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Sample records for ability test performance

  1. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  2. Evaluating Pekin duck walking ability using a treadmill performance test.

    PubMed

    Byrd, C J; Main, R P; Makagon, M M

    2016-10-01

    Gait scoring is the most popular method for assessing the walking ability of poultry species. Although inexpensive and easy to implement, gait scoring systems are often criticized for being subjective. Using a treadmill performance test we assessed whether observable differences in Pekin duck walking ability identified using a gait scoring system translated to differences in walking performance. One hundred and eighty ducks were selected using a three-category gait scoring system (GS0 = smooth gait, n = 55; GS0.5 = labored walk without easily identifiable impediment, n = 56; GS1 = obvious impediment, n = 59) and the amount of time each duck was able to sustain walking on a treadmill at a speed of 0.31 m/s was evaluated. The walking test ended when each duck met one of three elimination criteria: (1) The duck walked for a maximum time of ten minutes, (2) the duck required support from the observer's hand for more than three seconds in order to continue walking on the treadmill, or (3) the duck sat down on the treadmill and made no attempt to stand despite receiving assistance from the observer. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using PROC GLM. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used to compare differences in time spent walking between gait scores. Significant differences were found between all gait scores (P < 0.05). Behavioral correlates of walking performance were investigated. Video recorded during the treadmill test was analyzed for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using a negative binomial model for count data. No differences were found between gait scores for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the amount of time spent walking on the treadmill corresponded to gait score and was an effective measurement for quantifying Pekin duck walking ability. The test could be a valuable tool for assessing the development of walking issues or the effectiveness of

  3. Evaluating Pekin duck walking ability using a treadmill performance test.

    PubMed

    Byrd, C J; Main, R P; Makagon, M M

    2016-10-01

    Gait scoring is the most popular method for assessing the walking ability of poultry species. Although inexpensive and easy to implement, gait scoring systems are often criticized for being subjective. Using a treadmill performance test we assessed whether observable differences in Pekin duck walking ability identified using a gait scoring system translated to differences in walking performance. One hundred and eighty ducks were selected using a three-category gait scoring system (GS0 = smooth gait, n = 55; GS0.5 = labored walk without easily identifiable impediment, n = 56; GS1 = obvious impediment, n = 59) and the amount of time each duck was able to sustain walking on a treadmill at a speed of 0.31 m/s was evaluated. The walking test ended when each duck met one of three elimination criteria: (1) The duck walked for a maximum time of ten minutes, (2) the duck required support from the observer's hand for more than three seconds in order to continue walking on the treadmill, or (3) the duck sat down on the treadmill and made no attempt to stand despite receiving assistance from the observer. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using PROC GLM. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used to compare differences in time spent walking between gait scores. Significant differences were found between all gait scores (P < 0.05). Behavioral correlates of walking performance were investigated. Video recorded during the treadmill test was analyzed for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using a negative binomial model for count data. No differences were found between gait scores for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the amount of time spent walking on the treadmill corresponded to gait score and was an effective measurement for quantifying Pekin duck walking ability. The test could be a valuable tool for assessing the development of walking issues or the effectiveness of

  4. Mixing ability test compared with a comminution test in persons with normal and compromised masticatory performance.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, C M; Abbink, J H; van der Glas, H W; Janssen, N G; van der Bilt, A

    2009-10-01

    A mastication test was needed with a material that forms a bolus and is soft enough to be chewed by persons with compromised oral function, in particular patients confronted with oral cancer. We therefore developed a wax-mixing ability test and compared it with a comminution test using Optocal as test food. We hypothesized that the mixing ability test would be better at differentiating between groups of persons with compromised masticatory performance than the comminution test. Sixty healthy subjects were recruited in three groups of 20, matched for age and gender: a group with natural dentition; a group with full dentures; and a group with maxillary denture and implant-supported mandibular overdenture. The mixing ability test was found to discriminate better between the two full-denture groups than the comminution test.

  5. Mixing ability test compared with a comminution test in persons with normal and compromised masticatory performance.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, C M; Abbink, J H; van der Glas, H W; Janssen, N G; van der Bilt, A

    2009-10-01

    A mastication test was needed with a material that forms a bolus and is soft enough to be chewed by persons with compromised oral function, in particular patients confronted with oral cancer. We therefore developed a wax-mixing ability test and compared it with a comminution test using Optocal as test food. We hypothesized that the mixing ability test would be better at differentiating between groups of persons with compromised masticatory performance than the comminution test. Sixty healthy subjects were recruited in three groups of 20, matched for age and gender: a group with natural dentition; a group with full dentures; and a group with maxillary denture and implant-supported mandibular overdenture. The mixing ability test was found to discriminate better between the two full-denture groups than the comminution test. PMID:19758256

  6. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  7. Individual Differences in Gender Role Beliefs Influence Spatial Ability Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.; Bohon, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The gender role hypothesis posits that performance on a cognitive ability test is influenced by whether the test instructions frame the test as measuring a skill that is consistent or inconsistent with the test taker's gender role beliefs. The Bem sex role inventory was used to measure the gender role of female college students, and the group…

  8. Comparisons between a mixing ability test and masticatory performance tests using a brittle or an elastic test food.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y

    2009-03-01

    A variety of chewing tests and test items have been utilized to evaluate masticatory function. The purpose of this study was to compare a mixing ability test with masticatory performance tests using peanuts or gummy jelly as test foods. Thirty-two completely dentate subjects (Dentate group, mean age: 25.1 years) and 40 removable partial denture wearers (RPD group, mean age: 65.5 years) participated in this study. The subjects were asked to chew a two-coloured paraffin wax cube as a test item for 10 strokes. Mixing Ability Index (MAI) was determined from the colour mixture and shape of the chewed cube. Subjects were asked to chew 3 g portions of peanuts and a piece of gummy jelly for 20 strokes, respectively. Median particle size of chewed peanuts was determined using a multiple-sieving method. Concentration of dissolved glucose from the surface of the chewed gummy jelly was measured using a blood glucose meter. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationships between the MAI, median particle size and the concentration of dissolved glucose. Mixing Ability Index was significantly related to median particle size (Dentate group: r = -0.56, P < 0.001, RPD group: r = -0.70, P < 0.001), but not significantly related to glucose concentration (Dentate group: r = 0.12, RPD group: r = 0.21, P > 0.05). It seems that ability of mixing the bolus is more strongly related to the ability of comminuting brittle food than elastic food.

  9. Two tests of approach-iron golf skill and their ability to predict tournament performance.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Burnett, Angus F; Gupta, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and predictive validity of two skill tests that examine the ability of golfers to hit accurate approach-iron shots. Twenty-four high-level golfers (handicap = 2.6 ± 1.7) performed the Nine-Ball Skills Test (assesses the ability to shape/control ball trajectory with high accuracy) and the Approach-Iron Skill Test (assesses the ability to hit straight shots from varying distances with high accuracy). Participants then completed at least eight rounds of tournament golf over the following 90 days and reported an indicator of approach-iron accuracy (per cent error index). A moderate correlation (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) was noted between scores for both tests. Generalised estimating equations, using two covariates (lie of the ball and distance to hole), were used to determine model fit and the amount of variance explained for tournament per cent error index. Results showed that the Approach-Iron Skill Test was the slightly stronger predictor of on-course per cent error index. With both test scores considered together, a minimal amount of additional variance was explained. These findings suggest that either of the tests used individually or combined may be used to predict tournament approach iron performance in high-level golfers.

  10. The influence of test mode and visuospatial ability on mathematics assessment performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Tracy

    2015-12-01

    Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment—computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)—and visuospatial ability had on students' mathematics test performance. Data from 804 grade 6 Singaporean students were analysed using the knowledge discovery in data design. The results revealed statistically significant differences between performance on CBT and PPT test modes across content areas concerning whole number algebraic patterns and data and chance. However, there were no performance differences for content areas related to spatial arrangements geometric measurement or other number. There were also statistically significant differences in performance between those students who possess higher levels of visuospatial ability compared to those with lower levels across all six content areas. Implications include careful consideration for the comparability of CBT and PPT testing and the need for increased attention to the role of visuospatial reasoning in student's mathematics reasoning.

  11. Minority Performance on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition, versus the Cognitive Abilities Test, Form 6: One Gifted Program's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giessman, Jacob A.; Gambrell, James L.; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition (NNAT2), is used widely to screen students for possible inclusion in talent development programs. The NNAT2 claims to provide a more culturally neutral evaluation of general ability than tests such as Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT6), which has Verbal and Quantitative batteries in…

  12. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  13. Test validity and performance validity: considerations in providing a framework for development of an ability-focused neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, Glenn J

    2014-11-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures.

  14. Simulating the Effects of Common and Specific Abilities on Test Performance: An Evaluation of Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Factor analysis is a useful technique to aid in organizing multivariate data characterizing speech, language, and auditory abilities. However, knowledge of the limitations of factor analysis is essential for proper interpretation of results. The present study used simulated test scores to illustrate some characteristics of factor…

  15. Critical Thinking Ability and Disposition as Factors of Performance on a Written Critical Thinking Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube, Kurt T.

    Critical thinking has been conceptualized as a two-factor system in which critical thinking ability and critical thinking disposition combine to determine actual thinking performance. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate such a two-factor model empirically. One hundred ninety-eight Purdue University undergraduates…

  16. Test Validity and Performance Validity: Considerations in Providing a Framework for Development of an Ability-Focused Neuropsychological Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Larrabee, Glenn J.

    2014-01-01

    Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures. PMID:25280794

  17. Ability of test measures to predict competitive performance in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Megan; Hopkins, Will; Roberts, Alan; Pyne, David

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between changes in test measures and changes in competition performance for individual elite swimmers. The 24 male and 16 female swimmers, who were monitored for 3.6 years (s = 2.5), raced in a major competition at the end of each 6-month season (3.6 competitions, s = 2.2). A 7 x 200-m incremental swimming step-test and anthropometry were conducted in up to four training phases each season. Correlations of changes in step-test and anthropometry measures between training phases and seasons with changes in competition performance between seasons were derived with repeated-measures mixed-modelling and linear regression. Changes in competition performance were best tracked by changes in test measures between taper phases. The best single predictor of competition performance was skinfolds for females (r = -0.53). The best predictor from the step-test was stroke rate at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x l(-1) (females: r = 0.46; males: r = 0.41); inclusion of the second-best step-test predictor in a multiple linear regression improved the correlations (females: r = 0.52 with speed in the seventh step included; males: r = 0.58 with peak lactate concentration included). In conclusion, a combination of fitness and technique factors is important for competitive performance. The step-test is a useful adjunct in a swimmer's training preparation for tracking large changes in performance. PMID:17852674

  18. The Interaction between Cognitive Test-Taking Strategies, Reading Ability, and Reading Comprehension Test Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The study scrutinized the probable interaction between using cognitive test-taking strategies, reading proficiency, and reading comprehension test performance of Iranian postgraduate students, who studied English as a foreign language. The study also probed the extent to which the participants' test performance was related to the use of certain…

  19. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  20. The Implications of Symptom Validity Test Failure for Ability-Based Test Performance in a Pediatric Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Michael W.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Randolph, Christopher; Kirk, John W.

    2012-01-01

    If an examinee exerts inadequate effort to perform well during a psychological or neuropsychological exam, the resulting data will represent an inaccurate representation of the individual's true abilities and difficulties. In adult populations, methodologies to identify noncredible effort have grown exponentially in the last 2 decades. Though a…

  1. African-Americans' Test-taking Attitudes and Their Effect on Cognitive Ability Test Performance: Implications for Public Personnel Management Selection Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Patrick F.; Doverspike, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Review of three research studies shows that some African Americans have negative perceptions of cognitive ability tests, including concerns that they may substantiate stereotypes. These attitudes may influence motivation, anxiety, and test performance. Training in test-taking skills and use of alternative testing formats are possible solutions.…

  2. The Influence of Test Mode and Visuospatial Ability on Mathematics Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment--computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)--and visuospatial ability…

  3. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  4. Investigating the Effects of Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance with High- and Low-Ability Test Takers: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Uses structural equation modelling to examine the relationship between learning strategy use and second-language test performance (SLTP) in 1,382 high- and low-ability test takers. Results showed metacognitive strategy use and SLTP models produced similar factorial structures for each group; cognitive strategy use models differed. This suggests…

  5. The relationship between nursing students' mathematics ability and their performance in a drug calculation test.

    PubMed

    Røykenes, Kari; Larsen, Torill

    2010-10-01

    Nurses and nursing students need good mathematics skills to do drug calculations correctly. As part of their undergraduate education, Norwegian nursing students must take a drug calculation test, obtaining no errors in the results. In spite of drug calculation tests, many adverse events occur, leading to a focus on drug administration skills both during students' courses and afterwards. Adverse events in drug administration can be related to poor mathematics skills education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' mathematics experiences in school (primary, secondary and high school) and their beliefs about being able to master the drug calculation test. A questionnaire was given to 116 first-year Bachelor of Nursing students. Those students who assessed their mathematics knowledge as poor found the requirement to obtain no errors in the drug calculation test more stressful than students who judged their mathematics knowledge as good. The youngest students were most likely to find the test requirement stressful. Teachers in high school had the most positive influence on mathematics interest, followed by teachers in secondary and primary school. PMID:20133029

  6. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  7. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  8. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  9. Spatial Abilities at Different Scales: Individual Differences in Aptitude-Test Performance and Spatial-Layout Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Richardson, Anthony E.; Ishikawa, Toru; Lovelace, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Most psychometric tests of spatial ability are paper-and-pencil tasks at the ''figural'' scale of space, in that they involve inspecting, imagining or mentally transforming small shapes or manipulable objects. Environmental spatial tasks, such as wayfinding or learning the layout of a building or city, are carried out in larger spaces that…

  10. Genetic Performance and General Combining Ability of Oil Palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera Tested on Inland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Noh, A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Saleh, G.; Kushairi, A.; Latif, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm−1 yr−1 with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm−1 yr−1. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem. PMID:22701095

  11. Performance Equals Ability and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.

    The results of several research studies designed to evaluate different theories of work motivation are presented. Graen (1967), through hiring 169 high school girls to do a clerical task, showed that ability measures can account for far more performance variance than motivation variables such as expectancy and instrumentality. Similar results were…

  12. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  13. Comparing masticatory performance and mixing ability.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Mojet, J; Tekamp, F A; Abbink, J H

    2010-02-01

    Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been used as test foods for the quantification of the mixing ability. The aim of our study was to compare the results obtained with the comminution of an artificial test food and the results obtained from mixing of a two-coloured chewing gum. The degree of mixing of the colours of the chewing gum was quantified with an optical method. Twenty young subjects with a natural dentition (average age 24 years) and twenty elderly subjects, mostly with complete dentures (average age 72 years), participated in the study. Significant differences in masticatory performance between the two groups were detected with both methods. However, the comminution test was better in discriminating the masticatory performance of the two groups. The mixing ability test with the two-coloured chewing gum proofed to be a good method to determine masticatory function in subjects with a compromised masticatory performance (elderly subjects). However, the method appeared to be less suitable for subjects with a good masticatory performance (young subjects).

  14. Ability or Access-Ability: Differential Item Functioning of Items on Alternate Performance-Based Assessment Tests for Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of test items on Pennsylvania's Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) for students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities and what the reasons for the differences may be. Methods: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to analyze differences in the scores…

  15. Performance tests.

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatigue, toxic chemicals, are mentioned where appropriate. Diazepam is used as an example. There is no particular performance emphasis since the tests are intended to have wide applicability. However, vehicle-driving performance is discussed because it has been the subject of a great deal of research and is probably one of the most important areas of application. Performance tests are discussed in terms of the four main underlying models--factor analysis, general information processing, multiple resource and strategy models, and processing-stage models--and in terms of their psychometric properties--sensitivity, reliability, and content, criterion, construct, and face validity. Some test taxonomies are presented. Standardization is also discussed with reference to the reaction time, mathematical processing, memory search, spatial processing, unstable tracking, verbal processing, and dual task tests used in the AGARD STRES battery. Some comments on measurement strengths and appropriate study designs and methods are included. PMID:9182033

  16. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. PMID:25250831

  17. Performance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA, developed an electronic Critical Tracking Task (CTT) system that analyzes and rates a subject's visual/motor responses for Ames Research Center. Originally applied to measuring the effects of long term confinement in the mid 1960's, the CTT system is now marketed as FACTOR 1000 by Performance Factors, Inc. Alameda, CA, under a licensing agreement with Systems Technology. The system is a non-invasive, self-administered test that takes less than a minute and detects impairment from a broad range of causes, including stress, fatigue, illness, drugs, or alcohol. It is used daily by Old Town Trolley Tours, San Diego, CA, to assess each driver's physical coordination skills prior to the start of each shift. FACTOR 1000 reduces liabilities and costs related to accidents, and costs less than one dollar per day per employee. Performance Factors is now BioFactors, Inc.

  18. Ability-performance relationships in education and employment settings: critical tests of the more-is-better and the good-enough hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Justin J; Sackett, Paul R; Beatty, Adam S

    2011-10-01

    The nature of the relationship between ability and performance is of critical importance for admission decisions in the context of higher education and for personnel selection. Although previous research has supported the more-is-better hypothesis by documenting linearity of ability-performance relationships, such research has not been sensitive enough to detect deviations at the top ends of the score distributions. An alternative position receiving considerable attention is the good-enough hypothesis, which suggests that although higher levels of ability may result in better performance up to a threshold, above this threshold greater ability does not translate to better performance. In this study, the nature of the relationship between cognitive ability and performance was examined throughout the score range in four large-scale data sets. Monotonicity was maintained in all instances. Contrary to the good-enough hypothesis, the ability-performance relationship was commonly stronger at the top end of the score distribution than at the bottom end.

  19. Dynamic Spatial Ability and Psychomotor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Chaiken, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic spatial ability is one's ability to estimate when a moving object will reach a destination, or one's skill in making time-to-contact (TTC) judgments. In 2 studies, we investigated the nature of dynamic spatial ability and its role in psychomotor (PM) task performance. In the first study, 405 basic military trainees were given both spatial…

  20. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  1. Ability-performance relationships in education and employment settings: critical tests of the more-is-better and the good-enough hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Justin J; Sackett, Paul R; Beatty, Adam S

    2011-10-01

    The nature of the relationship between ability and performance is of critical importance for admission decisions in the context of higher education and for personnel selection. Although previous research has supported the more-is-better hypothesis by documenting linearity of ability-performance relationships, such research has not been sensitive enough to detect deviations at the top ends of the score distributions. An alternative position receiving considerable attention is the good-enough hypothesis, which suggests that although higher levels of ability may result in better performance up to a threshold, above this threshold greater ability does not translate to better performance. In this study, the nature of the relationship between cognitive ability and performance was examined throughout the score range in four large-scale data sets. Monotonicity was maintained in all instances. Contrary to the good-enough hypothesis, the ability-performance relationship was commonly stronger at the top end of the score distribution than at the bottom end. PMID:21931155

  2. Performance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Testing at Low-Level Viremia and Its Ability to Predict Future Virologic Outcomes and Viral Evolution in Treatment-Naive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Serna, A.; Min, J. E.; Woods, C.; Chan, D.; Lima, V. D.; Montaner, J. S. G.; Harrigan, P. R.; Swenson, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low-level viremia (LLV; human immunodeficiency virus [HIV-1] RNA 50–999 copies/mL) occurs frequently in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are few or no data available demonstrating that HIV-1 drug resistance testing at a plasma viral load (pVL) <1000 copies/mL provides potentially clinically useful information. Here, we assess the ability to perform resistance testing by genotyping at LLV and whether it is predictive of future virologic outcomes in patients beginning ART. Methods. Resistance testing by genotyping at LLV was attempted on 4915 plasma samples from 2492 patients. A subset of previously ART-naive patients was analyzed who achieved undetectable pVL and subsequently rebounded with LLV (n = 212). A genotypic sensitivity score (GSS) was calculated based on therapy and resistance testing results by genotyping, and stratified according to number of active drugs. Results. Eighty-eight percent of LLV resistance assays produced useable sequences, with higher success at higher pVL. Overall, 16 of 212 (8%) patients had pretherapy resistance. Thirty-eight of 196 (19%) patients without pretherapy resistance evolved resistance to 1 or more drug classes, primarily the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (14%) and/or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (9%) inhibitors. Patients with resistance at LLV (GSS <3) had a 2.1-fold higher risk of virologic failure (95% confidence interval, 1.2- to 3.7-fold) than those without resistance (P = .007). Progressively lower GSS scores at LLV were associated with a higher increase in pVL over time (P < .001). Acquisition of additional resistance mutations to a new class of antiretroviral drugs during LLV was not found in a subset of patients. Conclusions. Routine HIV-1 genotyping of LLV samples can be performed with a reasonably high success rate, and the results appear predictive of future virologic outcomes. PMID:24429436

  3. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7 times…

  4. Why do spatial abilities predict mathematical performance?

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Petrill, Stephen A; Dale, Philip S; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship. PMID:24410830

  5. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  6. Cultural differences in neuropsychological abilities required to perform intelligence tasks.

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that culture has a basic role in intelligence tests performance. Nevertheless, the specific neuropsychological abilities used by different cultures to perform an intelligence test have never been explored. In this study, we examine the differences between Spaniards and Moroccans in the neuropsychological abilities utilized to perform the Beta III as a non-verbal intelligence test. The results showed that the Spaniard group obtained a higher IQ than the Moroccan group in the Beta III. Moreover, the neuropsychological abilities that predicted scores for the Beta III were dependent on the country of origin and were different for each subtest. Besides showing the cultural effect on non-verbal intelligence test performance, our results suggest that a single test may measure different functions, depending on the subject's cultural background. PMID:24055883

  7. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  8. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  9. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  10. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  11. Aging effects on the structure underlying balance abilities tests.

    PubMed

    Urushihata, Toshiya; Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as 'Static'. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as 'Static and Reactive'. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were acceptable (young group, GFI

  12. Aging Effects on the Structure Underlying Balance Abilities Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as ‘Static’. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as ‘Static and Reactive’. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were

  13. Construct and Predictive Validities of the Perceptual Ability Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The construct and predictive validities of the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) were examined. The results indicate that each of the subtests exhibits different predictive validity. A linear combination of PAT subtest scores was found to be more predictive of first-year dental school technique performance than the total PAT score. (Author/MLW)

  14. Anxiety as It Pertains to EFL Writing Ability and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted to find (a) the impact of anxiety on EFL learners' writing performance, and (b) the relationship between anxiety and foreign language writing ability. 137 (N = 137) EFL learners took the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), the Oxford Placement Test (OPT), and a writing task on a…

  15. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

  16. On the Scientific Basis of Ability Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Horn, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that despite aberrations, false starts, misapplications, and unfortunate crystallizations of methods and interpretations, the differential psychology of cognitive abilities is an important part of psychological knowledge about human beings. (Author/GC)

  17. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  18. Physiological determinants of the candidate physical ability test in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Andrew K; Bennett, Angela; Hanson, Erik D; Kim, You-Sin; Hsu, Jeffrey; Shim, Jae K; Edwards, Steven T; Hurley, Ben F

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative importance of physiological characteristics during firefighting performance, as assessed by the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT). Subjects included career and volunteer firefighters aged 18-39 (N = 33). Upper- and lower-body strength, muscle endurance, lower body muscle power, body composition analysis, aerobic capacity, anaerobic fitness, and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to stair climbing were assessed to determine the physiological characteristics of the subjects. To quantify firefighting performance, the CPAT was administered by members of the fire service. Absolute and relative mean power during the Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT), relative peak power during the WAnT, and absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were significantly higher in those who passed the CPAT (N = 18), compared to those who failed (N = 15; p < 0.01). Mean power during the WAnT, fatigue index during WAnT, absolute VO2max, upper body strength, grip strength, and the HR response to stair climbing were significantly related to CPAT performance time (p < 0.01). Absolute VO2max and anaerobic fatigue resistance during WAnT best predicted CPAT performance (Adj. R2 = 0.817; p < 0.001). Performance on the ceiling breach and pull was the only CPAT task that was not significantly related to the physiological characteristics assessed. Measures of anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness best predict overall CPAT performance, and individual task performance. Remedial programs aimed at improving firefighting performance should target anaerobic and aerobic fitness qualities.

  19. Test and Performance Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…

  20. What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

  1. Interpretation of the 1961 Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara D.

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) is treated in terms of the ability measured, hints for administration and scoring, and questions often asked for each of the nine subtests. Typical profiles are described and analyzed for mentally retarded, kindergarteners, slow learners, culturally disadvantaged, Negroes, good and poor…

  2. Changing abilities in recognition of unfamiliar face photographs through childhood and adolescence: performance on a test of non-verbal immediate memory (Warrington RMF) from 6 to 16 years.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K; Bernstein, D; Pearson, R; Mandy, W; Campbell, R; Skuse, D

    2008-03-01

    A commonly used test of non-verbal memory, which measures recognition for unfamiliar face pictures, was developed by Warrington (1984), the Recognition Memory for Faces (RMF) test. The task has been widely used in adults in relation to neurological impairment of face recognition. We examined the relationship of RMF scores to age in 500 young people aged between 6 and 16 years. A.linear relationship obtained between 6 and 10 years, followed by a 'plateau' between the ages of 10 and 13, followed by further improvement. Abilities on the test correlated with both verbal and non-verbal intelligence, but the nonlinear function relating age and RMF survived partialling for intelligence in the younger age groups. The improvement of the adolescents compared with older children also survived partialling for IQ. We found no significant influence of gender or reported pubertal status (which was not obtained for all participants) on RMF once age was taken into account. Performance on other face-processing tasks (emotion classification and accuracy in line of sight detection) correlated significantly, if moderately, with RMF scores. Despite its age and imperfections, RMF test may nevertheless be a useful indicator of 'face expertise' in a developmental context. PMID:19334303

  3. Changing abilities in recognition of unfamiliar face photographs through childhood and adolescence: performance on a test of non-verbal immediate memory (Warrington RMF) from 6 to 16 years.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K; Bernstein, D; Pearson, R; Mandy, W; Campbell, R; Skuse, D

    2008-03-01

    A commonly used test of non-verbal memory, which measures recognition for unfamiliar face pictures, was developed by Warrington (1984), the Recognition Memory for Faces (RMF) test. The task has been widely used in adults in relation to neurological impairment of face recognition. We examined the relationship of RMF scores to age in 500 young people aged between 6 and 16 years. A.linear relationship obtained between 6 and 10 years, followed by a 'plateau' between the ages of 10 and 13, followed by further improvement. Abilities on the test correlated with both verbal and non-verbal intelligence, but the nonlinear function relating age and RMF survived partialling for intelligence in the younger age groups. The improvement of the adolescents compared with older children also survived partialling for IQ. We found no significant influence of gender or reported pubertal status (which was not obtained for all participants) on RMF once age was taken into account. Performance on other face-processing tasks (emotion classification and accuracy in line of sight detection) correlated significantly, if moderately, with RMF scores. Despite its age and imperfections, RMF test may nevertheless be a useful indicator of 'face expertise' in a developmental context.

