by patients with diabetes mellitus. The most important factor would be hypoglycaemia. It seems logical that hypoglycaemia unawareness would be an important risk factor for accidents. However, in everyday practice, hypoglycaemia-related accidents are rare. Moreover, it seems that only a small subset of people with diabetes is responsible for the overall slightly elevated risk of car accidents. It appears that not hypoglycaemia unawareness itself is a risk factor, but primarily a history of previous hypoglycaemia-related accidents. Although ascertaining hypoglycaemia awareness currently seems the most suitable method for the assessment of driving ability, this may not be fair. In the future, we hope to have better methods of assessing the risk of accidents. Until that time, we should apply current law prudently, and mainly preclude from driving those diabetic patients who have experienced loss of consciousness or have needed outside help due to hypoglycaemia.

  16. The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline M.; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation and number representation have both been studied widely, but although mental rotation has been linked to higher-level mathematical skills, to date it has not been shown whether mental rotation ability is linked to the most basic mental representation and processing of numbers. To investigate the possible connection between mental rotation abilities and numerical representation, 43 participants completed four tasks: 1) a standard pen-and-paper mental rotation task; 2) a multi-digit number magnitude comparison task assessing the compatibility effect, which indicates separate processing of decade and unit digits; 3) a number-line mapping task, which measures precision of number magnitude representation; and 4) a random number generation task, which yields measures both of executive control and of spatial number representations. Results show that mental rotation ability correlated significantly with both size of the compatibility effect and with number mapping accuracy, but not with any measures from the random number generation task. Together, these results suggest that higher mental rotation abilities are linked to more developed number representation, and also provide further evidence for the connection between spatial and numerical abilities. PMID:23933002

  17. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  18. On the evolution of calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies.

  19. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  20. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  1. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  2. Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability.

  3. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  4. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    PubMed

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support.

  5. Enhanced mental rotation ability in time-space synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Miller, Luke E; McQuire, Marguerite; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2013-11-01

    Time-space synesthesia is a variant of sequence-space synesthesia and involves the involuntary association of months of the year with 2D and 3D spatial forms, such as arcs, circles, and ellipses. Previous studies have revealed conflicting results regarding the association between time-space synesthesia and enhanced spatial processing ability. Here, we tested 15 time-space synesthetes, and 15 non-synesthetic controls matched for age, education, and gender on standard tests of mental rotation ability, spatial working memory, and verbal working memory. Synesthetes performed better than controls on our test of mental rotation, but similarly to controls on tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Results support a dissociation between visuo-spatial imagery and spatial working memory capacity, and suggest time-space synesthesia is associated only with enhanced visuo-spatial imagery. These data are consistent with the time-space connectivity thesis that time-space synesthesia results from enhanced connectivity in the parietal lobe between regions supporting the representation of temporal sequences and those underlying visuo-spatial imagery.

  6. Assessing Visuospatial Abilities in Healthy Aging: A Novel Visuomotor Task

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Natalie; Bryant, Devon C.; MacLean, Jessica N.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18–25 years) and older adults (60–82 years) to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualization abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating: (1) developmental; (2) sex-based; and (3) pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain. PMID:26869918

  7. Electronic and Spatial Structures of Water-Soluble Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Thiol-Containing Ligands Underlying Their Ability to Act as Nitric Oxide and Nitrosonium Ion Donors

    PubMed Central

    Vanin, Anatoly F.; Burbaev, Dosymzhan Sh.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of mononuclear dinitrosyl iron commplexes (M-DNICs) with thiolate ligands to act as NO donors and to trigger S-nitrosation of thiols can be explain only in the paradigm of the model of the [Fe+(NO+)2] core ({Fe(NO)2}7 according to the Enemark-Feltham classification). Similarly, the {(RS−)2Fe+(NO+)2}+ structure describing the distribution of unpaired electron density in M-DNIC corresponds to the low-spin (S = 1/2) state with a d7 electron configuration of the iron atom and predominant localization of the unpaired electron on MO(dz2) and the square planar structure of M-DNIC. On the other side, the formation of molecular orbitals of M-DNIC including orbitals of the iron atom, thiolate and nitrosyl ligands results in a transfer of electron density from sulfur atoms to the iron atom and nitrosyl ligands. Under these conditions, the positive charge on the nitrosyl ligands diminishes appreciably, the interaction of the ligands with hydroxyl ions or with thiols slows down and the hydrolysis of nitrosyl ligands and the S-nitrosating effect of the latter are not manifested. Most probably, the S-nitrosating effect of nitrosyl ligands is a result of weak binding of thiolate ligands to the iron atom under conditions favoring destabilization of M-DNIC. PMID:22505886

  8. Musical Ability and Mental Subnormality: An Experimental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, J.; Higgs, G.

    1982-01-01

    Research among mentally and educationally retarded children found that retardation in general ability was associated with retardation in musical ability. Factor analyses of musical tests identified a factor of musical ability, independent of intelligence, for this group. (Author/MJL)

  9. Estimation abilities of large numerosities in Kindergartners

    PubMed Central

    Mejias, Sandrine; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education). The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5–6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children's early number competence as well as schools' socio-economic index (SEI). This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8–64). In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1–12) at the end of the 2nd (N = 42) and the 3rd (N = 32) Kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on) extending far beyond children's symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd Kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd Kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children's estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from preschool on. PMID

  10. Language Experience Changes Language and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Poarch, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of two languages by bilinguals has been shown to induce broad changes in language and cognitive abilities across the lifespan. The largest changes are seen as advantages in executive control, a set of processes responsible for controlled attention, inhibition, and shifting. Moreover, there is evidence that these executive control advantages mitigate cognitive decline in older age and contribute to cognitive reserve. In this paper, we examine some of the evidence for these findings and explain their relation to bilingual language use. These effects are considered in terms of their implications for our understanding of cognitive and brain plasticity. Some implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:25435805

  11. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  12. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  13. Ability and Strategy Differences in Map Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD-A091 847 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/6 5 /10 ’i ABILITY ANO STRATEGY DIFFERENCES IN MAP LEARNING U’ AUG Ao C STASZ ;.0014-78-C-0042 UNCLASSIFIlED...Richard Elster Dept. of Administrative Sciences Naval Postqraduate School fouterey, CA 93940 5 Er. Pat Federico lavil Personnel R&D Center -an Dieqo...32508 N-1569-ON AAMLLIrU A&ID SIRAIGV 1C/0780 PAGE 28 Dr. Gary Eoock Cpecatioas Research Departmeat Code 55PK Nav1 Postqrad~ate School acaterey, CA

  14. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  15. The ability to listen with independent ears.

