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Sample records for ability test scores

  1. A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Shirley A.

    In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…

  2. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  3. The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Stephen R.

    The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability.…

  4. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

  5. Aptitude Test Score Validity: No Moderating Effect Due to Job Ability Requirement Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gwen E.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the specificity-generality hypothesis regarding moderation of aptitude test validity by job ability requirement differences using 24,482 Air Force enlistees in 37 jobs. Moderating effects due to job differences were not found, and job ability differences did not moderate the relationship between the amount of "g" measured by a…

  6. A Factor Analysis of Learning Data and Selected Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy L.

    1976-01-01

    A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…

  7. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  8. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  9. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  10. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  11. Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigle, Sara Cushing

    2010-01-01

    Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

  12. Are DIT Scores Empirically Distinct from Measures of Political Identification and Intellectual Ability? A Test Using Post-9/11 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowson, H. Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Emler, Renwick, and Malone (1983) argued against a developmental interpretation of the Defining Issues Test (DIT), suggesting instead that it actually measures a social psychological phenomenon--political identification. On the other hand, Sanders, Lubinski, and Benbow (1995) have argued that DIT scores measure intellectual ability. In this study,…

  13. Multidimensional Scoring of Abilities: The Ordered Polytomous Response Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that multidimensionally scoring responses from different tests can provide better ability estimates. For educational assessment data, applications of this approach have been limited to binary scores. Of the different variants, the de la Torre and Patz model is considered more general because implementing the scoring procedure…

  14. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  15. Fluctuation in Spatial Ability Scores during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, M. Suzanne

    Whether or not fluctuations in spatial ability as measured by S. G. Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test occur during the menstrual cycle was studied with 133 female students from 9 undergraduate educational psychology and nursing classes. For comparison, 28 male students also took the test. Scores from 55 females fell into the relevant menstrual…

  16. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  17. Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test…

  18. Beyond the Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Janice J.

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostic-prescriptive scheme is illustrated using subtests of the Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude. The scheme is intended to focus on the child's learning style by examining the task and the strategies employed. (CL)

  19. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  20. EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST SCORES

    PubMed Central

    Pershad, Dwarka; Verma, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  1. Education and psychological test scores.

    PubMed

    Pershad, D; Verma, S K

    1980-04-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  2. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  3. Does Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Score Reflect the Clinical Reasoning Ability of Medical Students?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Clinical reasoning ability is an important factor in a physician's competence and thus should be taught and tested in medical schools. Medical schools generally use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to measure the clinical competency of medical students. However, it is unknown whether OSCE can also evaluate clinical reasoning ability. In this study, the authors investigated whether OSCE scores reflected students' clinical reasoning abilities. Methods: Sixty-five fourth-year medical students participated in this study. Medical students completed the OSCE with 4 cases using standardized patients. For assessment of clinical reasoning, students were asked to list differential diagnoses and the findings that were compatible or not compatible with each diagnosis. The OSCE score (score of patient encounter), diagnostic accuracy score, clinical reasoning score, clinical knowledge score and grade point average (GPA) were obtained for each student, and correlation analysis was performed. Results: Clinical reasoning score was significantly correlated with diagnostic accuracy and GPA (correlation coefficient = 0.258 and 0.380; P = 0.038 and 0.002, respectively) but not with OSCE score or clinical knowledge score (correlation coefficient = 0.137 and 0.242; P = 0.276 and 0.052, respectively). Total OSCE score was not significantly correlated with clinical knowledge test score, clinical reasoning score, diagnostic accuracy score or GPA. Conclusions: OSCE score from patient encounters did not reflect the clinical reasoning abilities of the medical students in this study. The evaluation of medical students' clinical reasoning abilities through OSCE should be strengthened. PMID:25647834

  4. Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length and Composition of Common-Item Set, and Group Ability Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items are now widely used in many testing programs. Mixed-format tests often are considered to be superior to tests containing only MC items although the use of multiple item formats leads to measurement challenges in the context of equating conducted under…

  5. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  6. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  7. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  8. Structural brain MRI trait polygenic score prediction of cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Michelle; Marioni, Riccardo E; Hernández, Maria Valdés; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Hamilton, Iona F; Royle, Natalie A.; Scotland, Generation; Chauhan, Ganesh; Bis, Joshua C.; Debette, Stephanie; DeCarli, Charles; Fornage, Myriam; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ikram, M. Arfan; Launer, Lenore J.; Seshadri, Sudha; Bastin, Mark E.; Porteous, David J.; Wardlaw, Joanna; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) traits share part of their genetic variance with cognitive traits. Here, we use genetic association results from large meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association for brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, intracranial, hippocampal and total brain volumes to estimate polygenic scores for these traits in three Scottish samples: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS), and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1936 (LBC1936) and 1921 (LBC1921). These five brain MRI trait polygenic scores were then used to 1) predict corresponding MRI traits in the LBC1936 (numbers ranged 573 to 630 across traits) and 2) predict cognitive traits in all three cohorts (in 8,115 to 8,250 persons). In the LBC1936, all MRI phenotypic traits were correlated with at least one cognitive measure; and polygenic prediction of MRI traits was observed for intracranial volume. Meta-analysis of the correlations between MRI polygenic scores and cognitive traits revealed a significant negative correlation (maximal r=0.08) between the hippocampal volume polygenic score and measures of global cognitive ability collected in childhood and in old age in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. The lack of association to a related general cognitive measure when including the GS:SFHS points to either type 1 error or the importance of using prediction samples that closely match the demographics of the genome-wide association samples from which prediction is based. Ideally, these analyses should be repeated in larger samples with data on both MRI and cognition, and using MRI GWA results from even larger meta-analysis studies. PMID:26427786

  9. 10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

  10. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  11. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  12. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    PubMed

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  13. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  14. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  15. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  16. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  17. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  18. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  19. Construct and Predictive Validities of the Perceptual Ability Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The construct and predictive validities of the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) were examined. The results indicate that each of the subtests exhibits different predictive validity. A linear combination of PAT subtest scores was found to be more predictive of first-year dental school technique performance than the total PAT score. (Author/MLW)

  20. Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently?

    PubMed

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.

  1. Interpretation of the 1961 Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara D.

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) is treated in terms of the ability measured, hints for administration and scoring, and questions often asked for each of the nine subtests. Typical profiles are described and analyzed for mentally retarded, kindergarteners, slow learners, culturally disadvantaged, Negroes, good and poor…

  2. Validating Test Score Meaning and Defending Test Score Use: Different Aims, Different Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in validity theory and alacrity in validation practice have suffered because the term "validity" has been used to refer to two incompatible concerns: (1) the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e. intended score meaning) and (2) the degree of support for specified applications (i.e. intended test…

  3. The Effects of Anchor Length, Test Difficulty, Population Ability Differences, Mixture of Populations and Sample Size on the Psychometric Properties of Levine Observed Score Linear Equating Method for Different Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal-Espinoza, Jorge E.

    2011-01-01

    The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test equating (NEAT) design is a widely used equating design in large scale testing that involves two groups that do not have to be of equal ability. One group P gets form X and a group of items A and the other group Q gets form Y and the same group of items A. One of the most commonly used equating methods in…

  4. Teachers' Use of Background Knowledge to Interpret Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Kenneth C. W.

    1976-01-01

    An examination of how teachers interpret standardized test scores reveals that in using the score the teacher embeds it in the subjective kinds of knowledge the test scores are supposed to replace. (Author/DE)

  5. Using IQ discrepancy scores to examine the neural correlates of specific cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W; Naglieri, Jack A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-08-28

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N=83 and N=58; age range, 5-57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. PMID:23986248

  6. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  7. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  8. Towards a Computer-Delivered Test of Productive Grammatical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.; Chung, Yoo-Ree; Hegelheimer, Volker; Pendar, Nick; Xu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study piloted test items that will be used in a computer-delivered and scored test of productive grammatical ability in English as a second language (ESL). Findings from research on learners' development of morphosyntactic, syntactic, and functional knowledge were synthesized to create a framework of grammatical features. We outline the…

  9. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    PubMed

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  10. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  11. An Analysis of Time-Related Score Increments and/or Decrements for GRE Repeaters across Ability and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Donald; Werts, Charles

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information on both the number of individuals who retest and their patterns of score gain (or decrement) by sex and ability. Individuals who retested only once were found to gain about 26-27 points on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) verbal test and about 23 points on the GRE quantitative test. This…

  12. The Ability of Elementary School Teachers to Stage Score Moral Thought Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1976-01-01

    The study examined (1) whether 60 elementary school teachers could score moral thought statements into Kohlberg's moral stages by receiving special training and using a rater manual, and (2) what factors were related to their stage-scoring ability. Major conclusion was that the rater manual and training were ineffective. (Author/ND)

  13. Studies of the Ability of Preservice Social Studies Teachers to Stage Score Moral Thought Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    The report describes two experiments involving the ability of preservice social studies teachers to stage score moral thought statements. Stage scoring is defined as keeping a record of statements in accordance with the stages of moral development originated by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg. The two experiments involved the use of three stage…

  14. Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

  15. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  16. Simulation Studies of Two-Stage Ability Testing. Research Report 74-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to study the psychometric characteristics of two two-stage adaptive tests and a conventional "peaked" ability test. Results showed that scores yielded by both two-stage tests better reflected the normal distribution of underlying ability. Ability estimates yielded by one of the two stage tests were more…

  17. Verbal Reasoning Test Scores and Their Stability over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primrose, Alison F.; Fuller, Mary; Littledyke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Stability of verbal reasoning test scores was measured for 146 students aged 8-13. Results suggest that reasoning test scores are not constant and vary considerably over time. Scores are not finite measures of intellectual capacity but of current verbal functioning, reflecting education and experiences to that point. (SK)

  18. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  19. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.

  20. Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2013-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

  1. Comparison of the Qualitative and Developmental Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…

  2. Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

  3. Evaluating Pekin duck walking ability using a treadmill performance test.

    PubMed

    Byrd, C J; Main, R P; Makagon, M M

    2016-10-01

    Gait scoring is the most popular method for assessing the walking ability of poultry species. Although inexpensive and easy to implement, gait scoring systems are often criticized for being subjective. Using a treadmill performance test we assessed whether observable differences in Pekin duck walking ability identified using a gait scoring system translated to differences in walking performance. One hundred and eighty ducks were selected using a three-category gait scoring system (GS0 = smooth gait, n = 55; GS0.5 = labored walk without easily identifiable impediment, n = 56; GS1 = obvious impediment, n = 59) and the amount of time each duck was able to sustain walking on a treadmill at a speed of 0.31 m/s was evaluated. The walking test ended when each duck met one of three elimination criteria: (1) The duck walked for a maximum time of ten minutes, (2) the duck required support from the observer's hand for more than three seconds in order to continue walking on the treadmill, or (3) the duck sat down on the treadmill and made no attempt to stand despite receiving assistance from the observer. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using PROC GLM. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used to compare differences in time spent walking between gait scores. Significant differences were found between all gait scores (P < 0.05). Behavioral correlates of walking performance were investigated. Video recorded during the treadmill test was analyzed for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using a negative binomial model for count data. No differences were found between gait scores for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the amount of time spent walking on the treadmill corresponded to gait score and was an effective measurement for quantifying Pekin duck walking ability. The test could be a valuable tool for assessing the development of walking issues or the effectiveness of

  4. Evaluating Pekin duck walking ability using a treadmill performance test.

    PubMed

    Byrd, C J; Main, R P; Makagon, M M

    2016-10-01

    Gait scoring is the most popular method for assessing the walking ability of poultry species. Although inexpensive and easy to implement, gait scoring systems are often criticized for being subjective. Using a treadmill performance test we assessed whether observable differences in Pekin duck walking ability identified using a gait scoring system translated to differences in walking performance. One hundred and eighty ducks were selected using a three-category gait scoring system (GS0 = smooth gait, n = 55; GS0.5 = labored walk without easily identifiable impediment, n = 56; GS1 = obvious impediment, n = 59) and the amount of time each duck was able to sustain walking on a treadmill at a speed of 0.31 m/s was evaluated. The walking test ended when each duck met one of three elimination criteria: (1) The duck walked for a maximum time of ten minutes, (2) the duck required support from the observer's hand for more than three seconds in order to continue walking on the treadmill, or (3) the duck sat down on the treadmill and made no attempt to stand despite receiving assistance from the observer. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using PROC GLM. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used to compare differences in time spent walking between gait scores. Significant differences were found between all gait scores (P < 0.05). Behavioral correlates of walking performance were investigated. Video recorded during the treadmill test was analyzed for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors. Data were analyzed in SAS 9.4 using a negative binomial model for count data. No differences were found between gait scores for counts of sitting, standing, and leaning behaviors (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the amount of time spent walking on the treadmill corresponded to gait score and was an effective measurement for quantifying Pekin duck walking ability. The test could be a valuable tool for assessing the development of walking issues or the effectiveness of

  5. Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

  6. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  7. Estimating the Reliability of a Test Battery Composite or a Test Score Based on Weighted Item Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.

    2004-01-01

    In some settings, the validity of a battery composite or a test score is enhanced by weighting some parts or items more heavily than others in the total score. This article describes methods of estimating the total score reliability coefficient when differential weights are used with items or parts.

  8. Construct Validity and Test Re-Test Reliability of the Forgotten Joint Score.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon M; Salmon, Lucy J; Webb, Justin M; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P

    2015-11-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing knee arthroplasty completed questionnaires: FJS, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and WOMAC Score (mean 39 months after surgery), and were mailed a repeat questionnaire after 4 to 6 weeks. The test-retest reliability was almost perfect for the FJS (ICC = 0.97), and the FJS subdomains (ICC > 0.8). Convergent construct validity of the FJS was correlated with the KOOS Subscores of Quality of Life (0.63, P = 0.001), Symptom (0.33, P = 0.001), Pain (0.68, P = 0.001) and ADL (0.66, P = 0.001) and the Total WOMAC (0.70, P = 0.001). The FJS demonstrates high test-retest reliability and construct validity compared to the Normalised WOMAC and KOOS Subscales. The FJS does not demonstrate the ceiling effect of the WOMAC or KOOS pain scores so may have greater discriminatory ability following TKR.

  9. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  10. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  11. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  12. Equating Test Scores (without IRT). Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This booklet grew out of a half-day class on equating that author Samuel Livingston teaches for new statistical staff at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The class is a nonmathematical introduction to the topic, emphasizing conceptual understanding and practical applications. The class consists of illustrated lectures, interspersed with…

  13. Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…

  14. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  15. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  16. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  17. Test Scores and the Graduate Admission of Older Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Jo

    This paper examined test scores and information about test takers collected from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) national test administration files, GRE validity study data provided by institutional users, and survey questionnaires sent to test repeaters. Data were collected from 200,000 men and women who took the GRE General Test in June…

  18. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  19. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. PMID:16895854

  20. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  1. Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

  2. TOEFL Test and Score Manual, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    This manual has been prepared for those responsible for interpreting scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). In addition to test interpretation information, the manual describes the test, explains the TOEFL program, and discusses program research activities. The TOEFL was developed in 1963 to test the English-language…

  3. Test Scores and What They Mean. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Howard B.

    The first edition of this book was written to give information about testing to people whose work gave them access to test results, but whose training included little or nothing about the use and interpretation of tests. Later editions have been intended for a broader audience as the need for understanding what test scores really mean has…

  4. Improving the Quality of Ability Estimates through Multidimensional Scoring and Incorporation of Ancillary Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    For one reason or another, various sources of information, namely, ancillary variables and correlational structure of the latent abilities, which are usually available in most testing situations, are ignored in ability estimation. A general model that incorporates these sources of information is proposed in this article. The model has a general…

  5. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability.

  6. Demographically Adjusted Groups for Equating Test Scores. Research Report. ETS RR-14-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I investigated 2 procedures intended to create test-taker groups of equal ability by poststratifying on a composite variable created from demographic information. In one procedure, the stratifying variable was the composite variable that best predicted the test score. In the other procedure, the stratifying variable was the…

  7. Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

  8. Making Sense of Test Scores. Assessment Brief. Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Lincoln

    2004-01-01

    It is challenging for parents and the general public to make sense of the reports on test scores that appear in the mass media. This article offers some things for readers to consider as they bring a critical eye to what is read in the papers. Usually reports on test scores in the media are quite short and focus on one or two aspects of test…

  9. Use and interpretation of test scores from limited cognitive test batteries: how g + Gc can equal g.

    PubMed

    Annell, Stefan; Sjöberg, Anders; Sverke, Magnus

    2014-10-01

    Single scores from limited and unbalanced test batteries of cognitive ability can be ambiguous to interpret theoretically. In this study, a limited verbally and knowledge-loaded cognitive test battery, from applicants to the Swedish police academies (N = 1,344), was examined to provide foundations for the use and interpretation of test scores. Three measurement models were compared: one single factor model and two bifactor models, which decomposed the variance of the battery into orthogonal components. The models were evaluated by fit indices and omega coefficients, and then applied to the prediction of academic performance. The overall prediction of all models was similar, although specific abilities also were found to provide substantial predictive validity over and above general intelligence (g). The findings provide support for the use of single scores in applied settings (selection), but suggest that it may be more appropriate to interpret such scores as composites of substantive components, and not just as measures of g. PMID:25040205

  10. Dearborn 1981-82 Achievement Test Scores (Fifth Annual Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn Public Schools, MI.