  4. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    PubMed

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  5. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  6. Adolescent Volume Conservation Abilities: A Comparison of Three Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protinsky, Howard O.; Hughston, George

    1980-01-01

    In a study to determine procedural effects of volume conservation tasks performed by adolescent females, the results revealed that the LaVatelli water displacement test was significantly more difficult than the Elkind test or Piaget's test. (Author/RL)

  7. Home Language and Performance on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Allyn G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate the relationship between the language that Mexican-American parents of lower socioeconomic status speak to their children and the children's performance on standardized tests designed to measure intellectual abilities. (AJ)

  8. Measuring Writing Ability with the Cloze Test is not Closed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Helmut; Yost, Carlson

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to examine the usefulness of the cloze test as an objective measure of a native speaker's writing ability. A modified version of the cloze test used by Oller and others to measure integrative language skills in non-native speakers was given to 100 freshman English students. The test…

  9. Towards a Computer-Delivered Test of Productive Grammatical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.; Chung, Yoo-Ree; Hegelheimer, Volker; Pendar, Nick; Xu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study piloted test items that will be used in a computer-delivered and scored test of productive grammatical ability in English as a second language (ESL). Findings from research on learners' development of morphosyntactic, syntactic, and functional knowledge were synthesized to create a framework of grammatical features. We outline the…

  10. Performance testing biometric verifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.

    1990-03-01

    The performance and availability of the five basic identity verifiers can now meet the requirements of most physical and information security needs. However, with the lack of any evaluation standards, the independent testing of verifiers requires care with due consideration for both parts of the verifier systems; the verifier hardware and software and the user with his biometric features which is the least consistent part of the system. The method of testing and data processing must be done with care and should be reported along with reduced results.

  11. Performance on a virtual reality angled laparoscope task correlates with spatial ability of trainees.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Hamel, Christian; Oertli, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Gantert, Walter A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether trainees' performance on a virtual reality angled laparoscope navigation task correlates with scores obtained on a validated conventional test of spatial ability. 56 participants of a surgery workshop performed an angled laparoscope navigation task on the Xitact LS 500 virtual reality Simulator. Performance parameters were correlated with the score of a validated paper-and-pencil test of spatial ability. Performance at the conventional spatial ability test significantly correlated with performance at the virtual reality task for overall task score (p < 0.001), task completion time (p < 0.001) and economy of movement (p = 0.035), not for endoscope travel speed (p = 0.947). In conclusion, trainees' performance in a standardized virtual reality camera navigation task correlates with their innate spatial ability. This VR session holds potential to serve as an assessment tool for trainees.

  12. [French version of TASTE (test for the ability and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Pereira, A M; Depreeuw, E; Ansseau, M

    2001-01-01

    Ability to study and evaluation is only one example of performance among many others but research and publications concerning this issue for more than 50 years, especially in the context of test anxiety and need of achievement, conferred upon it a prototypical dimension. Investigations about motivation also stimulate many scientists and constitute another foundation of this study (13). The level of performance depends on knowledge and motivation (33). Time devoted to study is essential to succeed; so motivation and procrastination are in competition. The importance of reinforcement (extrinsical motivation) and the desire for learning and knowing (intrinsical motivation) are determinant. Other elements must be emphasized: guarantee of obtaining rewards, self efficacy and causal attribution. These considerations point out the multidimensional and interactive aspects of test anxiety (7, 31). The number of components is not described unanimously but experts agree with emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions (25). So, anxiety was approached in its motivational properties, and it was the case until the sixties, in terms of drive corresponding to a need like thirst or hunger (18); then it was conceptualized in a dynamic context broader than that of stress and coping (29, 30). Last, it constitutes the object of theories highlighting cognitive interference (9, 23, 26) or defective skills (8, 32). A lot of questionnaires were built without answering the different aspects and for instance without linking the theoretical and therapeutic components concerning this problem. Committed to the traditional fields of research (test anxiety and need of achievement), to Weiner's work about attribution theory (34) and that of Bandura in self efficacy (4, 5), E. Depreeuw (10) was particularly interested in Heckhausen's model (16, 17), trying to associate experimental conceptions with the clinical reality. On this basis, he elaborated the TASTE (10, 12, 20): test for ability to

  13. [French version of TASTE (test for the ability and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Pereira, A M; Depreeuw, E; Ansseau, M

    2001-01-01

    Ability to study and evaluation is only one example of performance among many others but research and publications concerning this issue for more than 50 years, especially in the context of test anxiety and need of achievement, conferred upon it a prototypical dimension. Investigations about motivation also stimulate many scientists and constitute another foundation of this study (13). The level of performance depends on knowledge and motivation (33). Time devoted to study is essential to succeed; so motivation and procrastination are in competition. The importance of reinforcement (extrinsical motivation) and the desire for learning and knowing (intrinsical motivation) are determinant. Other elements must be emphasized: guarantee of obtaining rewards, self efficacy and causal attribution. These considerations point out the multidimensional and interactive aspects of test anxiety (7, 31). The number of components is not described unanimously but experts agree with emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions (25). So, anxiety was approached in its motivational properties, and it was the case until the sixties, in terms of drive corresponding to a need like thirst or hunger (18); then it was conceptualized in a dynamic context broader than that of stress and coping (29, 30). Last, it constitutes the object of theories highlighting cognitive interference (9, 23, 26) or defective skills (8, 32). A lot of questionnaires were built without answering the different aspects and for instance without linking the theoretical and therapeutic components concerning this problem. Committed to the traditional fields of research (test anxiety and need of achievement), to Weiner's work about attribution theory (34) and that of Bandura in self efficacy (4, 5), E. Depreeuw (10) was particularly interested in Heckhausen's model (16, 17), trying to associate experimental conceptions with the clinical reality. On this basis, he elaborated the TASTE (10, 12, 20): test for ability to

  14. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…

  15. A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Shirley A.

    In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…

  16. General Cognitive Ability Predicts Job Performance. Interim Technical Paper for Period November 1990 - November 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Malcolm James; And Others

    A study investigated the roles of general ability and specific abilities as predictors of several job performance criteria for Air Force enlistees in eight jobs. Subjects were 1,545 Air Force enlistees entering from 1984 through 1988 who had tested with the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) parallel forms 11, 12, or 13. Subjects…

  17. Genetic Tests for Ability?: Talent Identification and the Value of an Open Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miah, Andy; Rich, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of genetic tests for performance in physical activity and sports practices. It investigates the terminology associated with genetics, testing, selection and ability as a means towards a socio-ethical analysis of its value within sport, education and society. Our argument suggests that genetic tests need not even be…

  18. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  19. Emotional pictures impact repetitive sprint ability test on cycle ergometre.

    PubMed

    Coudrat, Laure; Rouis, Majdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Attiogbé, Elvis; Gélat, Thierry; Driss, Tarak

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between emotion-eliciting pictures and power output during a repetitive supra-maximal task on a cycle ergometre. Twelve male participants (mean (±SD) age, height and weight: 28.58 ± 3.23 years, 1.78 ± 0.05 m and 82.41 ± 13.29 kg) performed 5 repeated sprint tests on a cycle ergometre in front of neutral, pleasant or unpleasant pictures. For each sprint, mechanical (peak power and work), physiological (heart rate) and perceptual (affective load) indices were analysed. Affective load was calculated from the ratings of perceived exertion, which reflected the amount of pleasant and unpleasant responses experienced during exercise. The results showed that peak power, work and heart rate values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for unpleasant pictures (9.18 ± 0.20 W ∙ kg(-1); 47.69 ± 1.08 J ∙ kg(-1); 152 ± 4 bpm) when compared with pleasant ones (9.50 ± 0.20 W ∙ kg(-1); 50.11 ± 0.11 J ∙ kg(-1); 156 ± 3 bpm). Furthermore, the affective load was found to be similar for the pleasant and unpleasant sessions. All together, these results suggested that the ability to produce maximal power output depended on whether the emotional context was pleasant or unpleasant. The fact that the power output was lower in the unpleasant versus pleasant session could reflect a regulatory process aimed at maintaining a similar level of affective load for both sessions.

  20. Anxiety and Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Kevin S.

    Test anxiety is a variable cognitive, affective, or physiological response, or any combination thereof, occurring during evaluative, self-report examinations. Research suggests that the cognitive, affective, and physiological components of test anxiety are interrelated and that these components in addition to global test anxiety, are negatively…

  1. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    PubMed

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  2. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Test for Persons with Intellectual Disability: A Valuable Clinical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Tricia; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) test requires a tester to attempt to teach to a person, using standard prompting and reinforcement procedures, six tasks that are hierarchically ordered in difficulty. Performance on the test provides valuable information for teachers and rehabilitation workers to match the difficulty of training…

  3. Development of physical ability tests for police officers: a construct validation approach.

    PubMed

    Arvey, R D; Landon, T E; Nutting, S M; Maxwell, S E

    1992-12-01

    A construct validation approach was followed to affirm that 8 physical ability test events were significantly related to two important constructs underlying the job performance of police officers: strength and endurance. A sample of 115 incumbent police officers took 8 physical ability tests and were rated by supervisors on their physical performances in their job. LISREL methods were used to test the model specified, and a reasonable fit was achieved. Portions of the model were tested on an independent sample of 161 applicants; the fit of the model was again acceptable. A nomological network of relationships, in which strength and endurance factors correlated in expected directions with other physiological and demographic variables, was hypothesized and tested. Finally, the data were examined for potential gender differences and bias. Considerable differences were shown between men and women on both test and performance variables, and women would be overpredicted if a common regression line were used for selection purposes.

  4. Is Mental Rotation Ability a Predictor of Success for Motor Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyek, Nady; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Fargier, Patrick; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of a relationship between mental rotation (MR) and motor processes in children and adults. However, there is no direct evidence that MR ability is a reliable predictor of success for motor performance. After completion of a MR test, the motor performance of 7- to 8-year-old and 11- to 12-year-old children was…

  5. Infiniband Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Minich, M

    2005-10-13

    A look at the performance of the infiniband interconnect using the Voltaire host stack. This will attempt to compare not only infiniband to other high-performance interconnects, but will also take a look at comparing some of the different hardware choices available at the time of writing (e.g. Opteron, EM64T, pci-express and pci-x).

  6. Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated…

  7. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  8. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  9. Motor abilities in dance structure performance in female students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities. PMID:16848148

  10. Motor abilities in dance structure performance in female students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities.

  11. A Litmus Test for Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin D.; Beaver, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents 10 guidelines for developing performance-based assessment items. Presents a sample activity developed from the guidelines. The activity tests students ability to observe, classify, and infer, using red and blue litmus paper, a pH-range finder, vinegar, ammonia, an unknown solution, distilled water, and paper towels. (PR)

  12. Performance vs. Paper-And-Pencil Estimates of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arima, James K.

    Arima's Discrimination Learning Test (DLT) was reconfigured, made into a self-paced mode, and administered to potential recruits in order to determine if: (1) a previous study indicating a lack of difference in learning performance between white and nonwhites would hold up; and (2) the correlations between scores attained on the DLT and scores…

  13. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  14. Performance Assessment in Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades, educators in general, and language teachers in specific, were more inclined towards using testing techniques that resembled real-life language performance. Unlike traditional paper-and-pencil language tests that required test-takers to attempt tests that were based on artificial and contrived language content,…

  15. Cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities in skilled basketball performance.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, E; Derri, V; Tzetzis, G; Theodorakis, Y

    1998-06-01

    The differences among athletes of differing skill should assist successful identification and selection of the best athletes in a specific sport. For the purpose of this study, a laboratory study was conducted with a group of 13 men on the elite male national team of basketball players, 22 to 23 years of age, and a control group of 15 men of equal age (physical education class) to assess differences in their scores on cognitive skills (memory-retention, memory-grouping analytic ability), perceptual skills (speed of perception, prediction, selective attention, response selection), and motor skills (dynamic balance, whole body coordination, wrist-finger dexterity, rhythmic ability). Analysis showed that elite male basketball players scored higher on hand coordination and lower on dynamic balance given their anthropometric measurements. Elite players were better on memory-retention, selective attention, and on prediction measures than the control group. The above skills are important in basketball performance. Researchers may examine whether other factors contribute more in the development of perceptual and cognitive skills.

  16. Relationships among Dispositional Ability Conceptions, Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Competence, Experience, Persistance, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Lee, Amelia M.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationships among individuals' dispositional ability conceptions, intrinsic motivation, experience, perceived competence, persistence, and performance. Participants practiced a novel task, completed surveys before instruction and after practicing the task, and completed a skill test. The results indicated…

  17. The Ability of Psychological Flexibility and Job Control to Predict Learning, Job Performance, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…

  18. Do negative views of aging influence memory and auditory performance through self-perceived abilities?

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit

    2015-12-01

    Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.

  19. Uniform peanut performance test 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  20. Inspection system performance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.E.

    1995-01-17

    This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system.

  1. Evaluation of 2 cognitive abilities tests in a dual-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Most real world operators are required to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. In some cases, such as flying a high performance aircraft or trouble shooting a failing nuclear power plant, the operator's ability to time share or process in parallel" can be driven to extremes. This has created interest in selection tests of cognitive abilities. Two tests that have been suggested are the Dichotic Listening Task and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Correlations between these test results and time sharing performance were obtained and the validity of these tests were examined. The primary task was a tracking task with dynamically varying bandwidth. This was performed either alone or concurrently with either another tracking task or a spatial transformation task. The results were: (1) An unexpected negative correlation was detected between the two tests; (2) The lack of correlation between either test and task performance made the predictive utility of the tests scores appear questionable; (3) Pilots made more errors on the Dichotic Listening Task than college students.

  2. Collaborative Test Reviews: Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Anuradha; Makela, Carole J.

    2010-01-01

    A group study method proved helpful in improving senior-level students' performance on unit tests through collaborative learning. Students of a History of Textiles course voluntarily attended study sessions to review course content and prepare for unit tests. The students who attended the group reviews scored better on tests than those who did…

  3. Where Lab Tests Are Performed

    MedlinePlus

    ... labs also vary in complexity, the volume of tests performed, the technology utilized, and the number and type of professionals who conduct the testing . There are important differences among the various testing settings. This information will be useful in ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  4. Physiological correlates of multiple-sprint ability and performance in international-standard squash players.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael; Cooke, Matthew; Murray, Stafford; Thompson, Kevin G; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Winter, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    From measures on a battery of fitness tests in elite-standard squash players on different tiers of a national performance program, we examined the relationships among test scores and player rank, and fitness factors important for squash-specific multiple-sprint ability. Thirty-one (20 men, 11 women) squash players from the England Squash performance program participated: n = 12 senior; n = 7 transition; n = 12 talented athlete scholarship scheme (TASS) players. In 1 test session and in a fixed order, the players completed a battery of tests to assess countermovement jump height, reactive strength, change-of-direction speed, and multiple-sprint ability on squash-specific tests and endurance fitness. Two-way analysis of variance compared senior, transition, and TASS players by sex on all measures except jump height where only senior and transition players were compared. Effect size (ES) was calculated for all comparisons. Pearson's correlation examined relationships among test scores and multiple-sprint ability. Spearman's ρ investigated relationships among test scores and players' rank in men and women separately. Regardless of sex, seniors outperformed TASS players on all except the endurance test (p < 0.05, ES at least 1.1). Seniors had better multiple-sprint ability than did transition players (p < 0.01, ES = 1.2). Transition outperformed TASS players on the reactive-strength test (p < 0.05, ES = 1.0). Men outperformed women in all tests at all performance program tiers (p < 0.05, ES at least 0.5). In men, rank was related to multiple-sprint ability, fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition, and change-of-direction speed (ρ = 0.78, 0.86, 0.59, respectively). In women, rank was related to fastest multiple-sprint-test repetition (ρ = 0.65). In men and women, multiple-sprint ability was related to change-of-direction speed (r = 0.9 and 0.84) and fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition (r = 0.96 for both) and to reactive strength in men (r = -0.71). The results

  5. Physiological correlates of multiple-sprint ability and performance in international-standard squash players.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael; Cooke, Matthew; Murray, Stafford; Thompson, Kevin G; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Winter, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    From measures on a battery of fitness tests in elite-standard squash players on different tiers of a national performance program, we examined the relationships among test scores and player rank, and fitness factors important for squash-specific multiple-sprint ability. Thirty-one (20 men, 11 women) squash players from the England Squash performance program participated: n = 12 senior; n = 7 transition; n = 12 talented athlete scholarship scheme (TASS) players. In 1 test session and in a fixed order, the players completed a battery of tests to assess countermovement jump height, reactive strength, change-of-direction speed, and multiple-sprint ability on squash-specific tests and endurance fitness. Two-way analysis of variance compared senior, transition, and TASS players by sex on all measures except jump height where only senior and transition players were compared. Effect size (ES) was calculated for all comparisons. Pearson's correlation examined relationships among test scores and multiple-sprint ability. Spearman's ρ investigated relationships among test scores and players' rank in men and women separately. Regardless of sex, seniors outperformed TASS players on all except the endurance test (p < 0.05, ES at least 1.1). Seniors had better multiple-sprint ability than did transition players (p < 0.01, ES = 1.2). Transition outperformed TASS players on the reactive-strength test (p < 0.05, ES = 1.0). Men outperformed women in all tests at all performance program tiers (p < 0.05, ES at least 0.5). In men, rank was related to multiple-sprint ability, fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition, and change-of-direction speed (ρ = 0.78, 0.86, 0.59, respectively). In women, rank was related to fastest multiple-sprint-test repetition (ρ = 0.65). In men and women, multiple-sprint ability was related to change-of-direction speed (r = 0.9 and 0.84) and fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition (r = 0.96 for both) and to reactive strength in men (r = -0.71). The results

  6. The Relationship Between Muscle Strength, Anaerobic Performance, Agility, Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alemdaroğlu, Utku

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee strength, anaerobic performance, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in first division basketball players. Twelve male first division basketball players participated in this study. The mean age was 25.1 ± 1.7 yrs; mean body height 194.8 ± 5.7 cm; mean body mass 92.3± 9.8 kg; mean PBF 10.1± 5.1; and mean VO2max 50.55 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min Quadriceps and hamstrings were measured at 60° and 180°/s, anaerobic performance was evaluated using the Wingate anaerobic power test, sprint ability was determined by single sprint performance (10–30 m), jump performance was evaluated by countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests and agility performance was measured using the T drill agility test. Quadriceps strength was significantly correlated with peak power at all contraction velocities. However, for mean power, significant correlation was only found between the 60° left and 180° right knee quadriceps measurements. No measure of strength was significantly related to the measurements from/results of field tests. Moreover, strong relations were found between the performance of athletes in different field tests (p< 0.05). The use of correlation analysis is the limitation of the this study. PMID:23486566

  7. The relationship between muscle strength, anaerobic performance, agility, sprint ability and vertical jump performance in professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Alemdaroğlu, Utku

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee strength, anaerobic performance, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in first division basketball players. Twelve male first division basketball players participated in this study. The mean age was 25.1 ± 1.7 yrs; mean body height 194.8 ± 5.7 cm; mean body mass 92.3± 9.8 kg; mean PBF 10.1± 5.1; and mean VO2max 50.55 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min Quadriceps and hamstrings were measured at 60° and 180°/s, anaerobic performance was evaluated using the Wingate anaerobic power test, sprint ability was determined by single sprint performance (10-30 m), jump performance was evaluated by countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests and agility performance was measured using the T drill agility test. Quadriceps strength was significantly correlated with peak power at all contraction velocities. However, for mean power, significant correlation was only found between the 60° left and 180° right knee quadriceps measurements. No measure of strength was significantly related to the measurements from/results of field tests. Moreover, strong relations were found between the performance of athletes in different field tests (p< 0.05). The use of correlation analysis is the limitation of the this study.

  8. The use of haptics to predict preclinic operative dentistry performance and perceptual ability.

    PubMed

    Urbankova, Alice; Engebretson, Steven P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether performance on a range of manual dexterity haptic simulator exercises was associated with preclinical operative dentistry examination and Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) scores. Thirty-nine first-year dental students were tested with three haptic exercises--straight line, circle, and mirror line--each performed twice. Haptic exercise outcomes for accuracy, time, and success rate were measured using commercially available computer software. Spearman correlation coefficients and Student's t-test were used to assess the results. PAT and exam scores were not significantly correlated. Significant correlations were observed between exam scores and both time and accuracy scores for the circle and mirror exams. These results suggest that haptic devices have a potential role in predicting performance in preclinical dental education. Further studies are warranted to develop and validate diagnostic testing strategies for dental students and to evaluate implementation of haptics in the dental teaching environment.

  9. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate Following Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, changes in functional performance have been systematically studied after short-duration space flight. As important as the postflight functional changes have been, full functional recovery has never been investigated or established for long-duration flights. The Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment, conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S, is comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. The objective of the Seat Egress - Walk and Obstacle Test, developed by NASA's Russian collaborators at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, is to address this gap in knowledge. This will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission requirements that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity.

  10. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  11. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  12. Simulation Studies of Two-Stage Ability Testing. Research Report 74-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to study the psychometric characteristics of two two-stage adaptive tests and a conventional "peaked" ability test. Results showed that scores yielded by both two-stage tests better reflected the normal distribution of underlying ability. Ability estimates yielded by one of the two stage tests were more…

  13. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau. PMID:14590626

  14. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

  15. Proctored and Unproctored Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brallier, Sara; Palm, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined test performance as a function of test format (proctored versus unproctored) and course type (traditional versus distance). The participants were 246 undergraduate students who completed introductory sociology courses during four semesters at a southeastern university. During each semester, the same instructor taught a…

  16. Performance as a function of ability, resources invested, and strategy used.

    PubMed

    Botella, Juan; Peña, Daniel; Contreras, María José; Shih, Pei-Chun; Santacreu, José

    2009-01-01

    Computerized tasks allow a more fine-grained analysis of the strategy deployed in a task designed to map a specific ability than the usual assessment on the basis of only the level of performance. Manipulations expected to impair performance sometimes do not have that effect, probably because the level of performance alone can confound the assessment of the ability level if researchers ignore the strategy used. In a study with 1,872 participants, the authors applied the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (J. Santacreu, 1999) in single and dual task settings, identifying 3 different strategies. Strategy shifts were associated with the level of performance, as more apt individuals were more likely to shift to better strategies. Ignoring the strategies yields counterintuitive results that cannot be explained by simple, direct relations among the constructs involved. PMID:19192850

  17. Development of a mathematical ability test: a validity and reliability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Sefa; Temel, Hasan; Gündüz, Nazan

    2016-10-01

    The identification of talented students accurately at an early age and the adaptation of the education provided to the students depending on their abilities are of great importance for the future of the countries. In this regard, this study aims to develop a mathematical ability test for the identification of the mathematical abilities of students and the determination of the relationships between the structure of abilities and these structures. Furthermore, this study adopts test development processes. A structure consisting of the factors of quantitative ability, causal ability, inductive/deductive reasoning ability, qualitative ability and spatial ability has been obtained following this study. The fit indices of the finalized version of the mathematical ability test of 24 items indicate the suitability of the test.

  18. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate After Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk, and Obstacle Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These changes lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the components involved in postflight ataxia. Full functional recovery has not been sufficiently investigated for long-duration crewmembers. The joint U.S./Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment (a pre-cursor to Field Test (FT)) was developed to address this gap in knowledge. The PFT was conducted on crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S and was comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing and for several days thereafter. Closing this gap will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity. The Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle (SEWO) Test will be discussed in this poster.

  19. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  20. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. In 1995, plant material transfer agreements were also accepted among all cooperators in the UPPT. The year 2012 completed...

  1. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material.

    PubMed

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-02-01

    Despite initial expectations, which have emerged with the advancement of computer technology over the last decade of the twentieth century, scientific literature does not contain many relevant references regarding the development and use of innovative items in psychological testing. Our study presents and evaluates two novel item types. One item type is derived from a standard schematic test item used for the assessment of the spatial perception aspect of spatial ability, enhanced by an interactive response module. The performance on this item type is correlated with the performance on its paper and pencil counterpart. The other innovative item type used complex stimuli in the form of a short video of a ride through a city presented in an on-route perspective, which is intended to measure navigation skills and the ability to keep oneself oriented in space. In this case, the scores were related to the capacity of visuo-spatial working memory and also to the overall score in the paper/pencil test of spatial ability. The second relationship was moderated by gender.

  2. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  3. Feasibility of repeated testing for learning ability in juvenile primates for pediatric safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Rose, C; Luetjens, C M; Grote-Wessels, S; Weinbauer, G F

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of learning ability in nonhuman primate (NHP) models is sometimes requested by regulatory authorities. The double choice object discrimination task using a Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA) approach is typically being applied. In this study, the WGTA approach was performed on 66 juvenile cynomolgus monkeys aged 8-9 months in the predose phase of juvenile toxicity assessment. In addition, reversal learning data of seven control animals/gender were obtained for the weeks 25 and 52 of dosing. Gender differences in the number of days required to pass the habituation, learning or reversal learning phases were statistically comparable, males and females may be combined for statistical analysis. At first instance, the habituation phase was passed on average after 6.4 days, and the learning test on average after 8.6 days with improvement to 2.0-2.6 days for habituation and 6.4-6.7 days for learning in weeks 52. Power analysis (α = 0.05, one-sided t-test) revealed a sample size of 8 and 41 to predict a 50% and 20% difference, respectively. In conclusion, examination for learning ability, but not for memory ability (during repeated testing) is feasible in juvenile NHPs using the WGTA approach.

  4. Ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Jesper; Thomeé, Roland; Karlsson, Jon

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The test consists of a pre-exhaustion exercise protocol combined with a single-leg hop. Nineteen male patients with ACL reconstruction (mean time after operation 11 months) who exhibited normal single-leg hop symmetry values (> or =90% compared with the non-involved extremity) were tested for one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength of a knee-extension exercise. The patients then performed single-leg hops following a standardised pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, which consisted of unilateral weight machine knee-extensions until failure at 50% of 1 RM. Although no patients displayed abnormal hop symmetry when non-fatigued, 68% of the patients showed abnormal hop symmetry for the fatigued test condition. Sixty-three per cent exhibited 1 RM strength scores of below 90% of the non-involved leg. Eighty-four percent of the patients exhibited abnormal symmetry in at least one of the tests. Our findings indicate that patients are not fully rehabilitated 11 months after ACL reconstruction. It is concluded that the pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, combined with the single-leg hop test, improved testing sensitivity when evaluating lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction. For a more comprehensive evaluation of lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction, it is therefore suggested that functional testing should be performed both under non-fatigued and fatigued test conditions.