    PubMed

    Gallun, Frederick J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    In three experiments, listeners identified speech processed into narrow bands and presented to the right ("target") ear. The ability of listeners to ignore (or even use) conflicting contralateral stimulation was examined by presenting various maskers to the target ear ("ipsilateral") and nontarget ear ("contralateral"). Theoretically, an absence of contralateral interference would imply selectively attending to only the target ear; the presence of interference from the contralateral stimulus would imply that listeners were unable to treat the stimuli at the two ears independently; and improved performance in the presence of informative contralateral stimulation would imply that listeners can process the signals at both ears and keep them separate rather than combining them. Experiments showed evidence of the ability to selectively process (or respond to) only the target ear in some, but not all, conditions. No evidence was found for improved performance due to contralateral stimulation. The pattern of interference found across experiments supports an interaction of stimulus-based factors (auditory grouping) and task-based factors (demand for processing resources) and suggests that listeners may not always be able to listen to the "better" ear even when it would be beneficial to do so.

  16. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.

  17. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  18. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  19. Repeated-sprint ability: where are we?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian

    2012-09-01

    Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) is now well accepted as an important fitness component in team-sport performance. It is broadly described as the ability to perform repeated short (~3-4 s, 20-30 m) sprints with only brief (~10-30 s) recovery between bouts. Over the past 25 y a plethora of RSA tests have been trialed and reported in the literature. These range from a single set of ~6-10 short sprints, departing every 20-30 s, to team-sport game simulations involving repeating cycles of walk-jog-stride-sprint movements over 45-90 min. Such a wide range of RSA tests has not assisted the synthesis of research findings in this area, and questions remain regarding the optimal methods of training to best improve RSA. In addition, how RSA test scores relate to player "work rate," match performance, or both requires further investigation to improve the application of RSA testing and training to elite team-sport athletes.

  20. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia. PMID:28360845

  1. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors.

  2. Development of a mathematical ability test: a validity and reliability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Sefa; Temel, Hasan; Gündüz, Nazan

    2016-10-01

    The identification of talented students accurately at an early age and the adaptation of the education provided to the students depending on their abilities are of great importance for the future of the countries. In this regard, this study aims to develop a mathematical ability test for the identification of the mathematical abilities of students and the determination of the relationships between the structure of abilities and these structures. Furthermore, this study adopts test development processes. A structure consisting of the factors of quantitative ability, causal ability, inductive/deductive reasoning ability, qualitative ability and spatial ability has been obtained following this study. The fit indices of the finalized version of the mathematical ability test of 24 items indicate the suitability of the test.

  3. Calculation Abilities in Young Children with Different Patterns of Cognitive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the arithmetic calculation abilities of kindergarten and first-grade children (n=108) with different patterns of cognitive functioning: low language, low spatial ability, general delays, and nonimpaired. Nonverbal, story, and number fact problems were differentially sensitive to variation in cognitive ability. (Author/JDD)

  4. An Investigation of Cognitive Skills and Behavior in High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles of high ability students. Performance on measures of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory and general ability (vocabulary and block design) was compared across the following groups: high, average, and low ability students. The behavioral profile of high ability…

  5. The role of timbre in pitch matching abilities and pitch discrimination abilities with complex tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert E.; Watts, Christopher R.; Zhang, Fawen

    2001-05-01

    Control of fundamental frequency (F0) is important for singing in-tune and is an important factor related to the perception of a talented singing voice. One purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pitch-matching skills, which is one method of testing F0 control, and pitch discrimination skills. It was observed that there was a relationship between pitch matching abilities and pitch discrimination abilities. Those subjects that were accurate pitch matchers were also accurate pitch discriminators (and vice versa). Further, timbre differences appeared to play a role in pitch discrimination accuracy. A second part of the study investigated the effect of timbre on speech discrimination. To study this, all but the first five harmonics of complex tones with different timbre were removed for the pitch discrimination task, thus making the tones more similar in timbre. Under this condition no difference was found between the pitch discrimination abilities of those who were accurate pitch matchers and those who were inaccurate pitch matchers. The results suggest that accurate F0 control is at least partially dependent on pitch discrimination abilities, and timbre appears to play an important role in differences in pitch discrimination ability.

  6. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction.

  7. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  8. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  9. Does Environmental Heterogeneity Promote Cognitive Abilities?

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Estades, Cristian F

    2015-09-01

    In the context of global change the possible loss of biodiversity has been identified as a major concern. Biodiversity could be seriously threatened as a direct consequence of changes in availability of food, changing thermal conditions, and loss and fragmentation of habitat. Considering the magnitude of global change, an understanding of the mechanisms involved in coping with a changing environment is urgent. We explore the hypothesis that species and individuals experiencing highly variable environments are more likely to develop a wider range of responses to handle the different and unpredictable conditions imposed by global change. In the case of vertebrates, the responses to the challenges imposed by unpredictable perturbations ultimately are linked to cognitive abilities allowing the solving of problems, and the maximization of energy intake. Our models were hummingbirds, which offer a particularly compelling group in which to examine the functional and mechanistic links between behavioral and energetic strategies in individuals experiencing different degrees of social and environmental heterogeneity.