    The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…

  11. Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susannah

    2008-01-01

    As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts…

  12. Test Takers and the Validity of Score Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Perie, Marianne; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Clark, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that test takers are as integral to determining validity of test scores as defining target content and conditioning inferences on test use. A principled sustained attention to how students interact with assessment opportunities is essential, as is a principled sustained evaluation of evidence confirming the validity or calling…

  13. Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

  16. Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Beatriz U

    2010-09-01

    After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

  17. Motivating High School Students to Score Proficient on State Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Lee

    2015-01-01

    The researcher interviewed two groups of eleventh grade students, in a rural Appalachian setting, who tended to score low on the state mandated high stakes/low stakes test to discover their efforts on the test, specifically in reading, and to obtain their opinions concerning the effects of a specific incentive or consequence. Before the eleventh…

  18. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  19. The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary

    The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test…

  20. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  1. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  2. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  3. The Use of One-, Two-, and Three-Parameter and Nominal Item Response Scoring in Place of Number-Right Scoring in the Presence of Test-Wiseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkowicz, Joanna; Rogers, W. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Ability estimates yielded by the one- (1PL), two- (2PL), and three-parameter (3PL) models and the nominal response model (NRM) were compared with the number-right (NR) scoring model using items not susceptible to test-wiseness (NTW) and items susceptible to the ID1 test-wiseness strategy. These items were contained in grade 12 diploma examinations…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  5. TH-SCORE: A Program for Obtaining Ability Estimates under Different Psychometric Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo, Urbano

    1998-01-01

    A program for obtaining ability estimates and their standard errors under a variety of psychometric models is documented. The general models considered are (1) classical test theory; (2) item factor analysis for continuous censored responses; and (3) unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory graded response models. (SLD)

  6. A Study of Raters' Scoring Tendency of Speaking Ability through Verbal Report Methods and Questionnaire Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    To find ways to improve rater reliability of a tape-mediated speaking test for Japanese university students of English as a Second Language, two studies gathered information on: how raters actually made their choices on rating sheets of students' speaking ability; determined what criteria teachers think they use and actually use in rating…

  7. Differential Ability Scales-II Prediction of Reading Performance: Global Scores Are Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin D.; Hale, James B.; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Dorvil, Cledicianne; Moldovan, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy, together with the effect of the general factor ("g"), on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II) reading achievement. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and commonality analyses were applied to the…

  8. Comparing Scores on Individual Intelligence Tests for Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    Concludes that the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale measure only limited aspects of reading disabled students' abilities as measured by the Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised. (FL)

  9. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  10. Commentary on "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Kane's paper "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores" is the most complete and clearest discussion yet available of the argument-based approach to validation. At its most basic level, validation as formulated by Kane is fundamentally a simply-stated two-step enterprise: (1) specify the claims inherent in a particular interpretation…

  11. Between-District Test Score Variation, 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin; Reardon, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Describing the variation in test scores between and within school districts is critical for: (1) for policy-related and descriptive work that investigates the sorting of students among districts and the differential effectiveness of those districts; and (2) for methodological work planning future experiments or interventions. Intraclass…

  12. Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2000-01-01

    Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient…

  13. Benefits of Coaching on Test Scores Seen as Negligible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Report on Education Research, 1983

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: A new study by a pair of Harvard University researchers discounts earlier findings that coaching can substantially improve student performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). "There is simply insufficient evidence that large score increases are a result of a coaching program," write Rebecca…

  14. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  15. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  16. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  17. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

  18. Scoring Rod-and-Frame Tests: Quantitative and Qualitative Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Otto; Edgington, Eugene S.

    1982-01-01

    Current scoring procedures depend on unrealistic assumptions about subjects' performance on the rod-and-frame test. A procedure is presented which corrects for constant error, is sensitive to response strategy and consistency, and examines qualitative and quantitative aspects of performance and individual differences in laterality bias as defined…

  19. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  20. Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

    2009-10-01

    We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades.

  1. Simplifying multivariate survival analysis using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve multiple endpoints, and this situation further complicates the analysis of survival data. In the case of tumor patients, endpoints concerning survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For each patient, these endpoints are correlated, and the estimation of the correlation between two score statistics is fundamental in derivation of overall treatment advantage. In this paper, the bivariate survival analysis method using the global score test methodology is extended to multivariate setting.

  2. On the Scientific Basis of Ability Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Horn, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that despite aberrations, false starts, misapplications, and unfortunate crystallizations of methods and interpretations, the differential psychology of cognitive abilities is an important part of psychological knowledge about human beings. (Author/GC)

  3. Individual differences in left parietal white matter predict math scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Anna A; Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure.

  4. Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

  5. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  6. Comparison of the Ability to Predict Mortality between the Injury Severity Score and the New Injury Severity Score: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qiangyu; Tang, Bihan; Xue, Chen; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Lv, Yipeng; Zhang, Lulu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Description of the anatomical severity of injuries in trauma patients is important. While the Injury Severity Score has been regarded as the “gold standard” since its creation, several studies have indicated that the New Injury Severity Score is better. Therefore, we aimed to systematically evaluate and compare the accuracy of the Injury Severity Score and the New Injury Severity Score in predicting mortality. Methods: Two researchers independently searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases and included studies from which the exact number of true-positive, false-positive, false-negative, and true-negative results could be extracted. Quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist criteria. The meta-analysis was performed using Meta-DiSc. Meta-regression, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the source(s) of heterogeneity and factor(s) affecting the accuracy of the New Injury Severity Score and the Injury Severity Score in predicting mortality. Results: The heterogeneity of the 11 relevant studies (total n = 11,866) was high (I2 > 80%). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model resulted in sensitivity of 0.64, specificity of 0.93, positive likelihood ratio of 5.11, negative likelihood ratio of 0.27, diagnostic odds ratio of 27.75, and area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.9009 for the Injury Severity Score; and sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.87, positive likelihood ratio of 5.22, negative likelihood ratio of 0.20, diagnostic odds ratio of 24.74, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9095 for the New Injury Severity Score. Conclusion: The New Injury Severity Score and the Injury Severity Score have similar abilities in predicting mortality. Further research is required to determine the appropriate use of the Injury Severity Score or the New Injury Severity Score based on specific

  7. A study of field independent biased mental ability tests in community college science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Linda W.; Kime Piper, Martha

    Many schools use mental ability test scores as a basis for grouping students and planning their educational needs. The widespread use of these test scores throughout public and private schools demands that test items be unbiased. One way in which tests could be biased, that has not been thoroughly investigated, is the inadvertent use of analytical skill items favoring one perceptual orientation over another. This study investigated analytical skill items on the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test for field independent bias. Using as analysis of variance and discriminant analysis, the results indicated that the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test was biased in favor of individuals with a field of independent perceptual orientation.

  8. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  9. Individual differences in social dominance orientation predict support for the use of cognitive ability tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anita; Berry, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the personality processes involved in the debate surrounding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions. In Study 1, 108 undergraduates (Mage  = 18.88 years, 60 women, 80 Whites) completed measures of social dominance orientation (SDO), testing self-efficacy, and attitudes regarding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions; SAT/ACT scores were collected from the registrar. Sixty-seven undergraduates (Mage  = 19.06 years, 39 women, 49 Whites) completed the same measures in Study 2, along with measures of endorsement of commonly presented arguments about test use. In Study 3, 321 American adults (Mage  = 35.58 years, 180 women, 251 Whites) completed the same measures used in Study 2; half were provided with facts about race and validity issues surrounding cognitive ability tests. Individual differences in SDO significantly predicted support for the use of cognitive ability tests in all samples, after controlling for SAT/ACT scores and test self-efficacy and also among participants who read facts about cognitive ability tests. Moreover, arguments for and against test use mediated this effect. The present study sheds new light on an old debate by demonstrating that individual differences in beliefs about hierarchy play a key role in attitudes toward cognitive ability test use.

  10. The Predictive Ability of ACT Scores for Student Success at an Engineering School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Carol Alf; McAnulty, Brenda Hart

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether the emphasis on ACT scores for admission to engineering school is justified. Using stepwise regression procedures, multiple regression equations were derived using data from 328 students. Results indicated that ACT scores plus college transfer credits and advanced placement credits do aid in predicting academic performance.…

  11. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  12. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:16624786

  14. An Investigation into the Relationships Between Cloze Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores of Fifth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Richard Barry

    This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…

  15. Effects of Gender, Math Ability, Trait Test Anxiety, Statistics Course Anxiety, Statistics Achievement, and Perceived Test Difficulty on State Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook

    A path analytic model of state test anxiety was tested in 169 college students who were enrolled in statistics courses. Variables in the model included gender, mathematics ability, trait test anxiety (trait worry and trait emotionality as separate variables), statistics course anxiety, statistics achievement (scores on midterm examinations),…

  16. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  17. Simulating the Effects of Common and Specific Abilities on Test Performance: An Evaluation of Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Factor analysis is a useful technique to aid in organizing multivariate data characterizing speech, language, and auditory abilities. However, knowledge of the limitations of factor analysis is essential for proper interpretation of results. The present study used simulated test scores to illustrate some characteristics of factor…

  18. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  19. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  20. Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

  1. Use of Practice Tests in the Prediction of GED Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Warren

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between success on the two new practice-test forms (EE and FF) developed by Steck-Vaughn and success on the General Educational Development (GED) test. Success with practice-form EE correlated with GED test scores; form FF failed to correlate. (JOW)

  2. The Predictive Ability of IQ and Working Memory Scores in Literacy in an Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gregory, David

    2013-01-01

    Literacy problems are highly prevalent and can persist into adulthood. Yet, the majority of research on the predictive nature of cognitive skills to literacy has primarily focused on development and adolescent populations. The aim of the present study was to extend existing research to investigate the roles of IQ scores and Working Memory…

  3. The effects of calculator-based laboratories on standardized test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Charlotte Bethany Rains

    Nationwide, the goal of providing a productive science and math education to our youth in today's educational institutions is centering itself around the technology being utilized in these classrooms. In this age of digital technology, educational software and calculator-based laboratories (CBL) have become significant devices in the teaching of science and math for many states across the United States. Among the technology, the Texas Instruments graphing calculator and Vernier Labpro interface, are among some of the calculator-based laboratories becoming increasingly popular among middle and high school science and math teachers in many school districts across this country. In Tennessee, however, it is reported that this type of technology is not regularly utilized at the student level in most high school science classrooms, especially in the area of Physical Science (Vernier, 2006). This research explored the effect of calculator based laboratory instruction on standardized test scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of traditional teaching methods versus graphing calculator teaching methods on the state mandated End-of-Course (EOC) Physical Science exam based on ability, gender, and ethnicity. The sample included 187 total tenth and eleventh grade physical science students, 101 of which belonged to a control group and 87 of which belonged to the experimental group. Physical Science End-of-Course scores obtained from the Tennessee Department of Education during the spring of 2005 and the spring of 2006 were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings of this research study suggested the type of teaching method, traditional or calculator based, did not have an effect on standardized test scores. However, the students' ability level, as demonstrated on the End-of-Course test, had a significant effect on End-of-Course test scores. This study focused on a limited population of high school physical science students in the middle Tennessee

  4. Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2004-01-01

    Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

  5. The Comparison of Accuracy Scores on the Paper and Pencil Testing vs. Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnawati, Heri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the test scores as results of Test of English Proficiency (TOEP) based on paper and pencil test (PPT) versus computer-based test (CBT). Using the participants' responses to the PPT documented from 2008-2010 and data of CBT TOEP documented in 2013-2014 on the sets of 1A, 2A, and 3A for the Listening and…

  6. Test Scores Count! A Handbook for Teaching Test-Taking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigs, Sharon

    This handbook provides guidelines for teaching test-taking skills to students of all grade levels to help the students raise their standardized test scores. Topics covered include: understanding instructions and following directions, efficient use of time, intelligent guessing, and application of special strategies for multiple-choice and…

  7. Teachers See What Ability Scores Cannot: Predicting Student Performance with Challenging Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Jennifer L.; Gubbins, E. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Teacher nominations of students are commonly used in gifted and talented identification systems to supplement psychometric measures of reasoning ability. In this study, second grade teachers were requested to nominate approximately one fourth of their students as having high learning potential in the year prior to the students' participation…

  8. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary

  9. A Quick Assessment of Visuospatial Abilities in Adolescents Using the Design Organization Test (DOT).

    PubMed

    Burggraaf, Rudolf; Frens, Maarten A; Hooge, Ignace T C; van der Geest, Jos N

    2016-01-01

    Tests measuring visuospatial abilities have shown that these abilities increase during adolescence. Unfortunately, the Block Design test and other such tests are complicated and time-consuming to administer, making them unsuitable for use with large groups of restless adolescents. The results of the Design Organization Test (DOT), a quick pen-and-paper test, have been shown to correlate with those of the Block Design test. A group of 198 healthy adolescents (110 male and 88 female) aged 12 to 19 years old participated in this study. A slightly modified version of the DOT has been used in which we shortened the administration time to avoid a ceiling effect in the score. Scores show a linear increase with age (on average 2.0 points per year, r = .61) independent of sex. Scores did not differ between individual setting and group setting. Thus, the DOT is a simple and effective way to assess visuospatial ability in large groups, such as in schools, and it can be easily administered year after year to follow the development of students.

  10. Developing Test Score Reports that Work: The Process and Best Practices for Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores matter these days. Test-takers want to understand how they performed, and test score reports, particularly those for individual examinees, are the vehicles by which most people get the bulk of this information. Historically, score reports have not always met the examinees' information or usability needs, but this is clearly changing…

  11. Interpreting the g loadings of intelligence test composite scores in light of Spearman's law of diminishing returns.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R

    2013-03-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor (g) have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the g loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate whether the g loadings of composite scores from the Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.) (DAS-II, C. D. Elliott, 2007a, Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) were nonlinear and (b) if they were nonlinear, to compare them with linear g loadings to demonstrate how SLODR alters the interpretation of these loadings. Linear and nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were used to model Nonverbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability, Visual Spatial Ability, Working Memory, and Processing Speed composite scores in four age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-13, and 14-17) from the DAS-II norming sample. The nonlinear CFA models provided better fit to the data than did the linear models. In support of SLODR, estimates obtained from the nonlinear CFAs indicated that g loadings decreased as g level increased. The nonlinear portion for the nonverbal reasoning loading, however, was not statistically significant across the age groups. Knowledge of general ability level informs composite score interpretation because g is less likely to produce differences, or is measured less, in those scores at higher g levels. One implication is that it may be more important to examine the pattern of specific abilities at higher general ability levels.

  12. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  13. The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

  14. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  15. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  16. New scores for the Category Test: measures of interference for subtests 5 and 6.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jeffrey S; Lopez, Michael N

    2006-12-01

    The Category Test is a well-known neuropsychological instrument used to assess concept formation and higher executive abilities. The present study investigated the utility of additional scores for the Category Test. We used principles developed in cognitive psychology to create several new measures for subtests 5 and 6 of this test. These scores were primarily designed to be sensitive to interference effects of learning decision rules from subtest 2, subtest 3, and subtest 4. The new scores as well as the total error scores from subtests 5 and 6 were used to discriminate subjects with documented brain injury from subjects who were neurologically normal based on neuroimaging and neurologic evaluation. The Category Test was given following Reitan's (1979) instructions, with the exception that no additional prompting was given to participants who struggled early with the test in order to reduce the "executive" guidance of the examiner. Because any "interference" from earlier subtests on performance of subtest 5 and subtest 6 should be related to mastery of these earlier subtests, the normal group was matched to the brain-impaired group on which subtest(s) they learned. This resulted in four learning groups: (a) learned subtests 3 and 4; (b) learned subtest 4 but not 3; (c) learned subtest 3 but not 4; and (d) failed to learn either subtest. ANOVA analyses revealed that the three measures of interference were significantly greater in the brain-damaged group than in the normal controls. Also, specific interference measures were related to specific prior subtest mastery, thus providing support for a proactive interference effect. In addition, we have evidence that our new measures may be selectively sensitive to frontal system dysfunction.

  17. Aging effects on the structure underlying balance abilities tests.

    PubMed

    Urushihata, Toshiya; Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as 'Static'. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as 'Static and Reactive'. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as 'Reactive'. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as 'Dynamic'. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were acceptable (young group, GFI

  18. Aging Effects on the Structure Underlying Balance Abilities Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Takashi; Soma, Yuki; Miyoshi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Balance impairment is one of the biggest risk factors for falls reducing inactivity, resulting in nursing care. Therefore, balance ability is crucial to maintain the activities of independent daily living of older adults. Many tests to assess balance ability have been developed. However, few reports reveal the structure underlying results of balance performance tests comparing young and older adults. Covariance structure analysis is a tool that is used to test statistically whether factorial structure fits data. This study examined aging effects on the factorial structure underlying balance performance tests. Participants comprised 60 healthy young women aged 22 ± 3 years (young group) and 60 community-dwelling older women aged 69 ± 5 years (older group). Six balance tests: postural sway, one-leg standing, functional reach, timed up and go (TUG), gait, and the EquiTest were employed. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that three clearly interpretable factors were extracted in the young group. The first factor had high loadings on the EquiTest, and was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The second factor had high loadings on the postural sway test, and was interpreted as ‘Static’. The third factor had high loadings on TUG and gait test, and was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. Similarly, three interpretable factors were extracted in the older group. The first factor had high loadings on the postural sway test and the EquiTest and therefore was interpreted as ‘Static and Reactive’. The second factor, which had high loadings on the EquiTest, was interpreted as ‘Reactive’. The third factor, which had high loadings on TUG and the gait test, was interpreted as ‘Dynamic’. A covariance structure model was applied to the test data: the second-order factor was balance ability, and the first-order factors were static, dynamic and reactive factors which were assumed to be measured based on the six balance tests. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of the models were

  19. Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex- ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex- post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

  20. Measuring Writing Ability with the Cloze Test is not Closed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Helmut; Yost, Carlson

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to examine the usefulness of the cloze test as an objective measure of a native speaker's writing ability. A modified version of the cloze test used by Oller and others to measure integrative language skills in non-native speakers was given to 100 freshman English students. The test…

  1. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  2. Difficulty and Discriminating Indices of Three-Multiple Choice Tests Using the Confidence Scoring Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omirin, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…

  3. How Parents Can Help Kids Improve Test Scores: Taking the Stakes out of Literacy Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the goals of No Child Left Behind, standardized testing is preeminent as the sole indicator determining whether states all across America demonstrate adequate yearly progress regarding the improvement of student achievement in literacy education. This book will help teachers and parents raise children's scores on standardized…

  4. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  5. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, C; Christensen, A; Nielsen, J K; Christensen, H

    2013-11-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator between 2009 and 2011 were included. Upon admission all patients underwent physical and neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale along with non-contrast CT scans and CT angiography. Patients were followed up through the Outpatient Clinic and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.96; p<0.001) and good outcome (mRS 0-2) (AUC-ROC: 0.79; 95% CI 0.73-0.85; p<0.001). When only patients with M1 occlusions were selected the DRAGON scale provided good discriminative capability (AUC-ROC: 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0; p=0.003) for highly unfavourable outcome. We confirmed the validity of the DRAGON scale in predicting outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

  6. Two tests of approach-iron golf skill and their ability to predict tournament performance.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Burnett, Angus F; Gupta, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and predictive validity of two skill tests that examine the ability of golfers to hit accurate approach-iron shots. Twenty-four high-level golfers (handicap = 2.6 ± 1.7) performed the Nine-Ball Skills Test (assesses the ability to shape/control ball trajectory with high accuracy) and the Approach-Iron Skill Test (assesses the ability to hit straight shots from varying distances with high accuracy). Participants then completed at least eight rounds of tournament golf over the following 90 days and reported an indicator of approach-iron accuracy (per cent error index). A moderate correlation (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) was noted between scores for both tests. Generalised estimating equations, using two covariates (lie of the ball and distance to hole), were used to determine model fit and the amount of variance explained for tournament per cent error index. Results showed that the Approach-Iron Skill Test was the slightly stronger predictor of on-course per cent error index. With both test scores considered together, a minimal amount of additional variance was explained. These findings suggest that either of the tests used individually or combined may be used to predict tournament approach iron performance in high-level golfers.