  5. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  6. Digital image processing versus visual assessment of chewed two-colour wax in mixing ability tests.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Speksnijder, C M; de Liz Pocztaruk, R; Abbink, J H

    2012-01-01

    Two-colour chewing gum and wax have been widely used as test foods to evaluate the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. The mixing of the colours has been assessed by computer analysis or by visual inspection. Reports contradict each other about whether computer analysis and visual assessment could equally well discriminate between the masticatory performances of groups of participants with different dental status. This study compares the results of computer analysis of digital images of chewed two-colour wax with the results of visual assessment of these images. Sixty healthy subjects participated and chewed on red-blue wax for 5, 10, 15 and 20 chewing strokes. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20, matched for age and gender, according to their dental status: natural dentition, full dentures and maxillary denture plus implant-supported mandibular overdenture. Mixing of the chewed wax was determined by computer analysis of images of the wax and by visual assessment of the images by five examiners. Both the computer method and the observers were able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the dentate subjects from the two denture wearer groups. Computer analysis could also discriminate the mixing abilities of the two denture groups. However, observers were not able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the two denture groups after 5, 10 and 15 chewing strokes. Only after 20 chewing strokes, they could detect a significant difference in mixing ability.

  7. Testing Adult Basic Education Students for Reading Ability and Progress: How Many Tests to Administer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Levy, Susan R.; Rasher, Sue; Kim, Yoonsang; Carter, Sarah Deardorff; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between TABE-R performance and performance on selected, more focused reading component tests after 42 hours of adult education classroom instruction. Specifically, measures of expressive vocabulary, reading fluency, sight word reading, and decoding were administered to 98 participants along with the TABE-R.…

  8. Reflectors for SAR performance testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.

  9. Quality of life and audiologic performance through the ability to phone of cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Rumeau, Cécile; Frère, Julien; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cochlear implantation on quality of life (QoL), using general and cochlear implant (CI) specific questionnaires and to determine the relationship of phone ability with QoL, speech recognition abilities and tinnitus. Twenty-six adult volunteers with a post-lingual profound deafness, unilaterally implanted with a CI, were included in this study. All subjects had used a CI for at least 1 year. The Glasgow benefit inventory (GBI) and Nijmegen cochlear implant questionnaire (NCIQ) were administered to assess QoL. Speech recognition was tested using phonemic Lafon's lists. The subjective tinnitus severity scale (STSS) questionnaire was used to determine the effects of tinnitus. CI users were split into four groups according to their phone ability. There was an improvement in QoL after cochlear implantation. The NCIQ showed significant (p < 0.001) improvements in the total score and in all subdomains after CI. A significant relationship between phone ability, QoL and speech recognition was found. Improving phone ability led to higher QoL (p < 0.05) and speech recognition (p < 0.01) scores. The CI use decreased significantly the occurrence of tinnitus, but its severity was not correlated with QoL. Post-surgery assessment should include speech recognition measures and QoL evaluation. The NCIQ appeared more effective than the GBI in its ability to detect improvements in QoL. Assessing phone ability represents an easy and fast approach to evaluate hearing performances and QoL, and may reflect global outcomes of CI.

  10. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The last century was marked by dazzling changes in many areas, such as technology and communications. Predictions into the second century of testing are seemingly difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, Kirkpatrick (1900), in his American Psychological Association presidential address, presented fundamental…

  11. The Effect of Reading Ability on Rorschach Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alheidt, Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Rorschach inkblot tests were administered to 25 second graders who had been classified either as poor or excellent readers. The poor readers showed perceptual difficulties, less capacity for organizing or integrating separate facts, and less emotional reactions to the environment. Implications for teaching poor readers are suggested. (Author/GDC)

  12. Body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight and overweight Italian children.

    PubMed

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena; Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura

    2009-02-01

    The purpose was to examine body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight (n=105, 53 boys and 52 girls) and overweight (n=105, 52 boys and 53 girls) children, ranging in age from 8 to 10 years and attending elementary schools in southeastern Italy. Body image was measured on Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while self-efficacy was assessed by the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children. Age-appropriate field-based tests of standing long jump, 1-kg medicine-ball throw, basketball throw, and 10-m and 20-m sprint from a standing position were also administered to gauge motor performance. Univariate analyses of variance [2 (group) x 2 (sex) x 3 (8, 9, 10 yr.)] showed that overweight children reported larger body-dissatisfaction scores, lower self-efficacy scores, and poorer performance on weight-bearing tasks than nonoverweight peers. In addition, boys had higher mean scores on physical self-efficacy and better performance on all motor tests. The correlation between Body Mass Index and body dissatisfaction was positive for boys and girls.

  13. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  14. Comparison of Test Directions for Ability Tests: Impact on Young English-Language Learner and Non-ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ability tests play an important role in the assessment programs of many schools. However, the inferences about ability made from such tests presume that students understand the tasks they are attempting. Task familiarity can vary by student as well as by format. By design, nonverbal reasoning tests use formats that are intended to be novel. The…

  15. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  16. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  17. New and updated tests of print exposure and reading abilities in college students.

    PubMed

    Aacheson, Danie Jl; Wellu, Justine B; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between print exposure and measures of reading skill was examined in college students (N = 99, 58 female; mean age = 20.3 years). Print exposure was measured with several new self-reports of reading and writing habits, as well as updated versions of the Author Recognition Test and the Magazine Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). Participants completed a sentence comprehension task with syntactically complex sentences, and reading times and comprehension accuracy were measured. An additional measure of reading skill was provided by participants' scores on the verbal portions of the ACT, a standardized achievement test. Higher levels of print exposure were associated with higher sentence processing abilities and superior verbal ACT performance. The relative merits of different print exposure assessments are discussed.

  18. New and updated tests of print exposure and reading abilities in college students

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Wells, Justine B.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between print exposure and measures of reading skill was examined in college students (N = 99, 58 female; mean age = 20.3 years). Print exposure was measured with several new self-reports of reading and writing habits, as well as updated versions of the Author Recognition Test and the Magazine Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). Participants completed a sentence comprehension task with syntactically complex sentences, and reading times and comprehension accuracy were measured. An additional measure of reading skill was provided by participants’ scores on the verbal portions of the ACT, a standardized achievement test. Higher levels of print exposure were associated with higher sentence processing abilities and superior verbal ACT performance. The relative merits of different print exposure assessments are discussed. PMID:18411551

  19. Intraday reliability and sensitivity of four functional ability tests in older women.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Susan; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-08-01

    Functional tests are commonly used to evaluate the functional ability of older individuals; however, intraday reliability and sensitivity are required to enable informed decisions on whether repeated trials are necessary and to ensure that the values obtained from a single session are a patient's true score. This study aimed to investigate the intraday reliability and sensitivity of four commonly used functional tests in older individuals. Seventy-one healthy older women (mean [SD]: age, 71.7 [7.3] yrs; body mass, 64.8 [10.2] kg; stature, 1.58 [0.07] m) performed the 6-m maximum walking speed, timed 8-foot up-and-go, chair sit-and-reach, and back scratch tests three times in one single session, with 1 min between trials. Reliability between all trials was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient, and sensitivity was examined using typical error. All tests were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.89-0.99), indicating no need for a familiarization trial. Typical error between trials 2 and 1 were 0.06 m·s-1, 0.42 s, 1.13 cm, 0.92 cm for the 6-m maximum walking speed, timed 8-foot up-and-go, chair sit-and-reach, and back scratch tests, respectively. Practitioners should perform two trials to examine whether the difference between them is less than the typical error reported here. These results should help practitioners ensure that scores obtained from an individual from these functional tests are a true reflection of their functional ability rather than measurement error.

  20. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  1. Change of Direction Ability Performance in Cerebral Palsy Football Players According to Functional Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Raúl; Sarabia, Jose M.; Yanci, Javier; García-Vaquero, María P.; Campayo-Piernas, María

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the validity and reliability of the two different change of direction ability (CODA) tests in elite football players with cerebral palsy (CP) and to analyse the differences in performance of this ability between current functional classes (FT) and controls. The sample consisted of 96 international cerebral palsy football players (FPCP) and 37 football players. Participants were divided into four different groups according to the International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) classes and a control group (CG): FT5 (n = 8); FT6 (n = 12); FT7 (n = 62); FT8 (n = 14); and CG (n = 37). The reproducibility of Modified Agility Test (MAT) and Illinois Agility Test (IAT) (ICC = 0.82–0.95, SEM = 2.5–5.8%) showed excellent to good values. In two CODA tests, CG performed faster scores compared with FPCP classes (p < 0.01, d = 1.76–3.26). In IAT, FT8 class comparisons regarding the other classes were: FT5 (p = 0.047, d = 1.05), FT6 (p = 0.055, d = 1.19), and FT7 (p = 0.396, d = 0.56). With regard to MAT, FT8 class was also compared with FT5 (p = 0.006, d = 1.30), FT6 (p = 0.061, d = 0.93), and FT7 (p = 0.033, d = 1.01). No significant differences have been found between FT5, FT6, and FT7 classes. According to these results, IAT and MAT could be useful and reliable and valid tests to analyse CODA in FPCP. Each test (IAT and MAT) could be applied considering the cut point that classifiers need to make a decision about the FT8 class and the other FT classes (FT5, FT6, and FT7). PMID:26779037

  2. Effect of Visual-Spatial Ability on Medical Students' Performance in a Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mentally manipulate objects in three dimensions is essential to the practice of many clinical medical specialties. The relationship between this type of visual-spatial ability and performance in preclinical courses such as medical gross anatomy is poorly understood. This study determined if visual-spatial ability is associated with…

  3. Reviews of the Tests Approved by the Secretary of Education for Ability To Benefit Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    To comply with the new U.S. Department of Education Ability-To-Benefit policy, schools need to select tests on the Secretary's approved list. The pertinent aspects of 22 approved tests are individually summarized. The test reviews are based on examinations of the test publishers' technical documentation and the tests. Information provided in the…

  4. Superitem Test: An Alternative Assessment Tool to Assess Students' Algebraic Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam; Idris, Noraini

    2010-01-01

    Superitem test based on the SOLO model (Structure of the Observing Learning Outcome) has become a powerful alternative assessment tool for monitoring the growth of students' cognitive ability in solving mathematics problems. This article focused on developing a superitem test to assess students' algebraic solving ability through interview method.…

  5. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g" measured by a…

  6. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  7. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

  8. 40 CFR 60.8 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.8 Section 60.8... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.8 Performance tests. (a) Except as specified in... conduct performance test(s) and furnish the Administrator a written report of the results of...

  9. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players.

  10. Can reading ability be measured with tests of memory and processing speed?

    PubMed

    Tirre, W C

    1992-04-01

    The author investigated the possibility of estimating reading ability using tests of memory and processing speed that have significantly reduced reading requirements. Four hundred three air force trainees were given tests of their working memory and long-term memory processes, as well as a standardized reading test. A multiple correlation of .79 indicated that global reading ability is substantially correlated with memory processes. Additional analyses indicated that word knowledge and comprehension, the two major components of reading ability, were both explained by the same set of memory process factors, namely, long-term memory processes, semantic memory retrieval speed, and working memory capacity. These results, which are consistent with the view that memory ability underlies reading ability, support the endeavor of measuring reading ability with memory and processing speed tasks.

  11. Shifting Ability Predicts Math and Reading Performance in Children: A Meta-Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeniad, Nihal; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the association between the shifting component of executive functioning and academic performance is equivocal. In two meta-analyses children's shifting ability is examined in relation to their performance in math (k = 18, N = 2330) and reading (k = 16, N = 2266). Shifting ability was significantly and equally associated with…

  12. Early Word Decoding Ability as a Longitudinal Predictor of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…

  13. Relationships between Handwriting Performance and Organizational Abilities among Children with and without Dysgraphia: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Sara; Aloni, Tsipi; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Organizational ability constitutes one executive function (EF) component essential for common everyday performance. The study aim was to explore the relationship between handwriting performance and organizational ability in school-aged children. Participants were 58 males, aged 7-8 years, 30 with dysgraphia and 28 with proficient handwriting.…

  14. Performances of Student Activism: Sound, Silence, Gender, and Dis/ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.

  15. Individual differences in social dominance orientation predict support for the use of cognitive ability tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anita; Berry, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the personality processes involved in the debate surrounding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions. In Study 1, 108 undergraduates (Mage  = 18.88 years, 60 women, 80 Whites) completed measures of social dominance orientation (SDO), testing self-efficacy, and attitudes regarding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions; SAT/ACT scores were collected from the registrar. Sixty-seven undergraduates (Mage  = 19.06 years, 39 women, 49 Whites) completed the same measures in Study 2, along with measures of endorsement of commonly presented arguments about test use. In Study 3, 321 American adults (Mage  = 35.58 years, 180 women, 251 Whites) completed the same measures used in Study 2; half were provided with facts about race and validity issues surrounding cognitive ability tests. Individual differences in SDO significantly predicted support for the use of cognitive ability tests in all samples, after controlling for SAT/ACT scores and test self-efficacy and also among participants who read facts about cognitive ability tests. Moreover, arguments for and against test use mediated this effect. The present study sheds new light on an old debate by demonstrating that individual differences in beliefs about hierarchy play a key role in attitudes toward cognitive ability test use.

  16. Developments and Challenges in the Use of Computer-Based Testing for Assessing Second Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) to assess second language ability has undergone remarkable development since Garret (1991) described its purpose as "the computerized administration of conventional tests" in "The Modern Language Journal." For instance, CBT has made possible the delivery of more authentic tests than traditional paper-and-pencil tests.…

  17. Empirical Investigation of the Stradaptive Testing Model for the Measurement of Human Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Brian K.

    This study empirically investigated the validity and utility of the stratified adaptive computerized testing model (stradaptive]developed by Weiss (1973). The model presents a tailored testing strategy based on Binet IQ measurement theory and Lord's (1972) modern test theory. Nationally normed School and College Ability Test Verbal analogy items…

  18. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy. PMID:27262445

  19. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy.

  20. Priming competence diminishes the link between cognitive test anxiety and test performance. Implications for the interpretation of test scores.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jonas W B; Lang, Jessica

    2010-06-01

    Researchers disagree whether the correlation between cognitive test anxiety and test performance is causal or explainable by skill deficits, which lead to both cognitive test anxiety and lower test performance. Most causal theories of test anxiety assume that individual differences in cognitive test anxiety originate from differences in self-perceived competence. Accordingly, in the present research, we sought to temporarily heighten perceptions of competence using a priming intervention. Two studies with secondary- and vocational-school students (Ns = 219 and 232, respectively) contrasted this intervention with a no-priming control condition. Priming competence diminished the association between cognitive test anxiety and test performance by heightening the performance of cognitively test-anxious students and by lowering the performance of students with low levels of cognitive test anxiety. The findings suggest that cognitively test-anxious persons have greater abilities than they commonly show. Competency priming may offer a way to improve the situation of people with cognitive test anxiety. PMID:20435953

  1. Assessing executive abilities following acute stroke with the trail making test and digit span.

    PubMed

    Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Morris, Lucy; White, Desirée A; Baum, Carolyn; Connor, Lisa Tabor

    2011-01-01

    The Trail Making Test and Digit Span are neuropsychological tests widely used to assess executive abilities following stroke. The Trails B and Digits Backward conditions of these tests are thought to be more sensitive to executive impairment related to frontal lobe dysfunction than the Trails A and Digits Forward conditions. Trails B and Digits Backward are also thought to be more sensitive to brain damage in general. Data from the Stroke and Lesion Registry maintained by the Washington University Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Group were analyzed to compare the effects of frontal versus nonfrontal strokes and to assess the effects of stroke severity. Results showed that the performance of patients with frontal and nonfrontal strokes was comparable in each condition of both the Trail Making Test and Digit Span, providing no support for the widely held belief that Trails B and Digits Backward are more sensitive to frontal lobe damage. Further, Trails A was as strongly correlated with stroke severity as Trails B, whereas Digits Backward was more strongly correlated with stroke severity than Digits Forward. Overall, the Trail Making Test and Digit Span are sensitive to brain damage but do not differentiate between patients with frontal versus nonfrontal stroke.

  2. Applicability of the free field Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test (SAAAT)

    PubMed Central

    Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Rissatto, Ariane Cristina Sampaio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The attention is an underlying neuropsychology function to all the cognitive processes. The auditory deficiency compromises the normal development of the child, modifying diverse auditory abilities, including the attention. Objective: to compare the performance of children in the Test of the Ability of Auditory Attention Support, as for the different forms of application (auricular phones and free field), sort and, application order. Method: 40 children (7 years old) voluntary with typical development had participated, divided in two groups: G1 and G2, composites of 20 children each. The application of the THAAS in the G1 if gave first with auricular phones and after that in free field and the G2 the process was inverse. The evaluation consisted in: specific questionnaire, auditory tests and application of the THAAS. Results: It did not have significant difference how much to the sort. For the THAAS with phones, the G1 presented greater amount of errors of carelessness and total punctuation. For the THAAS in field it had a significant difference of the G2 for the monitoring decrease. How much to the application form, the G1 demonstrated a bigger number of errors when it was used phones. The G2 did not demonstrate difference. Conclusion: It had viability in the application of the THAAS in Free Field, being able to be adopted the same used normative values for the conventional way of evaluation. PMID:25991945

  3. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Clark, Malissa A.; McClure, Tara K.

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between cognitive ability test scores and performance was separately meta-analyzed for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White racial/ethnic subgroups. Compared to the average White observed correlation ([image omitted] = 0.33, N = 903,779), average correlations were lower for Black samples ([image omitted] = 0.24, N = 112,194) and…

  5. Correlation of Leiter and The Visual Subtests of The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities With Deaf Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddonio, Robert O.

    1973-01-01

    Deaf elementary school children were administered the Leiter International Performance Scale and the five nonauditory, nonverbal subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. The intellectual quotient derived from the Leiter and the psycholinguistic quotient derived from the five visually oriented subtests were then correlated. The…

  6. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Test for Predicting Learning of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Garry L.; Thorsteinsson, Jennifer R.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.; Vause, Tricia

    2008-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) Test uses standard prompting and reinforcement procedures to assess the ease or difficulty with which a testee is able to learn a simple imitation and five two-choice discriminations. The authors review studies that have examined performance of participants with developmental disabilities (DD) on…

  7. Testing Performance in Oral Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Keith

    The oral interaction examination used by Britain's Royal Society of Arts for testing communicative use of English as a foreign language is described. The underlying principles of the test, its structure, administration, issues of reliability and validity, and scoring are outlined. Three components of the test itself are included. One component is…

  8. 40 CFR 610.63 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance tests. 610.63 Section 610... RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures § 610.63 Performance tests... 0 to 60 mph acceleration tests (at normal ambient temperatures) on the baseline...

  9. 40 CFR 610.63 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance tests. 610.63 Section 610... RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures § 610.63 Performance tests... 0 to 60 mph acceleration tests (at normal ambient temperatures) on the baseline...

  10. 40 CFR 610.63 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance tests. 610.63 Section 610... RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures § 610.63 Performance tests... 0 to 60 mph acceleration tests (at normal ambient temperatures) on the baseline...

  11. 40 CFR 610.63 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance tests. 610.63 Section 610... RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Special Test Procedures § 610.63 Performance tests... 0 to 60 mph acceleration tests (at normal ambient temperatures) on the baseline...

  12. The Impact of Reading Ability on Classroom Performance. Rancho Santiago College Research, Planning [and] Resource Development Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ronald P.; Pezzetti, Greg

    In spring 1990, a study was conducted of students in six Psychology classes taught by three instructors at Rancho Santiago College (RSC) to assess the impact of reading ability on exam performance. Students who volunteered for the study were administered the Nelson-Denny reading test. Those scoring below the 10th grade level were designated as…

  13. Standardized ability tests and testing. Major issues and the validity of current criticisms of tests are discussed.

    PubMed

    Goslin, D A

    1968-02-23

    At the outset a distinction was made between criticisms directed at the validity of tests and criticisms not affected by the validity of the tests. It was noted further that all criticisms of tests must take into consideration the type of test and the use to which the test is put. Criticisms of the validity of tests involved the following issues: (i) tests may be unfair to certain groups and individuals, including the extremely gifted, the culturally disadvantaged, and those who lack experience in taking tests; (ii) tests are not perfect predictors of subsequent performance; (iii) tests may be used in overly rigid ways; (iv) tests may not measure inherent qualities of individuals; and (v) tests may contribute to their own predictive validity by serving as self-fulfilling prophecies. Criticisms that are more or less independent of test validity included the effects of tests on (i) thinking patterns of those tested frequently; (ii) school curricula; (iii) self-image, motivation, and aspirations; (iv) groups using tests as a criterion for selection or allocation, or both; and (v) privacy. Several concluding remarks are in order: 1) This paper has focused almost entirely on criticisms of tests. However, the positive value of standardized tests should not be ignored. Here we must keep in mind what possible alternative measures would be used if standardized tests were abandoned. 2) We must begin thinking about tests in a much broader perspective- one that includes consideration of the social effects of tests as well as their validity and reliability. 3) Finally, an effort should be made to develop rational and systematic policies on the use of tests with the culturally disadvantaged, the dissemination of test results, and the problem of invasion of privacy. Such policies can be formulated only if we are willing to take a long hard look at the role we want testing to play in the society. Standardized tests currently are a cornerstone in the edifice of stratification in

  14. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  15. The Information a Test Provides on an Ability Parameter. Research Report. ETS RR-07-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2007-01-01

    In item-response theory, if a latent-structure model has an ability variable, then elementary information theory may be employed to provide a criterion for evaluation of the information the test provides concerning ability. This criterion may be considered even in cases in which the latent-structure model is not valid, although interpretation of…

  16. Trinity Acceptance Tests Performance Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring Real Applications perform well on Trinity is key to success. Four components: ASC applications, Sustained System Performance (SSP), Extra-Large MiniApplications problems, and Micro-benchmarks.

  17. The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Stephen R.

    The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability.…

  18. Obesity, academic performance and reasoning ability in Portuguese students between 6 and 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has been linked to several physiological and psycho-social diseases, decreases in cognitive function, poor levels of scholastic achievement, low socioeconomic status and delayed onset of maturity. This study investigates the association between obesity and both academic performance and reasoning ability in 394 male and 398 females students between the ages of 6 and 12 from Lisbon, Portugal. It also assesses how this relationship may be influenced by chronological age, maturity and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that: 1) reasoning ability is independent of socioeconomic status and level of maturity; 2) no differences in reasoning ability exist between groups of different BMI; 3) academic performance is moderated by chronological age in boys, and by maturity in both genders; 4) obesity is not associated with academic performance. It is concluded that reasoning ability and academic performance are not associated with obesity, and that inter-individual differences in academic performance in boys may be explained by differences in their level of maturity.

  19. Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) for Classifying Students Academic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaemu; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Kwangho

    2012-01-01

    Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, assessment for we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying…

  20. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

  1. A study of field independent biased mental ability tests in community college science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Linda W.; Kime Piper, Martha

    Many schools use mental ability test scores as a basis for grouping students and planning their educational needs. The widespread use of these test scores throughout public and private schools demands that test items be unbiased. One way in which tests could be biased, that has not been thoroughly investigated, is the inadvertent use of analytical skill items favoring one perceptual orientation over another. This study investigated analytical skill items on the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test for field independent bias. Using as analysis of variance and discriminant analysis, the results indicated that the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test was biased in favor of individuals with a field of independent perceptual orientation.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  4. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 6 to 59: Evidence from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities were investigated for children, youth, and adults ages 6 through 59. A developmental, multiple indicator-multiple cause, structural equation model was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as…

  5. The Developmental Dynamics between Interest, Self-Concept of Ability, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined the direction of associations between academic achievement, interest, and self-concept of ability simultaneously by using longitudinal data over several school years. To examine the cross-lagged relationships between students' interest, self-concept of ability, and performance in mathematics and reading,…

  6. The Performance Effects of an Ability-Based Approach to Goal Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Schulz, Axel; Webb, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Some organizations have begun to target their goal-setting method more closely to the ability levels of their employees. In this article, we report the results of a laboratory study of 138 undergraduate students, which shows that these "ability-based" goals are more effective at improving performance than a "one goal for all" approach, where…

  7. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  8. Evaluating Fluid and Crystallized Abilities in the Performance of an Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The fluid and crystallized ("Gf-Gc") intelligence theory has been used extensively to evaluate the influence of cognitive abilities on educational outcomes within cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. This study evaluated the contribution of fluid and crystallized abilities in the performance of a 1-week instructional…

  9. Using Problematizing Ability to Predict Student Performance in a First Course in Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Stanley TenEyck

    2008-01-01

    Problem solving can be thought of in two phases: the first phase is problem formulation and the second solution development. Problem formulation is the process of identifying a problem or opportunity in a situation. Problem Formulation Ability, or PFA, is the ability to perform this process. This research investigated a method to assess PFA and…

  10. Aspects of self-concept and their relationship to language performance and verbal reasoning ability.

    PubMed

    Dermitzaki, I; Efklides, A

    2000-01-01

    It has been claimed that self-concept is multidimensional, with dimensions such as mathematical self-concept and self-concept in language. The present study investigated the relationship of academic self-concept in language with performance on school-related language tasks and verbal reasoning ability. A total of 512 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 rated four aspects of their academic self-concept in language: self-perception, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and others' perception of their abilities. Verbal reasoning ability and performance on language tasks were assessed. Path analysis showed that performance on language tasks was influenced strongly by verbal reasoning abilities. Self-esteem and others' perception of one's abilities were affected directly by language performance. No direct relationship was found between academic self-concept in language and verbal reasoning ability. The results suggest that adolescents do not construe their academic self-concept according to their abilities but according to their performance in school and others' response to it.

  11. 47 CFR 76.601 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance tests. 76.601 Section 76.601... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.601 Performance tests. (a) The operator of each cable... cable television system shall conduct complete performance tests of that system at least twice...

  12. 47 CFR 76.601 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance tests. 76.601 Section 76.601... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.601 Performance tests. (a) The operator of each cable... cable television system shall conduct complete performance tests of that system at least twice...

  13. Neurofeedback training improves the dual-task performance ability in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Shin; Bae, Sea-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the reduced capacity for information processing following a stroke, patients commonly present with difficulties in performing activities of daily living that combine two or more tasks. To address this problem, in the present study, we investigated the effects of neurofeedback training on the abilities of stroke patients to perform dual motor tasks. We randomly assigned 20 patients who had sustained a stroke within the preceding 6 months to either a pseudo-neurofeedback (n = 10) or neurofeedback (n = 10) group. Both groups participated in a general exercise intervention for 8 weeks, three times a week for 30 min per session, under the same conditions. An electrode was secured to the scalp over the region of the central lobe (Cz), in compliance with the International 10-20 System. The electrode was inactive for the pseudo-training group. Participants in the neurofeedback training group received the 30-min neurofeedback training per session for reinforcing the sensorimotor rhythm. Electroencephalographic activity of the two groups was compared. In addition, selected parameters of gait (velocity, cadence [step/min], stance phase [%], and foot pressure) were analyzed using a 10-m walk test, attention-demanding task, walk task and quantified by the SmartStep system. The neurofeedback group showed significantly improved the regulation of the sensorimotor rhythm (p < 0.001) and ability to execute dual tasks (p < 0.01). Significant improvements on selected gait parameters (velocity and cadence; p < 0.05) were also observed. We thus propose that the neurofeedback training is effective to improve the dual-task performance in stroke patients.