  10. Procedures for the Identification of High-Ability Learners Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognard, Anne; Bednar, Robert; Roweton, Bill; Ward, Noreen; Wells, Linda; Zweifel, Deanna

    This manual is designed to assist Nebraska school districts in identifying high-ability students. Chapter 1, "Philosophy Regarding High-Ability Learners," explores characteristics of high-ability learners, the unique needs of high-ability learners, roadblocks to meeting student needs, the need for staff development, the importance of…

  11. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  12. Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other Characteristics for Military Pilot Selection: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    pg. 526) notes that tests of Mechanical Aptitude may correlate highly (“load on”) with the Visualization factor, which defines one of three major...contains two spatial abilities: Visualization and Orientation. Studies using factor analysis to identify the required abilities may find that a test...psychomotor ability. Flying hours demonstrated the highest correlation with ratings, followed by general cognitive ability ( visual short-term memory

  13. Investigation and Evaluation of the open source ETL tools GeoKettle and Talend Open Studio in terms of their ability to process spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Kristin; Quedenau, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    Integration and harmonization of large spatial data sets is not only since the introduction of the spatial data infrastructure INSPIRE a big issue. The process of extracting and combining spatial data from heterogeneous source formats, transforming that data to obtain the required quality for particular purposes and loading it into a data store, are common tasks. The procedure of Extraction, Transformation and Loading of data is called ETL process. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can take over many of these tasks but often they are not suitable for processing large datasets. ETL tools can make the implementation and execution of ETL processes convenient and efficient. One reason for choosing ETL tools for data integration is that they ease maintenance because of a clear (graphical) presentation of the transformation steps. Developers and administrators are provided with tools for identification of errors, analyzing processing performance and managing the execution of ETL processes. Another benefit of ETL tools is that for most tasks no or only little scripting skills are required so that also researchers without programming background can easily work with it. Investigations on ETL tools for business approaches are available for a long time. However, little work has been published on the capabilities of those tools to handle spatial data. In this work, we review and compare the open source ETL tools GeoKettle and Talend Open Studio in terms of processing spatial data sets of different formats. For evaluation, ETL processes are performed with both software packages based on air quality data measured during the BÄRLIN2014 Campaign initiated by the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS). The aim of the BÄRLIN2014 Campaign is to better understand the sources and distribution of particulate matter in Berlin. The air quality data are available in heterogeneous formats because they were measured with different instruments. For further data analysis

  14. A Detailed Analysis of DanceAbility's Contribution to Mixed-Abilities Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Amanda; Chatfield, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960s a visible shift in the ideology of contemporary dancers and choreographers took place. A desire for a dance language that rejected the need for the classical dancerly body paved the way for dance that was open to a more diverse population of participants. DanceAbility emerged in that late 1980s as a method of making dance accessible…

  15. The Developmental Change of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics in Relation to Their Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is a multidimensional construct with two main dimensions: knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. The present study aimed to model the development of young pupils' metacognitive abilities in mathematics in relation to processing efficiency, working memory and mathematical performance. We developed instruments measuring…

  16. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  17. Written language abilities in deaf Italians.

    PubMed

    Fabbretti, D; Volterra, V; Pontecorvo, C

    1998-01-01

    Written texts produced by 10 Italian deaf native signers in four different writing tasks were analyzed. Data analysis focused on linguistic and orthographic nonstandard forms. The written production of deaf subjects with deaf parents (DD) was compared to the written production in two control groups: a group of 10 hearing subjects with deaf parents (HD) and a group of 10 subjects who have had no contact with deaf people or sign language (HH). The results duplicate findings from previous studies. Deaf subjects display a pattern of selective difficulty with Italian grammatical morphology, especially with free-standing function words. The four different writing tasks used in the present study yield results indicating that text type does influence our assessment of deaf writing abilities. A comparison of the texts written by deaf native signers with those of two hearing groups confirms the view that difficulties in the acquisition of written Italian are best explained by deafness itself, not by the influence of a previously acquired Sign Language, and that the specific difficulties with grammatical morphology displayed by our deaf subjects cannot be attributed solely to their limited experience with written Italian.

  18. Neural Variability Quenching Predicts Individual Perceptual Abilities.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Ayelet; Censor, Nitzan; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-01-04

    Neural activity during repeated presentations of a sensory stimulus exhibits considerable trial-by-trial variability. Previous studies have reported that trial-by-trial neural variability is reduced (quenched) by the presentation of a stimulus. However, the functional significance and behavioral relevance of variability quenching and the potential physiological mechanisms that may drive it have been studied only rarely. Here, we recorded neural activity with EEG as subjects performed a two-interval forced-choice contrast discrimination task. Trial-by-trial neural variability was quenched by ∼40% after the presentation of the stimulus relative to the variability apparent before stimulus presentation, yet there were large differences in the magnitude of variability quenching across subjects. Individual magnitudes of quenching predicted individual discrimination capabilities such that subjects who exhibited larger quenching had smaller contrast discrimination thresholds and steeper psychometric function slopes. Furthermore, the magnitude of variability quenching was strongly correlated with a reduction in broadband EEG power after stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that neural variability quenching is achieved by reducing the amplitude of broadband neural oscillations after sensory input, which yields relatively more reproducible cortical activity across trials and enables superior perceptual abilities in individuals who quench more.

  19. Abilities of preschoolers: comparing different tools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a strong need for studies evaluating tests in terms both of psychometric properties (i.e. their efficacy or ability to be helpful in reaching a diagnosis) and of their cost-effectiveness (i.e. their efficiency). These data are essential for planning a correct evaluation to identify children's needs (both educational and abilitative). Methods We evaluated 58 children attending for the first time the last year of the Scuola dell'Infanzia. Parental view was obtained with Child Behaviour Check-List and Conners' Rating Scales - Revised, and family socio-economic status was evaluated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index; teacher compiled the IPDA questionnaire; children were administered Raven's Progressive Matrices, Modified Bell Cancellation Test, BVN 5-11 (a neuropsychological battery). Results A correlational analysis was conducted using Spearman's Rho (since variables were not normally distributed). These asymptomatic children show a good global cognitive functioning, but also a deficit of attention and of Executive Functions. Some of the tests used seem more cost-effective than others and there are some redundancies in information obtained. Conclusions Our data show that there are significant correlations between different neuropsychological and behavioural measures. It is therefore possible to rationalize diagnostic protocols without a significant information reduction. A deeper analysis will require a preliminary definition of the psychometric properties of used tools. PMID:22281207