  7. Improving Student Achievement: What State NAEP Test Scores Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David; Flanagan, Ann; Kawata, Jennifer; Williamson, Stephanie

    This report uses data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 through 1996 to estimate score gains nationally and by state. It also uses these data to estimate the effects of varying levels and uses of per-pupil expenditures. The report also estimates the cost-effectiveness of the major alternatives for using…

  8. Transiency, Test Scores, and the Public: One School District's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents that transient students who change schools frequently oftensuffer from low academic achievement. This article investigates standardized group measures by disentangling elementary achievement scores. Located in a highly transient area outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Main Street School had their fifth grade Pennsylvania…

  9. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  10. A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Ronald T.; Kolen, Michael J.

    This study compared five density estimation techniques applied to samples from a population of 272,244 examinees' ACT English Usage and Mathematics Usage raw scores. Unsmoothed frequencies, kernel method, negative hypergeometric, four-parameter beta compound binomial, and Cureton-Tukey methods were applied to 500 replications of random samples of…

  11. The Effects of Changing Answers on Scores of Non-Test-Sophisticated Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of answer changes on test scores of relatively non-test-sophisticated examinees was studied. Findings showed that a significantly greater number of changes were from wrong to right, thus increasing total test scores. Answer-changing behavior may reflect more than learned test-taking skill. (Author)

  12. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  13. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  14. Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

  15. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  16. D.C. Student Test Scores Show Uneven Progress. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, both DC Public Schools (DCPS) and public charter schools (PCS) have seen significant growth in secondary reading and math scores on the state test known as the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS). However, scores have not improved as much at the elementary level. Reading and math scores for DCPS…

  17. A Comparison of Three Methods of Scoring True-False Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    Though the Paired-Item-Score (Eakin and Long) (EJ 174 780) method of scoring true-false tests has certain advantages over the traditional scoring methods (percentage right and right minus wrong), these advantages are attained at the cost of a larger risk of misranking the examinees. (Author/BW)

  18. The value of Bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-03-01

    The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed.

  19. Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

  20. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  1. Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…

  2. Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesch, Heather S.

    2010-01-01

    The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

  3. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

  4. A Study of the Long-Term Stability of GRE General Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the long-term stability of Graduate Record Examination scores for graduate program admission purposes investigated the changes in scores among test repeaters. Results suggest that long-term test repeaters have greater gains on verbal than quantitative tests. Explanations and implications are considered. (MSE)

  5. Note on the Scoring of Foreign Language Speaking and Writing Fluency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…

  6. Science standardized achievement tests: The relationship between publishers, textbook completion, admission standards and science test scores of seventh through ninth grade students in FACCS schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Sharon J.

    Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.

  7. An Analysis of Factors Related to Choral Teachers' Ability to Detect Pitch Errors While Reading the Score.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzo, Carroll Lee

    In order to determine whether differences exist between undergraduate music majors preparing for teaching careers in music and experienced secondary-level choral teachers in regard to their ability to detect pitch errors, a Pitch Error Detection (PED) test was developed, and a questionnaire designed to retrieve information about the subjects'…

  8. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  9. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  10. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  11. The Scoring of Matching Questions Tests: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancarík, Antonín; Kostelecká, Yvona

    2015-01-01

    Electronic testing has become a regular part of online courses. Most learning management systems offer a wide range of tools that can be used in electronic tests. With respect to time demands, the most efficient tools are those that allow automatic assessment. The presented paper focuses on one of these tools: matching questions in which one…

  12. Increases in Test Scores as a Function of Material Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap; And Others

    From the entire population (N=341) of grades 7 and 8 in a rural Indiana junior high school, 160 subjects were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and the control groups. Form A of the Nelson Reading Test was administered twice with a 4-week interval. While the control group was told only that the post-test was given to measure how…

  13. Comparison of Two Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Steven; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined relative utility of two scoring systems for Modified Version of Bender-Gestalt Test in predicting performance on Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Findings from 53 kindergarten and 47 first grade students indicated that Qualitative Scoring System was significantly better predictor of visual-motor integration skills than…

  14. Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

  15. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  16. The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

  17. AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

  18. Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

  19. Kindergarten Black-White Test Score Gaps: Replicating and Updating Previous Findings with New National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence has shown large academic test score gaps between black and white students in early childhood. These gaps remain, and probably grow, as students progress through school. Many researchers have sought to explain these persistent test score gaps, and particularly, to understand the role of students' socio-economic status…

  20. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  1. Effects of Scoring by Section and Independent Scorers' Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…

  2. An Investigation of Methods for Improving Estimation of Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Bradley A.

    Three methods of estimating test score distributions that may improve on using the observed frequencies (OBFs) as estimates of a population test score distribution are considered: the kernel method (KM); the polynomial method (PM); and the four-parameter beta binomial method (FPBBM). The assumption each method makes about the smoothness of the…

  3. The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tommetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

  4. The Effect of Misinformation, Partial Information, and Guessing on Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Six scoring methods for assigning weights to right or wrong responses according to various instructions given to test takers are analyzed with respect to expected change scores and the effect of various levels of information and misinformation. Three of the methods provide feedback to the test taker. (Author/CTM)

  5. Linking Scores from Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  6. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  7. The Effects of Accountability System Design on Teachers' Use of Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many studies have concluded that educational accountability policies increase data use, but we know little about how to design accountability systems to encourage productive versus distortive uses of test score data. Purpose: I propose that five features of accountability systems affect how test score data are used and examine…

  8. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  9. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  10. Linking Scores From Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  11. Analysis of Score Change Patterns of Examinees Repeating the Graduate Record Examinations General Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal; Turner, Nancy

    This investigation examines the impact the l98l Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test Format Revision had on the stability over time of the verbal, quantitative, and analytical scores. Scores were used from the self-selected group of repeaters who took the GRE General Test twice between October 1980 and June 1982. Examinees were divided…

  12. Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. NBER Working Paper No. 13300

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic…

  13. Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

  14. Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

  15. Improving behavior observation audiometry testing and scoring procedures.

    PubMed

    Gans, D P

    1987-04-01

    The need exists for improving behavioral testing of low-functioning children, particularly profoundly involved multiply handicapped children. In this study, behavior observation audiometry (BOA) was modified for systematic evaluation of childrens' responses to sound without observer bias. The data were analyzed statistically and a minimum response level was computed. This BOA technique was used to test the hearing of 82 profoundly involved handicapped children. Results suggested that BOA can be helpful in evaluating the hearing of low-functioning children.

  16. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material.

    PubMed

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-02-01

    Despite initial expectations, which have emerged with the advancement of computer technology over the last decade of the twentieth century, scientific literature does not contain many relevant references regarding the development and use of innovative items in psychological testing. Our study presents and evaluates two novel item types. One item type is derived from a standard schematic test item used for the assessment of the spatial perception aspect of spatial ability, enhanced by an interactive response module. The performance on this item type is correlated with the performance on its paper and pencil counterpart. The other innovative item type used complex stimuli in the form of a short video of a ride through a city presented in an on-route perspective, which is intended to measure navigation skills and the ability to keep oneself oriented in space. In this case, the scores were related to the capacity of visuo-spatial working memory and also to the overall score in the paper/pencil test of spatial ability. The second relationship was moderated by gender.

  17. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  18. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  19. Estimating Conditional Distributions of Scores on an Alternate Form of a Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Chen, Haiwen H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative information about test score reliability can be presented in terms of the distribution of equated scores on an alternate form of the test for test takers with a given score on the form taken. In this paper, we describe a procedure for estimating that distribution, for any specified score on the test form taken, by estimating the joint…

  20. Maintaining Equivalent Cut Scores for Small Sample Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…

  1. Test Scores and the Rural School and Community Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC.

    A number of studies suggests that the small size of many rural schools gives their students, especially the poorest, a leg up on academic achievement. This notion is supported by the standardized test results presented in this report, from a sample of the primarily small schools participating in the Rural School and Community Trust, a national…

  2. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  3. Prevalence of low scores in children and adolescents on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Koushik, Nikhil S; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Horton, Arthur MacNeill; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2013-01-01

    It is important to consider the prevalence of low scores when administering a battery of psychological tests. Understanding the prevalence of low scores is important for minimizing false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on base rates for use in children and adolescents. Participants were 408 healthy children and adolescents (M(age) = 13.1 years, SD = 3.7) and 139 children and adolescents (M(age) = 12.4 years, SD = 3.1) diagnosed with a medical, neurological, or learning condition. All participants were administered the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ). The clinical sample performed significantly lower compared with the healthy control participants on three of the five TVCF scores. When all scores were considered simultaneously, 38% of healthy children obtained one or more scores below the 16th percentile and 15% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower. By comparison, significantly higher proportions of children in the clinical sample had low scores below each of the five cutoffs (i.e., 63% had one or more test scores below the 16th percentile and 37% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower). Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the prevalence of low TVCF scores in everyday clinical practice with children and adolescents.

  4. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia.

    PubMed

    Teng, E L; Hasegawa, K; Homma, A; Imai, Y; Larson, E; Graves, A; Sugimoto, K; Yamaguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Chiu, D

    1994-01-01

    The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) has a score range of 0 to 100 and provides quantitative assessment on attention, concentration, orientation, short-term memory, long-term memory, language abilities, visual construction, list-generating fluency, abstraction, and judgment. Scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Modified Mini-Mental State Test, and the Hasegawa Dementia Screening Scale can also be estimated from subsets of the CASI items. Pilot testing conducted in Japan and in the United States has demonstrated its cross-cultural applicability and its usefulness in screening for dementia, in monitoring disease progression, and in providing profiles of cognitive impairment. Typical administration time is 15 to 20 minutes. Record form, manual, videotape of test administration, and quizzes to qualify potential users on the administration and scoring of the CASI are available upon request.

  5. Personnel Test Battery and Scoring Procedures. Memorandum No. L.S. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Barry L.

    The purpose of this memo is to present tests that comprise the test battery used to select Navy personnel to train marine mammals, and to describe the scoring procedures of the tests. The test battery consists of: Biosystems General Information Test (BGIT), Personnel History Questionnaire (PHQ), Gordon Personal Inventory, Gordon Personal Profile,…

  6. Effect of Person Cluster on Accuracy of Ability Estimation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in K-12 Education Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Clark, Malissa A.; McClure, Tara K.

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between cognitive ability test scores and performance was separately meta-analyzed for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White racial/ethnic subgroups. Compared to the average White observed correlation ([image omitted] = 0.33, N = 903,779), average correlations were lower for Black samples ([image omitted] = 0.24, N = 112,194) and…

  8. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Beketayev, Kenes; Runco, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Divergent thinking (DT) tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA) method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility). Data were collected from 250 examinees using the "Many Uses Test" of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74). This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered. PMID:27298632

  9. Priming competence diminishes the link between cognitive test anxiety and test performance. Implications for the interpretation of test scores.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jonas W B; Lang, Jessica

    2010-06-01

    Researchers disagree whether the correlation between cognitive test anxiety and test performance is causal or explainable by skill deficits, which lead to both cognitive test anxiety and lower test performance. Most causal theories of test anxiety assume that individual differences in cognitive test anxiety originate from differences in self-perceived competence. Accordingly, in the present research, we sought to temporarily heighten perceptions of competence using a priming intervention. Two studies with secondary- and vocational-school students (Ns = 219 and 232, respectively) contrasted this intervention with a no-priming control condition. Priming competence diminished the association between cognitive test anxiety and test performance by heightening the performance of cognitively test-anxious students and by lowering the performance of students with low levels of cognitive test anxiety. The findings suggest that cognitively test-anxious persons have greater abilities than they commonly show. Competency priming may offer a way to improve the situation of people with cognitive test anxiety. PMID:20435953

  10. Science course sequences: The alignment of written, enacted, and tested curricula and their impact on grade 11 HSPA science scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Christine A.

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to examine the alignment of the written, enacted, and tested curricula of the Ocean City High School science course sequencing and its impact on student achievement. This study also examined the school's ability to predict student scores on the science portion of the High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA). Data collected for science achievement included the science portion of the Grade Eight Proficiency Assessment (GEPA) as a pretest and the scores for the science portion of the HSPA as a posttest. Data collected for curriculum alignment included an examination of teacher generated course curriculum maps to determine the alignment with the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and the HSPA Test Specifications Directory. The quantitative data were treated through a series of paired samples t-tests, Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine relationships between variables, an ANCOVA analysis and a stepwise regression analysis were also completed. Based on the findings of the data analysis of this research effort, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) the alignment of the enacted curriculum with the tested and written curricula affected science achievement. (2) GEPA scores are significantly tied to HSPA scores and (3) GEPA scores and enrollment in the science sequence whose curriculum was aligned with the written and tested curricula, met the requirements of a predictor of scores on the HSPA exam. It is expected that educational leadership will use the results of this research to inform practice and drive decision-making in respect to student placement in to course sequences. It is hoped that the results will not only increase support for the district's curricula development plan but also add to the overall body of knowledge surrounding science program effectiveness in relation to the No Child Left Behind standards.

  11. Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test.

    PubMed

    Laiacona, M; Inzaghi, M G; De Tanti, A; Capitani, E

    2000-10-01

    The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, with 5-17 years of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed as well as norms for some well known qualitative aspects of the performance, i.e. perseverative responses, failure to maintain the set and non-perseverative errors. In setting normative values, we followed a statistical methodology (equivalent scores) employed in Italy for other neuropsychological tests, in order to favour the possibility of comparison among these tests. A correlation study between the global score of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the score on the Weigl test was carried out and it emerges that some cognitive aspects are not overlapping in these two measures.

  12. Mixing ability test compared with a comminution test in persons with normal and compromised masticatory performance.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, C M; Abbink, J H; van der Glas, H W; Janssen, N G; van der Bilt, A

    2009-10-01

    A mastication test was needed with a material that forms a bolus and is soft enough to be chewed by persons with compromised oral function, in particular patients confronted with oral cancer. We therefore developed a wax-mixing ability test and compared it with a comminution test using Optocal as test food. We hypothesized that the mixing ability test would be better at differentiating between groups of persons with compromised masticatory performance than the comminution test. Sixty healthy subjects were recruited in three groups of 20, matched for age and gender: a group with natural dentition; a group with full dentures; and a group with maxillary denture and implant-supported mandibular overdenture. The mixing ability test was found to discriminate better between the two full-denture groups than the comminution test.

  13. Mixing ability test compared with a comminution test in persons with normal and compromised masticatory performance.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, C M; Abbink, J H; van der Glas, H W; Janssen, N G; van der Bilt, A

    2009-10-01

    A mastication test was needed with a material that forms a bolus and is soft enough to be chewed by persons with compromised oral function, in particular patients confronted with oral cancer. We therefore developed a wax-mixing ability test and compared it with a comminution test using Optocal as test food. We hypothesized that the mixing ability test would be better at differentiating between groups of persons with compromised masticatory performance than the comminution test. Sixty healthy subjects were recruited in three groups of 20, matched for age and gender: a group with natural dentition; a group with full dentures; and a group with maxillary denture and implant-supported mandibular overdenture. The mixing ability test was found to discriminate better between the two full-denture groups than the comminution test. PMID:19758256

  14. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

    1985-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

  15. Using Test Scores from Students with Disabilities in Teacher Effectiveness Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzick, Heather M.; Jones, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    The increased emphasis on using student growth measures in teacher evaluation has raised questions about how to treat test scores from students with disabilities. This study explores the consequences of three common approaches for treating scores from students with disabilities in statistical approaches to estimating teacher effectiveness: (1)…

  16. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  17. See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

  18. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  19. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  20. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

  1. Language Variation and Score Variation in the Testing of English Language Learners, Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…

  2. Test Score or Student Progress? A Value-Added Evaluation of School Effectiveness in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Pai; Hochweber, Jan; Klieme, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-oriented evaluation of school effectiveness is often based on student test scores in certain critical examinations. This study provides another method of evaluation--value-added--which is based on student achievement progress. This paper introduces the method of estimating the value-added score of schools in multi-level models. Based on…

  3. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  4. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  5. Loanwords and Vocabulary Size Test Scores: A Case of Different Estimates for Different L1 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; McLean, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The article investigated how the inclusion of loanwords in vocabulary size tests affected the test scores of two L1 groups of EFL learners: Hebrew and Japanese. New BNC- and COCA-based vocabulary size tests were constructed in three modalities: word form recall, word form recognition, and word meaning recall. Depending on the test modality, the…

  6. An Attempt to Revise Scoring Conventions for the Token and Reporter's Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; Jordan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Revised methods of scoring the Token Test and Reporter's Test were developed to accommodate specific types of errors committed by language-disordered children during a previous standardization study. Test modifications are explained as are the results of administering the revised tests to both normal and language-disordered school-aged children.…

  7. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...-alone diagnostic test, or as a test to determine whether or not to proceed with surgery. Elsewhere in... assessment score test system is intended for use in those patients for whom surgery is planned, and should not be used to decide whether or not a patient should receive surgery. The test is used in...