  14. Motivation and Performance in Physical Education: An Experimental Test

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan A.; González-Cutre, David; Martín-Albo, José; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls), aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance. Key points The incremental group showed more situational intrinsic motivation. The entity group showed higher performance in the first test attempt, but significant differences disappeared in the second attempt. It seems that this incremental belief and greater intrinsic motivation made the students trust they would improve their performance in the second attempt at the lateral movement test. PMID:24149389

  15. Enhanced vision: flight test and performance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balon, Kevin G.; Connor, Sidney A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a flight test methodology and performance measurement system for evaluation of enhanced vision systems (EVS). The architecture for the performance measurements system used on a low operating cost Cessna 402 EVS flight test aircraft and on the DARPA Autonomous Landing Guidance Boeing 727 flight test aircraft is described. The data collection and analysis system is presented in the context of civil aviation requirements. A summary of the flight test accomplishments with the performance measurements system to data is also presented.

  16. Test Scrambling and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohmann, Stephan F.; Spector, Lee C.

    1989-01-01

    Compares the effect of content ordering and scrambled ordering on examinations in courses, such as economics, that require quantitative skills. Empirical results suggest that students do no better if they are given a content-ordered rather than a scrambled examination as student performance is not adversely affected by scrambled ordered…

  17. Using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability with Bilingual and Monolingual Language-Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottem, Ernst; Jakobsen, Unni

    2004-01-01

    The current popular case against the use of standardised ability tests in bilingual assessment is not as unequivocal as may be commonly assumed. Evidence currently available indicates that such tests generally measure the same constructs, with equal accuracy, regardless of language backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this…

  18. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test…

  19. Emotional Experiences during Test Taking: Does Cognitive Ability Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that…

  20. Why Is There Still No Study of Cultural Equivalence in Standardized Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Satiani, Anmol; Henze, Kevin T.; Mascher, Jackquelyn; Helms, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how the culturalist perspective on investigating racial group differences in standardized cognitive ability tests has advanced, a content analysis of 28 studies citing J. E. Helms (1992) identified 7 general themes. Overall, researchers cited J. E. Helms (1992) as support for their own hypotheses but did not directly test the…

  1. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  2. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  3. Multidimensional Ability Tests and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Evidence of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability tests are used by teachers to provide additional context for interpreting student achievement and as a tool for differentiating instruction to the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of students. Tests that provide the most useful information for these purposes measure school-related content domains including verbal and quantitative…

  4. Personality and problem-solving performance explain competitive ability in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2012-03-22

    Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, but why individuals vary so much in their competitiveness remains only partially understood. One increasingly prevalent view is that realized competitive ability varies because it represents alternative strategies that arise because of the costs associated with competitiveness. Here we use a population of great tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait 'exploration behaviour' and a simple cognitive trait, 'innovative problem-solving performance'. We assayed these traits under standardized conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable within individual males across days and correlated positively with exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in 'individual quality', our results support the hypothesis that individual variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural strategies.

  5. The Haptic Test Battery: A New Instrument to Test Tactual Abilities in Blind and Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bardisa, Dolores; Millar, Susanna; Reales, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    A new psychological test battery was designed to provide a much-needed comprehensive tool for assessing the perceptual and cognitive abilities of visually handicapped children in using active touch. The test materials consist of raised-line, raised-dot, raised-surface shapes and displays, and familiar and novel 3-D objects. The research used 20…

  6. Does implicit motor imagery ability predict reaching correction efficiency? A test of recent models of human motor control.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Christian; Wilmut, Kate; Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Neurocomputational models of reaching indicate that efficient purposive correction of movement midflight (e.g., online control) depends on one's ability to generate and monitor an accurate internal (neural) movement representation. In the first study to test this empirically, the authors investigated the relationship between healthy young adults' implicit motor imagery performance and their capacity to correct their reaching trajectory. As expected, after controlling for general reaching speed, hierarchical regression demonstrated that imagery ability was a significant predictor of hand correction speed; that is, faster and more accurate imagery performance associated with faster corrections to reaching following target displacement at movement onset. They argue that these findings provide preliminary support for the view that a link exists between an individual's ability to represent movement mentally and correct movement online efficiently.

  7. The relationship between short- and long-distance swimming performance and repeated sprint ability.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Yoav; Bishop, David J; Rabinovich, Moran; Kaufman, Leonid; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine indices of repeated sprint ability (RSA) during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST), to compare these with previous similar running and cycling RST, and to correlate these indices with the best short (100 m, as an index of anaerobic performance) and long (2,000 m, as an index of aerobic performance) distance swimming times in 20 elite, national team level, male swimmers. Indices of RSA included the ideal sprint time (IS), the total sprint time (TS), and the performance decrement (PD) recorded during an 8 × 15-m swimming RST. The PD during the present swimming RST (4.7 ± 2.3%) was similar to that in previous running or cycling RSTs. However, the physiological responses after the swimming RST (heart rate 168 ± 7 b·min(-1) and blood lactate concentration 5.5 ± 2.0 mmol·L(-1)) were lower than typical responses after running or cycling RSTs. There was no significant relationship between any of the RST performance indices and either the 100-m or 2,000-m swimming results. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the 3 RST indices (IS, TS, and PD), contributed 36% of the variance of the 2,000-m, but not the 100-m, swimming time. A strong correlation was found between the 100- and 2,000-m swim times (r = 0.74, p < 0.05). The results suggest that RSA in swimmers is a specific quality that cannot predict short- or long-distance swim performance. The significantly strong relationship between the 100- and 2,000-m swim times is unique for swimming.

  8. Performance Test on Polymer Waste Form - 12137

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Se Yup

    2012-07-01

    Polymer solidification was attempted to produce stable waste form for the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins. The polymer mixture was directly injected into the mold or drum which was packed with the boric acid concentrates and the dewatered spent resins, respectively. The waste form was produced by entirely curing the polymer mixture. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, water immersion test, leach test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test for the polymer waste forms. From the results of the performance tests for the polymer waste forms, it is believed that the polymer waste form is very stable and can satisfy the acceptance criteria for permanent disposal. At present, performance tests with full scale polymer waste forms are being carried out in order to obtain qualification certificate by the regulatory institute in Korea. Polymer waste forms were prepared with the surrogate of boric acid concentrates and the surrogate of spent ion exchange resins respectively. Waste forms were also made in lab scale and in full scale. Lab. scale waste forms were directly subjected to a series of the performance tests. In the case of full scale waste form, the test specimens for the performance test were taken from a part of waste form by coring. A series of performance tests was conducted including compressive strength test, thermal stability test, irradiation stability test and biodegradation stability test, water immersion test, leach test, and free standing water for the polymer waste forms. In addition, a fire resistance test was performed on the waste forms by the requirement of the regulatory institute in Korea. Every polymer waste forms containing the boric acid concentrates and the spent ion exchange resins had exhibited excellent structural integrity of more than 27.58 MPa (4,000 psi) of compressive strength. On thermal stability testing, biodegradation

  9. Research of laser stealth performance test technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-xing; Shi, Sheng-bing; Han, Fu-li; Wu, Yan-lin; Song, Chun-yan

    2014-09-01

    Laser stealth is an important way of photoelectric stealth weapons systems. According to operational principle of laser range finder, we actively explore and study the stealth performance approval testing technology of laser stealth materials, and bring forward and establish the stealth performance field test methods of stealth efficiency evaluation. Through contrastive test of two kinds of materials, the method is correct and effective.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  13. Preceptors’ Self-Assessment of Their Ability to Perform the Learning Objectives of an Experiential Program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate preceptors’ perception of their ability to perform the Structured Practical Experiences in Pharmacy (SPEP) learning objectives through a self-assessment activity. Methods. A self-assessment instrument consisting of 28 learning objectives associated with clinic, community, and hospital pharmacy practice experiences were developed. Preceptors rated their performance ability for each of the learning objectives using a 3-point Likert scale. Results. Of the 116 preceptors, 89 (77%) completed the self-assessment survey instrument. The overall preceptor responses to the items on performance of the 28 SPEP learning objectives ranged from good to excellent. Years of experience, practice experience setting, and involvement as a SPEP or SPEP and PharmD preceptor had no influence on their self-reported capabilities. Conclusion. Most preceptors rated their ability to perform the learning objectives for the structured practical experiences in pharmacy as high. Competency areas requiring further preceptor development were identified. PMID:23193333

  14. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  15. Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship with Gender, Academic Performance and Intellectual Abilities of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valadez Sierra, Maria de los Dolores; Borges del Rosal, Maria Africa; Ruvalcaba Romero, Norma; Villegas, Karina; Lorenzo, Maryurena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been linked to several variables, such as gender, and academic performance. In the area of high intellectual abilities, the literature shows controversy, without a unanimous result on the relationship between both variables. In the present study we analyzed the modulatory effect has academic performance in…

  16. Determinants, reliability, and usefulness of a bench press repeated power ability test in young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the main determinants of an upper-body repeated power ability (RPA) test and to examine its reliability and usefulness. Forty-five highly trained, male, young basketball players performed the RPA test (5 sets of 5 repetitions with 30 seconds of passive recovery within sets) on 2 sessions separated by 5-7 days. Power output was registered using a linear encoder attached to the barbell. Results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between each set in both sessions and trivial (<0.2) effect sizes in all the analyzed variables. For every set, intraclass correlation coefficient was very high (0.96-0.98) and coefficient of variation was low (3.3%-4.3%). Because the typical error of measurement values were lower or similar than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC0.2 = 0.2 × between-subject SD), the usefulness of most variables was rated as "good" or "OK" considering that small changes would be detected by this test. The percentage of power decrement could only be used to detect large effects (>1.2 × between-subject SD). An almost perfect correlation (r = 0.99; 90% confidence interval, 0.98-0.99) was found between the average power in set 1 (APbest) and the average power over 5 sets (APmean). In conclusion, the main determinant of RPA test is APbest, and because of the high reliability scores obtained, this protocol may be used to assess upper-body RPA in relatively experienced young athletes.

  17. Personality and problem-solving performance explain competitive ability in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ella F.; Quinn, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, but why individuals vary so much in their competitiveness remains only partially understood. One increasingly prevalent view is that realized competitive ability varies because it represents alternative strategies that arise because of the costs associated with competitiveness. Here we use a population of great tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait ‘exploration behaviour’ and a simple cognitive trait, ‘innovative problem-solving performance’. We assayed these traits under standardized conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable within individual males across days and correlated positively with exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in ‘individual quality’, our results support the hypothesis that individual variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural strategies. PMID:21937498

  18. Concentrating solar collector-performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report summarizes test results from evaluation of concentrating solar collector thermal performance, from transient behavior, and incident-of-angle behavior. Tests were conducted using National Bureau of Standards recommedations and specifications.

  19. The impact of automatic digit naming ability on a clinical test of eye movement functioning.

    PubMed

    Richman, J E; Walker, A J; Garzia, R P

    1983-07-01

    One of the primary reasons for the clinical measurement of eye movements in children is probing the relationship of oculomotor functioning with reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a subjective clinical test of lateral eye movements (KD Saccade Test) using a visual-verbal response format with the ability to name numbers automatically in the absence of eye movements in a first and second grade population. The results support the hypothesis that the eye movement skills measured with subjective visual-verbal formats as described in this study are deficits in automaticity of number knowledge ability and not oculomotor dysfunctions in some children.

  20. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  1. An experimental test of the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis in goldenrod, Solidago gigantea.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gretchen; Clare, Robert; Weber, Ewald

    2005-06-01

    The mechanisms that allow introduced plants to become invasive are poorly understood. Here, we present a test of the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis, which holds that because specialized natural enemies may be absent from the introduced range, exotic plants may evolve to invest less in anti-herbivore defenses and thereby gain a competitive advantage over native plants. We grew Solidago gigantea plants derived from both the native range (North America) and the invasive range (Europe) in a common garden in the native range for 2 years. Half the plants were treated with insecticide to protect them from insect herbivores and the other half were exposed to insects that colonized the garden from nearby fields. Insect herbivore biomass was significantly higher on European plants than US plants in the first year but not the second. European plants were more heavily attacked by pathogens in both years of the study. When exposed to insect herbivores, US plants produced more seed than European plants, but when plants were protected from herbivores, seed production was equivalent between US plants and European plants. The presence of insect herbivores suppressed seed production of European plants much more than that of US plants, even though the level of herbivory experienced by European and US plants was similar in the second year, suggesting that the ability to tolerate herbivory was diminished in European plants. These results partially support the EICA hypothesis: plants from the introduced range were more susceptible to some natural enemies and benefited more from insect removal than plants from the native range. The prediction that European plants would perform better than US plants in the absence of insect herbivores was not supported.

  2. What is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Marina; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mikolajczak, Moira; Luminet, Olivier; Hansenne, Michel; Rossier, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The ability approach has been indicated as promising for advancing research in emotional intelligence (EI). However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT, is among the few available and the most widespread measure of EI as an ability. This implies that conclusions about the value of EI as a meaningful construct and about its utility in predicting various outcomes mainly rely on the properties of this test. We tested whether individuals who have the highest probability of choosing the most correct response on any item of the test are also those who have the strongest EI ability. Results showed that this is not the case for most items: The answer indicated by experts as the most correct in several cases was not associated with the highest ability; furthermore, items appeared too easy to challenge individuals high in EI. Overall results suggest that the MSCEIT is best suited to discriminate persons at the low end of the trait. Results are discussed in light of applied and theoretical considerations.

  3. Sediment pollution impacts sensory ability and performance of settling coral-reef fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J Jack; Lecchini, David; Beck, Hayden J; Cadiou, Gwenael; Lecellier, Gael; Booth, David J; Nakamura, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms are under threat globally from a suite of anthropogenic sources, but the current emphasis on global climate change has deflected the focus from local impacts. While the effect of increased sedimentation on the settlement of coral species is well studied, little is known about the impact on larval fish. Here, the effect of a laterite "red soil" sediment pollutant on settlement behaviour and post-settlement performance of reef fish was tested. In aquarium tests that isolated sensory cues, we found significant olfaction-based avoidance behaviour and disruption of visual cue use in settlement-stage larval fish at 50 mg L(-1), a concentration regularly exceeded in situ during rain events. In situ light trap catches showed lower abundance and species richness in the presence of red soil, but were not significantly different due to high variance in the data. Prolonged exposure to red soil produced altered olfactory cue responses, whereby fish in red soil made a likely maladaptive choice for dead coral compared to controls where fish chose live coral. Other significant effects of prolonged exposure included decreased feeding rates and body condition. These effects on fish larvae reared over 5 days occurred in the presence of a minor drop in pH and may be due to the chemical influence of the sediment. Our results show that sediment pollution of coral reefs may have more complex effects on the ability of larval fish to successfully locate suitable habitat than previously thought, as well as impacting on their post-settlement performance and, ultimately, recruitment success. PMID:26080759

  4. Sediment pollution impacts sensory ability and performance of settling coral-reef fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J Jack; Lecchini, David; Beck, Hayden J; Cadiou, Gwenael; Lecellier, Gael; Booth, David J; Nakamura, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms are under threat globally from a suite of anthropogenic sources, but the current emphasis on global climate change has deflected the focus from local impacts. While the effect of increased sedimentation on the settlement of coral species is well studied, little is known about the impact on larval fish. Here, the effect of a laterite "red soil" sediment pollutant on settlement behaviour and post-settlement performance of reef fish was tested. In aquarium tests that isolated sensory cues, we found significant olfaction-based avoidance behaviour and disruption of visual cue use in settlement-stage larval fish at 50 mg L(-1), a concentration regularly exceeded in situ during rain events. In situ light trap catches showed lower abundance and species richness in the presence of red soil, but were not significantly different due to high variance in the data. Prolonged exposure to red soil produced altered olfactory cue responses, whereby fish in red soil made a likely maladaptive choice for dead coral compared to controls where fish chose live coral. Other significant effects of prolonged exposure included decreased feeding rates and body condition. These effects on fish larvae reared over 5 days occurred in the presence of a minor drop in pH and may be due to the chemical influence of the sediment. Our results show that sediment pollution of coral reefs may have more complex effects on the ability of larval fish to successfully locate suitable habitat than previously thought, as well as impacting on their post-settlement performance and, ultimately, recruitment success.

  5. Testing game theory models: fighting ability and decision rules in chameleon contests.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2006-06-22

    Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and contextual factors such as experience influence fighting ability. Using contests between male Cape dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum, I test alternative game theory models of extended contests. I show how the most likely candidate model can be identified through a process of elimination, based on tests of key predictions. In addition, I present a measure of fighting ability based on multiple traits that allows ability to change as experience changes. In dwarf chameleons, persistence is based on loser thresholds rather than assessment of relative ability, ruling out the sequential assessment model. Winners and losers do not match behaviours in early parts of the contest, arguing against all types of war of attrition models. Although the cumulative assessment model remained as the most likely candidate model, not all specific predictions of this model were upheld.

  6. Level I--Level II Abilities as They Affect Performance of Three Races in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreth, Langdon E.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that multiple-choice exams load higher on Level II ability than on Level I ability was confirmed by correlating multiple choice tests with the Cognitive Abilities Test Nonverbal Battery, the forward digit span test, and essay measures. Differences in scores among Asian, black, white, and Mexican American students are discussed in…

  7. Repeated-sprint and change-of-direction abilities in physically active individuals and soccer players: training and testing implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Chan, Gar Sun; Smith, Andrew W

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) matched on intervals and distances was investigated in this study. The discrimination abilities of the tests were also examined. Using a within-subject repeated measures design, 25 physically active individuals (ACTs), 16 college soccer players (COL), and 18 professional soccer players (PRO) performed the RSA and RCOD tests during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. We concluded that RSA and RCOD tested separate motor abilities because the shared variance between them in the FT, AT, and TT was ≤50%. Both RSA and RCOD tests were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ranged 0.79-0.90) and valid performance assessments in terms of construct in that they discriminated between ACT and soccer players (irrespective of the soccer skill level in this study). Specifically, the FT, AT, and TT (but not %Dec) of RSA and RCOD were significantly higher in ACT as compared with that in both COL and PRO (p < 0.05). Most values of the RSA/RCOD index in COL and PRO were 0.59, which were significantly higher than those of ACT (0.53, p < 0.05). We proposed the use of the RSA/RCOD index with a target value of 0.59 to prioritize and quantify the training needs of RSA and RCOD for soccer players.

  8. The Semiautomated Test System: A Tool for Standardized Performance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, H. Rudy

    For performance tests to be truly standardized, they must be administered in a way that will minimize variation due to operator intervention and errors. Through such technological developments as low-cost digital computers and digital logic modules, automatic test administration without restriction of test content has become possible. A…

  9. Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test compared to measures of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, E C; Farenholtz, D W

    1992-09-01

    This study compared the Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test (POPAT) with selected field and laboratory tests of physical fitness. Ninety-eight volunteer police officers (73 men, 25 women) completed all aspects of the testing. Fifty-five (55)% of the total group passed the POPAT by bettering the 4 min 15 sec "cut" point. Only 16% of the women and 68% of the men passed the overall test. Laboratory tests revealed a rather unfit sample of subjects (mean VO2 max = 42.6 ml.kg.min-1; % body fat = 22.9). Stepwise multiple regression indicated that 55% of the variance on the run component of the test was accounted for by maximal aerobic power and anaerobic capacity. The fight component of POPAT did not correlate highly with standard field tests of strength. Pass/fail aspects of the test were not clearly delineated by selected lab and field tests. It was concluded that POPAT, being a valid, task-specific, job related test, consists of motor abilities and technique as much as generalized fitness parameters.

  10. Effects of Calibration Sample Size and Item Bank Size on Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alper; Weiss, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of calibration sample size and item bank size on examinee ability estimation in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). For this purpose, a 500-item bank pre-calibrated using the three-parameter logistic model with 10,000 examinees was simulated. Calibration samples of varying sizes (150, 250, 350, 500,…

  11. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  12. Components of Spatial Thinking: Evidence from a Spatial Thinking Ability Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the development and validation of the spatial thinking ability test (STAT). The STAT consists of sixteen multiple-choice questions of eight types. The STAT was validated by administering it to a sample of 532 junior high, high school, and university students. Factor analysis using principal components extraction was applied…

  13. Handbook of Remedial or Developmental Activities to Accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Drucilla, Comp.

    This handbook, intended to accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, describes numerous remedial and developmental activities for perceptual motor and psychomotor skills. Observable classroom behaviors associated with various perceptual motor and psychomotor disabilities (visual-motor channel disability, auditory-vocal channel…

  14. Construct Validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and Reanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Presents an alternative theoretical analysis of several analyses presented by R. Sternberg and his colleagues of studies designed to validate the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. Makes the case that "g" theory is required to understand the relationships obtained by Sternberg and his colleagues. (SLD)

  15. A Factor Analysis of Learning Data and Selected Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy L.

    1976-01-01

    A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…

  16. Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Abdul; Ardi, Muhammad; Nurhayati, B.; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of formative tests to early learning ability of students in the science learning style. This research used an experimental method with a 2 x 2 factorial design. The participants comprised all the students in class VII of the Islamic Junior High School State of Kolaka, a total of 343…

  17. An Examination of the Diagnostic Claims of the Revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Robert J.; Ames, Wilbur S.

    1978-01-01

    To analyze differential diagnostic efficiency of the Revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (a measure designed to assess strengths and weaknesses of learning disabled children), the Kelley procedure for estimating the proportion of differences in excess of chance was applied to the standardization data. (SBH)

  18. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  19. Solar-heating system performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains results of performance tests on complete system for solar space and hot-water heating system that uses commercially available components. Results were used to determine system suitability for field installation and to generate performance data base for comparison with future tests on field installed systems.

  20. Performance test for a solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two reports describe procedures and results of performance tests on domestic solar powered hot water system. Performance tests determine amount of energy collected by system, amount of energy delivered to solar source, power required to operate system and maintain proper tank temperature, overall system efficiency, and temperature distribution in tank.

  1. A Quick Assessment of Visuospatial Abilities in Adolescents Using the Design Organization Test (DOT).

    PubMed

    Burggraaf, Rudolf; Frens, Maarten A; Hooge, Ignace T C; van der Geest, Jos N

    2016-01-01

    Tests measuring visuospatial abilities have shown that these abilities increase during adolescence. Unfortunately, the Block Design test and other such tests are complicated and time-consuming to administer, making them unsuitable for use with large groups of restless adolescents. The results of the Design Organization Test (DOT), a quick pen-and-paper test, have been shown to correlate with those of the Block Design test. A group of 198 healthy adolescents (110 male and 88 female) aged 12 to 19 years old participated in this study. A slightly modified version of the DOT has been used in which we shortened the administration time to avoid a ceiling effect in the score. Scores show a linear increase with age (on average 2.0 points per year, r = .61) independent of sex. Scores did not differ between individual setting and group setting. Thus, the DOT is a simple and effective way to assess visuospatial ability in large groups, such as in schools, and it can be easily administered year after year to follow the development of students.

  2. Differential Ability Scales-II Prediction of Reading Performance: Global Scores Are Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin D.; Hale, James B.; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Dorvil, Cledicianne; Moldovan, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy, together with the effect of the general factor ("g"), on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II) reading achievement. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and commonality analyses were applied to the…

  3. Halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) performance verification test procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III

    1986-01-01

    The Performance Verification Test Procedure is given for the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument, which is being developed in house at the Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). This procedure is used for comprehensive performance testing of the HALOE instrument which occurs before, during, and after flight environmental tests. The radiometric performance tests include noise, drift, linearity, instantaneous field-of-view, cal wheel gas cell characterization, and self thermal emissions. Pointer/tracker performance tests include sun sensor performance, gimbal performance, control system performance, and boresight alignment. In addition, the instrument is tested functionally in simulated orbit sequences and all command operating modes are exercised. The data analysis required for each test is specified and pass/fail criteria are given where applicable. This test will fully demonstrate the HALOE instrument's ability to achieve science mission requirements. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that measures vertical distribution of eight upper atmospheric constituents: O3, HCl, HF, NO, CH4, H2O, NO2, and CO2.

  4. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  5. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  6. Performance testing of thermoelectric generators at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouklove, P.; Truscello, V.

    1974-01-01

    Results of life tests of thermoelectric generators ranging in output power from 800 microwatts to 170 watts. Emphasis is placed on the results obtained from tests of three advanced prototypes - a high-performance generator, a transit-type generator, and a ring converter. In addition, the results of life tests of a number of generators representing Nimbus, Pioneer, and Viking technology are presented.

  7. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  8. The Differential Effects of General Mental Ability and Emotional Intelligence on Academic Performance and Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lynda Jiwen; Huang, Guo-hua; Peng, Kelly Z.; Law, Kenneth S.; Wong, Chi-Sum; Chen, Zhijun

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the debate about whether emotional intelligence (EI) has incremental validity over and above traditional intelligence dimensions. We propose that EI and general mental abilities (GMA) differ in predicting academic performance and the quality of social interactions among college students. Using two college student samples, we…

  9. 42 CFR 475.104 - Requirements for demonstrating ability to perform review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system is adequate; and (2) The organization has available sufficient resources (including access to... Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations § 475.104 Requirements for demonstrating ability to perform review. (a) A physician-sponsored or physician-access organization will be...

  10. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers' Ability and Effort Explanations for Students' Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…

  11. An Investigation of How Perceptions of Mathematics Ability Can Affect Elementary Statistics Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galagedera, Don; Woodward, George; Degamboda, Sunanda

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of perceived mathematics ability (PMA) on the learning process with special reference to undergraduates (N=147) following an elementary statistics (ES) course. Concludes that PMA itself is not a good predictor of ES performance; rather, its effect may be challenged through interest, expected grade, and motivation to do…

  12. Relationships among Student Ability, School Performance, and Fleet Supervisor Ratings for Navy "A" School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freda, Jon S.; And Others

    This report evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized instruction compared to conventional instruction. The report provides information concerning relationships among student ability, school performance, and fleet supervisory ratings for 5,811 graduates of 19 Navy "A" schools and three pre-"A" school basic courses. The graduates…

  13. Relationships between handwriting performance and organizational abilities among children with and without dysgraphia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Aloni, Tsipi; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Organizational ability constitutes one executive function (EF) component essential for common everyday performance. The study aim was to explore the relationship between handwriting performance and organizational ability in school-aged children. Participants were 58 males, aged 7-8 years, 30 with dysgraphia and 28 with proficient handwriting. Group allocation was based on children's scores in the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ). They performed the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE), and their parents completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-for Parents (QASOA-P). Significant differences were found between the groups for handwriting performance (HHE) and organizational abilities (QASOA-P). Significant correlations were found in the dysgraphic group between handwriting spatial arrangement and the QASOA-P mean score. Linear regression indicated that the QASOA-P mean score explained 42% of variance of handwriting proficiency (HPSQ). Based on one discriminant function, 81% of all participants were correctly classified into groups. Study results strongly recommend assessing organizational difficulties in children referred for therapy due to handwriting deficiency.

