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Sample records for abiotic control experiments

  1. Interactive biotic and abiotic regulators of soil carbon cycling: evidence from controlled climate experiments on peatland and boreal soils.

    PubMed

    Briones, María Jesús I; McNamara, Niall P; Poskitt, Jan; Crow, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J

    2014-09-01

    Partially decomposed plant and animal remains have been accumulating in organic soils (i.e. >40% C content) for millennia, making them the largest terrestrial carbon store. There is growing concern that, in a warming world, soil biotic processing will accelerate and release greenhouse gases that further exacerbate climate change. However, the magnitude of this response remains uncertain as the constraints are abiotic, biotic and interactive. Here, we examined the influence of resource quality and biological activity on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under different soil moisture regimes. Organic soils were sampled from 13 boreal and peatland ecosystems located in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, Finland and Sweden, representing a natural resource quality range of C, N and P. They were incubated at four temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 20 °C) at either 60% or 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Our results showed that chemical and biological properties play an important role in determining soil respiration responses to temperature and moisture changes. High soil C : P and C : N ratios were symptomatic of slow C turnover and long-term C accumulation. In boreal soils, low bacterial to fungal ratios were related to greater temperature sensitivity of respiration, which was amplified in drier conditions. This contrasted with peatland soils which were dominated by bacterial communities and enchytraeid grazing, resulting in a more rapid C turnover under warmer and wetter conditions. The unexpected acceleration of C mineralization under high moisture contents was possibly linked to the primarily role of fermented organic matter, instead of oxygen, in mediating microbial decomposition. We conclude that to improve C model simulations of soil respiration, a better resolution of the interactions occurring between climate, resource quality and the decomposer community will be required. PMID:24687903

  2. Abiotic stress QTL in lettuce crop–wild hybrids: comparing greenhouse and field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Hooftman, Danny A P; Uwimana, Brigitte; Schranz, M Eric; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Michelmore, Richard W; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The development of stress-tolerant crops is an increasingly important goal of current crop breeding. A higher abiotic stress tolerance could increase the probability of introgression of genes from crops to wild relatives. This is particularly relevant to the discussion on the risks of new GM crops that may be engineered to increase abiotic stress resistance. We investigated abiotic stress QTL in greenhouse and field experiments in which we subjected recombinant inbred lines from a cross between cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and its wild relative L. serriola to drought, low nutrients, salt stress, and aboveground competition. Aboveground biomass at the end of the rosette stage was used as a proxy for the performance of plants under a particular stress. We detected a mosaic of abiotic stress QTL over the entire genome with little overlap between QTL from different stresses. The two QTL clusters that were identified reflected general growth rather than specific stress responses and colocated with clusters found in earlier studies for leaf shape and flowering time. Genetic correlations across treatments were often higher among different stress treatments within the same experiment (greenhouse or field), than among the same type of stress applied in different experiments. Moreover, the effects of the field stress treatments were more correlated with those of the greenhouse competition treatments than to those of the other greenhouse stress experiments, suggesting that competition rather than abiotic stress is a major factor in the field. In conclusion, the introgression risk of stress tolerance (trans-)genes under field conditions cannot easily be predicted based on genomic background selection patterns from controlled QTL experiments in greenhouses, especially field data will be needed to assess potential (negative) ecological effects of introgression of these transgenes into wild relatives. PMID:25360276

  3. Abiotic and biotic controls of soil moisture spatiotemporal variability and the occurrence of hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, Simone; Katul, Gabriel G.; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Pappas, Christoforos; Paschalis, Athanasios; Consolo, Ada; Kim, Jongho; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    An expression that separates biotic and abiotic controls on the temporal dynamics of the soil moisture spatial coefficient of variation Cv(θ) was explored via numerical simulations using a mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris. Continuous soil moisture spatiotemporal dynamics at an exemplary hillslope domain were computed for six case studies characterized by different climate and vegetation cover and for three configurations of soil properties. It was shown that abiotic controls largely exceed their biotic counterparts in wet climates. Biotic controls on Cv(θ) were found to be more pronounced in Mediterranean climates. The relation between Cv(θ) and spatial mean soil moisture θ¯ was found to be unique in wet locations, regardless of the soil properties. For the case of homogeneous soil texture, hysteretic cycles between Cv(θ) and θ¯ were observed in all Mediterranean climate locations considered here and to a lesser extent in a deciduous temperate forest. Heterogeneity in soil properties increased Cv(θ) to values commensurate with field observations and weakened signatures of hysteresis at all of the studied locations. This finding highlights the role of site-specific heterogeneities in hiding or even eliminating the signature of climatic and biotic controls on Cv(θ), thereby offering a new perspective on causes of confounding results reported across field experiments.