  8. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  9. Minority Performance on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition, versus the Cognitive Abilities Test, Form 6: One Gifted Program's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giessman, Jacob A.; Gambrell, James L.; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition (NNAT2), is used widely to screen students for possible inclusion in talent development programs. The NNAT2 claims to provide a more culturally neutral evaluation of general ability than tests such as Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT6), which has Verbal and Quantitative batteries in…

  10. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Beketayev, Kenes; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking (DT) tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA) method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility). Data were collected from 250 examinees using the “Many Uses Test” of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74). This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered. PMID:27298632

  11. A weighted generalized score statistic for comparison of predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Andrzej S

    2013-03-15

    Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting.

  12. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior

  14. Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefgren, Lars; Sims, David

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a simple model of teacher value-added to show how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models. Using matched student-teacher data from North Carolina, we show that the optimal use of math and reading scores improves the fit of prediction models of overall future…

  15. Evaluation of 2 cognitive abilities tests in a dual-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Most real world operators are required to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. In some cases, such as flying a high performance aircraft or trouble shooting a failing nuclear power plant, the operator's ability to time share or process in parallel" can be driven to extremes. This has created interest in selection tests of cognitive abilities. Two tests that have been suggested are the Dichotic Listening Task and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Correlations between these test results and time sharing performance were obtained and the validity of these tests were examined. The primary task was a tracking task with dynamically varying bandwidth. This was performed either alone or concurrently with either another tracking task or a spatial transformation task. The results were: (1) An unexpected negative correlation was detected between the two tests; (2) The lack of correlation between either test and task performance made the predictive utility of the tests scores appear questionable; (3) Pilots made more errors on the Dichotic Listening Task than college students.

  16. Optimal scoring methods of hand-strength tests in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods were used to present the strength scores. The smallest real difference was used to provide information on the measurement error. The smallest real difference percentage was used to compare the effect on minimizing the error. Using mean score of tests for nonspastic patients carried out at least twice was found to be advisable to minimize measurement errors in the grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch tests. However, the use of hand-strength tests for patients with spasticity is limited because of the relatively high measurement errors.

  17. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

  18. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  19. Determining When Single Scoring for Constructed-Response Items Is as Effective as Double Scoring in Mixed-Format Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the…

  20. Test Score Stability and the Relationship of Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores to External Variables among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Peyton, Vicki; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for application to graduate-level students. Results of the study…

  1. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  2. The Validity of Scores from the "GRE"® revised General Test for Forecasting Performance in Business Schools: Phase One. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-14-01. ETS Research Report. RR-14-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John W.; Klieger, David; Bochenek, Jennifer; Li, Chen; Cline, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Scores from the "GRE"® revised General Test provide important information regarding the verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities and analytical writing skills of applicants to graduate programs. The validity and utility of these scores depend upon the degree to which the scores predict success in graduate and business school in…

  3. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  4. [French version of TASTE (test for the ability and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Pereira, A M; Depreeuw, E; Ansseau, M

    2001-01-01

    Ability to study and evaluation is only one example of performance among many others but research and publications concerning this issue for more than 50 years, especially in the context of test anxiety and need of achievement, conferred upon it a prototypical dimension. Investigations about motivation also stimulate many scientists and constitute another foundation of this study (13). The level of performance depends on knowledge and motivation (33). Time devoted to study is essential to succeed; so motivation and procrastination are in competition. The importance of reinforcement (extrinsical motivation) and the desire for learning and knowing (intrinsical motivation) are determinant. Other elements must be emphasized: guarantee of obtaining rewards, self efficacy and causal attribution. These considerations point out the multidimensional and interactive aspects of test anxiety (7, 31). The number of components is not described unanimously but experts agree with emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions (25). So, anxiety was approached in its motivational properties, and it was the case until the sixties, in terms of drive corresponding to a need like thirst or hunger (18); then it was conceptualized in a dynamic context broader than that of stress and coping (29, 30). Last, it constitutes the object of theories highlighting cognitive interference (9, 23, 26) or defective skills (8, 32). A lot of questionnaires were built without answering the different aspects and for instance without linking the theoretical and therapeutic components concerning this problem. Committed to the traditional fields of research (test anxiety and need of achievement), to Weiner's work about attribution theory (34) and that of Bandura in self efficacy (4, 5), E. Depreeuw (10) was particularly interested in Heckhausen's model (16, 17), trying to associate experimental conceptions with the clinical reality. On this basis, he elaborated the TASTE (10, 12, 20): test for ability to

  5. [French version of TASTE (test for the ability and evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Pereira, A M; Depreeuw, E; Ansseau, M

    2001-01-01

    Ability to study and evaluation is only one example of performance among many others but research and publications concerning this issue for more than 50 years, especially in the context of test anxiety and need of achievement, conferred upon it a prototypical dimension. Investigations about motivation also stimulate many scientists and constitute another foundation of this study (13). The level of performance depends on knowledge and motivation (33). Time devoted to study is essential to succeed; so motivation and procrastination are in competition. The importance of reinforcement (extrinsical motivation) and the desire for learning and knowing (intrinsical motivation) are determinant. Other elements must be emphasized: guarantee of obtaining rewards, self efficacy and causal attribution. These considerations point out the multidimensional and interactive aspects of test anxiety (7, 31). The number of components is not described unanimously but experts agree with emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions (25). So, anxiety was approached in its motivational properties, and it was the case until the sixties, in terms of drive corresponding to a need like thirst or hunger (18); then it was conceptualized in a dynamic context broader than that of stress and coping (29, 30). Last, it constitutes the object of theories highlighting cognitive interference (9, 23, 26) or defective skills (8, 32). A lot of questionnaires were built without answering the different aspects and for instance without linking the theoretical and therapeutic components concerning this problem. Committed to the traditional fields of research (test anxiety and need of achievement), to Weiner's work about attribution theory (34) and that of Bandura in self efficacy (4, 5), E. Depreeuw (10) was particularly interested in Heckhausen's model (16, 17), trying to associate experimental conceptions with the clinical reality. On this basis, he elaborated the TASTE (10, 12, 20): test for ability to

  6. New and updated tests of print exposure and reading abilities in college students.

    PubMed

    Aacheson, Danie Jl; Wellu, Justine B; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between print exposure and measures of reading skill was examined in college students (N = 99, 58 female; mean age = 20.3 years). Print exposure was measured with several new self-reports of reading and writing habits, as well as updated versions of the Author Recognition Test and the Magazine Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). Participants completed a sentence comprehension task with syntactically complex sentences, and reading times and comprehension accuracy were measured. An additional measure of reading skill was provided by participants' scores on the verbal portions of the ACT, a standardized achievement test. Higher levels of print exposure were associated with higher sentence processing abilities and superior verbal ACT performance. The relative merits of different print exposure assessments are discussed.

  7. New and updated tests of print exposure and reading abilities in college students

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Wells, Justine B.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between print exposure and measures of reading skill was examined in college students (N = 99, 58 female; mean age = 20.3 years). Print exposure was measured with several new self-reports of reading and writing habits, as well as updated versions of the Author Recognition Test and the Magazine Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). Participants completed a sentence comprehension task with syntactically complex sentences, and reading times and comprehension accuracy were measured. An additional measure of reading skill was provided by participants’ scores on the verbal portions of the ACT, a standardized achievement test. Higher levels of print exposure were associated with higher sentence processing abilities and superior verbal ACT performance. The relative merits of different print exposure assessments are discussed. PMID:18411551

  8. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  9. Test Scores in New Castle County, DE.--Before and After Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, William D., Comp.

    This analysis compares student test scores before and after school busing in New Castle County, Delaware, in an attempt to see if busing to achieve racial balance reduces the achievement gap between black and white students. School authorities pre-tested students with the California Achievement Test (CAT) in 1978-79, the first year of busing, and…

  10. The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Pam C.

    2005-01-01

    Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

  11. Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplin, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

  12. The Relationship between Career Maturity Test Scores and Appropriateness of Career Choices: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to replicate study determining relationship between appropriateness of career choices and career maturity test scores in rural ninth grade students (N=112) using Goal Selection scale of Career Maturity Inventory Competence Test and American College Testing Program Career Planning Program. Found two career maturity measures correlated…

  13. Demands on Users for Interpretation of Achievement Test Scores: Implications for the Evaluation Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel Mario; Gardner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Professional standards for validity of achievement tests have long reflected a consensus that validity is the degree to which evidence and theory support interpretations of test scores entailed by the intended uses of tests. Yet there are convincing lines of evidence that the standards are not adequately followed in practice, that…

  14. Commentary: Student Cognition, the Situated Learning Context, and Test Score Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is assumed that student cognition contributes to student performance on achievement tests, it may be that current testing models lack the degree of specification necessary to warrant such inferences. With test score interpretations as the referent, the authors in this special issue address the role of student cognition in learning and…

  15. How Does Emergency Department Crowding Affect Medical Student Test Scores and Clerkship Evaluations?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Grant; Arya, Rajiv; Ritz, Z. Trevor; He, Albert S.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; McCoy, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effect of emergency department (ED) crowding has been recognized as a concern for more than 20 years; its effect on productivity, medical errors, and patient satisfaction has been studied extensively. Little research has reviewed the effect of ED crowding on medical education. Prior studies that have considered this effect have shown no correlation between ED crowding and resident perception of quality of medical education. Objective To determine whether ED crowding, as measured by the National ED Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS) score, has a quantifiable effect on medical student objective and subjective experiences during emergency medicine (EM) clerkship rotations. Methods We collected end-of-rotation examinations and medical student evaluations for 21 EM rotation blocks between July 2010 and May 2012, with a total of 211 students. NEDOCS scores were calculated for each corresponding period. Weighted regression analyses examined the correlation between components of the medical student evaluation, student test scores, and the NEDOCS score for each period. Results When all 21 rotations are included in the analysis, NEDOCS scores showed a negative correlation with medical student tests scores (regression coefficient= −0.16, p=0.04) and three elements of the rotation evaluation (attending teaching, communication, and systems-based practice; p<0.05). We excluded an outlying NEDOCS score from the analysis and obtained similar results. When the data were controlled for effect of month of the year, only student test score remained significantly correlated with NEDOCS score (p=0.011). No part of the medical student rotation evaluation attained significant correlation with the NEDOCS score (p≥0.34 in all cases). Conclusion ED overcrowding does demonstrate a small but negative association with medical student performance on end-of-rotation examinations. Additional studies are recommended to further evaluate this effect. PMID:26594289

  16. Intraday reliability and sensitivity of four functional ability tests in older women.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Susan; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-08-01

    Functional tests are commonly used to evaluate the functional ability of older individuals; however, intraday reliability and sensitivity are required to enable informed decisions on whether repeated trials are necessary and to ensure that the values obtained from a single session are a patient's true score. This study aimed to investigate the intraday reliability and sensitivity of four commonly used functional tests in older individuals. Seventy-one healthy older women (mean [SD]: age, 71.7 [7.3] yrs; body mass, 64.8 [10.2] kg; stature, 1.58 [0.07] m) performed the 6-m maximum walking speed, timed 8-foot up-and-go, chair sit-and-reach, and back scratch tests three times in one single session, with 1 min between trials. Reliability between all trials was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient, and sensitivity was examined using typical error. All tests were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.89-0.99), indicating no need for a familiarization trial. Typical error between trials 2 and 1 were 0.06 m·s-1, 0.42 s, 1.13 cm, 0.92 cm for the 6-m maximum walking speed, timed 8-foot up-and-go, chair sit-and-reach, and back scratch tests, respectively. Practitioners should perform two trials to examine whether the difference between them is less than the typical error reported here. These results should help practitioners ensure that scores obtained from an individual from these functional tests are a true reflection of their functional ability rather than measurement error.

  17. Ability Testing in the 1980's and Beyond: Some Major Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the changes in psychological testing and the rapidity of their development. Describes trends in the role of the test user, technical methodology of test construction, and interpretation of test scores. (Author)

  18. Early Mathematics Skills from Prekindergarten to First Grade: Score Changes and Ability Group Differences in Kentucky, Nebraska, and Shanghai Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Molfese, Victoria J.; Heaton, Ruth; Zhou, Xin; Brown, E. Todd; Prokasky, Amanda; Davis, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study shows average mathematics scores of U.S. fourth graders are lower than children in many Asian countries. There are questions about differences in mathematics skills at younger ages. This study examines differences in score growth for High-, Average-, and Low-performing children in two…

  19. Self-Esteem Scores among Deaf College Students: An Examination of Gender and Parents' Hearing Status and Signing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Teresa V.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 152 college students with deafness found students who had at least one parent with deafness and signed scored significantly higher on self-esteem measures than those with hearing parents who could or who could not sign. Overall, self-esteem scores for all respondents were high. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Equivalence of three score tests for association mapping of quantitative trait loci under selective genotyping.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongqiang

    2010-07-01

    Huang and Lin ([2007] Am J Hum Genet 80:567-572) proposed a conditional-likelihood approach for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) under selective genotyping, and demonstrated via simulation that their model tends to be more powerful than the prospective linear regression. However, we show that the three score tests based on the conditional, prospective and retrospective likelihoods are numerically identical in testing association between a quantitative trait and a candidate locus. Two approximations are derived for calculating power and sample size for the score test. Compared to the random sampling, a single-tail selection generally reduces the power of the score test in mapping small effect QTLs. A two-tail selection generally enhances the QTL heritability; however, in small samples, the power of the test may actually decrease if the sample sizes are highly unbalanced in the upper and lower tails of the trait distribution. PMID:20552655

  1. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.

  2. Ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Jesper; Thomeé, Roland; Karlsson, Jon

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a new hop test to determine functional deficits after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The test consists of a pre-exhaustion exercise protocol combined with a single-leg hop. Nineteen male patients with ACL reconstruction (mean time after operation 11 months) who exhibited normal single-leg hop symmetry values (> or =90% compared with the non-involved extremity) were tested for one-repetition maximum (1 RM) strength of a knee-extension exercise. The patients then performed single-leg hops following a standardised pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, which consisted of unilateral weight machine knee-extensions until failure at 50% of 1 RM. Although no patients displayed abnormal hop symmetry when non-fatigued, 68% of the patients showed abnormal hop symmetry for the fatigued test condition. Sixty-three per cent exhibited 1 RM strength scores of below 90% of the non-involved leg. Eighty-four percent of the patients exhibited abnormal symmetry in at least one of the tests. Our findings indicate that patients are not fully rehabilitated 11 months after ACL reconstruction. It is concluded that the pre-exhaustion exercise protocol, combined with the single-leg hop test, improved testing sensitivity when evaluating lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction. For a more comprehensive evaluation of lower-extremity function after ACL reconstruction, it is therefore suggested that functional testing should be performed both under non-fatigued and fatigued test conditions.

  3. Validity of the General Conceptual Ability Score from the Differential Ability Scales as a Function of Significant and Rare Interfactor Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotz, Kasey M.; Watkins, Marley W.; McDermott, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Some researchers have argued that discrepant broad index scores invalidate IQs, but others have questioned the fundamental logic of that argument. To resolve this debate, the present study used a nationally representative sample of children (N = 1,200) who were matched individually for IQ. Children with significantly uneven broad index score…

  4. Effect of locomotion score on sows' performances in a feed reward collection test.

    PubMed

    Bos, E-J; Nalon, E; Maes, D; Ampe, B; Buijs, S; van Riet, M M J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Sows housed in groups have to move through their pen to fulfil their behavioural and physiological needs such as feeding and resting. In addition to causing pain and discomfort, lameness may restrict the ability of sows to fulfil such needs. The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which the mobility of sows is affected by different degrees of lameness. Mobility was measured as the sow's willingness or capability to cover distances. Feed-restricted hybrid sows with different gait scores were subjected to a feed reward collection test in which they had to walk distances to obtain subsequent rewards. In all, 29 group-housed sows at similar gestation stage (day 96.6 ± 7 s.d.) were visually recorded for gait and classified as non-lame, mildly lame, moderately lame or severely lame. All sows received 2.6 kg of standard commercial gestation feed per day. The test arena consisted of two feeding locations separated from each other by a Y-shaped middle barrier. Feed rewards were presented at the two feeders in turn, using both light and sound cues to signal the availability of a new feed reward. Sows were individually trained during 5 non-consecutive days for 10 min/day with increasing barrier length (range: 0 to 3.5 m) each day. After training, sows were individually tested once per day on 3 non-consecutive days with the maximum barrier length such that they had to cover 9.3 m to walk from one feeder to the other. The outcome variable was the number of rewards collected in a 15-min time span. Non-lame and mildly lame sows obtained more rewards than moderately lame and severely lame sows (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was found between non-lame and mildly lame sows (P=0.69), nor between moderately lame and severely lame sows (P=1.00). This feed reward collection test indicates that both moderately lame and severely lame sows are limited in their combined ability and willingness to walk, but did not reveal an effect of mild lameness on mobility

  5. Validation of the Ability of SYNTAX and Clinical SYNTAX Scores to Predict Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Stent Implantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, JiaYuan; Tang, Buzhou; Lin, YongQing; Ru, Ying; Wu, MaoXiong; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Chen, YangXin; Wang, JingFeng

    2016-10-01

    To compare the predicative ability of SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) and clinical SYNTAX scores for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) after stent implantation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Studies were identified by electronic and manual searches. Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled C-statistics of SYNTAX score for 1- and 5-year all-cause mortality (ACM) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61-0.68) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.59-0.65), respectively, with weak heterogeneity. The 1- and 5-year ACM pooled C-statistics for clinical SYNTAX scores were significantly higher at 0.77 and 0.71, respectively (Ps < .05). Both scoring systems predicted 1- and 5-year MACE equally well. The pooled risk ratio of the SYNTAX score for predicting 1-year ACM per unit was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03-1.05). Calibration analysis indicated SYNTAX scores overestimated the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in each risk stratum. The SYNTAX score demonstrated minimal discrimination in predicting 1- or 5-year adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with CAD. The clinical SYNTAX score could further improve the predictive capability for ACM but not MACE.