  14. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  15. Beyond Objectivity: The Performance Impact of the Perceived Ability to Learn and Solve Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tews, Michael J.; Michel, John W.; Noe, Raymond A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and provide initial validation evidence for the performance impact of a measure of an individual's perceived ability to learn and solve problems (PALS). Building on the self-efficacy literature and the importance of learning and problem solving, the fundamental premise of this research was that PALS…

  16. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  17. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  18. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  19. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  20. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    1997-05-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

  1. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  2. SI PC104 Performance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Montelongo, S

    2005-12-16

    The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

  3. HIV testing strategies: test performance is important, but not sufficient.

    PubMed

    Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Abreu Ferrari, Teresa Cristina; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto

    2011-02-01

    Minimum accuracy of HIV diagnostic tests is considered the pillar on which testing strategies for all settings must be based. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that performance of the same test in different settings may vary according to several factors, resulting in different confidence intervals for sensitivity and specificity. Prevalence of HIV infection may influence observed test accuracy. The purpose of this article is to use the knowledge from meta-analyses of general diagnostic tests to inform the specific field of HIV diagnostic strategies. We propose the 'Bayesian' thinking: considering the pretest probability (i.e., prevalence, risk factors) and understanding test limitations to estimate a post-test probability of HIV diagnosis. Cost-effectiveness analysis, patient preferences and ethical issues must also be considered in HIV testing strategies.

  4. Effects of Test Anxiety, Tests, and Sleep on Children's Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Jennifer L.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    Sixth and seventh graders (N=239) responded to questionnaires examining sleep behavior and test anxiety on day of major examination in school and day with no major examination. Subjects also completed vigilance task on both days. Partial sleep loss did not adversely influence subjects' performance on task or examination; test anxiety was…

  5. Effects of Gender, Math Ability, Trait Test Anxiety, Statistics Course Anxiety, Statistics Achievement, and Perceived Test Difficulty on State Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook

    A path analytic model of state test anxiety was tested in 169 college students who were enrolled in statistics courses. Variables in the model included gender, mathematics ability, trait test anxiety (trait worry and trait emotionality as separate variables), statistics course anxiety, statistics achievement (scores on midterm examinations),…

  6. Integrated Performance Testing for Nonproliferation Support Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Russell; Bultz, Garl Alan; Byers, Kenneth R.; Yaegle, William

    2013-08-20

    The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with training in testing techniques and methodologies for assessment of the performance of: Physical Protection system elements; Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system elements.

  7. Driving Task: How Older Drivers' On-Road Driving Performance Relates to Abilities, Perceptions, and Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Langford, Jim; Di Stefano, Marilyn; MacDonald, Wendy; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Mazer, Barbara L; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Eliasz, Kinga; Myers, Anita; Tuokko, Holly A; Marshall, Shawn C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined a cohort of 227 older drivers and investigated the relationship between performance on the electronic Driver Observation Schedule (eDOS) driving task and: (1) driver characteristics; (2) functional abilities; (3) perceptions of driving comfort and abilities; and (4) self-reported driving restrictions. Participants (male: 70%; age: M = 81.53 years, SD = 3.37 years) completed a series of functional ability measures and scales on perceived driving comfort, abilities, and driving restrictions from the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocol, along with an eDOS driving task. Observations of participants' driving behaviours during the driving task were recorded for intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low-speed maneuvers, and maneuver-free driving. eDOS driving task scores were high (M = 94.74; SD = 5.70) and significantly related to participants' perceived driving abilities, reported frequency of driving in challenging situations, and number of driving restrictions. Future analyses will explore potential changes in driving task scores over time. PMID:27021591

  8. Dexterity testing and residents' surgical performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, T J

    1979-01-01

    1. With some exceptions, those who choose ophthalmology as a career may approximate the general population in innate manual dexterity. 2. Many factors other than manual dexterity influence the development of surgical skills by residents. 3. If dexterity testing is to be used, the addition or inclusion of tests for spatial aptitudes may be more helpful than simple dexterity tests alone. The predictive value of such tests for surgical performance would need vertification. 4. The development of a special test directly related to handling surgical instruments, to cutting, and to sewing (the criteria) may be more practical than the ones used in this study. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:545827

  9. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  10. Dispersal propensity, but not flight performance, explains variation in dispersal ability.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Vernon M; Mitchell, Katherine A; Terblanche, John S

    2016-08-17

    Enhanced dispersal ability may lead to accelerated range expansion and increased rates of population establishment, thereby affecting population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. Morphological, behavioural and physiological traits that characterize dispersive individuals from residents are poorly understood for many invertebrate systems, especially in non-polymorphic pterygote species. Here we examined phenotypic differences between dispersal-prone and philopatric individuals from repeated mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments using an invasive agricultural pest, Ceratitis capitata Comprehensive morphometric assessment and subsequent minimal adequate modelling using an information theoretic approach identified thorax mass : body mass ratio as a key predictor of disperser flies under semi-natural conditions. Performance differences in flight ability were then examined under controlled laboratory conditions to assess whether greater thorax mass : body mass ratio was associated with enhanced flight ability. The larger thorax : body mass ratio was associated with measurable differences in mean flight duration, most predominantly in males, and also by their willingness to disperse, scored as the number and duration of voluntary flights. No other measures of whole-animal flight performance (e.g. mean and peak vertical force, total or maximum flight duration) differed. Variation in voluntary behaviour may result in significant alterations of movement behaviour and realized dispersal in nature. This phenomenon may help explain intraspecific variation in the dispersal ability of insects.

  11. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

  12. Performance Testing in Electronic Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Bert; Pedersen, Joe F.

    This set of 21 performance tests in electronics technology was developed on the basis of a review of commercial and noncommercial instructional materials dealing with electronics technology. The tests, which were reviewed by a group of community college instructors and an advisory committee for electronics technology, address the following…

  13. Design and performance test of spacecraft test and operation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Cui, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Main test processor (MTP) software is the key element of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for spacecraft test and operation used in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) for years without innovation. With the increasing demand for a more efficient and agile MTP software, the new MTP software was developed. It adopts layered and plug-in based software architecture, whose core runtime server provides message queue management, share memory management and process management services and forms the framework for a configurable and open architecture system. To investigate the MTP software's performance, the test case of network response time, test sequence management capability and data-processing capability was introduced in detail. Test results show that the MTP software is common and has higher performance than the legacy one.

  14. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-08-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  15. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480-m helium-oxygen saturation diving.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gonglin; Zhang, Youlan; Zhao, Na; Chen, Ruiyong; Xiao, Weibing; Yu, Hao; Wang, Jiachun; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0-480 m compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially above 300 m), the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 m), showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  16. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  17. The Influence of Visual Ability on Learning and Memory Performance in 13 Strains of Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard E.; Wong, Aimee A.

    2007-01-01

    We calculated visual ability in 13 strains of mice (129SI/Sv1mJ, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, CAST/EiJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, MOLF/EiJ, SJL/J, SM/J, and SPRET/EiJ) on visual detection, pattern discrimination, and visual acuity and tested these and other mice of the same strains in a behavioral test battery that evaluated visuo-spatial…

  18. A novel test of planning ability: great apes can plan step-by-step but not in advance of action.

    PubMed

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2013-11-01

    The ability to identify an appropriate sequence of actions or to consider alternative possible action sequences might be particularly useful during problem solving in the physical domain. We developed a new 'paddle-box' task to test the ability of different ape species to plan an appropriate sequence of physical actions (rotating paddles) to retrieve a reward from a goal location. The task had an adjustable difficulty level and was not dependent on species-specific behaviours (e.g. complex tool use). We investigated the planning abilities of captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) using the paddle-box. In experiment 1, subjects had to rotate one or two paddles before rotating the paddle with the reward on. Subjects of both species performed poorly, though orangutans rotated more non-food paddles, which may be related to their greater exploratory tendencies and bolder temperament compared with bonobos. In experiment 2 subjects could always rotate the paddle with the reward on first and still succeed, and most subjects of both species performed appropriate sequences of up to three paddle rotations to retrieve the reward. Poor performance in experiment 1 may have been related to subjects' difficulty in inhibiting the prepotent response to act on the reward immediately.

  19. AMTEC RC-10 Performance Evaluation Test Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, Michael; Reiners, Elinor; Lemire, Robert; Sievers, Robert

    1994-07-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Power and Thermal Management Division (PL/VTP), in conjunction with ORION International Technologies, initiated the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC), Remote Condensed-10% efficient (RC-10) Performance Evaluation Test Program to investigate cell design variations intended to increase efficiency in AMTEC cells. The RC-10 cell, fabricated by Advanced Modular Power Systems, uses a remote condensing region to reduce radiative heat losses from the electrode. The cell has operated at 10% efficiency. PL/VTP tested the RC-10 to evaluate its performance and efficiency. The impact of temperature variations along the length of the cell wall on performance were evaluated. Testing was performed in air, with a `` guard heater'' surrounding the cell to simulate the system environment of the cell.

  20. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  1. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, E.W.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Rabeni, C.F.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1999-03-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition, at the start of a test. The authors evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl{sub 2}, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl{sub 2} (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods, such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  2. Bias and spread in EVT performance tests.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    Performance tests (error probability measurements) of communications systems characterized by low bit rates and high reliability requirements frequently utilize classical extreme value theory (EVT) to avoid the excessive test times encountered with bit error rate (BER) tests. If the underlying noise is Gaussian or perturbed Gaussian, the EVT error estimates have either excessive bias or excessive variance if an insufficient number of test samples is used. EVT is examined to explain the cause of this bias and spread. Experimental verification is made by testing a known Gaussian source, and procedures that minimize these effects are described. It seems apparent that even under the best of conditions the EVT test results are not particularly better than those of BER tests.

  3. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  4. Estimation of Ability Level by Using Only Observable Quantities in Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirisci, Levent; Hsu, Tse-Chi

    A predictive adaptive testing (PAT) strategy was developed based on statistical predictive analysis, and its feasibility was studied by comparing PAT performance to those of the Flexilevel, Bayesian modal, and expected a posteriori (EAP) strategies in a simulated environment. The proposed adaptive test is based on the idea of using item difficulty…

  5. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and

  6. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A.; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research. PMID:27445902

  7. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  8. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and PMID:27445902

  9. The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board Cognitive Ability Test: Børge Prien's Prøve.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Hartmann, Peter V W; Pedersen, Christoffer H; Bertelsen, Mette

    2011-04-01

    The Danish Draft Board has used the same test for assessing general cognitive ability, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP), for over 50 years during which time all men on reaching the age of 18 become liable for conscription. Data from the test has, over the decades, been used in numerous and wide-ranging research studies. Nonetheless, owing to the special circumstances of its administration, some psychometric properties, which are generally assessed for psychological tests, have not previously been investigated for the BPP. First, since the test is only used at the assessment phase, retesting with the BPP occurs only rarely and under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, its Test-Retest reliability has hitherto not been documented. Second, questions have often been raised as to whether the validity of the BPP is undermined by either a lack of motivation and under-performing among some of the men taking the test, being, as they are, compelled to do so, and/or by gradual obsolescence of the test over the decades of its use. We here present findings from three new studies to show that (a) the BPP has a satisfactory Test-Retest reliability, r=0.77, (b) BPP test scores are not positively associated with expressed attitude to being called upon to serve conscription and (c) the correlation between the BPP and a measure of educational level has remained stable (at about 0.5) through the last two decades. Taken together these three findings further support the continuing value of the BPP in research relating to cognitive ability. PMID:21198650

  10. Examining Validity in a Performance Test: The Listening Summary Translation Exam (LSTE)--Spanish Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mary Lee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a project to develop and validate a criterion-referenced performance test of listening summary translation ability. This exam is designed to assess ability to comprehend and summarize in written English recorded conversations spoken in Spanish. The Bachman framework is used to present the test and provide evidence for its validity. (12…

  11. Test Review: C. D. Elliott "Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition." San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephanie; McGoey, Kara E.; Moschos, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II), an individually administered cognitive test battery, designed to evaluate children ages 2 years 6 months to 17 years 11 months. It purports to measure a hierarchy of cognitive abilities, including broad abilities contributing to a single cognitive factor…

  12. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  13. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  14. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  15. Bimanual simultaneous motor performance and impaired ability to shift attention in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Horstink, M W; Berger, H J; van Spaendonck, K P; van den Bercken, J H; Cools, A R

    1990-01-01

    The ability to share time and to shift attention between bimanual simultaneous motor tasks were studied in 18 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 19 age- and intelligence-matched controls. The task consisted of drawing triangles with the dominant hand and squeezing a rubber bulb with the nondominant hand. Motor performance was measured using the variables: amplitude of squeezing, frequency of squeezing and velocity of drawing triangles. After eliminating variance due to baseline differences in single-handed performance, the bimanual simultaneous performance of PD and controls turned out to be similar to the frequency of squeezing and the velocity of drawing triangles. The amplitude of squeezing, however, differed between the two groups: it was significantly reduced in PD. Arguably the disturbance in the bimanual performance of PD patients was not due to a disorder of time sharing, but to a decreased ability to shift attention from the visually cued task to the non visually cued task. The results agree with current evidence that PD patients are more impaired when they have to rely upon internal control for the regulation of shifting attention than when external cues are available. Images PMID:2213046

  16. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  17. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  18. An Analysis of the Relationships between Test Takers' Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, James Enos

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between test takers' strategy and their performance on second-language tests (SLTP) comprising an 80-item Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Questionnaire and a 70-item standardized language test. Results explain SLTP by grammar and reading ability; cognitive processing by comprehending, storing, and retrieval…

  19. Not all anxious individuals get lost: Trait anxiety and mental rotation ability interact to explain performance in map-based route learning in men.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities.

  20. Not all anxious individuals get lost: Trait anxiety and mental rotation ability interact to explain performance in map-based route learning in men.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities. PMID:27108599

  1. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  2. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  3. Testing the Ability of TOPMODEL to Assess the Spatial Continuity and Connectivity of Soil Moisture Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G.; Roy, A.

    2006-05-01

    Examining hydrologic connectivity as a major control on stormflow generation has emerged as an important field of research in forest hydrology. Knowledge on this new concept, however, has yet to be incorporated in most hydrological models and to be proven useful to simulate the "on-off" behaviour of small humid temperate catchments. In this study, we examine the hydrologic behaviour of a small headwater forested catchment, the Hermine, located in the Laurentians near Montreal, Quebec. This watershed is a textbook case for the application of the popular TOPMODEL. Still, the model does not perform well, especially following extended dry periods. Several explanations have been proposed regarding this issue, chiefly the existence of two or more preferential states and threshold-like processes associated with the spatio-temporal variations of antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). As these dominantly govern the initiation of stormflow, we test here the ability of the model to differentiate random patterns of soil moisture from organized ones. Using the topographic index distribution and the local storage deficit maps produced at each daily time step, the spatial correlation structure of potentially saturated areas and moisture conditions is studied through the use of geostatistical techniques. We also examine the methods of Western et al. (2001) in reference to the use of connectivity statistics to relate different soil moisture patterns with simulated hydrologic responses. From the spatial patterns of soil moisture simulated, TOPMODEL is capable of isolating several hydrologic preferential states, more or less wet with respect to a threshold value based on the mean catchment deficit. The changes in the disruption of spatial continuity of soil moisture are easier to identify when the correlation length among the patterns exhibits a high degree of seasonality. On the other hand, TOPMODEL falls short of representing some complex spatial patterns of disconnected saturated

  4. Does ABLA Test Performance on the ABLA Test Predict Picture Receptive Name Recognition with Persons with Severe Developmental Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeke, Aynsley K.; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that performance on the "Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities" (ABLA) test correlates with language assessments for persons with developmental disabilities. This study investigated whether performance on ABLA Level 6, an auditory-visual discrimination, predicts performance on a receptive language task with persons with severe…

  5. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  6. Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: In vivo measurements, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.; Olsen, P.C.

    1990-04-01

    A study of two rounds of in vivo laboratory performance testing was undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the appropriateness of the in vivo performance criteria of draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard ANSI N13.3, Performance Criteria for Bioassay.'' The draft standard provides guidance to in vivo counting facilities regarding the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. This report concludes the testing program by presenting the results of the Round Two testing. Testing involved two types of measurements: chest counting for radionuclide detection in the lung, and whole body counting for detection of uniformly distributed material. Each type of measurement was further divided into radionuclide categories as defined in the draft standard. The appropriateness of the draft standard criteria by measuring a laboratory's ability to attain them were judged by the results of both round One and Round Two testing. The testing determined that performance criteria are set at attainable levels, and the majority of in vivo monitoring facilities passed the criteria when complete results were submitted. 18 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. 47 CFR 76.601 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance tests. 76.601 Section 76.601 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND... standards set forth in § 76.605(a) (3), (4), and (5) shall be made on each of the NTSC or similar...

  8. 47 CFR 76.601 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance tests. 76.601 Section 76.601 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND... standards set forth in § 76.605(a) (3), (4), and (5) shall be made on each of the NTSC or similar...

  9. 40 CFR 60.8 - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard, or (5) approves shorter sampling times and smaller sample volumes when necessitated by process variables or other factors. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to abrogate the Administrator's... cause to be provided, performance testing facilities as follows: (1) Sampling ports adequate for...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Performance testing. 63.1546 Section 63.1546 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance testing. 63.1546 Section 63.1546 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  12. [Verbal ability of Alzheimer's disease patients and very elderly control patients using the Aachen aphasia test].

    PubMed

    Ecklin, R; Schönenberger, P M

    1992-01-01

    We assessed language function, using the Aachen aphasia test (AAT), in 14 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 6 control patients. Aphasia did not occur in control patients, but in 11 of 14 Alzheimer's disease patients. Impairment of object naming was the most prevalent abnormality. Performance in AAT subtests repetition, written language, object naming, comprehension and token test correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State scores.

  13. A nonlinear regression approach to test for size-dependence of competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Eric G; Cahill, James F; Dale, Mark R T

    2006-06-01

    An individual's competitive ability is often dependent on its size, but the methods commonly used to analyze plant competition experiments generally assume that the outcome of interactions are size independent. A method for the analysis of experiments with paired competition treatments based on nonlinear regression with a power function is presented. This method allows straightforward tests of whether a competitive interaction is size dependent, and for the significance of experimental treatments. The method is applied to three example data sets: (1) an experiment where pairs of plants were grown with and without competition at five fertilization levels, (2) an experiment where the fecundity of two snail species were compared between environments at two densities, and (3) an addition series experiment where two plant species were grown in proportional mixtures at several densities. Competitive ability was size-dependent in two of these examples, which demonstrates that a wide range of ecologically important information can be lost when the assumption of size-dependence is ignored. Regression with a power curve should always be used to test whether competitive interactions are size independent, and for the further analysis of size-dependent interactions. PMID:16869420

  14. Performance map of a cluster detection test using extended power

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional power studies possess limited ability to assess the performance of cluster detection tests. In particular, they cannot evaluate the accuracy of the cluster location, which is essential in such assessments. Furthermore, they usually estimate power for one or a few particular alternative hypotheses and thus cannot assess performance over an entire region. Takahashi and Tango developed the concept of extended power that indicates both the rate of null hypothesis rejection and the accuracy of the cluster location. We propose a systematic assessment method, using here extended power, to produce a map showing the performance of cluster detection tests over an entire region. Methods To explore the behavior of a cluster detection test on identical cluster types at any possible location, we successively applied four different spatial and epidemiological parameters. These parameters determined four cluster collections, each covering the entire study region. We simulated 1,000 datasets for each cluster and analyzed them with Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic. From the area under the extended power curve, we constructed a map for each parameter set showing the performance of the test across the entire region. Results Consistent with previous studies, the performance of the spatial scan statistic increased with the baseline incidence of disease, the size of the at-risk population and the strength of the cluster (i.e., the relative risk). Performance was heterogeneous, however, even for very similar clusters (i.e., similar with respect to the aforementioned factors), suggesting the influence of other factors. Conclusions The area under the extended power curve is a single measure of performance and, although needing further exploration, it is suitable to conduct a systematic spatial evaluation of performance. The performance map we propose enables epidemiologists to assess cluster detection tests across an entire study region. PMID:24156765

  15. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.

  16. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions). PMID:27047425

  17. Assessing clinical reasoning abilities of medical students using clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sunju; Kim, Do-Kyong; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Roh, Hye-Rin; Oh, Young-Rim; Seo, Ji-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of new clinical performance examination (CPX) for assessing clinical reasoning skills and evaluating clinical reasoning ability of the students. Methods: Third-year medical school students (n=313) in Busan-Gyeongnam consortium in 2014 were included in the study. One of 12 stations was developed to assess clinical reasoning abilities. The scenario and checklists of the station were revised by six experts. Chief complaint of the case was rhinorrhea, accompanied by fever, headache, and vomiting. Checklists focused on identifying of the main problem and systematic approach to the problem. Students interviewed the patient and recorded subjective and objective findings, assessments, plans (SOAP) note for 15 minutes. Two professors assessed students simultaneously. We performed statistical analysis on their scores and survey. Results: The Cronbach α of subject station was 0.878 and Cohen κ coefficient between graders was 0.785. Students agreed on CPX as an adequate tool to evaluate students’ performance, but some graders argued that the CPX failed to secure its validity due to their lack of understanding the case. One hundred eight students (34.5%) identified essential problem early and only 58 (18.5%) performed systematic history taking and physical examination. One hundred seventy-three of them (55.3%) communicated correct diagnosis with the patient. Most of them had trouble in writing SOAP notes. Conclusion: To gain reliability and validity, interrater agreement should be secured. Students' clinical reasoning skills were not enough. Students need to be trained on problem identification, reasoning skills and accurate record-keeping. PMID:26838567

  18. Thermal Performance Testing Of Cryogenic Piping Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal performance measurement of piping systems under actual field conditions is important for space launch development and commercial industry. Knowledge of the true insulating effectiveness is needed in system design, development, and research activities. A new 18-meter-long test apparatus for cryogenic pipelines has been developed. Three different pipelines, rigid or flexible, can be tested simultaneously. Critical factors in heat leak measurements include eliminating heat transfer at end connections and obtaining proper liquid saturation condition. Effects due to variations in the external ambient conditions like wind, humidity, and solar radiation must be minimized. The static method of liquid nitrogen evaporation has been demonstrated, but the apparatus can be adapted for dynamic testing with cryogens, chilled water, or other working fluids. This technology is suited for the development of an industry standard test apparatus and method. Examples of the heat transfer data from testing commercially available pipelines are given. Prototype pipelines are currently being tested and evaluated at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  19. Long-term operation performance and variation of substrate tolerance ability in an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlong; Niu, Qigui; Ma, Haiyuan; He, Shilong; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2016-07-01

    An anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor was operated to study the long-term performance and the variation of substrate tolerance ability. The results indicated that the nitrogen loading potential (NLP) was significantly enhanced from 13.56gN·(L·d)(-)(1) to 20.95gN·(L·d)(-)(1) during the stable operation period. The inhibitory concentration of 10% (IC10) for free ammonia (FA), free nitrous acid (FNA) and SNinf (diluted substrate concentration) increased from 18mg/L, 12μgL(-1) and 370mgNL(-)(1) to 31mg/L, 19μgL(-1) and 670mgNL(-)(1), respectively. However, the substrate shock of 2500mgNL(-)(1) for 24h terribly weakened the treatment performance and substrate tolerance ability of the reactor. The results of batch tests indicated that the existence of lag phase made the AAFEB reactor more vulnerable to substrate variation. The SNinf was accurate to be used to monitor the reactor performance and should be maintained below 320mgNL(-)(1) to ensure the absolute stable operation. PMID:26995619

  20. RHIC Sextant Test - Accelerator Systems and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, F.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Connolly, R.; dell, G. F.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; Mackay, W.; Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Wei, J.

    1997-05-01

    One sextant of the RHIC collider and the full AtR (AGS to RHIC) transfer line have been commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the design and performance of the accelerator systems during the test, such as the magnet and power supply systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. After reviewing the main milestones of the commissioning we describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems preformance and their impact on the plannig for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  1. Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hall Crannell

    2011-02-01

    Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term (>8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

  2. Testing for robust speech recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Moore, C. A.; Ruth, J. C.

    Results are reported from two studies which evaluated speaker-dependent connected-speech template-matching algorithms. One study examined the recognition performance for vocabularies spoken within a spacesuit. Two token vocabularies were used that were recorded in different noise levels. The second study evaluated the rejection accuracy for two commercial speech recognizers. The spoken test tokens were variations on a single word. The tests underscored the inferiority of speech recognizers relative to the human capability for discerning among phonetically different words. However, one commercial recognizer exhibited over 96-percent rejection accuracy in a noisy environment.

  3. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Edward C; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children's performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults.

  4. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  5. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards. PMID:26809162

  6. Effects of a trampoline exercise intervention on motor performance and balance ability of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Patsiaouras, Asterios; Karra, Chrisanthi; Neofotistou, Konstantina

    2013-09-01

    Balance and motor impairments are most evident among inactive individuals with ID that might be particularly susceptible to a loss of basic functioning and further limit the person's autonomy in activities of daily living. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a 12-week trampoline exercise intervention program on motor and balance ability of school aged children with intellectual disability (ID). Eighteen healthy schools aged children (mean age=10.3 ± 1.6 years) with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=9) or a control group (n=9). The experiment group attended a 12 weeks trampoline training intervention program consisting of daily individualized 20-min sessions, while the control group followed the regular school schedule. Balance was assessed using three tasks of increased difficulty (double-leg stance with eyes opened or closed, and one-leg stance with eyes opened) performed while standing on an electronic pressure platform (EPS). Motor performance of all participants was tested using sit and reach test and long and vertical jump tests all derived from the Eurofit Test Battery of physical fitness. Trampoline intervention resulted in significant improvements of participants' performance in all motor and balance tests. In conclusion, trampoline training can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity programming for improving balance and motor performance. Furthermore, it also supports the idea that individuals with ID require enjoyable and interesting intervention programs such as the trampoline program used in this study so as to remain active and consequently to facilitate their overall development and promote a more active and healthier way of life. PMID:23770889

  7. A Comparison of an Achievement Battery with Two Tests of Ability with Educable Mental Retardates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Ronald C.; Elliott, Charles

    To find the concurrent validity of two scholastic aptitude tests when a scholastic achievement test was used as a criterion for use in placement of mentally retarded children, 127 subjects were involved. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was used as a criterion measure, and the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the Slosson Intelligence…

  8. Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency…

  9. Condition and Co-Ordination Abilities in Motor Performance of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzbarska, Ingrid; Piatkowska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess motor performance of pre-school children and the hierarchy of motor and physical variables. Material and methods: A group of 64 boys and 60 girls aged 5-6 years were subjected to 7 motor tests measuring the condition and co-ordination features. The results were subjected to cluster analysis in order to establish the hierarchy…

  10. Teachers' Ability and Help Attributions and Children's Math Performance and Task Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõeväli, Paula-Karoliina; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the reciprocal relationships between teachers' causal attributions and children's math performance and task persistence. In total, 760 elementary school children and their teachers participated in this study. The children were tested in math twice, at the end of the second and third grades. At both time…

  11. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  12. Me and My Environment Formative Evaluation Report Four: Assessing Student Abilities and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromme, Roy O.