  20. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  1. Working memory, worry, and algebraic ability.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    Math anxiety (MA)-working memory (WM) relationships have typically been examined in the context of arithmetic problem solving, and little research has examined the relationship in other math domains (e.g., algebra). Moreover, researchers have tended to examine MA/worry separate from math problem solving activities and have used general WM tasks rather than domain-relevant WM measures. Furthermore, it seems to have been assumed that MA affects all areas of math. It is possible, however, that MA is restricted to particular math domains. To examine these issues, the current research assessed claims about the impact on algebraic problem solving of differences in WM and algebraic worry. A sample of 80 14-year-old female students completed algebraic worry, algebraic WM, algebraic problem solving, nonverbal IQ, and general math ability tasks. Latent profile analysis of worry and WM measures identified four performance profiles (subgroups) that differed in worry level and WM capacity. Consistent with expectations, subgroup membership was associated with algebraic problem solving performance: high WM/low worry>moderate WM/low worry=moderate WM/high worry>low WM/high worry. Findings are discussed in terms of the conceptual relationship between emotion and cognition in mathematics and implications for the MA-WM-performance relationship.

  2. The Language Abilities of Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Morales, Leo S.; Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The Joint Commission mandates that health care systems provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care for patients. Similarly, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that resident physicians learn to communicate effectively across cultures. The purpose of this study was to analyze residents’ self-report of fluency in a second language and level of training in the use of interpreters to assess the institution’s preparation of residents to meet mandates regarding the delivery of cross-cultural care. METHODS Seven hundred and twenty two (722) surveys were analyzed from resident physicians in 62 different ACGME accredited programs. Language ability was measured with a survey question asking about comfort providing patient care in a language other than English. Knowledge of working with interpreters was measured by a survey question asking about amount of training received. Survey questions on gender, post-graduate year (PGY), specialty, and underrepresented minority (URM) status were examined using c2 and independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio by variable. RESULTS Fifty-five percent of all of the resident physicians endorsed feeling comfortable providing patient care in a language other than English, and Spanish was the most common language (77%). Almost 20% percent of residents reported little or no training in the use of interpreters. In bivariate analysis, race-ethnicity was associated (P-value <.001) with comfort in providing patient care in a language other than English. Primary care resident physicians had a 1.67 adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 2.37; p value = 0.004) of feeling comfortable providing patient care in a language other than English compared to resident physicians from other specialties. CONCLUSIONS Primary care resident physicians are more likely to report feeling comfortable in providing patient care in a

  3. Exploring visuospatial abilities and their contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario

    2017-01-09

    The present study aimed at exploring relationships among the visuospatial tasks included in the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA), and at assessing the relative contribution of different facets of visuospatial processing on tests tapping constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. One hundred forty-four healthy subjects with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination completed the BVA plus Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Constructional Apraxia test. We used Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis to investigate relationships among the BVA visuospatial tasks, and performed regression analyses to assess the visuospatial contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis revealed two eigenvalues exceeding 1, accounting for about 60% of the variance. A 2-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 included sub-tests exploring "complex" visuospatial skills, whereas Factor 2 included two subtests tapping "simple" visuospatial skills. Regression analyses revealed that both Factor 1 and Factor 2 significantly affected performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, whereas only the Factor 1 affected performance on Constructional Apraxia test. Our results supported functional segregation proposed by De Renzi, suggesting clinical caution to utilize a single test to assess visuospatial domain, and qualified the visuospatial contribution in drawing and non-verbal intelligence test.

  4. Introducing Autonomous Learning in a Low Ability Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmert, Dorothee

    1997-01-01

    In this article, autonomous learning in foreign languages is defined and the steps for introducing it to Year 9 low-ability students and Year 10 high-ability students are described. (six references) (CK)

  5. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  6. Improving Intuitive Abilities for a More Wholistic Approach to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maycock, George A.

    Whether intuitive abilities can be improved through purposeful training for a more holistic approach to education was the object of this study. It was hypothesized that individuals participating in a mental training program designed to improve right-brain intuitive abilities would show significant improvement in such abilities, while a control…

  7. Clinical Competence: General Ability or Case-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before the 1970s, research into the development of clinical competence was mainly focused on general problem-solving abilities. The scope of research changed when Elstein and colleagues discovered that individual ability to solve clinical problems varies considerably across cases. It was concluded that problem solving abilities are…

  8. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  9. Narrative Fiction and Expository Nonfiction Differentially Predict Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Rain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Although reading is known to be an important contributor to language abilities, it is not yet well established whether different text genres are uniquely associated with verbal abilities. We examined how exposure to narrative fiction and expository nonfiction predict language ability among university students. Exposure was measured both with…

  10. Computerized Ability Testing, 1972-1975. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    Three and one-half years of research on computerized ability testing are summarized. The original objectives of the research were: (1) to develop and implement the stratified computer-based ability test; (2) to compare, on psychometric criteria, the various approaches to computer-based ability testing, including the stratified computerized test,…

  11. Impact of Intervention on Learning Abilities of Institutional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunshal, Saraswati C.; Gaonkar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was under taken during 2003-2005 with the objectives to study the level of learning abilities and study the impact of intervention on learning abilities among children residing in juvenile institutions of Dharwad division in Karanataka. Level of scholastic ability and scholastic problems of children was assessed before…

  12. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does...

  13. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does...

  14. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does...

  15. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does...

  16. 12 CFR 226.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 226.51 Section 226.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... Offered to College Students § 226.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability...

  17. 12 CFR 226.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 226.51 Section 226.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... Offered to College Students § 226.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability...

  18. 12 CFR 226.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 226.51 Section 226.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN... College Students § 226.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A...

  19. 12 CFR 226.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 226.51 Section 226.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN... College Students § 226.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A...