  6. An electrophysiological correlate of Eating Attitudes Test scores in female college students.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J F; Mercer, J C

    1990-11-01

    Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) scores of forty female college students were compared to their electrodermal activity (EDA) responses when offered a plate of chocolate chip cookies. A significant positive correlation was detected between the EAT scores and the skin conductivity measures associated with the presentation of food. Women with the highest EAT scores also exhibited the greatest sympathetic nervous system responses to a plate of cookies. This finding supports the conclusion that the EAT is capable of identifying individuals who are preoccupied with food or anxious about eating.

  7. Physiological determinants of the candidate physical ability test in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Andrew K; Bennett, Angela; Hanson, Erik D; Kim, You-Sin; Hsu, Jeffrey; Shim, Jae K; Edwards, Steven T; Hurley, Ben F

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative importance of physiological characteristics during firefighting performance, as assessed by the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT). Subjects included career and volunteer firefighters aged 18-39 (N = 33). Upper- and lower-body strength, muscle endurance, lower body muscle power, body composition analysis, aerobic capacity, anaerobic fitness, and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to stair climbing were assessed to determine the physiological characteristics of the subjects. To quantify firefighting performance, the CPAT was administered by members of the fire service. Absolute and relative mean power during the Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT), relative peak power during the WAnT, and absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were significantly higher in those who passed the CPAT (N = 18), compared to those who failed (N = 15; p < 0.01). Mean power during the WAnT, fatigue index during WAnT, absolute VO2max, upper body strength, grip strength, and the HR response to stair climbing were significantly related to CPAT performance time (p < 0.01). Absolute VO2max and anaerobic fatigue resistance during WAnT best predicted CPAT performance (Adj. R2 = 0.817; p < 0.001). Performance on the ceiling breach and pull was the only CPAT task that was not significantly related to the physiological characteristics assessed. Measures of anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness best predict overall CPAT performance, and individual task performance. Remedial programs aimed at improving firefighting performance should target anaerobic and aerobic fitness qualities.

  8. Grades--Scores--Predictions: A Study of the Efficiency of High School Grades and American College Test Scores in Predicting Academic Achievement at Montgomery College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Robert L.; Bleil, David F.

    This report analyzes the relationship between high school grades, American College Test (ACT) scores, and first-semester college grades. Based on the Standard Research Service of the ACT program, 1,379 students in the fall 1969 freshman class of Montgomery College (Maryland) were studied. Measures of academic background used ACT scores in English,…

  9. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  10. The impact of individual ability, favorable team member scores, and student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods.

    PubMed

    Su, Allan Yen-Lun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing. Results indicate that individual ability on the preference of team-based learning was affected by the three levels of favorable team member scores. For students with a low level of individual ability, the preference for team-based learning was significant among students with each of three levels of favorable team member scores (p < .05). However, the team-based learning and grading methods was not significant (p > .05). The findings also reveal a negative correlation between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing (p < .05). Findings note the importance of teachers' grading methods, student perceptions of course importance as well as individual ability and favorable team member scores in the team selection process to promote student attitude toward team-based learning.

  11. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  12. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  13. Two for One: Using QAR to Increase Reading Comprehension and Improve Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip describes an intervention used in a third-grade classroom implemented to help students pass an end-of-grade reading comprehension test. Low scores on a practice end-of-grade comprehension test prompted a re-examination of classroom reading instruction and a plan for intervention. This teaching tip describes the phases implemented…

  14. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  15. Investigating Score Dependability in English/Chinese Interpreter Certification Performance Testing: A Generalizability Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chao

    2016-01-01

    As a property of test scores, reliability/dependability constitutes an important psychometric consideration, and it underpins the validity of measurement results. A review of interpreter certification performance tests (ICPTs) reveals that (a) although reliability/dependability checking has been recognized as an important concern, its theoretical…

  16. Predicting Teacher Performance with Test Scores and Grade Point Average: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Powers, Sonya J.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the degree to which teachers' test scores and their performance in preparation programs as measured by their collegiate grade point average (GPA) predicted their teaching competence. Results from 123 studies that yielded 715 effect sizes were analyzed, and the mediating effects of test and GPA type,…

  17. Bi-Factor MIRT Observed-Score Equating for Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Lee, Won-Chan

    2016-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to develop bi-factor multidimensional item response theory (BF-MIRT) observed-score equating procedures for mixed-format tests and to investigate relative appropriateness of the proposed procedures. Using data from a large-scale testing program, three types of pseudo data sets were formulated: matched samples,…

  18. A Defensible Model for Determining a Minimal Cut-Off Score for Criterion Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernknopf, Stan; And Others

    The effectiveness of a model for determining a minimal cut-off score for criterion-referenced tests was examined. The model, based upon techniques presented originally by Nedelsky and by Angoff, was first used in conjunction with a multiple choice test developed for use in certifying school counselors in Georgia. A "knowledge estimation panel" was…

  19. Investigation and Treatment of Missing Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries

    2003-01-01

    This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way…

  20. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and

  1. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A.; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research. PMID:27445902

  2. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and PMID:27445902

  3. Likelihood ratio and score burden tests for detecting disease-associated rare variants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woojoo; Lee, Donghwan; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two simple rare variant (RV) burden tests based on the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and score statistics. LRT is one of the commonly used tests in practical data analysis, and we show here that there is no reason to ignore it in testing RV associations. With the Bartlett correction, we have numerically shown that the LRT-based test can have a reliable distribution. Our simulation study indicates that if the non-null variants are as common as the null variants, then the LRT and score statistics have comparable performance to the C-alpha test, and if the former is rarer than the null variants, then they outperform the C-alpha test. PMID:26426897

  4. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  5. Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Taylor R.; Petrov, Alexander A.; Sederberg, Per B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training—now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future. PMID:25395695

  6. Predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores, college attendance, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Gary E

    2013-10-22

    I studied predictive effects of teachers and schools on test scores in fourth through eighth grade and outcomes later in life such as college attendance and earnings. For example, predict the fraction of a classroom attending college at age 20 given the test score for a different classroom in the same school with the same teacher and given the test score for a classroom in the same school with a different teacher. I would like to have predictive effects that condition on averages over many classrooms, with and without the same teacher. I set up a factor model that, under certain assumptions, makes this feasible. Administrative school district data in combination with tax data were used to calculate estimates and do inference.

  7. Emotional pictures impact repetitive sprint ability test on cycle ergometre.

    PubMed

    Coudrat, Laure; Rouis, Majdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Attiogbé, Elvis; Gélat, Thierry; Driss, Tarak

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between emotion-eliciting pictures and power output during a repetitive supra-maximal task on a cycle ergometre. Twelve male participants (mean (±SD) age, height and weight: 28.58 ± 3.23 years, 1.78 ± 0.05 m and 82.41 ± 13.29 kg) performed 5 repeated sprint tests on a cycle ergometre in front of neutral, pleasant or unpleasant pictures. For each sprint, mechanical (peak power and work), physiological (heart rate) and perceptual (affective load) indices were analysed. Affective load was calculated from the ratings of perceived exertion, which reflected the amount of pleasant and unpleasant responses experienced during exercise. The results showed that peak power, work and heart rate values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for unpleasant pictures (9.18 ± 0.20 W ∙ kg(-1); 47.69 ± 1.08 J ∙ kg(-1); 152 ± 4 bpm) when compared with pleasant ones (9.50 ± 0.20 W ∙ kg(-1); 50.11 ± 0.11 J ∙ kg(-1); 156 ± 3 bpm). Furthermore, the affective load was found to be similar for the pleasant and unpleasant sessions. All together, these results suggested that the ability to produce maximal power output depended on whether the emotional context was pleasant or unpleasant. The fact that the power output was lower in the unpleasant versus pleasant session could reflect a regulatory process aimed at maintaining a similar level of affective load for both sessions.

  8. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Suzanne L.; Anderson, Craig L.; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram; McCoy, C. Eric; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulation-based evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6%) than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6–14.0%], p<0.00005). We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04), validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation. PMID:26594288

  9. Impact of a standardized test package on exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN outcomes.

    PubMed

    Homard, Catherine M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto correlational study was to compare exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN(®) pass rates of baccalaureate nursing students who differed in level of participation in a standardized test package. Three cohort groups emerged as a standardized test package was introduced: (a) students who did not participate in a standardized test package; (b) students with two semesters of a standardized test package; and (c) students with four semesters of a standardized test package. Benner's novice-to-expert theory framed the study in the belief that students best acquire knowledge and skills through practice and reflection. Students participating in four semesters of a standardized test package demonstrated higher exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN pass rates compared with students who did not participate in this package. This study's results could inform nurse educators about strategies to facilitate nursing student success on exit examinations and the NCLEX-RN.

  10. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

  11. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  12. The Effect of School Poverty on Racial Gaps in Tests Scores: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Samuel L.; Kim, Hyeoneui; Mandala, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    A data from 1996,1998 and 1999 Minnesota comprehensive statewide testing on eight graders is used to analyze whether African American students perform worse than the white students who attend the poverty schools. The analyses conclude that African American-White test score gap is attributed more to the racial discriminations and racial treatments…

  13. An approach to analyzing a single subject's scores obtained in a standardized test with application to the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT).

    PubMed

    Willmes, K

    1985-08-01

    Methods for the analysis of a single subject's test profile(s) proposed by Huber (1973) are applied to the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). The procedures are based on the classical test theory model (Lord & Novick, 1968) and are suited for any (achievement) test with standard norms from a large standardization sample and satisfactory reliability estimates. Two test profiles of a Wernicke's aphasic, obtained before and after a 3-month period of speech therapy, are analyzed using inferential comparisons between (groups of) subtest scores on one test application and between two test administrations for single (groups of) subtests. For each of these comparisons, the two aspects of (i) significant (reliable) differences in performance beyond measurement error and (ii) the diagnostic validity of that difference in the reference population of aphasic patients are assessed. Significant differences between standardized subtest scores and a remarkably better preserved reading and writing ability could be found for both test administrations using the multiple test procedure of Holm (1979). Comparison of both profiles revealed an overall increase in performance for each subtest as well as changes in level of performance relations between pairs of subtests.

  14. Benton's Visual Retention Test: New Age, Scale Score and Percentile Norms for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James A.

    The Benton Visual Retention Test which is designed to assess visual perceptual, visual motor, and visuoconstructive abilities can give school personnel greater precision and range in testing. The standardization of this instrument was tested on 700 Houston elementary school students. Chronological age differences were maintained and correlation…

  15. Adolescent Volume Conservation Abilities: A Comparison of Three Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protinsky, Howard O.; Hughston, George

    1980-01-01

    In a study to determine procedural effects of volume conservation tasks performed by adolescent females, the results revealed that the LaVatelli water displacement test was significantly more difficult than the Elkind test or Piaget's test. (Author/RL)

  16. The Black-White Scoring Gap on SAT II Achievement Tests: Some of the News Is Cheering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Academically accomplished applicants to the nation's top colleges usually take SAT II Achievement Tests. While scoring gaps between college-bound Blacks and Whites on these tests tend to be smaller than gaps on the basic SAT, a racial scoring gap persists. However, black students appear to be making progress in closing the racial scoring gap on…

  17. Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)

  18. Linear score tests for variance components in linear mixed models and applications to genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Qu, Long; Guennel, Tobias; Marshall, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    Following the rapid development of genome-scale genotyping technologies, genetic association mapping has become a popular tool to detect genomic regions responsible for certain (disease) phenotypes, especially in early-phase pharmacogenomic studies with limited sample size. In response to such applications, a good association test needs to be (1) applicable to a wide range of possible genetic models, including, but not limited to, the presence of gene-by-environment or gene-by-gene interactions and non-linearity of a group of marker effects, (2) accurate in small samples, fast to compute on the genomic scale, and amenable to large scale multiple testing corrections, and (3) reasonably powerful to locate causal genomic regions. The kernel machine method represented in linear mixed models provides a viable solution by transforming the problem into testing the nullity of variance components. In this study, we consider score-based tests by choosing a statistic linear in the score function. When the model under the null hypothesis has only one error variance parameter, our test is exact in finite samples. When the null model has more than one variance parameter, we develop a new moment-based approximation that performs well in simulations. Through simulations and analysis of real data, we demonstrate that the new test possesses most of the aforementioned characteristics, especially when compared to existing quadratic score tests or restricted likelihood ratio tests. PMID:24328714

  19. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students’ Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students’ mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9–7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12–13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20–25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students. PMID:26317643

  20. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…

  1. The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

  2. Relationship of Friends, Physical Education, and State Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dimensions of wellness and academic performance for 634 third through fifth grade students in Title One schools in rural Mississippi, using composites of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory for Elementary Children and Reading, Language, and Math Scores of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (a state level…

  3. Florida Defeats the Skeptics: Test Scores Show Genuine Progress in the Sunshine State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Among the 50 states, Florida's gains on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) between 1992 and 2011 ranked second only to Maryland's. Florida's progress has been particularly impressive in the early grades. In 1998, Florida scored about one grade level below the national average on the 4th-grade NAEP reading test, but it was…

  4. Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.; And Others

    Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this study came…

  5. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  6. Response to "What Do Klein et al. Tell Us about Test Scores in Texas?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed the article "What Do Klein et al. Tell Us About Test Scores in Texas?" by Toenjes. A summary of their responses is presented. First, Toenjes incorrectly describes the focus of the authors' study. Second, Toenjes appears to have misunderstood the purpose of their 20-schools analysis. Third, Toenjes misunderstands the…

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Career Development Test Scores of Eighth Grade Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTeer, J. Hugh; And Others

    Eighth grade students' knowledge of the principles involved in career choice was investigated to determine whether sex stereotyped attitudes about jobs were present. Scores from the career development section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Tests were analyzed for 734 (379 females; 355 males) eighth grade students. The career development…

  8. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  9. Fitting the Normal-Ogive Factor Analytic Model to Scores on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the nonlinear factor analytic approach of R. McDonald to the normal ogive curve can be used to factor analyze test scores. Discusses the conditions in which this model is more appropriate than the linear model and illustrates the applicability of both models using an empirical example based on data from 1,769 adolescents who took the…

  10. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take corrective action as soon as…

  11. Defending the Quality of Links between Scores from Different Tests and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Paul Newton (2010), with his characteristic concern about theory, has set out two different ways of thinking about the basis upon which equivalences of one sort or another are established between test score scales. His reason for doing this is a desire to establish "the defensibility of linkages lower on the continuum than concordance." His…

  12. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) Scores: Testing the Expanded Nigrescence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested the viability of the expanded nigrescence (NT-E) model as operationalized by Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores using confirmatory factor analyses. Participants were 594 Black college students from the Southeastern United States. Results indicated a good fit for NT-E's proposed six-factor structure.…

  13. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  14. Impact of School Reform on Dropout Rates and Test Scores in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lydia; Kupczynski, Lori; Holland, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    The primary focus of the study was to explore the effect of School Within a School reform on two components in the Adequate Yearly Progress Report by which Texas schools are measured--dropout rates and scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test. The demographics of the particular study sample included 11th grade students…

  15. Permanent Income and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 17610

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jesse; Wozny, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Analysts often examine the black-white test score gap conditional on family income. Typically only a current income measure is available. We argue that the gap conditional on permanent income is of greater interest, and we describe a method for identifying this gap using an auxiliary data set to estimate the relationship between current and…

  16. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  17. Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 12988

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Jacob; Ludwig, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1980s witnessed breaks in two important trends related to race and schooling. School segregation, which had been declining, began a period of relative stasis. Black-white test score gaps, which had also been declining, also stagnated. The notion that these two phenomena may be related is also supported by basic cross-sectional evidence. We…

  18. Detecting Dissimulation in Personality Test Scores: A Comparison between Person-Fit Indices and Detection Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…

  19. The Effect of Four Intervention Programs on Standardized Test Scores by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryder, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…

  20. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  1. Estimating Teacher Effectiveness from Two-Year Changes in Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Using a dataset covering over 10,000 Australian school teachers and over 90,000 pupils, I estimate how effective teachers are in raising students' test scores. Since the exams are biennial, it is necessary to take account of the teacher's work in the intervening year. Even adjusting for measurement error, the teacher fixed effects are widely…

  2. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  3. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…

  4. Secular Declines in Cognitive Test Scores: A Reversal of the Flynn Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, Thomas W.; Owen, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Scores on cognitive tests have been very widely reported to have increased through the decades of the last century, a generational phenomenon termed the "Flynn Effect" since it was most comprehensively documented by James Flynn in the 1980's. There has, however, been very little evidence concerning any continuity of the effect specifically into…

  5. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  6. The Validity of Law School Admission Test Scores for Repeaters: A Replication. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Linda F.

    This study, a partial replication of an earlier study by B. Pitcher (1977), examined the validity of using initial, most recent, highest, and average scores in decisions about repeat takers of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). The study included only schools that enrolled 50 or more first-year students who had taken the LSAT on more than 1…

  7. California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…

  8. Identifying Local Dependence with a Score Test Statistic Based on the Bifactor Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yang; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    Local dependence (LD) refers to the violation of the local independence assumption of most item response models. Statistics that indicate LD between a pair of items on a test or questionnaire that is being fitted with an item response model can play a useful diagnostic role in applications of item response theory. In this article, a new score test…

  9. Development of a mathematical ability test: a validity and reliability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Sefa; Temel, Hasan; Gündüz, Nazan

    2016-10-01

    The identification of talented students accurately at an early age and the adaptation of the education provided to the students depending on their abilities are of great importance for the future of the countries. In this regard, this study aims to develop a mathematical ability test for the identification of the mathematical abilities of students and the determination of the relationships between the structure of abilities and these structures. Furthermore, this study adopts test development processes. A structure consisting of the factors of quantitative ability, causal ability, inductive/deductive reasoning ability, qualitative ability and spatial ability has been obtained following this study. The fit indices of the finalized version of the mathematical ability test of 24 items indicate the suitability of the test.