    Presented is the fourth in a series of formative evaluation reports on "Me and My Environment", a 3-year environmental sciences program for 13- to 16-year-old educable mentally handicapped (EMH) children. The rationale and standards for monitoring instructional effectiveness are explained, and student performance is reported on field tests of…

  13. The relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint ability of amputee soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ali; Kayıhan, Gürhan; Köklü, Yusuf; Ergun, Nevin; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects' height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) and somatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m was evaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ) tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobic performance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance in amputee soccer players.

  14. The Relationship Between Body Composition, Anaerobic Performance and Sprint Ability of Amputee Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Ali; Kayıhan, Gürhan; Köklü, Yusuf; Ergun, Nevin; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects’ height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) and somatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m was evaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ) tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobic performance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance in amputee soccer players. PMID:23486067

  15. RHIC Sextant Test -- Physics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Fischer, W.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents beam physics and machine performance results of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Sextant and AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line during the Sextant Test in early 1997. Techniques used to measure both machine properties (difference orbits, dispersion, and beamline optics) and beam parameters (energy, intensity, transverse and longitudinal emittances) are described. Good agreement was achieved between measured and design lattice optics. The gold ion beam quality was shown to approach RHIC design requirements.

  16. Performance testing of large metallic seals

    SciTech Connect

    Leisher, W. B.; Trujillo, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Containment of radioactive material in spent fuel shipping casks can be achieved if the internal cavity pressure boundary is kept intact under both normal and accident conditions. The major potential boundary weakness is the seal used for cask closure. In an effort to evaluate parameters which influence closure seal performance, an experimental program has been undertaken. This paper describes the program, early results, and test hardware.

  17. Testing Devices Garner Data on Insulation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a test instrument that could garner measurements of the thermal performance of insulation under extreme conditions, researchers at Kennedy Space Center devised the Cryostat 1 and then Cryostat 2. McLean, Virginia-based QinetiQ North America licensed the technology and plans to market it to organizations developing materials for things like piping and storage tank insulation, refrigeration, appliances, and consumer goods.

  18. Influence of cycle ergometer characteristics on the adolescents' anaerobic abilities testing.

    PubMed

    Delgado, A; Peres, G; Allemandou, A; Monod, H

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether the reported lower values of anaerobic abilities in children and adolescents, both in absolute and related to bodyweight values, as compared to adults can be explained, partially at least, by a non-optimal testing apparatus. So, they cannot express their anaerobic abilities. Specifically, we examined the force-velocity (F-V) relationship on a mechanical cycle ergometer, in 23 adolescents and 11 adults, with two wheels of very different weights: 6.3 kg (Wh6) and 18 kg (Wh18). A higher wheel inertia might explain a late reach or no reach of the true peak velocity and the maximal anaerobic power (PmaxAn). The adolescent group showed higher Vo (V for zero braking force) values with Wh6 (238 +/- 14 vs 223 +/- 16 rpm) (P < 0.001) than with Wh18. The absolute or relative PmaxAn values for this group were slightly higher, but not significantly, with Wh6 (10.6 +/- 2.2 vs 10.2 +/- 1.9 W/kg). The delay to reach peak velocity was higher with Wh18 than with Wh6 (P < 0.001) in the two groups. In addition, the delay was always higher (P < 0.001) in the adolescent group compared to the adult group for both wheels. This suggests that the fatigue related to the observed late reach and the rapid decrease of power over time could lead to an underestimation of the PmaxAn peak in children.

  19. Flight test of takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.

  20. A meta-analysis of the relationship between general mental ability and nontask performance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mulé, Erik; Mount, Michael K; Oh, In-Sue

    2014-11-01

    Although one of the most well-established research findings in industrial-organizational psychology is that general mental ability (GMA) is a strong and generalizable predictor of job performance, this meta-analytically derived conclusion is based largely on measures of task or overall performance. The primary purpose of this study is to address a void in the research literature by conducting a meta-analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the correlation of GMA with 2 dimensions of nontask performance: counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Overall, the results show that the true-score correlation between GMA and CWB is essentially 0 (-.02, k = 35), although rating source of CWB moderates this relationship. The true-score correlation between GMA and OCB is positive but modest in magnitude (.23, k = 43). The 2nd purpose of this study is to conduct meta-analytic relative weight analyses to determine the relative importance of GMA and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits in predicting nontask and task performance criteria. Results indicate that, collectively, the FFM traits are substantially more important for CWB than GMA, that the FFM traits are roughly equal in importance to GMA for OCB, and that GMA is substantially more important for task and overall job performance than the FFM traits. Implications of these findings for the development of optimal selection systems and the development of comprehensive theories of job performance are discussed along with study limitation and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133304

  1. A meta-analysis of the relationship between general mental ability and nontask performance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mulé, Erik; Mount, Michael K; Oh, In-Sue

    2014-11-01

    Although one of the most well-established research findings in industrial-organizational psychology is that general mental ability (GMA) is a strong and generalizable predictor of job performance, this meta-analytically derived conclusion is based largely on measures of task or overall performance. The primary purpose of this study is to address a void in the research literature by conducting a meta-analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the correlation of GMA with 2 dimensions of nontask performance: counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Overall, the results show that the true-score correlation between GMA and CWB is essentially 0 (-.02, k = 35), although rating source of CWB moderates this relationship. The true-score correlation between GMA and OCB is positive but modest in magnitude (.23, k = 43). The 2nd purpose of this study is to conduct meta-analytic relative weight analyses to determine the relative importance of GMA and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits in predicting nontask and task performance criteria. Results indicate that, collectively, the FFM traits are substantially more important for CWB than GMA, that the FFM traits are roughly equal in importance to GMA for OCB, and that GMA is substantially more important for task and overall job performance than the FFM traits. Implications of these findings for the development of optimal selection systems and the development of comprehensive theories of job performance are discussed along with study limitation and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  3. Eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Colbert-Luke, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Mann, David A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. An eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. Subjects performed above the 12.5% chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. Errors were typically located to either side of the signal source location when presented in the front 180° but were more dispersed when presented from locations behind the subject. Front-to-back confusions were few and accuracy was greater when signals originated from the front 180°. Head-related transfer functions were measured to determine if frequencies were filtered by the manatee body to create frequency-specific interaural level differences (ILDs). ILDs were found for all frequencies as a function of source location, although they were largest with frequencies above 18 kHz and when signals originated to either side of the subjects. Larger ILDs were found when the signals originated behind the subjects. A shadowing-effect produced by the body may explain the relatively low occurrence of front-back confusions in the localization study.

  4. Eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Colbert-Luke, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Mann, David A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. An eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. Subjects performed above the 12.5% chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. Errors were typically located to either side of the signal source location when presented in the front 180° but were more dispersed when presented from locations behind the subject. Front-to-back confusions were few and accuracy was greater when signals originated from the front 180°. Head-related transfer functions were measured to determine if frequencies were filtered by the manatee body to create frequency-specific interaural level differences (ILDs). ILDs were found for all frequencies as a function of source location, although they were largest with frequencies above 18 kHz and when signals originated to either side of the subjects. Larger ILDs were found when the signals originated behind the subjects. A shadowing-effect produced by the body may explain the relatively low occurrence of front-back confusions in the localization study. PMID:25533765

  5. The relation between children’s constructive play activities, spatial ability, and mathematical word problem-solving performance: a mediation analysis in sixth-grade students

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, Meike; Boonen, Anton J. H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children’s spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children’s constructive play and their performance on mathematical word problems is, however, not reported yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial ability acted as a mediator in the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance in 128 sixth-grade elementary school children. This mediating role of spatial ability was tested by utilizing the current mediation approaches suggested by Preacher and Hayes (2008). Results showed that 38.16% of the variance in mathematical word problem-solving performance is explained by children’s constructive play activities and spatial ability. More specifically, spatial ability acted as a partial mediator, explaining 31.58% of the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance. PMID:25101038

  6. Test Length and Cognitive Fatigue: An Empirical Examination of Effects on Performance and Test-Taker Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kanfer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Person and situational determinants of cognitive ability test performance and subjective reactions were examined in the context of tests with different time-on-task requirements. Two hundred thirty-nine first-year university students participated in a within-participant experiment, with completely counterbalanced treatment conditions and test…

  7. Self-Confidence and Performance Goal Orientation Interactively Predict Performance in a Reasoning Test with Accuracy Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Nadin; Beckmann, Jens F.; Elliott, Julian G.

    2009-01-01

    This study takes an individual differences' perspective on performance feedback effects in psychometric testing. A total of 105 students in a mainstream secondary school in North East England undertook a cognitive ability test on two occasions. In one condition, students received item-specific accuracy feedback while in the other (standard…

  8. Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew John; Findlay, Malcolm; Gresty, Karen; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17 kg), junior national level (n=15; age: 15.61, s =1.06 years, stature: 173.86, s =5.72 cm; body mass: 63.27, s =7.17 kg) and intermediate level surfers (n=47; age: 22.47, s =2.80 years, stature: 179.90, s =5.41; body mass: 77.83, s =9.43 kg). The mean somatotype values for the different groups of surfers were found to be 2.48, 5.00 and 1.03 for the professional surfers; 2.18, 3.72 and 3.24 for the junior national surfers and 2.79, 3.57 and 2.42 for the intermediate surfers. Professional surfers were significantly (P < 0.01) more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than intermediate level surfers. Significant correlations were observed between endomorphy (r = -0.399, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.341, P < 0.05), and body fat percentage (r = -0.380, P < 0.01) and the rating of ability among the intermediate group of surfers. Across all participants, the rating of surfer ability was significantly correlated with endomorphy (r = -0.366, P ≤ 0.01), mesomorphy (r = 0.442, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.274, P < 0.05) and body fat percentage (r = -0.268, P < 0.05). Findings suggest that the levels of adiposity and muscularity may influence the potential for progression between intermediate and professional-level surfing performance. PMID:24444202

  9. Comparison of Differences in Dialect Speech among Black College Students Grouped by Standard English Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehl, Siegmar; Muehl, Lois

    1976-01-01

    Black students that were grouped for English ability by their standardized test scores translated a standard English text into black dialect. Analytical data show group differences in dialect facility that correlate to standard English ability, suggesting that language development affects both dialect performance and standard English learning. (RL)

  10. Assessing the Cognitive Abilities of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Predictive Validity of Verbal, Quantitative, and Nonverbal Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Verbal and quantitative reasoning tests provide valuable information about cognitive abilities that are important to academic success. Information about these abilities may be particularly valuable to teachers of students who are English-language learners (ELL), because leveraging reasoning skills to support comprehension is a critical aptitude…

  11. Testing the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model to simulate contributing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengistu, S. G.; Spence, C.

    2016-06-01

    A dry climate, the prevalence of small depressions, and the lack of a well-developed drainage network are characteristics of environments with extremely variable contributing areas to runoff. These types of regions arguably present the greatest challenge to properly understanding catchment streamflow generation processes. Previous studies have shown that contributing area dynamics are important for streamflow response, but the nature of the relationship between the two is not typically understood. Furthermore, it is not often tested how well hydrological models simulate contributing area. In this study, the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model, was tested to determine if it could simulate contributing area. The study focused on the St. Denis Creek watershed in central Saskatchewan, Canada, which with its considerable topographic depressions, exhibits wide variation in contributing area, making it ideal for this type of investigation. MESH-PDMROF was able to replicate contributing area derived independently from satellite imagery. Daily model simulations revealed a hysteretic relationship between contributing area and streamflow not apparent from the less frequent remote sensing observations. This exercise revealed that contributing area extent can be simulated by a semi-distributed hydrological model with a scheme that assumes storage capacity distribution can be represented with a probability function. However, further investigation is needed to determine if it can adequately represent the complex relationship between streamflow and contributing area that is such a key signature of catchment behavior.

  12. Repeated Sprint Ability in Elite Water Polo Players and Swimmers and its Relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Meckel, Yoav; Bishop, David; Rabinovich, Moran; Kaufman, Leonid; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine indices of swimming repeated sprint ability (RSA) in 19 elite water polo players compared to 16 elite swimmers during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST), and to examine the relationships between these indices and aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities in both groups. Indices of RSA were determined by the ideal sprint time (IS), the total sprint time (TS), and the performance decrement (PD) recorded during an 8 x 15-m swimming RST. Single long - (800-m) and short-(25-m) distance swim tests were used to determined indices of aerobic and anaerobic swimming capabilities, respectively. The water polo players exhibited lower RSA swimming indices, as well as lower scores in the single short and long swim distances, compared to the swimmers. Significant relationships were found between the 25- m swim results and the IS and the TS, but not the PD of both the swimmers and the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 800-m swim results and any of the RSA indices in either the swimmers or the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 25-m and the 800-m swim results in either the swimmers or the water polo players. The results indicate that swimmers posses better RSA as well as higher anaerobic and aerobic capabilities, as reflected by the single short- and long-distance swim tests, compared to water polo players. The results also indicate that, as for running and cycling, repeated sprint swim performance is strongly related to single sprint performance. Key Points Elite water polo players demonstrated lower repeated sprint ability (RSA), aerobic and anaerobic capabilities compared to elite swimmers. A 25-m swim trial correlated significantly with ideal sprint time and total sprint time, emphasizing the important contribution of anaerobic metabolism for these exercise types in both water polo players and swimmers. 800-m swim results did not correlate with RSA or 25

  13. Repeated sprint ability in elite water polo players and swimmers and its relationship to aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Yoav; Bishop, David; Rabinovich, Moran; Kaufman, Leonid; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine indices of swimming repeated sprint ability (RSA) in 19 elite water polo players compared to 16 elite swimmers during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST), and to examine the relationships between these indices and aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities in both groups. Indices of RSA were determined by the ideal sprint time (IS), the total sprint time (TS), and the performance decrement (PD) recorded during an 8 x 15-m swimming RST. Single long - (800-m) and short-(25-m) distance swim tests were used to determined indices of aerobic and anaerobic swimming capabilities, respectively. The water polo players exhibited lower RSA swimming indices, as well as lower scores in the single short and long swim distances, compared to the swimmers. Significant relationships were found between the 25- m swim results and the IS and the TS, but not the PD of both the swimmers and the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 800-m swim results and any of the RSA indices in either the swimmers or the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 25-m and the 800-m swim results in either the swimmers or the water polo players. The results indicate that swimmers posses better RSA as well as higher anaerobic and aerobic capabilities, as reflected by the single short- and long-distance swim tests, compared to water polo players. The results also indicate that, as for running and cycling, repeated sprint swim performance is strongly related to single sprint performance. Key PointsElite water polo players demonstrated lower repeated sprint ability (RSA), aerobic and anaerobic capabilities compared to elite swimmers.A 25-m swim trial correlated significantly with ideal sprint time and total sprint time, emphasizing the important contribution of anaerobic metabolism for these exercise types in both water polo players and swimmers.800-m swim results did not correlate with RSA or 25-m

  14. Performance of the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic and the Standardized Difference in Proportions Correct When Population Ability Distributions Are Incongruent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith A.; Miller, Timothy R.

    A popular method of analyzing test items for differential item functioning (DIF) is to compute a statistic that conditions samples of examinees from different populations on an estimate of ability. This conditioning or matching by ability is intended to produce an appropriate statistic that is sensitive to true differences in item functioning,…

  15. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  16. Historical Increase in the Number of Factors Measured by Commercial Tests of Cognitive Ability: Are We Overfactoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A historical increase in the number of factors purportedly measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability may result from four distinct pressures including: increasingly complex models of intelligence, test publishers' desires to provide clinically useful assessment instruments with greater interpretive value, test publishers' desires to…

  17. A Novel Method Testing the Ability to Imitate Composite Emotional Expressions Reveals an Association with Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Nicolson, Andrew T. A.; Clephan, Katie J.; de Grauw, Haro; Perrett, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Social communication relies on intentional control of emotional expression. Its variability across cultures suggests important roles for imitation in developing control over enactment of subtly different facial expressions and therefore skills in emotional communication. Both empathy and the imitation of an emotionally communicative expression may rely on a capacity to share both the experience of an emotion and the intention or motor plan associated with its expression. Therefore, we predicted that facial imitation ability would correlate with empathic traits. We built arrays of visual stimuli by systematically blending three basic emotional expressions in controlled proportions. Raters then assessed accuracy of imitation by reconstructing the same arrays using photographs of participants’ attempts at imitations of the stimuli. Accuracy was measured as the mean proximity of the participant photographs to the target stimuli in the array. Levels of performance were high, and rating was highly reliable. More empathic participants, as measured by the empathy quotient (EQ), were better facial imitators and, in particular, performed better on the more complex, blended stimuli. This preliminary study offers a simple method for the measurement of facial imitation accuracy and supports the hypothesis that empathic functioning may utilise motor control mechanisms which are also used for emotional expression. PMID:23626756

  18. Fuel accident performance testing for small HTRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, W.; Pott, G.; Nabielek, H.

    1990-04-01

    Irradiated spherical fuel elements containing 16400 coated UO 2 particles each were heated at temperatures between 1600 and 1800°C and the fission product release was measured. The demonstrated fission product retention at 1600°C establishes the basis for the design of small modular HTRs which inherently limit the temperature to 1600°C by passive means. In addition to this demonstration, the test data show that modern TRISO fuels provide an ample performance margin: release normally sets in at 1800°C; this occurs at 1600°C only with fuels irradiated under conditions which significantly exceed current reactor design requirements.

  19. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  20. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  1. Theoretical Value Belief, Cognitive Ability, and Personality as Predictors of Student Performance in Object-Oriented Programming Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dianne J.; Cegielski, Casey G.; Wade, James N.

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this article reports the results of a study designed to evaluate the relationship among object-oriented (OO) computer programming task performance and a student's (1) theoretical value belief, (2) cognitive ability, and (3) personality. The results of this study do not support the assertion that cognitive ability is a…

  2. Altering Work to Rest Ratios Differentially Influences Fatigue Indices During Repeated Sprint Ability Testing.

    PubMed

    La Monica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Beyer, Kyle S; Hoffman, Mattan W; Miramonti, Amelia A; Riffe, Josh J; Baker, Kayla M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of recovery time on fatigue indices, performance (total work [TW], peak power [PP], and mean power [MP]), and oxygen consumption during repeated sprint ability (RSA) on a cycle ergometer. Eight recreationally-trained men performed 3 RSA protocols consisting of 10 × 6 s sprints with 12 s, 18 s, and 24 s rest intervals between each sprint. Fatigue indices were determined as percent decrement (%Dec) and rate of decline using either a log transform method or standard slope approach for TW, PP, and MP during respective RSA protocols. The maximal VO2 value in response to given sprint intervals and the minimal VO2 value in response to given rest periods (VO2 work and VO2 rest, respectively) were recorded. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze all variables. Average VO2 work was not different among rest interval trials. Average VO2 rest with 12 s rest was greater than 18 s and 24 s (2.16 ± 0.17 L · min(-1), 1.91 ± 0.18 L · min(-1), 1.72 ± 0.15 L · min(-1), respectively), while 18 s was greater than 24 s. Average TW and MP were greater with 24 s rest than 12 s (4,604.44 ± 915.98 J vs. 4,305.46 ± 727.17 J, respectively), with no differences between RSA protocols for PP. No differences in %Dec were observed. Both methods of calculating rates of decline per sprint for PP and TW were greater during 12 s than 18 s or 24 s. Since changes were only noted between the 12 s and 24 s protocols, a 6 s differential in rest intervals may not be enough to elicit alterations in TW, PP, MP, or %Dec in RSA performance. Rate of decline may be a more sensitive measure of fatigue than %Dec.

  3. Performance, ability to stay awake, and tendency to fall asleep during the night after a diurnal sleep with temazepam or placebo.

    PubMed

    Porcù, S; Bellatreccia, A; Ferrara, M; Casagrande, M

    1997-07-01

    Sleep loss and increased sleepiness on the job are among the most prevalent problems encountered by people involved in night shift work, especially in cases of abrupt shift of the wake-sleep cycle. In such conditions, detrimental effects on performance are well documented. In these situations, to avoid decrements of performance at night, one possibility is to use hypnotics for improving the quality and quantity of daytime sleep. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 20 mg of temazepam on daytime sleep, the subsequent levels of nocturnal alertness/sleepiness, and performance in a laboratory simulation of acute night shift. For evaluating alertness, sleepiness, and performance we used, respectively, the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), and two pencil and paper tests: digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and deux barrages test (DBT). All tests were administered four times at 2-hour intervals during the nighttime after daytime sleep. Results showed that the ability to maintain wakefulness (MWT) and to perform some visuo-attentive tasks were substantially maintained during the night. On the other hand, sleep tendency (MSLT) linearly increased during the night. Temazepam resulted in being an effective diurnal hypnotic, increasing total sleep time with no residual detrimental effects on sleepiness and performance and with an increase in the ability to stay awake.

  4. Parametric testing of coal electrostatic precipitator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Canadas, L.; Navarrete, B.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of internal geometry, electrode type, and operating conditions on the performance of a coal electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been analyzed by means of an extensive parametric testing program. Tests under different conditions of plate spacing, discharge electrodes, gas velocity, and energization wave form have been performed using two extreme coal types, with very high and low resistivity ashes, respectively. The study was made by means of a pilot installation operating with a flue gas slipstream drawn upstream of a power plant ESP. The experimental plant includes a specifically designed pilot ESP, able to admit an internal modification of plate spacing and electrode type. The ESP is equipped with a microprocessor controlled power supply which can generate both continuous and intermittent rectified current. The measured sensitivity of the precipitation process to the dust properties, filter configuration, electrode type, and energization method is presented, covering both the ESP efficiency evolution and the associated power consumption. The results of this work allow to extract practical conclusions about specification of ESP design and size for a given application, and assess the conditions in which use of wide plate spacing, new electrode geometries, or intermittent current are actually advantageous. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  6. Chemical protective clothing; a study into the ability of staff to perform lifesaving procedures

    PubMed Central

    Coates, M.; Jundi, A.; James, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the ability of medical and nursing staff to perform certain tasks while wearing a chemical protection suit with a respirator. Tasks chosen were those that would be required before decontamination. Methods—Ten experienced accident and emergency doctors (middle grade and consultants) and 10 nurses were asked to perform certain tasks that were judged to be life saving, relevant to triage, or necessary to confirm death, on an advanced life support manikin, while wearing a TST-Sweden chemical protection suit. The operators were objectively assessed by one of the authors for achieving each task, then asked to make a subjective assessment of the difficulty experienced. Results—Medical staff were asked to ventilate the manikin using a bag-valve-mask, intubate within 30 seconds, apply monitor electrodes and cables and check cardiac rhythm, apply gel pads and defibrillate safely, and finally, fold the cruciform triage card to show "RED", and attach it to the manikin. All the doctors completed these tasks, except for one, who could only intubate the manikin after several attempts. Nursing staff were asked to open and apply an oxygen mask, adjust oxygen flow, size and insert an oropharyngeal airway, ventilate the manikin using a bag-valve-mask, apply a pressure bandage to a limb, and fold the cruciform triage card to show "YELLOW", and attach it to the manikin. All the nurses completed these tasks. Operators reported varying degrees of difficulty, the most difficult tasks were those requiring fine movements or delicate control. Generally, operators found the butyl rubber gloves cumbersome. Communication difficulties were frequently reported. Although only intubation was formally timed, tasks were perceived to take longer. Some operators found the suits too warm and uncomfortable. Conclusion—Should the need arise, the TST-Sweden chemical protection suits would enable experienced doctors and nurses to perform lifesaving measures effectively

  7. Detection of improvement in the masticatory function from old to new removable partial dentures using mixing ability test.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, A; Fueki, K; Ohyama, T

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the Mixing Ability Test to detect improvement of masticatory function in subjects on transition from old to new removable partial dentures. Thirty-two subjects (seven males, 25 females, mean age 65.0 years) with distal extension partially edentulous area in mandible and/or maxilla participated in the study. The following reasons were presented for replacing the old removable partial dentures with new ones: fracture and/or poor fitness of retainers, extraction of abutment teeth, poor fitness of denture base, severe wear of artificial teeth and request for metal base dentures. Masticatory function with old and new removable partial dentures after an adaptation period (mean 27.4 weeks) was evaluated by the Mixing Ability Test. Subjects were asked to masticate five two-coloured wax cubes with each removable partial denture. Mixing Ability Index was obtained from the colour mixture and shape of the masticated cubes. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference of Mixing Ability Indexes between old and new removable partial dentures. The mixing ability indexes with new removable partial dentures (mean+/- s.d.: 0.70+/- 0.68) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than those with old removable partial dentures (-0.11+/-1.13). The results suggest that the Mixing Ability Test was capable of detecting improvement in masticatory function with new removable partial dentures.

  8. ACCESS: Design, Strategy, and Test Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Pelton, R. S.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Foltz, R.; Gardner, J. P.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in the astrophysical flux scale are needed to answer fundamental scientific questions ranging from cosmology to stellar physics. In particular, the precise calibration of the flux scale across the visible-NIR bandpass is fundamental to the precise determination of dark energy parameters based on SNeIa photometry. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass. The telescope is a Dall-Kirkham Cassegrain with a 15.5-inch primary. The spectrograph is a Rowland circle design, with the grating operating as a low order (m=1-4) echelle, a Fery prism provides cross dispersion, and a HST/WFC3 heritage HAWAII-1R HgCdTe detector is used across the full spectral bandpass. The telescope mirrors have received their flight coatings. The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. Detector characterization testing is in progress (Morris et al.). Fabrication, integration, and automation of the ground-based calibration subsystems are also in progress. The ACCESS design, calibration strategy, and ground-based integration and test results will be presented. Launch is expected this year. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G and DOE DE-FG02-07ER41506 support this work.

  9. Intelligent irrigation performance: evaluation and quantifying its ability for conserving water in arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghobari, Hussein M.; Mohammad, Fawzi S.