  20. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  1. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  2. Visual scanning and reading ability in normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Mazzotti, S; Brizzolara, D

    2008-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the development of visual search of aligned stimuli in relation to normal reading acquisition and in developmental dyslexia. In this study we used a new computerised experimental task which requires a visuo-motor response (RT) to a target appearing unpredictably in one out of seven different spatial positions on a horizontally aligned array of 18 geometrical figures. The aims of the study were to investigate: 1) the visual scanning development in normal children from pre-school to school age; 2) whether visual scanning performance in kindergarten children could predict reading acquisition; 3) the visual scanning abilities in a group of developmental dyslexic children. The main results were: 1) a significant decrement of RTs with age and a progressive increase of the left-to-right gradient with reading experience; 2) visual scanning abilities in kindergarten proved to be a good predictor of reading acquisition; 3) dyslexics were slow scanners and did not present the left-to-right strategy typical of normal readers. The results support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual scanning and reading abilities.

  3. Preschoolers' dot enumeration abilities are markers of their arithmetic competence.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The abilities to enumerate small sets of items (e.g., dots) and to compare magnitudes are claimed to be indexes of core numerical competences that scaffold early math development. Insofar as this is correct, these abilities may be diagnostic markers of math competence in preschoolers. However, unlike magnitude comparison abilities, little research has examined preschoolers' ability to enumerate small sets, or its significance for emerging math abilities; which is surprising since dot enumeration is a marker of school-aged children's math competence. It is nevertheless possible that general cognitive functions (working memory, response inhibition in particular) are associated with preschoolers' math abilities and underlie nascent dot enumeration abilities. We investigated whether preschoolers' dot enumeration abilities predict their non-verbal arithmetic ability, over and above the influence of working memory and response inhibition. Two measures of dot enumeration ability were examined-inverse efficiency and paradigm specific (response time profiles) measures-to determine which has the better diagnostic utility as a marker of math competence. Seventy-eight 42-to-57 month-olds completed dot enumeration, working memory, response inhibition, and non-verbal addition and subtraction tasks. Dot enumeration efficiency predicted arithmetic ability over and above the influence of general cognitive functions. While dot enumeration efficiency was a better predictor of arithmetic ability than paradigm specific response time profiles; the response time profile displaying the smallest subitizing range and steepest subitizing slope, also displayed poor addition abilities, suggesting a weak subitizing profile may have diagnostic significance in preschoolers. Overall, the findings support the claim that dot enumeration abilities and general cognitive functions are markers of preschoolers' math ability.

  4. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  5. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  6. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  7. The Sport Students’ Ability of Literacy and Statistical Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, N.

    2017-03-01

    The ability of literacy and statistical reasoning is very important for the students of sport education college due to the materials of statistical learning can be taken from their many activities such as sport competition, the result of test and measurement, predicting achievement based on training, finding connection among variables, and others. This research tries to describe the sport education college students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning related to the identification of data type, probability, table interpretation, description and explanation by using bar or pie graphic, explanation of variability, interpretation, the calculation and explanation of mean, median, and mode through an instrument. This instrument is tested to 50 college students majoring in sport resulting only 26% of all students have the ability above 30% while others still below 30%. Observing from all subjects; 56% of students have the ability of identification data classification, 49% of students have the ability to read, display and interpret table through graphic, 27% students have the ability in probability, 33% students have the ability to describe variability, and 16.32% students have the ability to read, count and describe mean, median and mode. The result of this research shows that the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning has not been adequate and students’ statistical study has not reached comprehending concept, literary ability trining and statistical rasoning, so it is critical to increase the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning

  8. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children.

  9. Effects of gender, imagery ability, and sports practice on the performance of a mental rotation task.

    PubMed

    Habacha, Hamdi; Molinaro, Corinne; Dosseville, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is one of the main spatial abilities necessary in the spatial transformation of mental images and the manipulation of spatial parameters. Researchers have shown that mental rotation abilities differ between populations depending on several variables. This study uses a mental rotation task to investigate effects of several factors on the spatial abilities of 277 volunteers. The results demonstrate that high and low imagers performed equally well on this tasks. Athletes outperformed nonathletes regardless of their discipline, and athletes with greater expertise outperformed those with less experience. The results replicate the previously reported finding that men exhibit better spatial abilities than women. However, with high amounts of practice, the women in the current study were able to perform as well as men.

  10. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial) or near the focus of attention (central). We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities. PMID:26258545

  11. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  12. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  13. On the Primary Factors Affecting Linguistic Ability in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alahuhta, Eila

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with weaker speech ability have greater difficulties in perception, powers of reasoning and spatial orientation than children with better speech ability, and assessed the value of Apgar scores as a predictive measure of later linguistic disorders. Subjects were 100 children born in 1970 who attended…

  14. The Structure of Cognitive Abilities in Youths with Manic Symptoms: A Factorial Invariance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Freeman, Megan Joseph; Youngstrom, Eric; Carlson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the structure of cognitive ability (specifically, verbal/crystallized ["Gc"] and visual-spatial ability ["Gv"]), as measured in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, in youth with manic symptoms with a nationally representative group of similarly aged youth. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis…

  15. Combining Nonlinear Biometric and Psychometric Models of Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    It is well-established that genetic factors account for large proportions of individual differences in multiple cognitive abilities. It is also well-established that individual differences in performance on many different cognitive ability measures are strongly correlated. Recent empirical investigations, however, have suggested two interesting qualifications to these well-established findings: Genetic variance in cognitive abilities is higher in richer home environments (gene-by-environment interaction), and common variance in different cognitive abilities is lower at higher levels of overall ability (nonlinear factor structure). Although they have been investigated independently, these two phenomena may interact, because richer environments are routinely associated with higher ability levels. Using simulation we demonstrate how un-modeled nonlinear factor structure can obscure interpretation of gene-by-environment interaction. We then reanalyze data from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, previously used by Turkheimer et al. (2003; Psychol Science), with a two-step method to model both phenomena. PMID:19633945

  16. Conservation Abilities, Visuospatial Skills, and Numerosity Processing Speed.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between elementary school children's mathematical achievement and their conservation abilities, visuospatial skills, and numerosity processing speed. We also assessed differences in these abilities between children with different types of learning problems. In Study 1 ( N = 229), we investigated second to fourth graders and in Study 2 ( N = 120), third and fourth graders. Analyses revealed significant contributions of numerosity processing speed and visuospatial skills to math achievement beyond IQ. Conservation abilities were predictive in Study 1 only. Children with math difficulties showed lower visuospatial skills and conservation abilities than children with typical achievement levels and children with reading and/or spelling difficulties, whereas children with combined difficulties explicitly showed low conservation abilities. These findings provide further evidence for the relations between children's math skills and their visuospatial skills, conservation abilities, and processing speed and contribute to the understanding of deficits that are specific to mathematical difficulties.