  10. Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on "Praxis II" Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.; Qi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the "highly qualified teacher" provisions of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA," 2002), as reauthorized, and other policies at the federal, state and local levels, which have aimed to elevate the content knowledge of teachers. This examination of "Praxis II" score trends was not meant to serve as an evaluation…

  11. An NCME Instructional Module on Quality Control Procedures in the Scoring, Equating, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2007-01-01

    There is significant potential for error in long production processes that consist of sequential stages, each of which is heavily dependent on the previous stage, such as the SER (Scoring, Equating, and Reporting) process. Quality control procedures are required in order to monitor this process and to reduce the number of mistakes to a minimum. In…

  12. Comparisons between a mixing ability test and masticatory performance tests using a brittle or an elastic test food.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y

    2009-03-01

    A variety of chewing tests and test items have been utilized to evaluate masticatory function. The purpose of this study was to compare a mixing ability test with masticatory performance tests using peanuts or gummy jelly as test foods. Thirty-two completely dentate subjects (Dentate group, mean age: 25.1 years) and 40 removable partial denture wearers (RPD group, mean age: 65.5 years) participated in this study. The subjects were asked to chew a two-coloured paraffin wax cube as a test item for 10 strokes. Mixing Ability Index (MAI) was determined from the colour mixture and shape of the chewed cube. Subjects were asked to chew 3 g portions of peanuts and a piece of gummy jelly for 20 strokes, respectively. Median particle size of chewed peanuts was determined using a multiple-sieving method. Concentration of dissolved glucose from the surface of the chewed gummy jelly was measured using a blood glucose meter. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationships between the MAI, median particle size and the concentration of dissolved glucose. Mixing Ability Index was significantly related to median particle size (Dentate group: r = -0.56, P < 0.001, RPD group: r = -0.70, P < 0.001), but not significantly related to glucose concentration (Dentate group: r = 0.12, RPD group: r = 0.21, P > 0.05). It seems that ability of mixing the bolus is more strongly related to the ability of comminuting brittle food than elastic food.

  13. Medical devices; ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system; labeling; black box restrictions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation classifying ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test systems to restrict these devices so that a prescribed warning statement that addresses a risk identified in the special controls guidance document must be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The black box warning mitigates the risk to health associated with off-label use as a screening test, stand-alone diagnostic test, or as a test to determine whether or not to proceed with surgery.

  14. The comparison question polygraph test: a contrast of methods and scoring.

    PubMed

    Honts, Charles R; Reavy, Racheal

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a mock crime experiment with 250 paid participants (126 females, Mdn age = 30 years) contrasting the validity of the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the comparison question test (CQT) for the detection of deception. Subjects were assigned at random to one of eight conditions in a Guilt (Guilty/Innocent) × Test Type (Probable-Lie/Directed-Lie) × Stimulation (Between Repetition Stimulation/No Stimulation) factorial design. The data were scored by an experienced polygraph examiner who was unaware of subject assignment to conditions and with a computer algorithm known as the Objective Scoring System Version 2 (OSS2). There were substantial main effects of guilt in both the OSS2 computer scores F(1, 241) = 143.82, p < .001, η(p)(2) = 0.371, and in the human scoring, F(1, 242) = 98.92, p<.001, η(p)(2) = .29. There were no differences between the test types in the number of spontaneous countermeasure attempts made against them. Although under the controlled conditions of an experiment the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the CQT produced equivocal results in terms of detection accuracy, the directed-lie variant has much to recommend it as it is inherently more standardized in its administration and construction. PMID:25703188

  15. The comparison question polygraph test: a contrast of methods and scoring.

    PubMed

    Honts, Charles R; Reavy, Racheal

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a mock crime experiment with 250 paid participants (126 females, Mdn age = 30 years) contrasting the validity of the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the comparison question test (CQT) for the detection of deception. Subjects were assigned at random to one of eight conditions in a Guilt (Guilty/Innocent) × Test Type (Probable-Lie/Directed-Lie) × Stimulation (Between Repetition Stimulation/No Stimulation) factorial design. The data were scored by an experienced polygraph examiner who was unaware of subject assignment to conditions and with a computer algorithm known as the Objective Scoring System Version 2 (OSS2). There were substantial main effects of guilt in both the OSS2 computer scores F(1, 241) = 143.82, p < .001, η(p)(2) = 0.371, and in the human scoring, F(1, 242) = 98.92, p<.001, η(p)(2) = .29. There were no differences between the test types in the number of spontaneous countermeasure attempts made against them. Although under the controlled conditions of an experiment the probable-lie and the directed-lie variants of the CQT produced equivocal results in terms of detection accuracy, the directed-lie variant has much to recommend it as it is inherently more standardized in its administration and construction.

  16. Talent Search Qualifying: Comparisons between Talent Search Students Qualifying via Scores on Standardized Tests and via Parent Nomination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences between students who qualified for talent search testing via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination in their performances on the SAT or ACT and some demographic characteristics. Overall, the standardized testing group earned higher scores on the off-level tests than the parent nominated group. Asian…

  17. Student Test Scores: How the Sausage Is Made and Why You Should Care. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, modern cognitive assessments--including the new Common Core tests--produce test scores based on sophisticated statistical models rather than the simple percent of items a student answers correctly. While there are good reasons for this, it means that reported test scores depend on many decisions made by test designers,…

  18. The Validity of Law School Admission Test Scores for Repeaters: A Replication. LSAT Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, Susan P.; McLeod, Lori D.

    The fair and accurate treatment of multiple test scores for law school applicants who take the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) more than one time is the focus of this study. The study reexamines the differential validity and predictive accuracy of the different test scores that are presented by repeat test takers. The study includes U.S. law…

  19. Agreement in the Scoring of Respiratory Events Among International Sleep Centers for Home Sleep Testing

    PubMed Central

    Magalang, Ulysses J.; Arnardottir, Erna S.; Chen, Ning-Hung; Cistulli, Peter A.; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Lim, Diane; Penzel, Thomas; Schwab, Richard; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Home sleep testing (HST) is used worldwide to confirm the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We sought to determine the agreement of HST scoring among international sleep centers. Methods: Fifteen HSTs, previously recorded using a type 3 monitor, were deidentified and saved in European Data Format. The studies were scored by nine technologists from the sleep centers of the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium (SAGIC) using the locally available software. Each study was scored separately using one of three different airflow signals: nasal pressure (NP), transformed (square root) nasal pressure signal (transformed NP), and uncalibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) flow. Only one of the three airflow signals was visible to the scorer at each scoring session. The scoring procedure was repeated to determine the intrarater reliability. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using the NP were: apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93–0.99); apnea index = 0.91 (0.83–0.96); and hypopnea index = 0.75 (0.59–0.89). The ICCs using the transformed NP were: AHI = 0.98 (0.96–0.99); apnea index = 0.95 (0.90–0.98); and hypopnea index = 0.90 (0.82–0.96). The ICCs using the RIP flow were: AH I = 0.98 (0.96–0.99); apnea index = 0.66 (0.48–0.84); and hypopnea index = 0.78 (0.63–0.90). The mean difference of first and second scoring sessions of the same respiratory variables ranged from −1.02 to 0.75/h. Conclusion: There is a strong agreement in the scoring of the respiratory events for HST among international sleep centers. Our results suggest that centralized scoring of HSTs may not be necessary in future research collaboration among international sites. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 7. Citation: Magalang UJ, Arnardottir ES, Chen NH, Cistulli PA, Gíslason T, Lim D, Penzel T, Schwab R, Tufik S, Pack AI, SAGIC Investigators

  20. The Relationship between Scores on the GED Writing Skills Test and on Direct Measures of Writing. GED Testing Service Research Studies, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Richard; Whitney, Douglas R.

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between scores on the multiple-choice General Educational Development (GED) Writing Skills test and scores on holistically graded essays. Secondary purposes included the following: (1) examining the relationship of essay scores to scores on the multiple-choice GED Reading Skills…

  1. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23937298

  2. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  3. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  4. Relation between perceived driving disability and scores of vision screening tests

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, L J; Wilhelm, H; Emesz, M; Kaper, R; Heine, S; Nitsch, S; Grabner, G; Völker-Dieben, H J

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relation between perceived driving disability and vision screening tests. Methods: 93 subjects, aged 50 years and over, with binocular visual acuity of at least 20/80. Perceived driving disability (PDD) was assessed by a questionnaire. Subtracting daytime from night-time driving question scores revealed PDD at night (PDDN), subtracting scores of questions for driving in familiar places from those in unfamiliar places revealed PDD at unfamiliar places (PDDU). Results: PDD was strongly related to visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and useful field of view (UFOV). Specific relations existed between PDDN and Nyktotests and Mesotests and between PDDU and UFOV. These associations were enhanced in a subset of subjects with better visual acuities. Conclusions: Vision screening tests correlate well with perceived driving disabilities, especially when a subtraction method is used in the questionnaire to reveal condition dependent disabilities. Additional tests for visual acuity are useful, especially in subjects with better visual acuity. PMID:12386085

  5. Spatial and verbal memory test scores following yoga and fine arts camps for school children.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley

    2004-07-01

    The performance scores of children (aged 11 to 16 years) in verbal and spatial memory tests were compared for two groups (n = 30, each), one attending a yoga camp and the other a fine arts camp. Both groups were assessed on the memory tasks initially and after ten days of their respective interventions. A control group (n = 30) was similarly studied to assess the test-retest effect. At the final assessment the yoga group showed a significant increase of 43% in spatial memory scores (Multivariate analysis, Tukey test), while the fine arts and control groups showed no change. The results suggest that yoga practice, including physical postures, yoga breathing, meditation and guided relaxation improved delayed recall of spatial information.

  6. EAP Study Recommendations and Score Gains on the IELTS Academic Writing Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes…

  7. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  8. Correcting Two-Sample "z" and "t" Tests for Correlation: An Alternative to One-Sample Tests on Difference Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…

  9. Transferability of Norms and Its Implication in Cross-Cultural Gifted Education: Norming Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) in the Philippine Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vista, Alvin; Grantham, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    This is a normative study to investigate the transferability of norms from western-based intelligence tests to Filipino students. More than 2,700 Filipino sixth graders were sampled across the country and administered the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT). Scores were then compared to the US normative sample. The results showed no significant…

  10. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  11. Comparison of the Ability of Different Clinical Treatment Scores to Estimate Prognosis in High-Risk Early Breast Cancer Patients: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Pliarchopoulou, Kyriaki; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Alexopoulou, Zoi; Zagouri, Flora; Veltrup, Elke; Timotheadou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Koutras, Angelos; Lazaridis, Georgios; Christodoulou, Christos; Pentheroudakis, George; Laskarakis, Apostolos; Arapantoni-Dadioti, Petroula; Batistatou, Anna; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Background-Aim Early breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and, therefore, prognostic tools have been developed to evaluate the risk for distant recurrence. In the present study, we sought to develop a risk for recurrence score (RRS) based on mRNA expression of three proliferation markers in high-risk early breast cancer patients and evaluate its ability to predict risk for relapse and death. In addition the Adjuvant! Online score (AOS) was also determined for each patient, providing a 10-year estimate of relapse and mortality risk. We then evaluated whether RRS or AOS might possibly improve the prognostic information of the clinical treatment score (CTS), a model derived from clinicopathological variables. Methods A total of 1,681 patients, enrolled in two prospective phase III trials, were treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Sufficient RNA was extracted from 875 samples followed by multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for assessing RACGAP1, TOP2A and Ki67 mRNA expression. The CTS, slightly modified to fit our cohort, integrated the prognostic information from age, nodal status, tumor size, histological grade and treatment. Patients were also classified to breast cancer subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry. Likelihood ratio (LR) tests and concordance indices were used to estimate the relative increase in the amount of information provided when either RRS or AOS is added to CTS. Results The optimal RRS, in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), was based on the co-expression of two of the three evaluated genes (RACGAP1 and TOP2A). CTS was prognostic for DFS (p<0.001), while CTS, AOS and RRS were all prognostic for OS (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively). The use of AOS in addition to CTS added prognostic information regarding DFS (LR-Δχ2 8.7, p = 0.003), however the use of RRS in addition to CTS did not. For estimating OS, the use of either AOS or RRS in addition to

  12. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  13. Interrater Reliability of the Original and a Revised Scoring System for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkin, Sheila Ratsch; Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the interrater reliability of teachers' and school psychology externs' scoring of protocols for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), using a revised scoring system. Results showed high reliability coefficients for all raters, regardless of the scoring system employed. The influence of rater training is discussed.…

  14. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  15. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  16. Post-Hoc IRT Equating of Previously Administered English Tests for Comparison of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saida, Chisato; Hattori, Tamaki

    2008-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about declining scholastic abilities of Japanese students throughout Japan prior to the implementation of the revised Courses of Study in 2002, little empirical evidence was available at that time to support this perceived decline in academic performance. This research describes post-hoc IRT equating of previously…

  17. The Relationship between Academic Averages of Primary School Science and Technology Class and Test Sub-Test Scores of Placement Test of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…

  18. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  19. Examining the Validity of GED[R] Tests Scores with Scheduling and Setting Accommodations. GED Testing Service Research Studies, 2004-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George-Ezzelle, Carol E.; Skaggs, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Current testing standards call for test developers to provide evidence that testing procedures and test scores, and the inferences made based on the test scores, show evidence of validity and are comparable across subpopulations (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological Association [APA], & National Council on…

  20. Empirical and Simulation Studies of Flexilevel Ability Testing. Research Report No. 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    A 40-item flexilevel test and a 40-item conventional test were compared using data obtained through (1) computer-administration of the two tests to three groups of college students, and (2) monte carlo simulation of test response patterns. Results indicated the flexilevel score distribution better reflected the underlying normal distribution of…

  1. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology) to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1) encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2) leverage the design of

  2. Walking ability after stroke in patients from Argentina: predictive values of two tests in subjects with subacute hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Marcelo Andrés; Portela, Manuel; Gianella, Matias; Freixes, Orestes; Fernández, Sergio Anibal; Rivas, Maria Elisa; Tanga, Cristobal Osvaldo; Olmos, Lisandro Emilio; Rubel, Ivan Federico

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the predictive values of the trunk control test (TCT) and functional ambulation category (FAC) for independent walking up to 6 months post stroke. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects with hemiplegia secondary to a unilateral hemisphere stroke were included. [Methods] The protocol was started at 45 days post stroke, with the TCT and FAC as walking predictors. At 90, 120, and 180 days post stroke, the subjects’ independent walking ability was assessed by using the Wald test. [Results] The TCT was identified as an independent predictor of ambulation at 90, 120, and 180 days. Subjects who scored ≥ 49 in the initial test had 93.8% probability of achieving independent gait at 6 months. The FAC proved that 100% of the subjects who scored 2 at 45 days post stroke walked independently at 90 days, 100% of the subjects who scored 1 walked independently at 120 days, and only 33.3% of the subjects who scored 0 walked independently at 180 days. [Conclusion] The TCT and FAC can predict independent walking at 45 days post stroke. In subjects with FAC 0, the TCT should be used to predict patients who will be able to walk independently. PMID:26504338

  3. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The last century was marked by dazzling changes in many areas, such as technology and communications. Predictions into the second century of testing are seemingly difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, Kirkpatrick (1900), in his American Psychological Association presidential address, presented fundamental…

  4. Behavioural linear standardized scoring system of the Lidia cattle breed by testing in herd: estimation of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Solé, M; Sánchez, M J; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2016-10-01

    Docility is very important for cattle production, and many behavioural tests to measure this trait have been developed. However, very few objective behavioural tests to measure the opposite approach 'aggressive behaviour' have been described. Therefore, the aim of this work was to validate in the Lidia cattle breed a behavioural linear standardized scoring system that measure the aggressiveness and enable genetic analysis of behavioural traits expressing fearless and fighting ability. Reproducibility and repeatability measures were calculated for the 12 linear traits of this scoring system to assess its accuracy, and ranged from 85.3 and 94.2%, and from 66.7 to 97.9%, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model with a Bayesian approach. A total of 1202 behavioural records were used. The pedigree matrix contained 5001 individuals. Heritability values (with standard deviations) ranged between 0.13 (0.04) (Falls of the bull) and 0.41 (0.08) (Speed of approach to horse). Genetic correlations varied from 0.01 (0.07) to 0.90 (0.13). Finally, an exploratory factor analysis using the genetic correlation matrix was calculated. Three main factors were retained to describe the traditional genetic indexes aggressiveness, strength and mobility.

  5. Evaluating the Effects of Differences in Group Abilities on the Tucker and the Levine Observed-Score Methods for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Equating. ACT Research Report Series 2010-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…

  6. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

  7. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  8. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L.

  9. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  10. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments – Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H.; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are—at the same time—measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  11. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy. PMID:27262445

  12. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy.