    2011-12-01

    Intelligent irrigation technologies have been developed in recent years to apply irrigation to turf and landscape plants. These technologies are an evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation controller, which calculates ET for local microclimate. Then, the controller creates a program for loading and communicating automatically with drip or sprinkler system controllers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new ET sensors in ability to irrigate agricultural crops and to conserve water use for crop in arid climatic conditions. This paper presents the case for water conservation using intelligent irrigation system (IIS) application technology. The IIS for automating irrigation scheduling was implemented and tested with sprinkle and drip irrigation systems to irrigate wheat and tomato crops. Another irrigation scheduling system was also installed and operated as another treatment, which is based on weather data that retrieved from an automatic weather station. This irrigation control system was running in parallel to the former system (IIS) to be control experiments for comparison purposes. However, this article discusses the implementation of IIS, its installation, testing and calibration of various components. The experiments conducted for one growing season 2009-2010 and the results were represented and discussed herein. Data from all plots were analyzed, which were including soil water status, water consumption, and crop yield. The initial results indicate that up to 25% water saving by intelligent irrigation compared to control method, while maintaining competing yield. Results show that the crop evapotranspiration values for control experiments were higher than that of ET-System in consistent trend during whole growth season. The analysis points out that the values of the two treatments were somewhat close to each other's only in the initial development stages. Generally, the ET-System, with some modification was precise in

  10. Baseline strength can influence the ability of salivary free testosterone to predict squat and sprinting performance.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Gaviglio, Chris M; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if salivary free testosterone can predict an athlete's performance during back squats and sprints over time and the influence baseline strength on this relationship. Ten weight-trained male athletes were divided into 2 groups based on their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squats, good squatters (1RM > 2.0 × body weight, n = 5) and average squatters (1RM < 1.9 × body weight, n = 5). The good squatters were stronger than the average squatters (p < 0.05). Each subject was assessed for squat 1RM and 10-m sprint times on 10 separate occasions over a 40-day period. A saliva sample was collected before testing and assayed for free testosterone and cortisol. The pooled testosterone correlations were strong and significant in the good squatters (r = 0.92 for squats, r = -0.87 for sprints, p < 0.01), but not significant for the average squatters (r = 0.35 for squats, r = -0.18 for sprints). Cortisol showed no significant correlations with 1RM squat and 10-m sprint performance, and no differences were identified between the 2 squatting groups. In summary, these results suggest that free testosterone is a strong individual predictor of squat and sprinting performance in individuals with relatively high strength levels but a poor predictor in less strong individuals. This information can assist coaches, trainers, and performance scientists working with stronger weight-trained athletes, for example, the preworkout measurement of free testosterone could indicate likely training outcomes or a readiness to train at a certain intensity level, especially if real-time measurements are made. Our results also highlight the need to separate group and individual hormonal data during the repeated testing of athletes with variable strength levels.

  11. Teaching and Testing Solutions to the Problem of Debilitating Effects of Test Anxiety on Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kennedy T.; Horton, Margaret W.

    Educational solutions to the problem of test anxiety were explored. Test anxiety has a debilitating effect on performance which increases over the school years. The solution is, first, to measure test anxiety so that the extent of it, as well as the effectiveness of programs designed to alleviate it, can be measured. The seven-item Comfort Index,…

  12. Testing the ability of different seismic detections approaches to monitor aftershocks following a moderate magnitude event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Paula; Díaz, Jordi; Ruiz, Mario; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Gomez-García, Clara

    2016-04-01

    The detection and picking of seismic events is a permanent concern for seismic surveying, in particular when dealing with aftershocks of moderate magnitude events. Many efforts have been done to find the balance between computer efficiency and the robustness of the detection methods. In this work, data recorded by a high density seismic network deployed following a 5.2 magnitude event located close to Albacete, SE Spain, is used to test the ability of classical and recently proposed detection methodologies. Two days after the main shock, occurred the 23th February, a network formed by 11 stations from ICTJA-CSIC and 2 stations from IGN were deployed over the region, with inter-station distances ranging between 5 and 10 km. The network remained in operation until April 6th, 2015 and allowed to manually identify up to 552 events with magnitudes from 0.2 to 3.5 located in an area of just 25 km2 inside the network limits. The detection methods here studied applied are the classical STA/LTA, a power spectral method, a detector based in the Benford's law and a waveform similarity method. The STA/LTA method, based in the comparison of background noise and seismic signal amplitudes, is taken as a reference to evaluate the results arising from the other approaches. The power spectral density method is based in the inspection of the characteristic frequency pattern associated to seismic events. The Benford's Law detector analyses the distribution of the first-digit of displacement count in the histogram of a seismic waveform, considering that only the windows containing seismic wave arrivals will match the logarithmic law. Finally, the waveform similarity method is based in the analysis of the normalized waveform amplitude, detecting those events with waveform similar to a previously defined master event. The aim of this contribution is to inspect the ability of the different approaches to accurately detect the aftershocks events for this kind of seismic crisis and to

  13. RHIC Sextant Test --- Physics and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Fischer, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, J. M.; Brown, K.; Connolly, R.; dell, G. F.; Harrison, M.; Kewisch, J.; Mackay, W. W.; Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Thompson, P.; Trahern, C. G.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents beam physics and machine performance results of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Sextant and AGS-to-RHIC (ATR) transfer line during the Sextant test in early 1997. Techniques used to measure both machine properties (difference orbits, dispersion, and beamline optics) and beam parameters (energy, intensity, transverse and longitudinal emittances) are described. The flexibility of the ATR and RHIC Sextant lattices is demonstrated by a widely tunable range of phase advance per cell. Longitudinal tomography is employed to reconstruct beam motion in phase space. Digitized two-dimensional video profile monitors are used to measure transverse beam emittances and beamline optics. The gold ion beam parameters are shown to be comparable to the RHIC design requirements.

  14. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance Tested Method 060401.

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. A previous AOAC Performance Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. In this Emergency Response Validation extension, creamy peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser. Typhimurium. For low contamination level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.5 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method. For high-level and uninoculated control there was 100% agreement between the methods. PMID:20166612

  15. Test performance of the PARSEC laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabien, Sebastian; Davies, Richard I.; Ott, Thomas; Li, Jianlang; Abuter, Roberto; Kellner, Stefan; Neumann, Udo

    2004-10-01

    The PARSEC laser system is designed for the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility to deliver a high power cw laser beam at 589nm, in order to create an artificial guide star in the mesospheric Sodium layer. The laser consists of a resonant, dye based power amplifier which is injection seeded with 589nm, single frequency radiation from a master oscillator. We report on the performance of the system both during the European Acceptance tests, and that which has been achieved in the laboratory. The maximum power we have obtained amounts to 20W cw laser light in a single mode and a single frequency at 589nm. With a beam quality of M2 of 1.05-1.15 and a long term stability without manual intervention, the laser suits all the demands for operation at the VLT.

  16. Detonation Performance Testing of LX-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Samuel; Aslam, Tariq; Jackson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    CL-20 was developed at the Naval Surface Weapons Center at China Lake, CA in the mid 80's. Being less sensitive than PETN, but considerably more powerful than HMX, it is the highest energy and density compound known among organic chemicals. LX-19 was developed at LLNL in the early 90's. It is a high-energy plastic bonded explosive, composed of 95.8 wt% CL-20 and 4.2 wt% Estane binder, and is similar to LX-14 (composed of HMX and Estane), but with greater sensitivity characteristics with use of the more energetic CL-20 explosive. We report detonation performance results for unconfined cylindrical rate sticks of LX-19. The experimental diameter effects are shown, along with detonation front shapes, and reaction zone profiles for different test diameters. This data is critical for calibration to Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). LA-UR-15-20672.

  17. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Niileksela, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    "The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities" (WJ IV COG) is an individually administered measure of psychometric intellectual abilities designed for ages 2 to 90+. The measure was published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-Riverside in 2014. Frederick Shrank, Kevin McGrew, and Nancy Mather are the authors. Richard Woodcock, the…

  18. New Models of the Structure of Intellectual Abilities: Implications for Testing and Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    The problem of the structure of human abilities is approached within the framework of higher order confirmatory factor analysis. Non-hierarchical models suggested by Thurstone and Guilford are reviewed, and it is concluded that these models fail to give a theoretically and practically useful representation of the organization of human abilities.…

  19. Verbal Ability and Delinquency: Testing the Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.; Frick, Paul J.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Aucoin, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Impaired verbal abilities are one of the most consistent risk factors for serious antisocial and delinquent behavior. However, individuals with psychopathic traits often show serious antisocial behavior, despite showing no impairment in their verbal abilities. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine whether psychopathy…

  20. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance-Tested Method 060401.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa; Lindhardt, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. The AOAC Performance-Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. When the foods were inoculated with Salmonella spp. at levels ranging from low [0.23-1.08 colony forming units (CFU)/25 g] to high (2.3-6.0 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.9 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the ISO 6579:2002 reference method. Singlepath Salmonella gave a false-positive rate of 7.3% and a false-negative rate of 2.5%. For the inclusivity study, all 105 Salmonella serovars reacted with Singlepath Salmonella. For the exclusivity study, 58 non-Salmonella spp. were tested. There were no cross-reactions with Singlepath Salmonella from these strains. PMID:16640289

  1. AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Orueta, Unai; Garcia-López, Cristina; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Climent, Gema; Narbona, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neuropsychological tests used to evaluate attention processes in children lack ecological validity. The AULA Nesplora (AULA) is a continuous performance test, developed in a virtual setting, very similar to a school classroom. The aim of the present study is to analyze the convergent validity between the AULA and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of Conners. The AULA and CPT were administered correlatively to 57 children, aged 6-16 years (26.3% female) with average cognitive ability (IQ mean = 100.56, SD = 10.38) who had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Spearman correlations analyses were conducted among the different variables. Significant correlations were observed between both tests in all the analyzed variables (omissions, commissions, reaction time, and variability of reaction time), including for those measures of the AULA based on different sensorial modalities, presentation of distractors, and task paradigms. Hence, convergent validity between both tests was confirmed. Moreover, the AULA showed differences by gender and correlation to Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory indexes of the WISC-IV, supporting the relevance of IQ measures in the understanding of cognitive performance in ADHD. In addition, the AULA (but not Conners' CPT) was able to differentiate between ADHD children with and without pharmacological treatment for a wide range of measures related to inattention, impulsivity, processing speed, motor activity, and quality of attention focus. Additional measures and advantages of the AULA versus Conners' CPT are discussed.

  2. The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Assessment--The Test of Ability to Explain for Zulu-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarsh, Barbara; Alant, Erna

    2006-01-01

    A culturally appropriate test, The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children (TATE-ZC), was developed to measure verbal problem solving skills of rural, Zulu-speaking, primary school children. Principles of "non-biased" assessment, as well as emic (culture specific) and etic (universal) aspects of intelligence formed the theoretical…

  3. Investigation of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to Predict WISC-R Full Scale IQ for Referred Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Anna H.; O'Neal, Marcia R.

    A public school district in Alabama uses the Otis Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) in place of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) (WISC-R) as a screening device for students who are referred for possible special education placement. To determine the relationship between the two tests, Pearson product moment correlation…

  4. Recent Developments in Language Assessment and the Case of Four Large-Scale Tests of ESOL Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys recent developments and validation activities related to four large-scale tests of L2 English ability: the iBT TOEFL, the IELTS, the FCE, and the TOEIC. In addition to describing recent changes to these tests, the paper reports on validation activities that were conducted on the measures. The results of this research…

  5. Utility of Repeated Assessment After Invalid Baseline Neurocognitive Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Philip; Kelley, Timothy; Ott, Summer D.; Solomon, Gary S.; Elbin, R. J.; Higgins, Kate; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although the prevalence of invalid baseline neurocognitive testing has been documented, and repeated administration after obtaining invalid results is recommended, no empirical data are available on the utility of repeated assessment after obtaining invalid baseline results. Objective: To document the utility of readministering neurocognitive testing after an invalid baseline test. Design: Case series. Setting: Schools, colleges, and universities. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 156 athletes who obtained invalid results on ImPACT baseline neurocognitive testing and were readministered the ImPACT baseline test within a 2-week period (mean = 4 days). Main Outcome Measure(s): Overall prevalence of invalid results on reassessment, specific invalidity indicators at initial and follow-up baseline, dependent-samples analysis of variance, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results  Reassessment resulted in valid test results for 87.2% of the sample. Poor performance on the Design Memory and Three-Letter subscales were the most common reasons for athletes obtaining an invalid baseline result, on both the initial assessment and the reassessment. Significant improvements were noted on all ImPACT composite scores except for Reaction Time on reassessment. Of note, 40% of athletes showed slower reaction time scores on reassessment, perhaps reflecting a more cautious approach taken the second time. Invalid results were more likely to be obtained by athletes with a self-reported history of attention-deficit disorder or learning disability on reassessments (35%) than on initial baseline assessments (10%). Conclusions: Repeat assessment after the initial invalid baseline performance yielded valid results in nearly 90% of cases. Invalid results on a follow-up assessment may be influenced by a history of attention-deficit disorder or learning disability, the skills and abilities of the individual, or a particular test-taking approach; in these

  6. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to…

  7. Influence of Design Training and Spatial Solution Strategies on Spatial Ability Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that spatial ability improves through training. This study investigated the following: (1) whether design training enhances spatial ability and (2) whether differing solution strategies are applied or generated following design training. On the basis of these two research objectives, this study divided the…

  8. Metalinguistic Abilities of Young Hearing-Impaired Children: Performance on a Judgment of Synonomy Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Deborah L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Metalinguistic abilities of 20 hearing-impaired children, aged 4-10, were assessed by asking them to judge synonymy of sentence pairs presented in Signed English, Pidgin Sign English, and American Sign Language. None of the children had developed metalinguistic abilities in any of the sign language systems. (Author/JDD)

  9. The Relationship between Sex Differences and Reading Ability: A Study of Children's Performance in an Israeli Kibbutz System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alice Dzen

    This study tested two long-standing assumptions in education: that reading ability in the elementary grades is differentiated by sex and that boys experience a higher incidence of reading disability than do girls. In addition, three biological explanations for this difference were tested: maturational lag, cerebral dominance, and vulnerability of…

  10. Ability Testing in the 1980's and Beyond: Some Major Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the changes in psychological testing and the rapidity of their development. Describes trends in the role of the test user, technical methodology of test construction, and interpretation of test scores. (Author)

  11. The Impact of Songwriting, Dramatization, and Performance on Third Graders' Ability To Learn and Retain Social Studies Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Deborah

    A study examined the impact of song writing, dramatization, and performance on third graders' ability to learn and retain social studies concepts. Students (n=18) were taught a unit on natural land forms and bodies of water in which they dramatized and performed songs which incorporated the main ideas of each unit. Upon completion of each unit,…

  12. Effects of Test Familiarization on SAT Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Alderman, Donald L.

    1983-01-01

    Prepublication copies of an extensive test familiarization booklet were sent to a random sample of Scholastic Aptitude Test candidates. The booklet had little, if any, effect on test scores, but it did alter examinees' tendencies to omit questions and improved their confidence with various aspects of test taking. (Author/PN)

  13. Cross-Year Comparison of Test-Retest MCAT Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Marcia S.; Feitz, Robert H.

    1976-01-01

    Scores were examined for students who repeated the Medical School Admissions Test (MCAT) within the same calendar year for years 1970-74. Nearly all repeaters showed improvement, low ability groups more and high ability students less. No pattern of greater MCAT improvement over time was found. (JT)

  14. Relationship of Temporal Lobe Volumes to Neuropsychological Test Performance in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain volumes and neurobehavioral function in healthy…

  15. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests,…

  16. Testing the Self-Efficacy-Performance Linkage of Social-Cognitive Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allison W.; Rainer, R. Kelly, Jr.; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Thompson, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy Performance Model (ability to perform a task is influenced by an individual's belief in their capability). Tests this model with a sample of 776 university employees and computer-related knowledge and skills. Results supported Bandura's thesis. Includes statistical tables and a discussion of related…

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Pt. 665, App. A Appendix A to Part 665—Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility The eight tests to be performed on...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 665 - Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Pt. 665, App. A Appendix A to Part 665—Tests To Be Performed at the Bus Testing Facility The eight tests to be performed on...

  19. Psychological Effects of Immediate Knowledge of Results and Adaptive Ability Testing. Research Report 76-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    The effects of providing immediate knowledge of results (KR) and adaptive testing on test anxiety and test-taking motivation were investigated. Also studied was the accuracy of student perceptions of the difficulty of adaptive and conventional tests administered with or without immediate knowledge of results. Testees were 350 college students…

  20. Robustness of Ability Estimation to Multidimensionality in CAST with Implications to Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanwei; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2006-01-01

    Computer Adaptive Sequential Testing (CAST) is a test delivery model that combines features of the traditional conventional paper-and-pencil testing and item-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The basic structure of CAST is a panel composed of multiple testlets adaptively administered to examinees at different stages. Current applications…

  1. Empirical and Simulation Studies of Flexilevel Ability Testing. Research Report No. 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    A 40-item flexilevel test and a 40-item conventional test were compared using data obtained through (1) computer-administration of the two tests to three groups of college students, and (2) monte carlo simulation of test response patterns. Results indicated the flexilevel score distribution better reflected the underlying normal distribution of…

  2. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

  3. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of life, there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory during this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school age…

  4. Precursors of Language Ability and Academic Performance: An Intergenerational, Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…

  5. Teachers See What Ability Scores Cannot: Predicting Student Performance with Challenging Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Jennifer L.; Gubbins, E. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Teacher nominations of students are commonly used in gifted and talented identification systems to supplement psychometric measures of reasoning ability. In this study, second grade teachers were requested to nominate approximately one fourth of their students as having high learning potential in the year prior to the students' participation…

  6. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  7. Is Cognitive Ability a Liability? A Critique and Future Research Agenda on Skilled Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Over a century of psychological research provides strong and consistent support for the idea that cognitive ability correlates positively with success in tasks that people face in employment, education, and everyday life. Recent experimental research, however, has converged on a different and provocative conclusion, namely that lower-ability…

  8. Effect of Person Cluster on Accuracy of Ability Estimation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in K-12 Education Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…

  9. An Investigation into the Use of Cognitive Ability Tests in the Identification of Gifted Students in Design and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twissell, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether MidYIS and YELLIS cognitive ability tests (CATs) are appropriate methods for the identification of giftedness in Design and Technology. A key rationale for the study was whether CATs and able to identify those students with the aptitudes considered of importance to identifying giftedness in Design and Technology and…

  10. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  11. A Theory-based Approach to the Measurement of Foreign Language Learning Ability: The CANAL-F Theory and Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Ehrman, Madeline E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rationale, description, and partial construct validation of a new theory of foreign language aptitude: CANAL-F--Cognitive Ability for Novelty in Acquisition of Language (foreign). The theory was applied and implemented in a test of foreign language aptitude (CANAL-FT). Outlines the CANAL-F theory and details of its instrumentation…

  12. The role of rotational hand movements and general motor ability in children’s mental rotation performance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Petra; Kellner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mental rotation of visual images of body parts and abstract shapes can be influenced by simultaneous motor activity. Children in particular have a strong coupling between motor and cognitive processes. We investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement performed by rotating a knob on mental rotation performance in primary school-age children (N = 83; age range: 7.0–8.3 and 9.0–10.11 years). In addition, we assessed the role of motor ability in this relationship. Boys in the 7- to 8-year-old group were faster when mentally and manually rotating in the same direction than in the opposite direction. For girls and older children this effect was not found. A positive relationship was found between motor ability and accuracy on the mental rotation task: stronger motor ability related to improved mental rotation performance. In both age groups, children with more advanced motor abilities were more likely to adopt motor processes to solve mental rotation tasks if the mental rotation task was primed by a motor task. Our evidence supports the idea that an overlap between motor and visual cognitive processes in children is influenced by motor ability. PMID:26236262

  13. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

  14. Evaluation of the running-based anaerobic sprint test as a measure of repeated sprint ability in collegiate-level soccer players.

    PubMed

    Keir, Daniel A; Thériault, Francis; Serresse, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) refers to an individual's ability to perform maximal sprints of short duration in succession with little recovery between sprints. The running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) has been adapted from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) protocol as a tool to assess RSA and anaerobic power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between performance variables and physiological responses obtained during the RAST and the WAnT using 8 collegiate-level soccer players. Participants performed a single trial of both the WAnT and the RAST. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was monitored throughout each trial, and blood lactate (BL) measures were recorded postexercise. The oxygen uptake (VO2) profile suggested that the RAST required greater contributions from aerobic metabolism although there was no difference in VO2peak (p < 0.05). Peak BL values were also similar between the RAST and the WAnT (p < 0.05). Neither peak physiological values nor performance variables (peak and mean power) were significantly correlated between protocols. The weak association in physiological responses indicates that different combinations of metabolic contributions exist between protocols, suggesting that individual performances on each test are not related in collegiate soccer players. Further studies on these relationships with players of other competitive levels and team sport athletes are warranted.

  15. The Effect of Individual Differences in Abilities on Interpreting the Dimensionality of Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, M. J.; And Others

    The problem of interpreting the dimensionality underlying binary test data is addressed. Medical school students were tested on both achievement and aptitude measures. The person-by-test (aptitude) interaction matrix was factor-analyzed to identify patterns of individual differences. The resultant groups of similar patterns were used as the…

  16. Faster on Easy Items, More Accurate on Difficult Ones: Cognitive Ability and Performance on a Task of Varying Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodonova, Yulia A.; Dodonov, Yury S.

    2013-01-01

    Using more complex items than those commonly employed within the information-processing approach, but still easier than those used in intelligence tests, this study analyzed how the association between processing speed and accuracy level changes as the difficulty of the items increases. The study involved measuring cognitive ability using Raven's…

  17. Performance of Four Multivariate Tests under Variance-Covariance Heteroscedasticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, K. Linda; Algina, James

    1993-01-01

    Type I error rates of four multivariate tests (Pilai-Bartlett trace, Johansen's test, James' first-order test, and James' second-order test) were compared for heterogeneous covariance matrices in 360 simulated experiments. The superior performance of Johansen's test and James' second-order test is discussed. (SLD)

  18. Factor analysis of perceptual and cognitive abilities tested by different methods.

    PubMed

    Kinney, J A; Luria, S M

    1980-02-01

    A battery of visual, perceptual, and cognitive tests, believed to be important for operation of visual sonar displays, was administered to 100 sonar technicians. The measures varied from standard paper-and-pencil tests to computer-administered perceptual tasks. The results of 33 different measures on these men were compiled and subjected to a factor analysis. The factors extracted represent cohesive and reasonable groups which cut, to some extent, across testing techniques. However, all of the paper-and-pencil, perceptual-cognitive tests had high loadings on the same common factor, a result with general implications for occupational testing.

  19. 40 CFR 63.7 - Performance testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (2) Individual performance tests may be waived upon written application to the Administrator if, in... application for a waiver of an initial performance test shall accompany the information required for the..., the application for a waiver of an initial performance test shall be submitted at least 60 days...

  20. Predicted and tested performance of durable TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The development of thermal protection systems (TPS) for aerospace vehicles involves combining material selection, concept design, and verification tests to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. The present paper reviews verification tests of two metallic and one carbon-carbon thermal protection system. The test conditions are, in general, representative of Space Shuttle design flight conditions which may be more or less severe than conditions required for future space transportation systems. The results of this study are intended to help establish a preliminary data base from which the designers of future entry vehicles can evaluate the applicability of future concepts to their vehicles.

  1. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  2. Performance in a Visual Search Task Uniquely Predicts Reading Abilities in Third-Grade Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence,…

  3. Instructional Approaches on Science Performance, Attitude and Inquiry Ability in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chen, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an inquiry-based learning (IBL) approach compared to that of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach on learner performance, attitude toward science and inquiry ability. Ninety-six students from three 7th-grade classes at a public school were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. All…

  4. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  5. A Corpus-Driven Investigation of Chinese English Learners' Performance of Verb-Noun Collocation: A Case Study of "Ability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    The paper makes a contrastive study on the performance of verb-noun collocation given by Chinese EFL learners based on the CLEC, ICLE and BNC. First, all the concordance lines with the token "ability" in the CLEC were collected and analyzed. Then, they were tagged manually in order to sort out the sentences in the verb-noun collocation…

  6. Evaluating Elementary-Aged Students' Abilities to Generalize and Maintain Fluency Gains of a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hier, Bridget O.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined…

  7. Intrinsic Motivation and Its Determinants as Factors Enhancing the Prediction of Job Performance from Ability. Research Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Ann

    The primary purpose of the present research was to explore the relationship of ability and intrinsic motivation in the prediction of job performance. Intrinsic motivation was traced to two primary determinants. One, an organizational factor, is the extent to which an employee's job is "enriched," or incorporates challenging elements such as…

  8. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  9. Satellite baseband processor test performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaneyfelt, J. T.; Attwood, S. W.; Carroll, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A satellite baseband processor (BBP) has been developed for the NASA Lewis 30/20 GHz Satellite Communications Program. The BBP design, reported elsewhere, has been implemented in a proof-of-concept (POC) model. The results of the laboratory system tests of the POC are summarized. Bit error rate test results are presented for the FDM/TDMA communication system operating at 27.5, 110, and 550 Mbps over a variety of operating conditions. The results clearly demonstrate the applicability of baseband processing to future high capacity satellite communication system concepts. A brief description of the system concept, its function, and the role of the baseband processor are presented. The test conditions and means of simulation are also described. The methods of test evaluation and their significance in a system context are given.

  10. 40 CFR 60.104a - Performance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the test methods in 40 CFR part 60, Appendices A-1 through A-8 or other methods as specified in this... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.104a Section 60... tests. (a) The owner or operator shall conduct a performance test for each FCCU, FCU, sulfur...

  11. Aflatoxin plate kit. Performance Tested Method 081003.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Arthur; Fan, Titan; LaBudde, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The level of total aflatoxin contamination was analyzed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples of corn and peanut using the Aflatoxin Plate Kit. This kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for rapid testing of grains and peanuts. The assay was evaluated for ruggedness and linearity of the standard curve. The test kit results were then statistically evaluated for accuracy, precision, and correlation to a validated HPLC method (AOAC 994.08). The results were verified by an independent laboratory.

  12. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia.

    PubMed

    Teng, E L; Hasegawa, K; Homma, A; Imai, Y; Larson, E; Graves, A; Sugimoto, K; Yamaguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Chiu, D

    1994-01-01

    The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) has a score range of 0 to 100 and provides quantitative assessment on attention, concentration, orientation, short-term memory, long-term memory, language abilities, visual construction, list-generating fluency, abstraction, and judgment. Scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Modified Mini-Mental State Test, and the Hasegawa Dementia Screening Scale can also be estimated from subsets of the CASI items. Pilot testing conducted in Japan and in the United States has demonstrated its cross-cultural applicability and its usefulness in screening for dementia, in monitoring disease progression, and in providing profiles of cognitive impairment. Typical administration time is 15 to 20 minutes. Record form, manual, videotape of test administration, and quizzes to qualify potential users on the administration and scoring of the CASI are available upon request.