  17. Mental ability and common sense in an artificial society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    Having equally valid premises pro and contra, what does a rational human being prefer? The answer is: nothing. We designed a test of this kind and applied it to an artificial society, characterized by a given level of mental ability. A stream of messages from media is supplemented by ongoing interpersonal communication. The result is that high ability leads to wellbalanced opinions, while low ability produces extreme opinions.

  18. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  19. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  20. Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Coyne, Claire A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Van Hulle, Carol A

    2013-05-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children's schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children.

  1. Decreased driving ability in people with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Heikkila, V; Turkka, J; Korpelainen, J; Kallanranta, T; Summala, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Driving is a complex form of activity involving especially cognitive and psychomotor functions. These functions may be impaired by Parkinson's disease. The relation between Parkinson's disease and driving ability is still obscure and clinicians have to make decisions concerning the driving ability of their patients based on insufficent information. Until now no studies have compared different methods for evaluating the driving ability of patients with Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—The driving ability of 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 20 age and sex matched healthy control subjects was evaluated by a neurologist, psychologist, vocational rehabilitation counsellor, and driving instructor using a standard 10 point scale. The patients and controls also evaluated their own driving ability. Cognitive and psychomotor laboratory tests and a structured on road driving test were used for evaluating the subjects' driving ability.
RESULTS—The patients with Parkinson's disease performed worse than the controls both in the laboratory tests and in the driving test. There was a high correlation between the laboratory tests and driving test both in the patient group and in the control group. Disease indices were not associated with the driving test. The neurologist overestimated the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease to drive compared with the driving ability evaluated by the structured on road driving test and with the driving related laboratory tests. Patients themselves were not capable of evaluating their own ability reliably.
CONCLUSION—Driving ability is greatly decreased in patients with even mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. The evaluation of patients' driving ability is very difficult to carry out without psychological and psychomotor tests and/or a driving test.

 PMID:9527142

  2. Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings. Whether such changes in cognitive abilities influence the survival of hatchlings is unknown. To determine whether incubation-induced changes in spatial learning ability affect hatchling survival, we incubated velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, eggs using two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current (cold) versus future (hot) nest temperatures. We measured the spatial learning ability of hatchlings from each treatment, and released individually marked animals at two field sites in southeastern Australia. Hatchlings from hot-incubated eggs were slower learners than hatchlings from cold-incubated eggs. Survival analyses revealed that hatchlings with higher learning scores had higher survival than hatchlings with poor learning scores. Our results show that incubation temperature affects spatial learning ability in hatchling lizards, and that such changes can influence the survival of hatchlings in the wild.

  3. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-08-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the learners were solving problems associated with spatial information. To serve this purpose, we conducted case studies on nine students who were sampled from high-scoring, moderate-scoring, and low-scoring students. Our findings point to five characteristics of mental modeling ability that distinguish students in the high-, moderate-, and low-ability groups from one another. Although the levels of mental modeling abilities have been described in categories (high, moderate, and low), they can be thought of as a continuum with the low-ability group reflecting students who have very limited ability to generate and use mental models whereas students in the high-ability group not only construct and use mental models as a thinking tool, but also analyze the problems to be solved, evaluate their mental models, and oversee entire mental modeling processes. Cross-case comparisons for students with different levels of mental modeling ability indicate that experiences of generating and manipulating a mental model based on imposed propositions are crucial for a learner's efforts to incorporate content knowledge with visual-spatial thinking skills. This paper summarizes potential factors that undermine learners' comprehension of molecular geometry and polarity and that influence mastery of this mental modeling ability.

  4. Ability of surface and subsurface death assemblages to track km-scale spatial and decade-scale temporal variability in living communities: Tests using the urban southern California continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Susan M.; Tomasovych, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Actualistic analysis of death assemblages has always focused on quantifying, and achieving a mechanistic understanding of, the reliability of deep-time records, and is now additionally motivated to assess natural conditions before human impacts. The southern California continental shelf permits us to evaluate the ability of time-averaged death assemblages to detect known variability in urban nutrients, which increased from the early 20th Century up until the 1972 Clean Water Act. Biomonitoring since then documents strong declines in populations of pollution- and hypoxia-tolerant species, especially the chemosymbiontic lucinid bivalve Parvilucina tenuisculpta. This shelf is taphonomically challenging -- median shell ages are 50-100 y, only 1% of shells survive, the mixed-zone is ~25 cm thick, and siliciclastic accumulation is slow, in contrast to sediment-trapping estuaries and lagoons. Nonetheless, both surficial death and buried core assemblages capture first-order urban trends, albeit with significant damping of the large, spatially localized mid-20th Century pulse in Parvilucina abundance. Paleoecologists will thus detect but under-estimate the original magnitude of even strong past excursions in community composition, an important bounding condition for both recent- and deep-time analysis.

  5. Five- to 7-year-olds' finger gnosia and calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds' finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children's representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation.