  13. A score-type test for heterogeneity in zero-inflated models in a stratified population.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guanqun; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Todem, David

    2014-05-30

    We propose a score-type statistic to evaluate heterogeneity in zero-inflated models for count data in a stratified population, where heterogeneity is defined as instances in which the zero counts are generated from two sources. Evaluating heterogeneity in this class of models has attracted considerable attention in the literature, but existing testing procedures have primarily relied on the constancy assumption under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we extend the literature by describing a score-type test to evaluate homogeneity against general alternatives that do not neglect the stratification information under the alternative hypothesis. The limiting null distribution of the proposed test statistic is a mixture of chi-squared distributions that can be well approximated by a simple parametric bootstrap procedure. Our numerical simulation studies show that the proposed test can greatly improve efficiency over tests of heterogeneity that ignore the stratification information. An empirical application to dental caries data in early childhood further shows the importance and practical utility of the methodology in using the stratification profile to detect heterogeneity in the population. PMID:24488881

  14. Comparison of Test Directions for Ability Tests: Impact on Young English-Language Learner and Non-ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ability tests play an important role in the assessment programs of many schools. However, the inferences about ability made from such tests presume that students understand the tasks they are attempting. Task familiarity can vary by student as well as by format. By design, nonverbal reasoning tests use formats that are intended to be novel. The…

  15. The black-white test score gap and early home environment.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M

    2009-06-01

    Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black-white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black-white test score differences among children of all ages even before children start formal schooling. Except for the oldest cohort, the gaps for all tests widened when children's cognitive skills were assessed six years later. Racial achievement gaps in applied problem scores by grade three and letter-word scores by grade six, can be accounted for by child's characteristics, family socioeconomic background, and mother's cognitive skills. However, these covariates explain an increasingly smaller proportion of the black-white achievement gap as children advance to higher grades. Gaps in early cognitive skills are highly predictive of gaps at later ages, setting off a trajectory of cumulative disadvantage for black children over time. Our results underscore the key role of early home environment and the intergenerational roots of the persistent black-white achievement gap.

  16. The Benefits of Preschool: Do Children Who Attend Preschool Prior to Kindergarten Achieve Higher Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine what, if any, impact that attending a four year old kindergarten program had on five year old kindergarteners reading ability as measured by Dominie testing, compared to those five year olds who did not attend a four year old program at Inman Elementary School. The significance of this study…

  17. Classroom attributes and achievement test scores for deaf and hard of hearing students.

    PubMed

    Holt, J

    1994-10-01

    This study examined reading comprehension and mathematics computation achievement of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in a variety of school settings. Data were collected by Gallaudet University's Center for Assessment and Demographic Studies during its 1990 standardization of the 8th Edition Stanford Achievement Test. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the relationships among achievement scores, classroom attributes, and demographic factors associated with achievement. Based on the results of this study, inclusion with hearing students in regular classrooms is related to a variety of demographic factors. When reading comprehension and mathematics computation scores are adjusted for these factors, they are higher for the deaf and hard-of-hearing students in regular classrooms. However, it is not known whether the higher achievement is due to inclusion or whether students were selected for inclusion due to their higher achievement levels.

  18. The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL-reconstructed knee.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Romaniello, W T; Soscia, S M; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

    1994-08-01

    It is important to examine the functional relationships between commonly performed clinical tests and to resolve inconsistencies in previous investigative results. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between three commonly performed clinical tests: isokinetic isolated knee concentric muscular testing, the single-leg hop test, and the subjective knee score in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. To determine if a relationship exists would be beneficial to clinicians in determining patient progression, treatment modification, and return-to-sport objective parameters. Several investigators have analyzed two of these parameters, but no one has investigated three parameters to date. Additionally, this study explored the concept of limb acceleration and deceleration during high-speed isokinetics and its relationship to function. Fifty patients were randomly selected (29 males) with a mean age of 23.7 years (range 15-52). The subjects completed a subjective knee score questionnaire that rated symptoms (pain, swelling, giving way) and specific sport function and completed an overall knee score assessment. The patients were then evaluated performing three one-legged functional tests: 1) hop for distance, 2) timed hop, and 3) cross-over triple hop. Isokinetic testing was performed on a Biodex dynamometer at 180, 300, and 450 degrees/sec for knee extension/flexion. The patients' mean value of the self-assessed knee rating was 86 points. Sixty-four percent of the patients exhibited normal limb symmetry (within 85%) on all three single-leg hop tests. Sixteen percent exhibited quadriceps strength at least 90% of the contralateral limb isokinetically. A positive correlation was noted between isokinetic knee extension peak torque (180, 300 degrees/sec) and subjective knee scores, and the three hop tests (p < 0.001). A statistical trend was noted between knee extension acceleration and deceleration range at 180 and 300 degrees/sec for the

  19. An exposure-weighted score test for genetic associations integrating environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Han, Summer S; Rosenberg, Philip S; Ghosh, Arpita; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-09-01

    Current methods for detecting genetic associations lack full consideration of the background effects of environmental exposures. Recently proposed methods to account for environmental exposures have focused on logistic regressions with gene-environment interactions. In this report, we developed a test for genetic association, encompassing a broad range of risk models, including linear, logistic and probit, for specifying joint effects of genetic and environmental exposures. We obtained the test statistics by maximizing over a class of score tests, each of which involves modified standard tests of genetic association through a weight function. This weight function reflects the potential heterogeneity of the genetic effects by levels of environmental exposures under a particular model. Simulation studies demonstrate the robust power of these methods for detecting genetic associations under a wide range of scenarios. Applications of these methods are further illustrated using data from genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes with body mass index and of lung cancer risk with smoking. PMID:26134142

  20. An exposure-weighted score test for genetic associations integrating environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Han, Summer S; Rosenberg, Philip S; Ghosh, Arpita; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-09-01

    Current methods for detecting genetic associations lack full consideration of the background effects of environmental exposures. Recently proposed methods to account for environmental exposures have focused on logistic regressions with gene-environment interactions. In this report, we developed a test for genetic association, encompassing a broad range of risk models, including linear, logistic and probit, for specifying joint effects of genetic and environmental exposures. We obtained the test statistics by maximizing over a class of score tests, each of which involves modified standard tests of genetic association through a weight function. This weight function reflects the potential heterogeneity of the genetic effects by levels of environmental exposures under a particular model. Simulation studies demonstrate the robust power of these methods for detecting genetic associations under a wide range of scenarios. Applications of these methods are further illustrated using data from genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes with body mass index and of lung cancer risk with smoking.

  1. Providing Subscale Scores for Diagnostic Information: A Case Study when the Test Is Essentially Unidimensional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Ye, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaowen; Lane, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Although reliability of subscale scores may be suspect, subscale scores are the most common type of diagnostic information included in student score reports. This research compared methods for augmenting the reliability of subscale scores for an 8th-grade mathematics assessment. Yen's Objective Performance Index, Wainer et al.'s augmented scores,…

  2. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

  3. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

  4. Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success—high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe. PMID:23788828

  5. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  6. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  7. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  8. Determinants, reliability, and usefulness of a bench press repeated power ability test in young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the main determinants of an upper-body repeated power ability (RPA) test and to examine its reliability and usefulness. Forty-five highly trained, male, young basketball players performed the RPA test (5 sets of 5 repetitions with 30 seconds of passive recovery within sets) on 2 sessions separated by 5-7 days. Power output was registered using a linear encoder attached to the barbell. Results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between each set in both sessions and trivial (<0.2) effect sizes in all the analyzed variables. For every set, intraclass correlation coefficient was very high (0.96-0.98) and coefficient of variation was low (3.3%-4.3%). Because the typical error of measurement values were lower or similar than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC0.2 = 0.2 × between-subject SD), the usefulness of most variables was rated as "good" or "OK" considering that small changes would be detected by this test. The percentage of power decrement could only be used to detect large effects (>1.2 × between-subject SD). An almost perfect correlation (r = 0.99; 90% confidence interval, 0.98-0.99) was found between the average power in set 1 (APbest) and the average power over 5 sets (APmean). In conclusion, the main determinant of RPA test is APbest, and because of the high reliability scores obtained, this protocol may be used to assess upper-body RPA in relatively experienced young athletes.

  9. Effects of Knowledge of Cognitive-Moral Development and Request to Fake on Defining Issues Test P-Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Support claims that the "Defining Issues Test" of cognitive-moral development cannot be faked higher. Finds that instruction about cognitive-moral development affected the scores of the teacher trainees who were tested. (RL)

  10. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in predicting student…

  11. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  12. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  13. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with

  14. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  15. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7 times…

  16. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory and Cross-Age Invariance of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2004-01-01

    Establishing an instrument's factorial invariance provides the empirical foundation to compare an individual's score across time or to examine the pattern of correlations between variables in differentiated age groups. In the recently published Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ COG) and Achievement (WJ ACH) Third Edition (III) the…

  17. Reviews of the Tests Approved by the Secretary of Education for Ability To Benefit Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    To comply with the new U.S. Department of Education Ability-To-Benefit policy, schools need to select tests on the Secretary's approved list. The pertinent aspects of 22 approved tests are individually summarized. The test reviews are based on examinations of the test publishers' technical documentation and the tests. Information provided in the…

  18. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  19. Superitem Test: An Alternative Assessment Tool to Assess Students' Algebraic Solving Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam; Idris, Noraini

    2010-01-01

    Superitem test based on the SOLO model (Structure of the Observing Learning Outcome) has become a powerful alternative assessment tool for monitoring the growth of students' cognitive ability in solving mathematics problems. This article focused on developing a superitem test to assess students' algebraic solving ability through interview method.…

  20. The Bender Gestalt Test with the Human Figure Drawing Test for Young School Children. A Manual for Use with the Koppitz Scoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppitz, Elizabeth Munsterberg

    Presented is a manual for scoring the Bender Gestalt Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test for screening and diagnostic uses with emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, or perceptually handicapped 5- to 11-year-old children. Given are suggestions for administering and scoring the Bender test which examines distortion of shape, rotation,…

  1. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  2. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing: an illustration with the NEO PI-R.

    PubMed

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-02-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows that the MCAT methodology is particularly appropriate for constructs that have many highly correlated facets.

  3. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  4. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  5. [Development and clinical testing of the Russian version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS].

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, J F; Abdufattaev, U A; Makhmudov, D Kh; Mirkhamidov, D Kh; Khadzhikhanov, F A; Azgamov, A V; Pilatz, A; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F M; Akilov, F A

    2014-01-01

    The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score - ACSS was originally developed in the Uzbek language and has demonstrated high reliability and validity. The study was aimed to develop a Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire and evaluate its psychometric properties. Translation and adaptation of the ACSS questionnaire containing 18 questions, 6 of them - for the typical symptoms of acute cystitis (AC), 4 - for the differential diagnosis; 3 - for the quality of life, and 5 - for the conditions that may affect the choice of treatment, were performed according to the recommendations developed by the Mapi Research Institute. Study involved 83 Russian-speaking women (mean age, 35.6 ±13.7 years); 38 (45.8%) patients were in the main group (patients with AC), and 45 (54.2%) - in the control group (without AC). Medical examination and appropriate treatment of the respondents were conducted in accordance with approved standards. After completing the course of therapy, 19 (50%) patients of the main group came for the control examination. There was statistically significant difference in the scores obtained in the two groups. Score profiles positively correlated with the results of laboratory tests (rho = 0.26-0.48). Cronbach's alpha for the Russian version of the questionnaire was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91), area under the curve in the ROC analysis was 0.96. The results of testing the Russian version correspond to those of the original version. The Russian version of the ACSS questionnaire has high. reliability and validity, and can be recommended for clinical research and diagnosis of primary AC, and dynamic monitoring of the effectiveness of the treatment of the Russian-speaking population of patients.

  6. Can reading ability be measured with tests of memory and processing speed?

    PubMed

    Tirre, W C

    1992-04-01

    The author investigated the possibility of estimating reading ability using tests of memory and processing speed that have significantly reduced reading requirements. Four hundred three air force trainees were given tests of their working memory and long-term memory processes, as well as a standardized reading test. A multiple correlation of .79 indicated that global reading ability is substantially correlated with memory processes. Additional analyses indicated that word knowledge and comprehension, the two major components of reading ability, were both explained by the same set of memory process factors, namely, long-term memory processes, semantic memory retrieval speed, and working memory capacity. These results, which are consistent with the view that memory ability underlies reading ability, support the endeavor of measuring reading ability with memory and processing speed tasks.

  7. Making the Most of What We Have: A Practical Application of Multidimensional Item Response Theory in Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Patz, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a practical method that capitalizes on the availability of information from multiple tests measuring correlated abilities given in a single test administration. By simultaneously estimating different abilities with the use of a hierarchical Bayesian framework, more precise estimates for each ability dimension are obtained.…

  8. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  9. Long-term Vihangam Yoga meditation and scores on tests of attention.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Dubey, Indu; Abhishek, Priyadarshee; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Rastogi, Priyanka; Siddiqui, Shazia Veqar

    2010-06-01

    Although the literature indicates that meditation has beneficial effects on several aspects of human functioning, few studies have specifically investigated the effects of meditation on various domains of attention. This study was conducted to examine the differences in various domains of attention between long-term concentrative meditators versus matched controls. 15 practitioners of Vihangam Yoga (> 10 yr. experience) were enrolled in the study. Controls matched on age, sex, and years of education were recruited. Both groups were administered the Stroop, Trail-Making, and Digit Symbol Substitution tests as well as the Digit Forward and Digit Backward tests. The group of Vihangam Yogis had significantly better mean performance on all tests of attention. Long-term Vihangam Yoga meditation improves attention span, processing speed, attention alternation ability, and performance in interference tests.

  10. Developments and Challenges in the Use of Computer-Based Testing for Assessing Second Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) to assess second language ability has undergone remarkable development since Garret (1991) described its purpose as "the computerized administration of conventional tests" in "The Modern Language Journal." For instance, CBT has made possible the delivery of more authentic tests than traditional paper-and-pencil tests.…

  11. Empirical Investigation of the Stradaptive Testing Model for the Measurement of Human Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Brian K.

    This study empirically investigated the validity and utility of the stratified adaptive computerized testing model (stradaptive]developed by Weiss (1973). The model presents a tailored testing strategy based on Binet IQ measurement theory and Lord's (1972) modern test theory. Nationally normed School and College Ability Test Verbal analogy items…

  12. Individual Differences in Gender Role Beliefs Influence Spatial Ability Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.; Bohon, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The gender role hypothesis posits that performance on a cognitive ability test is influenced by whether the test instructions frame the test as measuring a skill that is consistent or inconsistent with the test taker's gender role beliefs. The Bem sex role inventory was used to measure the gender role of female college students, and the group…

  13. Expanded Koppitz Scoring System of the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test for Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Larry M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)

  14. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  15. Sorting and Supporting: Why Double-Dose Algebra Led to Better Test Scores but More Course Failures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomi, Takako; Allensworth, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, Chicago schools required students entering ninth grade with below-average math scores to take two periods of algebra. This led to higher test scores for students with both above- and below-average skills, yet failure rates increased for above-average students. We examine the mechanisms behind these surprising results. Sorting by incoming…

  16. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math and…

  17. The Mote In Thy Brother's Eye, and The Beam in Thine Own: Predicting One's Own and Others' Personality Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Henderson, Monika

    1983-01-01

    Examined the similarity between subjects' (N=63) ratings of themselves and others, on various tests of personality. Results revealed that subjects correctly estimated several of their own scores, but only two scores of another person. They believed themselves to be similar to their friend, thereby showing attributional errors. (JAC)

  18. Repeated-sprint and change-of-direction abilities in physically active individuals and soccer players: training and testing implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Chan, Gar Sun; Smith, Andrew W

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) matched on intervals and distances was investigated in this study. The discrimination abilities of the tests were also examined. Using a within-subject repeated measures design, 25 physically active individuals (ACTs), 16 college soccer players (COL), and 18 professional soccer players (PRO) performed the RSA and RCOD tests during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. We concluded that RSA and RCOD tested separate motor abilities because the shared variance between them in the FT, AT, and TT was ≤50%. Both RSA and RCOD tests were reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient ranged 0.79-0.90) and valid performance assessments in terms of construct in that they discriminated between ACT and soccer players (irrespective of the soccer skill level in this study). Specifically, the FT, AT, and TT (but not %Dec) of RSA and RCOD were significantly higher in ACT as compared with that in both COL and PRO (p < 0.05). Most values of the RSA/RCOD index in COL and PRO were 0.59, which were significantly higher than those of ACT (0.53, p < 0.05). We proposed the use of the RSA/RCOD index with a target value of 0.59 to prioritize and quantify the training needs of RSA and RCOD for soccer players.

  19. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  20. A Brief Look at: Test Scores and the Standard Error of Measurement. E&R Report No. 10.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…

  1. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  2. Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Purlie M.

    At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p < 0.05), the difference between the means was statistically significant. This project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

  3. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  4. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, Zakiyah Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Raduan, Farhana E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Sagap, Ismail E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com; Aziz, Nazrina

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  5. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  6. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  7. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  8. The Information a Test Provides on an Ability Parameter. Research Report. ETS RR-07-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2007-01-01

    In item-response theory, if a latent-structure model has an ability variable, then elementary information theory may be employed to provide a criterion for evaluation of the information the test provides concerning ability. This criterion may be considered even in cases in which the latent-structure model is not valid, although interpretation of…

  9. Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

  10. Should We Stop Looking for a Better Scoring Algorithm for Handling Implicit Association Test Data? Test of the Role of Errors, Extreme Latencies Treatment, Scoring Formula, and Practice Trials on Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Perugini, Marco; Schönbrodt, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of D scores for the Implicit Association Test, few studies have examined whether there is a better scoring method. In this contribution, we tested the effect of four relevant parameters for IAT data that are the treatment of extreme latencies, the error treatment, the method for computing the IAT difference, and the distinction between practice and test critical trials. For some options of these different parameters, we included robust statistic methods that can provide viable alternative metrics to existing scoring algorithms, especially given the specificity of reaction time data. We thus elaborated 420 algorithms that result from the combination of all the different options and test the main effect of the four parameters with robust statistical analyses as well as their interaction with the type of IAT (i.e., with or without built-in penalty included in the IAT procedure). From the results, we can elaborate some recommendations. A treatment of extreme latencies is preferable but only if it consists in replacing rather than eliminating them. Errors contain important information and should not be discarded. The D score seems to be still a good way to compute the difference although the G score could be a good alternative, and finally it seems better to not compute the IAT difference separately for practice and test critical trials. From this recommendation, we propose to improve the traditional D scores with small yet effective modifications. PMID:26107176

  11. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. An investigation of a method of simplified scoring for the Kaufman Hand Movements test as a measure of limb apraxia.