  13. Age-related physical fitness and the predictive values of fitness tests for work ability in home care work.

    PubMed

    Pohjonen, T

    2001-08-01

    Despite the widespread assessment of physical fitness in occupational medicine and health services, only a few validity studies have been made of the fitness tests used in relation to job demands. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical fitness of female home care workers (n = 132) in relation to age and to evaluate whether the fitness tests used predict work ability over a 5-year period of follow-up. Muscle endurance declined by 18% to 37%, and isometric muscle strength by 10% to 18%, from the youngest (21 to 35 years) to the oldest (45 to 59 years) age group. The proportion of those subjects who could be classified below the average age-related fitness categories according to the maximal oxygen consumption was highest (50%) for the 21-to-35 age group. The logistic regression model showed that obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 7.51) and poor results on the sit-up (OR, 8.9), balance (OR, 6.5), and weight-lifting (OR, 4.6) tests predicted the highest risk for reduced work ability, according to the work ability index used in the 5-year follow-up. Moreover, average results for the trunk side-bending test (OR, 4.6), poor results for the squatting test (OR, 3.8), poor knee extension strength (OR, 4.2), and the average maximal oxygen consumption (l.min-1) (OR, 3.1) indicated a high risk for reduction in work ability. The physical fitness tests were strongly associated with the physical demands of home care work and were relevant for the evaluation of work-related fitness among home care workers.

  14. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Eva M; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person's visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject's "attentional impulsivity". In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors.

  15. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Eva M.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80–100%) performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning.Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1) a measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e., a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability; and (2) subject’s “attentional impulsivity”. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1) failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject) the present predictors. PMID:25147518

  16. Assessing the Unidimensionality of the School and College Ability Test (SCAT, Spanish Version) Using Non-Parametric Methods Based on Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touron, Javier; Lizasoain, Luis; Joaristi, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the dimensional structure of the Spanish version of the School and College Ability Test, employed in the process for the identification of students with high intellectual abilities. This test measures verbal and mathematical (or quantitative) abilities at three levels of difficulty: elementary (3rd, 4th, and 5th…

  17. Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

    2008-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

  18. Evaluating Maintenance Performance: The Development of Graphic Symbolic Substitutes for Criterion Referenced Job Task Performance Tests for Electronic Maintenance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.; Foley, John P., Jr.

    A battery of criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests (JTPT) was developed because paper and pencil tests of job knowledge and electronic theory had very poor criterion-related or empirical validity with respect to the ability of electronic maintenance men to perform their job. Although the original JTPT required the use of actual…

  19. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  20. Interfering Effects of Test Anxiety on Test Performance: A Growing Educational Problem and Solutions to It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kennedy T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews a 20-year program of research on motivation and test performance, concluding that test anxiety and test-taking skill deficits are distorting factors in efforts to test student aptitude, achievement, and competency. (FL)

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Test Preparation and "TOEFL iBT"® Performance. Research Report. ETS RR-14-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between test preparation and test performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® exam. Information on background variables and test preparation strategies was gathered from 14,593 respondents in China through an online survey. A Chinese standardized English test was used as a control for prior English ability.…

  2. Optical performance test & analysis of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junoh

    Cataract is a condition in the eye that if left untreated, could lead to blindness. One of the effective ways to treat cataract is the removal of the cataractous natural crystalline lens and implantation of an artificial lens called an intraocular lens(IOL). The designs of the IOLs have shown improvements over the years to further imitate natural human vision. A need for an objective testing and analysis tool for the latest IOLs grow with the advancements of the IOLs. In this dissertation, I present a system capable of objective test and analysis of the advanced IOLs. The system consists of (1) Model eye into which an IOL can be inserted to mimic conditions of the human eye. (2) Modulation Transfer Function measurement setup capable of through-focus test for depth of field studies and polychromatic test for study of effects of chromatization. (3) Use of Defocus Transfer Function to simulate depth of field characteristic of rotationally symmetric multifocal designs and extension of the function to polychromatic conditions. (4) Several target imaging experiments for comparison of stray light artifacts and simulation using a non-sequential ray trace package.

  3. Measuring Speaking Skills through Multidimensional Performance Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of students' real communication capabilities by investigating the target language use in monologue, dialogue, and conversational "multilogue" situations. It explores Japanese college students' oral English proficiency by focusing on the linguistic and pragmatic aspects in six types of teaching tests: (1)…

  4. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.

    PubMed

    Groffman, P M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  5. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  6. High performance cellulose nanocomposites: comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Koon-Yang; Tammelin, Tekla; Schulfter, Kerstin; Kiiskinen, Harri; Samela, Juha; Bismarck, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the surface and bulk properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC), as well as their reinforcing ability in polymer nanocomposites. BC possesses higher critical surface tension of 57 mN m(-1) compared to NFC (41 mN m(-1)). The thermal degradation temperature in both nitrogen and air atmosphere of BC was also found to be higher than that of NFC. These results are in good agreement with the higher crystallinity of BC as determined by XRD, measured to be 71% for BC as compared to NFC of 41%. Nanocellulose papers were prepared from BC and NFC. Both papers possessed similar tensile moduli and strengths of 12 GPa and 110 MPa, respectively. Nanocomposites were manufactured by impregnating the nanocellulose paper with an epoxy resin using vacuum assisted resin infusion. The cellulose reinforced epoxy nanocomposites had a stiffness and strength of approximately ∼8 GPa and ∼100 MPa at an equivalent fiber volume fraction of 60 vol.-%. In terms of the reinforcing ability of NFC and BC in a polymer matrix, no significant difference between NFC and BC was observed. PMID:22839594

  7. The Pillbox Test: an ecological measure of executive functioning and estimate of medication management abilities.

    PubMed

    Zartman, Andrea L; Hilsabeck, Robin C; Guarnaccia, Charles A; Houtz, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Studies indicate that executive functioning (EF) is a strong predictor of everyday function. However, assessment can be problematic as no single standardized instrument is known to measure all EF domains simultaneously. Thus, the Pillbox Test was developed as a new measure tapping four EF factors through the real-time assessment of medication management, a complex instrumental activity of daily living. The Pillbox Test showed good criterion-related validity and was effective in differentiating graduated levels of executive dysfunction between a mixed neurological group, medical control group, and healthy community control group. This test also showed good convergent validity as it correlated significantly in expected directions with established EF measures in all four of selected EF domains and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status. Finally, a receiver operator characteristic curve found a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 87.5%, suggesting that the Pillbox Test is a promising new ecological measure of EF.

  8. SIMS prototype system 4 - performance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water was evaluated. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies its suitability for field installation.

  9. Feasibility Investigation for Performing Fireball Temperature Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kurtz, Joe

    1997-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested by the Launch Abort Subpanel and the Power Systems Subpanel of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel to investigate the feasibility of using spectroscopic techniques to measure propellant fireball gas temperatures. This report outlines the modeling and experimental approaches and results of this investigation. Descriptions of the theoretical particle temperature and mass effusion models are presented along with the results of the survivability of small plutonium dioxide (less than or equal to 1000 microns diameter) particles entrained in various propellant fireball scenarios. The experimental test systems used to measure the hydroxide radical, water, and particle graybody spectral emissions and absorptions are discussed. Spectral results along with temperatures extracted by analyzing the spectral features are presented for the flames investigated in the laboratory environment. Methods of implementing spectroscopic measurements for future testing using the WSTF Large-scale Hydrogen/Oxygen Explosion Facility are discussed, and the accuracy expected for these measurements is estimated from laboratory measurements.

  10. Watkins-Farnum Revisited: Application of Modern Test Theory to Music Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Kathleen

    A study was proposed to determine to what extent a hierarchical structure exists in music and in tests used to measure music ability. The first research question was whether items in the Watkins-Farnum Performance Scale (J. Watkins and S. Farnum, 1954) (WFPS) form a hierarchy, so that early exercises (bars played) are generally easier than later…

  11. ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

  13. Ability Level Estimation of Students on Probability Unit via Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özyurt, Hacer; Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Learning-teaching activities bring along the need to determine whether they achieve their goals. Thus, multiple choice tests addressing the same set of questions to all are frequently used. However, this traditional assessment and evaluation form contrasts with modern education, where individual learning characteristics are…

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters and transmitting ability for Minnesota Johne’s milk ELISA test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total number of 45,907 results for Johne’s Milk ELISA test were received from Minnesota DHIA, of which 40,177 records were from herds with at least one positive Johne’s cow. Pedigree information was available for 19,304 Holstein cows from AIPL USDA representing 22,694 total records. Milk ELISA opt...

  15. Misconceptions about the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test: A Commentary of Concerns and Disagreements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Ford, Donna Y.

    2015-01-01

    Black and Hispanic students are undeniably underidentified as gifted and underrepresented in gifted education. The underrepresentation of the two largest groups of "minority" students is long-standing, dating several decades, and is a serious area of contention. Most debates focus on the efficacy of traditional intelligence tests with…

  16. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  17. The Consequence of Consequence: Motivation, Anxiety, and Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lisa F.; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships of test consequence, motivation, anxiety, and performance were studied with 158 undergraduates taking a child development course. Results indicated that test consequence (grade or no grade) had a strong influence on motivation and a modest influence on performance. Motivation and anxiety had opposite effects on performance. (SLD)

  18. The Thai version of the German Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT): description of the test and performance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Pracharitpukdee, N; Phanthumchinda, K; Huber, W; Willmes, K

    1998-06-01

    The Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), originally developed as a test for aphasia language disorders in Germany, consists of six spontaneous speech rating scales and five subtests: Token Test, Repetition, Written Language, Confronting Naming and Comprehension. The study aimed to describe the linguistic properties of the AAT Thai version and to investigate the test performances of the normal subjects. In this study some problems of linguistic changes in the construction of the Thai version were discussed. The results revealed that the normal subjects' performances on the test were independent of age, sex and education level. Therefore, the Thai version of AAT is applicable to the differential diagnosis of the communicative abilities of Thai aphasic patients.

  19. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position.

  20. The relationship of the Allen Cognitive Level Test to cognitive abilities and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    David, S K; Riley, W T

    1990-06-01

    The cognitive factors measured by the Allen Cognitive Level Test (ACL) (Allen, 1982) as well as the test's relationship to level of psychopathology were examined through a retrospective study of 71 patients from a general hospital psychiatry unit. Pearson correlations, computed for the ACL score with the Shipley Institute of Living Scale (Shipley, 1940), a general measure of intellectual functioning, were significant. A strong correlation was found between the ACL and the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (Smith, 1982), a measure of motor speed and concentration often used as a neurological screening instrument. This suggests the potential usefulness of the ACL to screen for cognitive dysfunctions associated with organicity. Contrary to hypothesis, there was no significant correlation between the ACL and measures of psychopathology such as the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1940). The relationship of the ACL to other recognized measures of cognitive functioning increases its usefulness as a valid measure of day-to-day limitations in the functioning of psychiatric patients. Effective communication of the implications of these cognitive levels to a multidisciplinary treatment team is enhanced by knowledge of the relationship of the ACL to measures of cognitive functioning and psychopathology used by other disciplines.

  1. Relationships between Writing Motivation, Writing Activity, and Writing Performance: Effects of Grade, Sex, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…

  2. WISC-R Verbal and Performance Abilities of Native American Students Referred for School Learning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Anne; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared nonhandicapped (NH), educationally disadvantaged (ED), and learning disabled (LD) Navajo children on intellectual dimensions measured by the WISC-R. The ED and LD group means were similar on verbal measures, but the LD group scores were lower than ED group scores on performance measures. (Author/RC)

  3. Communicative Competence and Metalinguistic Ability: Performance by Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Woodyatt, Gail C.

    2007-01-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as…

  4. Conservation and Achievement Test Performance among Fifth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliphant, Virginia M.; Cox, David L.

    The relationship between conservation and achievement is examined on specific tests and test items on the Stanford Achievement Test Battery used in the elementary years. Specifically, performance on two tests (Word Meaning and Arithmetic Concepts) were analyzed according to subjects level of thinking (concrete or formal) for total score,…

  5. Qualification Plus: Performance and Durability Tests Beyond IEC 61215 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Jordan, J.; Kempe, M.; Miller, D.; Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Hacke, P.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

    2014-03-01

    Qualification Plus is an accelerated test protocol and quality management system that gives higher confidence in field performance of PV modules compared with conventional qualification testing. The test sequences are being developed as consensus standards, but the early publication of these tests enables the community to begin benefiting from them sooner.

  6. Information Model for Machine-Tool-Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. Tina; Soons, Johannes A.; Donmez, M. Alkan

    2001-01-01

    This report specifies an information model of machine-tool-performance tests in the EXPRESS [1] language. The information model provides a mechanism for describing the properties and results of machine-tool-performance tests. The objective of the information model is a standardized, computer-interpretable representation that allows for efficient archiving and exchange of performance test data throughout the life cycle of the machine. The report also demonstrates the implementation of the information model using three different implementation methods. PMID:27500031

  7. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  8. Motivational and Cognitive Test-Taking Strategies and Their Influence on Test Performance in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Yun; Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    A structural equation model of relationships among testing-related motivation variables (test value, effort, self-efficacy, and test anxiety), test-taking strategies (test tactics and metacognitive strategies), gender, and math test performance were examined with a sample of 10th graders (N = 438; 182 males and 256 females). In general, motivation…

  9. Shuttle communication systems compatibility and performance tests. [transponder, range error, and power amplifier problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, L. K.; Travis, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The compatibility and performance of the Shuttle communications system must be certified prior to operational missions. For this purpose, NASA has established the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) at the Johnson Space Center. This paper discusses the Shuttle communications system compatibility and performance testing being performed in the ESTL. The ESTL system verification test philosophy, including capabilities, procedures, and unique testing equipment are summarized. Summaries of the significant results of compatibility and performance tests of the Orbiter/Space-flight Tracking and Data Network, Orbiter/Air Force Remote Tracking Station, Orbiter/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and Orbiter/Shuttle Launch Support System interfaces are presented. The ESTL's unique ability to locate potential communication problems and participate in the resolution of these problems are discussed in detail.

  10. Chinese College Test Takers' Individual Differences and Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the relationships between test takers' individual differences and their performance on a reading comprehension test. A total of 518 Chinese college students (252 women and 256 men; M age = 19.26 year, SD = 0.98) answered a questionnaire and sit for a reading comprehension test. The study found that test takers' L2 language proficiency was closely linked to their test performance. Test takers' employment of strategies was significantly and positively associated with their performance on the test. Test takers' motivation was found to be significantly associated with reading test performance. Test anxiety was negatively related to their use of reading strategies and test performance. The results of the study lent support to the threshold hypothesis of language proficiency. The implications for classroom teaching were provided.

  11. Chinese College Test Takers' Individual Differences and Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the relationships between test takers' individual differences and their performance on a reading comprehension test. A total of 518 Chinese college students (252 women and 256 men; M age = 19.26 year, SD = 0.98) answered a questionnaire and sit for a reading comprehension test. The study found that test takers' L2 language proficiency was closely linked to their test performance. Test takers' employment of strategies was significantly and positively associated with their performance on the test. Test takers' motivation was found to be significantly associated with reading test performance. Test anxiety was negatively related to their use of reading strategies and test performance. The results of the study lent support to the threshold hypothesis of language proficiency. The implications for classroom teaching were provided. PMID:27173665

  12. Cerebral specialization. [greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes by one cerebral hemisphere over another

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes in one cerebral hemisphere rather than the other is referred to as 'cerebral lateralization'. The experimental paradigm for lateralization research involves the study of patients with one damaged hemisphere, which prevents their performance of a certain task or function; this approach, however, presents many difficulties in extrapolating to brain function in normal patients. Attention is presently given to gender differences in lateralization, cerebral asymmetries in other species, and the evolutionary bases of hemispheric specialization.

  13. Evaluating the Ability of Heart Rate and EEG to Control Alertness during Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The major focus of the present proposal was to examine psychophysiological indices that show promise for invoking different modes of automation in an adaptive automation system. With the increased use of automation in today's work environment, people's roles in the work place are being redefined from that of active participant to one of passive monitor. Although the introduction of automated systems has a number of benefits, there are also a number of disadvantages regarding worker performance. Byrne and Parasuraman have argued for the use of psychophysiological measures in the development and the implementation of adaptive automation. While performance based, model based, and psychophysiologically based adaptive automation systems have been studied, the combined use of several psychophysiological measures has never been investigated. Such a combination provides the advantage of real time evaluation of the state of the subject in two relevant dimensions and offers a more realistic approach to the implementation of adaptive automation compared to the use of either dimension by itself.

  14. Context, ability, and performance: comparison of competitive athletics among mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded adults.

    PubMed

    Levine, H G; Langness, L L

    1983-03-01

    Setting demands and performance characteristics were compared for mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded basketball players similar in age, playing experience, and general skill level. Observational research was used to study organizational and interactional aspects of competitive games and to record individual and team playing statistics. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess levels of anxiety. Results show that even though the retarded adults studied were ostensibly playing under "normal" conditions, the games were demonstrably different from those played by nonretarded players in terms of physical setting, rules, coaching, and officiating. Retarded players performed under these conditions with significantly higher levels of anxiety and diminished team effectiveness. The broader consequences of competition in the lives of retarded players was examined.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operations. (4) Performance tests conducted on air pollution control devices serving submerged arc furnaces... initial performance test for air pollution control devices or vent stacks subject to § 63.1652(a) through... conduct annual performance tests for the air pollution control devices and vent stacks associated with...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operations. (4) Performance tests conducted on air pollution control devices serving submerged arc furnaces... initial performance test for air pollution control devices or vent stacks subject to § 63.1652(a) through... conduct annual performance tests for the air pollution control devices and vent stacks associated with...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operations. (4) Performance tests conducted on air pollution control devices serving submerged arc furnaces... initial performance test for air pollution control devices or vent stacks subject to § 63.1652(a) through... conduct annual performance tests for the air pollution control devices and vent stacks associated with...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1656 - Performance testing, test methods, and compliance demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operations. (4) Performance tests conducted on air pollution control devices serving submerged arc furnaces... initial performance test for air pollution control devices or vent stacks subject to § 63.1652(a) through... conduct annual performance tests for the air pollution control devices and vent stacks associated with...

  19. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to

  20. HVAC BESTEST: A Procedure for Testing the Ability of Whole-Building Energy Simulation Programs to Model Space Conditioning Equipment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J,; Judkoff, R.; Knabe, G.; Le, H.-T.; Durig, M.; Glass, A.; Zweifel, G.

    2001-07-03

    Validation of Building Energy Simulation Programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques (Judkoff 1988). An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. Field trials of the method were conducted by researchers from nations participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme Task 22, using a number of detailed hourly simulation programs from Europe and the United States, including: CA-SIS, CLIM2000, PROMETHEUS, TRNSYS-TUD, and two versions of DOE-2.1E. Analytical solutions were also developed for the test cases.

  1. Comparing the Effects of Test Anxiety on Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) offer textual and/or aural input for test takers on which to base their subsequent oral responses. This path-analytic study modeled the relationship between test anxiety and the performance of such tasks and explored whether test anxiety would differentially affect the performance of independent…

  2. Results of Performance Tests Performed on the John Watts WW Casing Connection on 7" Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Watts

    2000-02-01

    Stress Engineering Services (SES) was contracted by Mr. John Watts to test his ''WW'' threaded connection developed for oilfield oil and gas service. This work was a continuation of testing performed by SES as reported in August of 1999. The connection design tested was identified as ''WW''. The samples were all integral (no coupled connections) and contained a wedge thread form with 90{sup o} flank angles relative to the pipe centerline. The wedge thread form is a variable width thread that primarily engages on the flanks. This thread form provides very high torque capacity and good stabbing ability and makeup. The test procedure selected for one of the samples was the newly written ISO 13679 procedure for full scale testing of casing and tubing connections, which is currently going through the ISO acceptance process. The ISO procedure requires a variety of tests that includes makeup/breakout testing, internal gas sealability/external water sealability testing with axial tension, axial compression, bending, internal gas thermal cycle tests and limit load (failure) tests. This test procedure was performed with one sample. Four samples were tested to failure. Table 1 contains a summary of the tasks performed by SES. The project started with the delivery of test samples by Mr. Watts. Pipe from the previous round of tests was used for the new samples. Figure 1 shows the structural and sealing results relative to the pipe body. Sample 1 was used to determine the torque capacity of the connection. Torque was applied to the capacity of SES's equipment which was 28,424 ft-lbs. From this, an initial recommended torque range of 7,200 to 8,800 ft-lbs. was selected. The sample was disassembled and while there was no galling observed in the threads, the end of the pin had collapsed inward. Sample 2 received three makeups. Breakouts 1 and 2 also had collapsing of the pin end, with no thread galling. From these make/breaks, it was decided to reduce the amount of lubricant

  3. Discriminative ability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) in prospective young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) when discriminating among players in varying playing positions and different age categories in youth soccer. One-hundred and six prospective young soccer players, grouped on the basis of chronological age (under-13, under-14, under-15, under-16, under-17, under-18, and under-19) and playing position (center-backs, fullbacks, center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards), participated in the study. The players were administered a single Yo-Yo IR1 test at the beginning of the spring season. Analysis of variance revealed significant (F = 25.3; p < 0.001) group differences in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance scores among the observed age categories, and a systematic age-related increase in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance was evident. Subsequent post hoc comparisons identified a number of significant differences among the selected age categories in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance. Analysis of covariance identified significant differences among playing positions (F = 3.1; p < 0.019) in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance after controlling for age (F = 135.1; p < 0.001). Subsequent pairwise comparisons of the adjusted Yo-Yo IR1 test performance identified that center-backs had achieved significantly lower (all p < 0.01) performance scores than center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards, but not fullbacks. These results could be of practical value to coaches and scientists for further development of talent selection and profiling procedures in soccer, particularly because (a) the endurance performance represents a very important fitness component in selection and profiling of young soccer players and (b) the Yo-Yo IR1 test proved to be valid, reliable, and easily available measurement tool of a player's soccer-specific endurance capacity.

  4. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist. PMID:24079670

  5. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist.

  6. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    PubMed

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  7. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    PubMed

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained.

  8. [Maternal methyl-containing dietary supplementation alters the ability to learn in adult rats in swimming Morris test].

    PubMed

    Pliusnina, I Z; Os'kina, I N; Shchepina, O A; Prasolova, L A; Trut, L N

    2006-01-01

    Maternal choline diet influences the spatial learning processes. In this work, the learning ability of adult progeny of mothers who had received methyl diet enriched with choline and betain during pregnancy and lactation was studied in Morris test. The introduction of the diet to pregnant rats resulted in an increase in the time of search for invisible platform and time of swimming near the pool walls in offsprings, which meant a worsening of their learning ability. It was also found that change in platform searching strategy was not associated with an increase in anxiety of male rats. Possible involvement of maternal methyl diet in the change of expression of genes which control development of the nervous system is discussed. PMID:16869262

  9. Communicative competence and metalinguistic ability: performance by children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Fiona M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Woodyatt, Gail C

    2007-09-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) using DSM-IV language criterion. Hierarchical cluster analyses of individuals with ASD identified subgroups within the spectrum. The use of developmental language history as an identifying marker in autism is questioned. The findings suggest that comprehensive language assessments on individuals with ASD can provide clinically relevant information regarding the heterogeneity of language skills within the autistic spectrum.

  10. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  11. An experimental test of "the mozart effect": does listening to his music improve spatial ability?

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Rosenbach, J H; Burns, K L; Latimer, B C; Matocha, H R; Vogt, E R

    1995-12-01

    This experiment was designed as a test of the 1993 findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky who reported a positive effect of listening to classical music on spatial reasoning. Present results do not demonstrate the "Mozart effect." In our study, 114 students were pretested on items from the Raven's Progressive Matrices--Advanced Form, then instructed to listen to either 8 min. of Mozart's music, relaxation instructions, or silence. Then subjects were posttested on an equivalent set of Raven's items. The subjects were also asked to provide information about their musical background and preferences. All instructions and treatments were audiotaped and played to individual subjects through earphones in the university language laboratory, ensuring standardization of procedures. Subjects in all 3 treatment groups showed a practice effect, but this improvement in Raven's scores was not dependent on the type of treatment received. There were no differences in Raven's scores among groups before or after treatment so our results do not confirm the prior ones. There was no evidence that the brief music had a different effect on subsequent problem solving according to listeners' musical background and training. PMID:8684937

  12. Somatotype and intellectual ability (Raven Progressive Matrices Test) in Chilean school-age children.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Liliana U; Lizana, Pablo A; Orellana, Yasna Z; Villagrán, Francisca S; Arias, Vanessa F; Almagià, Atilio F; Burrows, Raquel A; Ivanovic, Daniza M

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la relación entre el somatotipo y la habilidad intelectual (HA) en estudiantes de 11-12 y 15-16 años de edad de la Región Metropolitana, Chile. Métodos: Se registró una muestra representativa de 1.015 escolares de acuerdo a los resultados del sistema de medición de la calidad de la educación (SIMCE) 2009. Se evaluó el somatotipo de Heath-Carter y la HA de acuerdo al Test de Matrices Progresivas de Raven. Resultados: Un 59% presentó un somatotipo endomórfico, 28% mesomórfico y 13% ectomorfo. La HA se distribuyó en: 11,2% Grado I, 26,8% Grado II, 41% Grado III, 17,6% Grado IV y 3,2% Grado V. Se presenta una correlación significativa positiva con el componente endomórfico (r = 0,074 p = 0,02), y sólo en mujeres (r = 0,109 p = 0,02), a la vez se observa una relación significativa positiva con el componente ectomorfo (r = 0,067 p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Esto sugiere que otras variables estarían influyendo más fuertemente en la HA, además de apoyar la no discriminación por biotipo en los establecimientos educacionales.

  13. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction.

    PubMed

    Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of direction (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p < 0.05). This investigation demonstrates that both SSG and HIT interventions are equally effective in developing the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with CODs in male amateur soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar effect on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat directional changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training. PMID:22130398

  14. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores. PMID:21233387

  15. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK ENDURANCE PLANK TESTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE TESTS IN ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players. Study design Cross sectional study design. Methods Fifty-five adolescent male soccer players performed prone and side plank tests and seven performance tests: the Cooper test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the step 50 agility test, a 30-m sprint test, a vertical countermovement jump, a standing five-step jump, and a rebound jump. The relationships between each individual plank test, the combined score of both plank tests, and performance tests were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The combined score of plank tests was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r = 0.710, p < 0.001), and was moderately correlated with the Cooper test (r = 0.567, p < 0.001). Poor correlation was observed between the prone plank test and step 50 agility test (r = -0.436, p = 0.001) and no significant correlations were observed between plank tests and jump performance tests. Conclusions The results suggest that trunk endurance plank tests are positively correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the Cooper test, and the step 50 agility test. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27757284

  17. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  18. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  19. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Rabelo, Camila M.; Silagi, Marcela L.; Mansur, Letícia L.; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor “years of schooling” was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  20. MEPHISTO: Performance tests of a novel synchrotron imaging photoelectron spectromicroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Capozi, M.; Lorusso, G. F.; Baudat, P. A.; Droubay, T. C.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.; Tonner, B. P.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss the scheme and test performances of this recently commissioned system in its final configuration. The tests show that the improvements in the electron optics system with respect to other instruments in the same class made it possible to reach lateral resolutions in the 50 nm range. They also demonstrate rather good spectromicroscopy and spectroscopy performances, reliability and flexibility of operation.