  6. Five- to 7-Year-Olds’ Finger Gnosia and Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Robert; Humberstone, Judi

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the relationship between 65 5- to 7-year-olds’ finger gnosia, visuo-spatial working memory, and finger-use in solving single-digit addition problems. Their non-verbal IQ and basic reaction time were also assessed. Previous research has found significant changes in children’s representational abilities between 5 and 7 years. One aim of the research was to determine whether changes in finger representational abilities (finger gnosia) occur across these ages and whether they are associated with finger-use in computation. A second aim was to determine whether visuo-spatial working memory is associated with finger gnosia and computation abilities. We used latent class profile analysis to identify patterns of similarities and differences in finger gnosia and computation/finger-use abilities. The analysis yielded four finger gnosia subgroups that differed in finger representation ability. It also yielded four finger/computation subgroups that differed in the relationship between finger-use and computation success. Analysis revealed associations between computation finger-use/success subgroups, finger gnosia subgroups, and visuo-spatial working memory. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that finger gnosia subgroup membership and visuo-spatial working memory uniquely contribute to a model predicting finger-use in computation group membership. The results show that finger gnosia abilities change in the early school years, and that these changes are associated with the ability to use fingers to aid computation. PMID:22171220

  7. Ability Estimates That Order Individuals with Consistent Philosophies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Latent trait models introduced the concept of the latent trait, or ability, as distinct from the test score. There is a recent tendency to treat the test score as through it were a substitute for ability, largely because the test score is a convenient way to place individuals in order. F. Samejima (1969) has shown that, in general, the amount of…

  8. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  9. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  10. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving.…

  11. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  12. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  13. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  14. On the Students' Ability to Use Digital Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliyeva, Aigul Z.; Zhumabekova, Fatima N.; Kashkynba?, Bayzhuman B.; Saurbekova, Gulmira; Tauasarova, Danara; Toktarbaev, Darkhan; Sakenov, Janat

    2016-01-01

    The study covers the issue of students' ability to use digital educational resources in their professional activity in which reflects their future professional work. Levels of students' readiness to use digital educational resources in their professional activity are identified. The Model of students' ability to use digital educational resources…

  15. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  16. The Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Ability Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, P; Cooper, C.

    1984-01-01

    Test scores from Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB) administered to 103 British students were subjected to oblique factor analysis. Six factors were extracted which fitted closely those described by Cattell and colleagues, thus supporting their claims concerning structure of abilities and utility of this American instrument in Great Britain. (CMG)

  17. The Differentiation of the Concepts of Difficulty and Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Miller, Arden T.

    1983-01-01

    Deals with (1) developmental changes in children's concepts of difficulty and ability and (2) individual differences within different developmental levels. Three levels of understanding of ability and difficulty are proposed, and cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of progressive development through the stages is presented. (Author/RH)

  18. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than…

  19. The Allocation of Educational Environment, Ability Grouping, and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank; Smith, Elsie

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of ability grouping in relation to equal educational opportunity as provided for by the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In view of the disproportionate numbers of minorities assigned to low ability groups, is grouping legal? (Author/JM)

  20. 12 CFR 1026.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 1026.51 Section 1026.51 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.51 Ability to...

  1. Pre-Service Teachers' Mindset Beliefs about Student Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutshall, C. Anne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We all have beliefs about our ability or intelligence. The extent to which we believe ability is malleable (growth) or stable (fixed) is commonly referred to as our mindset. This research is designed to explore pre-service teachers' mindset beliefs as well as their beliefs when applied to hypothetical student scenarios. Method:…

  2. Map Skills Instruction and the Child's Developing Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Judith M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A hierarchial sequence for map skills instruction is proposed and related to existing programs. Emphasis in this sequential structure is placed on gradual development of the student's ability to use grid reference systems and orient himself satisfactorily on maps, as well as the gradual acquisition of certain measurement abilities. (SM)

  3. Assembling Tests for the Measurement of Multiple Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    It is proposed that the assembly of tests for the measurement of multiple abilities be based on targets for the (asymptotic) variance functions of the estimators in each of the abilities. A linear programming model is presented that can be used to computerize the assembly process. Several cases of test assembly dealing with multidimensional…

  4. Ability Conceptions in Physical Education: Some Measurement Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Xiang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    The construct of ability conceptions plays a critical role in children's motivation and achievement behaviors in education, including physical education. Valid and reliable measures of this construct are essential to advance our knowledge of children's ability conceptions and related cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. From a…

  5. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  6. A Physical Education Program for Preschoolers of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Julienne K.; Randall, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    Preschool physical education (PPE) that integrates developmentally appropriate activities can benefit children of all abilities. The paper presents a multi-task activity, Trails in the Jungle, that has been used successfully by children of varying abilities. Trails in the Jungle incorporates different types of movement as well as imagination and…

  7. The Relationship between Critical Thinking and EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramezani, Raana; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezzati; Kiasi, Mohammad Aghajanzadeh

    2016-01-01

    The current study sought to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and speaking ability among EFL students at Payame Noor University (PNU) of Rasht. This research concerned determining the fact that whether language students who are as critical thinker, perform better in their speaking ability or not. In order to answer the…

  8. Speed of Reasoning and Its Relation to Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank; Klein Entink, Rinke H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying abilities, the predictive validities of two…

  9. 12 CFR 1026.51 - Ability to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumer will have after paying debt obligations. It would be unreasonable for a card issuer to not review... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ability to pay. 1026.51 Section 1026.51 Banks... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.51 Ability to...

  10. 12 CFR 1026.51 - Ability to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consumer will have after paying debt obligations. It would be unreasonable for a card issuer to not review... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ability to pay. 1026.51 Section 1026.51 Banks... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.51 Ability to...