    PubMed

    Neiman, M R; Duffy, R J; Belanger, S A; Coelho, C A

    1996-02-01

    A simplified, 3-category method for scoring the Kaufman Hand Movements test was devised to replace a previously used, more complex 21-category scoring method. The concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the rescored test as a measure of limb apraxia were investigated in a reanalysis of the test protocols of 23 aphasic adults. Using the Limb Apraxia Test as the criterion measure, a Pearson r of .71 and predictive validity of 100% were obtained. These results encourage further investigation of the Kaufman Hand Movements test as an efficient measure of limb apraxia.

  13. Bowden, shores, & Mathias (2006): failure to replicate or just failure to notice. Does effort still account for more variance in neuropsychological test scores than TBI severity?

    PubMed

    Rohling, Martin L; Demakis, George J

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a smaller effect on neuropsychological test scores, in contrast to the large effect of poor effort on test performance. Consequently, many authors have concluded that effort needs to be measured routinely and that it is necessary to control for poor effort when measuring the effects of brain disease or injury on performance. Recently, however, Bowden, Shores, and Mathias (2006) have challenged these notions. They argued that the Immediate Recognition subtest of the Word Memory Test (Green & Flaro, 2003), an effort measure, is another verbal memory test rather than a measure of cognitive effort. In this study we re-examine the data from Bowden et al. (2006) and Green, Rohling, Lees-Haley, and Allen (2001) to identify differences between the two studies that might account for their contradictory conclusions. In both sets of data, reanalysis showed that effort explains approximately five times more of the variance in composite neuropsychological test scores than TBI severity. Importantly, scores on the Word Memory Test-Immediate Recognition (WMT-IR) were not correlated with measures of TBI severity, and were not found to correlate with major variables known to be measuring ability (e.g., years of education). These findings challenge the conclusions offered by Bowden and colleagues (2006). PMID:20029718

  14. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2

  15. Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) for Classifying Students Academic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaemu; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Kwangho

    2012-01-01

    Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, assessment for we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying…

  16. Genetic Tests for Ability?: Talent Identification and the Value of an Open Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miah, Andy; Rich, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of genetic tests for performance in physical activity and sports practices. It investigates the terminology associated with genetics, testing, selection and ability as a means towards a socio-ethical analysis of its value within sport, education and society. Our argument suggests that genetic tests need not even be…

  17. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods.

  18. Examination of Substance Use, Risk Factors, and Protective Factors on Student Academic Test Score Performance

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Michael W.; Brown, Eric C.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources in order to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. This study examined relationships between school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance in Washington State. METHODS Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models were used to examine predictive associations between school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and Washington State students’ likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. RESULTS Results indicate that levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors have the potential to positively affect students’ academic achievement. PMID:26149305

  19. The IWQOL-Kids(©): establishing minimal clinically important difference scores and test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H

    2011-06-01

    This study presents additional psychometric testing of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) with aims to establish distribution-based minimal clinically important difference scores (MCIDs) and evaluate test-retest reliability. Participants (N=263) represent a pooled sample of treatment-seeking obese adolescents (aged 11-19 years) from four large studies examining health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes (Mz(BMI)=2.6 ± 0.4; M(age)=15.1 ± 1.9; 64% female; 51% Black, 46% White). Adolescents completed the IWQOL-Kids©. Standard errors of measurement, which represent the MCID for each scale, were: Physical Comfort=8.8; Body Esteem=7.7; Social Life=8.1; Family Relations=6.2; Total QOL =4.8. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.75-0.88. These data provide further support for the excellent psychometric properties of the IWQOL-Kids. In addition, preliminary MCIDs for IWQOL-Kids scales have now been established, which can be used in clinical trials.

  20. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  1. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods. PMID:27346734

  2. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  3. Comparison of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Suk, Min-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare of tests for measuring maximal exercise ability in elite swimmers. The high-school male elite swimmers (n=17) were performed maximal exercise ability tests. The experimental method consisted of a crossover design at 1-week intervals with the swimming tests (field test, water VAMEVAL test, 200-m test, and 400-m test) in random order. It measured the heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate level by physiological factors, and swimming velocity (SV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) by mechanical factors. The change of SV, SR, and SL in swimming tests was no significantly different. To compare tests, however, the lactate level and RPE in 200-m test was higher than water VAMEVAL test. The RPE of the 200-m and 400-m tests were higher than the field test and the water VAMEVAL test. Correlations showed between the field test and the 400-m test in heart rate and RPE. Moreover, a correlation observed between the field test and 200-m test in heart rate. In this study, 200-m and 400-m tests were suit to apply the test methods for establishing the exercise intensity appropriate for the underwater training of swimmers. PMID:27419117

  4. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 6 to 59: Evidence from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities were investigated for children, youth, and adults ages 6 through 59. A developmental, multiple indicator-multiple cause, structural equation model was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as…

  5. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  6. Getting the Message Out: An Evaluation of NAEP Score Reporting Practices with Implications for Disseminating Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    How a testing agency approaches score reporting can have a significant impact on the perception of that assessment and the usefulness of the information among intended users and stakeholders. Too often, important decisions about reporting test data are left to the end of the test development cycle, but by considering the audience(s) and the kinds…

  7. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  8. Cognitive Test Scores in UK Biobank: Data Reduction in 480,416 Participants and Longitudinal Stability in 20,346 Participants

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Donald M.; Cullen, Breda; Allerhand, Mike; Smith, Daniel J.; Mackay, Daniel; Evans, Jonathan; Anderson, Jana; Fawns-Ritchie, Chloe; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Deary, Ian J.; Pell, Jill P.

    2016-01-01

    UK Biobank includes 502,649 middle- and older-aged adults from the general population who have undergone detailed phenotypic assessment. The majority of participants completed tests of cognitive functioning, and on average four years later a sub-group of N = 20,346 participants repeated most of the assessment. These measures will be used in a range of future studies of health outcomes in this cohort. The format and content of the cognitive tasks were partly novel. The aim of the present study was to validate and characterize the cognitive data: to describe the inter-correlational structure of the cognitive variables at baseline assessment, and the degree of stability in scores across longitudinal assessment. Baseline cognitive data were used to examine the inter-correlational/factor-structure, using principal components analysis (PCA). We also assessed the degree of stability in cognitive scores in the subsample of participants with repeat data. The different tests of cognitive ability showed significant raw inter-correlations in the expected directions. PCA suggested a one-factor solution (eigenvalue = 1.60), which accounted for around 40% of the variance. Scores showed varying levels of stability across time-points (intraclass correlation range = 0.16 to 0.65). UK Biobank cognitive data has the potential to be a significant resource for researchers looking to investigate predictors and modifiers of cognitive abilities and associated health outcomes in the general population. PMID:27110937

  9. [Verbal ability of Alzheimer's disease patients and very elderly control patients using the Aachen aphasia test].

    PubMed

    Ecklin, R; Schönenberger, P M

    1992-01-01

    We assessed language function, using the Aachen aphasia test (AAT), in 14 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 6 control patients. Aphasia did not occur in control patients, but in 11 of 14 Alzheimer's disease patients. Impairment of object naming was the most prevalent abnormality. Performance in AAT subtests repetition, written language, object naming, comprehension and token test correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State scores.

  10. The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board Cognitive Ability Test: Børge Prien's Prøve.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Hartmann, Peter V W; Pedersen, Christoffer H; Bertelsen, Mette

    2011-04-01

    The Danish Draft Board has used the same test for assessing general cognitive ability, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP), for over 50 years during which time all men on reaching the age of 18 become liable for conscription. Data from the test has, over the decades, been used in numerous and wide-ranging research studies. Nonetheless, owing to the special circumstances of its administration, some psychometric properties, which are generally assessed for psychological tests, have not previously been investigated for the BPP. First, since the test is only used at the assessment phase, retesting with the BPP occurs only rarely and under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, its Test-Retest reliability has hitherto not been documented. Second, questions have often been raised as to whether the validity of the BPP is undermined by either a lack of motivation and under-performing among some of the men taking the test, being, as they are, compelled to do so, and/or by gradual obsolescence of the test over the decades of its use. We here present findings from three new studies to show that (a) the BPP has a satisfactory Test-Retest reliability, r=0.77, (b) BPP test scores are not positively associated with expressed attitude to being called upon to serve conscription and (c) the correlation between the BPP and a measure of educational level has remained stable (at about 0.5) through the last two decades. Taken together these three findings further support the continuing value of the BPP in research relating to cognitive ability. PMID:21198650

  11. Improving test interpretation for detecting executive dysfunction in adults and older adults: prevalence of low scores on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Lanting, Shawnda C; Horton, Arthur M; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low scores on a battery of executive-functioning tests supplements clinical interpretation and can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing deficits in executive functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the base rates of low scores on the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ) in healthy adults (n = 332; M (age) = 33.0 years, SD = 10.5, range = 20-59) and older adults (n = 138; M (age) = 74.9 years, SD = 7.8, range = 60-89) from the TVCF standardization sample. The TVCF consists of four tests of executive functioning (i.e., Category Fluency, Letter Naming, Classification, and Trails C) that provide five age-adjusted T-scores. The prevalence of low scores was examined in the total sample and was stratified by educational level. When the five T-scores were considered simultaneously, having one or more scores that were 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean was found in 28% of healthy adults and 38% of older adults. Education-based differences were also present with more lenient cutoff scores (e.g., 1 SD) but not with more conservative cutoffs. Consistent with the existing literature on other test batteries, at least one low subtest score on the TVCF is common in healthy adults and older adults.

  12. An Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum Improves General Surgery Residents' Standardized Test Scores in Research and Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Trickey, Amber W.; Crosby, Moira E.; Singh, Monika; Dort, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The application of evidence-based medicine to patient care requires unique skills of the physician. Advancing residents' abilities to accurately evaluate the quality of evidence is built on understanding of fundamental research concepts. The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) provides a relevant measure of surgical residents' knowledge of research design and statistics. Objective We implemented a research education curriculum in an independent academic medical center general residency program, and assessed the effect on ABSITE scores. Methods The curriculum consisted of five 1-hour monthly research and statistics lectures. The lectures were presented before the 2012 and 2013 examinations. Forty residents completing ABSITE examinations from 2007 to 2013 were included in the study. Two investigators independently identified research-related item topics from examination summary reports. Correct and incorrect responses were compared precurriculum and postcurriculum. Regression models were calculated to estimate improvement in postcurriculum scores, adjusted for individuals' scores over time and postgraduate year level. Results Residents demonstrated significant improvement in postcurriculum examination scores for research and statistics items. Correct responses increased 27% (P < .001). Residents were 5 times more likely to achieve a perfect score on research and statistics items postcurriculum (P < .001). Conclusions Residents at all levels demonstrated improved research and statistics scores after receiving the curriculum. Because the ABSITE includes a wide spectrum of research topics, sustained improvements suggest a genuine level of understanding that will promote lifelong evaluation and clinical application of the surgical literature. PMID:26140115

  13. Using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability with Bilingual and Monolingual Language-Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottem, Ernst; Jakobsen, Unni

    2004-01-01

    The current popular case against the use of standardised ability tests in bilingual assessment is not as unequivocal as may be commonly assumed. Evidence currently available indicates that such tests generally measure the same constructs, with equal accuracy, regardless of language backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this…

  14. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test…

  15. Emotional Experiences during Test Taking: Does Cognitive Ability Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that…

  16. Why Is There Still No Study of Cultural Equivalence in Standardized Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Satiani, Anmol; Henze, Kevin T.; Mascher, Jackquelyn; Helms, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how the culturalist perspective on investigating racial group differences in standardized cognitive ability tests has advanced, a content analysis of 28 studies citing J. E. Helms (1992) identified 7 general themes. Overall, researchers cited J. E. Helms (1992) as support for their own hypotheses but did not directly test the…

  17. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Test for Persons with Intellectual Disability: A Valuable Clinical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Tricia; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) test requires a tester to attempt to teach to a person, using standard prompting and reinforcement procedures, six tasks that are hierarchically ordered in difficulty. Performance on the test provides valuable information for teachers and rehabilitation workers to match the difficulty of training…

  18. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  19. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  20. Multidimensional Ability Tests and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Evidence of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability tests are used by teachers to provide additional context for interpreting student achievement and as a tool for differentiating instruction to the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of students. Tests that provide the most useful information for these purposes measure school-related content domains including verbal and quantitative…

  1. Age-Correction of Test Scores Reduces the Validity of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Predicting Progression to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hessler, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver; Förstl, Hans; Mösch, Edelgard; Bickel, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. Therefore, the effects of age- and education-norms on the validity of test scores in predicting progression to dementia were investigated. Methods Baseline cognitive test scores (Syndrome Short Test) of dementia-free participants aged ≥65 were used to predict progression to dementia within three years. Participants were comprehensively examined one, two, and three years after baseline. Test scores were calculated with correction for (1) age and education, (2) education only, (3) age only and (4) without correction. Predictive validity was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regressions. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for the one-, two-, and three-year intervals. Results 82 (15.3%) of initially 537 participants, developed dementia. Model coefficients, hazard ratios, and AUCs of all scores were significant (p<0.001). Predictive validity was the lowest with age-corrected scores (−2 log likelihood  = 840.90, model fit χ2 (1)  = 144.27, HR  = 1.33, AUCs between 0.73 and 0.87) and the highest with education-corrected scores (−2 log likelihood  = 815.80, model fit χ2 (1)  = 171.16, HR  = 1.34, AUCs between 0.85 and 0.88). Conclusion The predictive validity of test scores is markedly reduced by age-correction. Therefore, definitions of MCI should not recommend the use of age-norms in order to improve the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. PMID:25171483

  2. The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.

    PubMed

    White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J

    2016-01-01

    For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it.

  3. The Haptic Test Battery: A New Instrument to Test Tactual Abilities in Blind and Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bardisa, Dolores; Millar, Susanna; Reales, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    A new psychological test battery was designed to provide a much-needed comprehensive tool for assessing the perceptual and cognitive abilities of visually handicapped children in using active touch. The test materials consist of raised-line, raised-dot, raised-surface shapes and displays, and familiar and novel 3-D objects. The research used 20…

  4. Efforts to Produce Relevant Score Reports to School, District, and State Officials on National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patelis, Thanos; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the Annual National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego in April 2009. This presentation explores how the College Board strives to ensure the relevance and utility of score reporting practices and methods for the PSAT/NMSQT and SAT scores. The new reporting methods allow for greater interaction and intervention at…

  5. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  6. The Relationship among Student Achievement Scores on the Math and Science End-of-Course-Tests and Scores on the High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…

  7. Number Right and Elimination Score as a Function of Item Arrangement, Knowledge of Arrangement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    Number right and elimination scores were analyzed on a 48-item college level mathematics test that was assembled from pretest data in three forms by varying the item orderings: easy-hard, uniform, or random. Half of the forms contained information explaining the item arrangement and suggesting strategies for taking the test. Several anxiety…

  8. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  9. Childhood Fitness and Academic Performance: An Investigation into the Effect of Aerobic Capacity on Academic Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity…

  10. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Critical Thinking Test Scores of Associate's Degree Graduates in Southwest Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, James Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that the teaching technique known as cooperative learning had on the changes between pre- and post-test scores on all sub-categories ("induction, deduction, analysis, evaluation, inference", and "total composite") associated with the "California Critical Thinking Skills Test" (CCTST) for…

  11. On the Question of Secular Trends in the Heritability of Intelligence Test Scores: A Study of Norwegian Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundet, Jon Martin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Intelligence test data collected in 1931 through 1960 on 757 identical and 1,093 fraternal male twins, from the files of the Norwegian Armed Forces, were examined for secular trends in the heritability of intelligence test scores. Only ambiguous evidence of such trends was found. (SLD)

  12. Effects of Mayfield's Four Questions (M4Q) on Nursing Students' Self-Efficacy and Multiple-Choice Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Linda Riggs

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of being taught the Mayfield's Four Questions multiple-choice test-taking strategy on the perceived self-efficacy and multiple-choice test scores of nursing students in a two-year associate degree program. Experimental and control groups were chosen by stratified random sampling. Subjects completed the 10-statement…

  13. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  14. ETS Psychometric Contributions: Focus on Test Scores. Research Report. ETS RR-13-15. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review ETS psychometric contributions that focus on test scores. Two major sections review contributions based on assessing test scores' measurement characteristics and other contributions about using test scores as predictors in correlational and regression relationships. An additional section reviews additional…

  15. Development of physical ability tests for police officers: a construct validation approach.

    PubMed

    Arvey, R D; Landon, T E; Nutting, S M; Maxwell, S E

    1992-12-01

    A construct validation approach was followed to affirm that 8 physical ability test events were significantly related to two important constructs underlying the job performance of police officers: strength and endurance. A sample of 115 incumbent police officers took 8 physical ability tests and were rated by supervisors on their physical performances in their job. LISREL methods were used to test the model specified, and a reasonable fit was achieved. Portions of the model were tested on an independent sample of 161 applicants; the fit of the model was again acceptable. A nomological network of relationships, in which strength and endurance factors correlated in expected directions with other physiological and demographic variables, was hypothesized and tested. Finally, the data were examined for potential gender differences and bias. Considerable differences were shown between men and women on both test and performance variables, and women would be overpredicted if a common regression line were used for selection purposes.

  16. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist. PMID:24079670

  17. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist.

  18. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position.

  19. The impact of automatic digit naming ability on a clinical test of eye movement functioning.

    PubMed

    Richman, J E; Walker, A J; Garzia, R P

    1983-07-01

    One of the primary reasons for the clinical measurement of eye movements in children is probing the relationship of oculomotor functioning with reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a subjective clinical test of lateral eye movements (KD Saccade Test) using a visual-verbal response format with the ability to name numbers automatically in the absence of eye movements in a first and second grade population. The results support the hypothesis that the eye movement skills measured with subjective visual-verbal formats as described in this study are deficits in automaticity of number knowledge ability and not oculomotor dysfunctions in some children.

  20. Demystifying the GMAT: Where Do Scale Scores Comes from?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) scaled scores convey the same level of ability over time, and GMAT percentiles convey the competitiveness of scores relative to today's GMAT test takers. In an earlier column, the author discussed the role of the GMAT scaled scores and percentiles. Here, he gets more technical and discusses how GMAT scaled…