  11. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  12. Differential Ability Structure in Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Brian

    1978-01-01

    The Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Ability was administered to 550 deaf children and 614 hearing children. Three of the eight subtests showed different factor patterns when the results for the two groups were factor analyzed, suggesting that sensory deprivation alters the equilibrium and integration of perceputal and conceptual abilities.…

  13. Mental Abilities of Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Blanka; Belmont, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Examines pattern of mental abilities exhibited by first-grade, Israeli-born children whose parents emigrated from Europe, Iraq, North Africa, and Yemen. Results indicate that the groups of culturally different children tended to exhibit different patterns of cognitive abilities. Concludes that historical-cultural background of a population has a…

  14. Racial Differences in Teacher Perception of Student Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachers College Record, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Past research has examined many factors that contribute to the black-white achievement gap. While researchers have shown that teacher perceptions of students' academic ability is an important contributing factor to the gap, little research has explored the extent to which teacher perceptions of students' academic ability are…

  15. Superior mentalizing abilities of female patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Bo, Sune

    2013-12-30

    Mentalizing abilities are severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia, but gender-related differences in this domain are virtually unexplored. Given the importance of these abilities in understanding psychopathology, social functioning and outcome, this study aimed to examine the mentalizing abilities of male and female patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive and affective mentalizing abilities of self and other of clinically stable male and female patients with schizophrenia were analyzed using the abbreviated version of the Metacognitive Assessment Scale (MAS-A). Compared to their male counterparts, the female patients demonstrated superior overall mentalizing abilities. This advantage was also evident when mentalizing about the Self or the Other. When examining cognitive versus affective mentalizing, women were significantly better in their ability to attribute and understand the affective mental states of others. These differences were unrelated to intelligence or psychopathology. The superior mentalizing abilities of female patients extend gender-related differences in schizophrenia to include social cognition. This suggests that our current knowledge of socio-cognitive abilities in schizophrenia is generalizable to male but not to female patients. The findings also provide important insights to understanding how etiological differences affect social cognition. Awareness to such differences has important implications for diagnosis and clinical treatment.

  16. Sex Differences in Infants' Ability to Represent Complex Event Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinle, Amy; Wilcox, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Prior research suggests that when very simple event sequences are used, 4.5-month-olds demonstrate the ability to individuate objects based on the continuity or disruption of their speed of motion (Wilcox & Schweinle, 2003). However, infants demonstrate their ability to individuate objects in an event-monitoring task (i.e., infants must keep track…

  17. Partners in Enrichment: Preparing Teachers for Multiple Ability Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Multiple Abilities Program at the University of Alabama, in which preservice teachers team with general and special elementary education classroom mentors to teach students with average and above average abilities and students with mild learning or behavior problems. The program involves preservice teachers in developing enrichment…

  18. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  19. Trainee Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability and Couples Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Allison M.; Prieto, Loreto R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature on the assessment of multicultural counseling competence has been concerned only with counselors' abilities when working with individual clients. We expanded this line of research by investigating trainees' multicultural case conceptualization ability in the context of working with couples. Despite the fact that trainees…

  20. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  1. An Investigation into the Sex-Race-Ability Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch, Barry

    In a recent article Jensen proposed the existence of what was termed the sex x race x ability interaction in which the differences in mental ability between the black sexes were larger than the corresponding differences among whites. Three large sources of data that were analyzed failed to reveal the interaction. Since Jensen's own work suggested…

  2. The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate. Volume 2, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    Tracking and ability grouping are common practices that are often harshly criticized. Both practices group students of similar achievement levels for instruction, but they differ in how this task is accomplished. Elementary schools typically use ability grouping in reading instruction, with instruction targeted to the reading level of each group.…

  3. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  4. Ability Climates in Europe as Socially Represented Notability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study whether ability climate was a useful construct in exploring the possible pattern by which abilities were valued in the countries and cultures of Europe. Based on Moscovici's theory of social representations lists of famous and notable individuals published by the "Wikipedia Encyclopedia" were…

  5. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  6. Sex-Related Neuroanatomical Basis of Emotion Regulation Ability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguang; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that males have a higher capability of regulating their own and others' emotions than females; however, little is known about the sex-specific brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation ability. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural basis underlying emotion regulation ability in a large sample of young adults. Assessment of emotion regulation ability was performed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. As expected, males significantly scored higher in emotion regulation ability than females did. More importantly, we found the sex differences in the neuroanatomical basis of emotion regulation ability. Males showed a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, females demonstrated a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and rGMV in an anatomical cluster that extends from the left brainstem to the left hippocampus, the left amygdala and the insular cortex. The present study provides the first empirical evidence regarding the sex-linked neuroanatomical correlates of emotion regulation ability. These findings may help understand why there is a higher prevalence of affective disorders in females and maladaptive behaviors in males. PMID:24835267

  7. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  8. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  9. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  10. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  11. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  12. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  13. Teacher Verbal Ability and School Outcomes: Where Is the Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloe, Ariel M.; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2009-01-01

    Many have claimed that teachers' verbal ability is among the most important predictors of school outcomes. Teachers' verbal ability has been thought to predict student achievement ever since the relationship was found in the classic "Equality of Educational Opportunity" (EEO) study by Coleman et al. By way of meta-analysis the authors examine the…

  14. Phonological Awareness Tasks as Predictors of Decoding Ability: Beyond Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchner, Orna; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Performance by 38 elementary reading-disabled and above-average readers was compared on a series of 6 measures of phonological awareness, including tests of ability to segment, blend, and manipulate phonemes. Results suggest that tasks requiring blending and manipulation of phonemes, in addition to segmentation, may predict decoding ability best.…

  15. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  16. Thinking around the Corner: The Development of Planning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaller, Cristopher P.; Rahm, Benjamin; Spreer, Joachim; Mader, Irina; Unterrainer, Josef M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to plan and search ahead is essential for problem solving in most situations in everyday life. To investigate the development of planning and related processes, a sample of four- and five-year-old children was examined in a variant of the Tower of London, a frequently used neuropsychological assessment tool of planning abilities. The…

  17. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an individual to be able to work during the week of unemployment claimed if the individual is able to work...

  18. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  19. 17 CFR 37.404 - Ability to obtain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ability to obtain information. 37.404 Section 37.404 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.404 Ability to obtain information....

  20. The Relationship between Teacher's Technology Integration Ability and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shihkuan

    2010-01-01

    Despite a steady supply of equipment and continuous training, teachers' use of computers for instruction seems to be limited. Whether the problem is due to teachers' ability or usage of computers for instruction is not well understood. In order to better understand the role of ability and usage in technology integration, teachers' proficiency of…