  4. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale.

    PubMed

    Menke, Sean B; Holway, David A

    2006-03-01

    1. A prominent and unresolved question in ecology concerns why communities differ in their susceptibility to invasion. While studies often emphasize biotic resistance, it is less widely appreciated how the physical environment affects community vulnerability to invasion. 2. In this study we performed field experiments to test how abiotic variation directly and indirectly influences the extent to which Linepithema humile Mayr (Argentine ants) invade seasonally dry environments in southern California. 3. In controlled and replicated experiments involving drip irrigation, we demonstrate (i) that elevated levels of soil moisture increased both the abundance of Argentine ants and their ability to invade native ant communities and (ii) that cessation of irrigation caused declines in the abundance of Argentine ants and led to their withdrawal from previously occupied areas. 4. Because drip irrigation stimulated plant growth, in an additional experiment we manipulated both soil moisture and plant cover to assess the direct vs. indirect effects of added water on the abundance of L. humile. 5. Local abundance of Argentine ants increased in irrigated plots but was 38% higher in irrigated plots with plants compared to irrigated plots where plant growth was suppressed. The results of this experiment thus argue for a direct role of soil moisture in influencing Argentine ant abundance but suggest that that the indirect effects of added water may also be important. 6. Our study illustrates more generally that fine-scale variation in the physical environment can control whether communities become invaded by non-native species and suggests that an understanding of community susceptibility to invasion will be improved by a better appreciation of interactions between the biotic and abiotic environment. PMID:16637990

  5. Exploring biotic vs. abiotic controls on syngenetic carbonate and clay mineral precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Gabriela S.; McKenzie, Judith A.; Martinez Ruiz, Francisca; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2016-04-01

    A possible syngenetic relationship between carbonate and clay mineral precipitation has been reported for sedimentary rocks deposited in both lacustrine and marine sedimentary environments throughout the geological record. In particular, the mineral dolomite is often found associated with Mg-rich clays, such as stevensite. It is notable that this carbonate/clay association has been recorded in numerous samples taken from modern dolomite precipitating environments; for example, the Coorong lakes, South Australia, coastal sabkhas, Abu Dhabi, UAE and coastal hypersaline lagoons (Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho) east of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An HRTEM study of samples from these three locations indicates a possible physical/chemical association between the Ca-dolomite and Mg-rich clays, demonstrating a probable co-precipitation. To test this hypothesis, we have conducted a series of biotic and abiotic laboratory experiments. If this syngenesis actually occurs in nature, what, if any, are the biogeochemical processes controlling these precipitation reactions? Our experiments were designed to determine the extent of the biotic versus abiotic component influencing the mineral precipitation and, in the case of a biotic influence, to understand the mechanism through which microorganisms might mediate the formation of clay minerals. The experiments were carried out in the Geomicrobiology Laboratory of ETH Zürich using cultures of living microbes and artificial organic compounds that simulate functional groups present in natural biofilms formed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition, pure inorganic experiments were designed to understand possible physico-chemical conditions for diagenetic processes that could induce dissolution of Mg-carbonates and precipitation of Mg-rich clays. Our results show a remarkable biotic influence during the formation of clay minerals. Specifically, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), released by microbes in their

  6. Stable Carbon Isotopic Signatures of Abiotic Organics from Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Summers, David P.; Kubo, Mike; Yassar, Saima

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes can be powerful biogeochemical markers in the study of life's origins. Biogenic carbon fixation produces organics that are depleted in C-13 by about -20 to -30%0. Less attention has been paid to the isotopic signatures of abiotic processes. The possibility of abiotic processes producing organics with morphologies and isotopic signatures in the biogenic range has been at the center of recent debate over the Earth's earliest microfossils. The abiotic synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal environments is one possible source of endogenous organic matter to the prebiotic earth. Simulated hydrothermal settings have been shown to synthesize, among other things, single chain amphiphiles and simple lipids from a mix of CO, CO2, and H2. A key characteristic of these amphiphilic molecules is the ability to self-assemble in aqueous phases into more organized structures called vesicles, which form a selectively permeable boundary and serve the function of containing and concentrating other organic molecules. The ability to form cell like structures also makes these compounds more likely to be mistaken for biogenic. Hydrothermal simulation experiments were conducted from oxalic or formic acid in water at 175 C for 72 hr. The molecular and isotopic composition of the products of these reactions were determined and compared to biogenic fractionations . Preliminary results indicate isotopic fractionation during abiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in hydrothermal environments is on par with biological carbon fixation.

  7. Abiotic and microbiotic factors controlling biofilm formation by thermophilic sporeformers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P M; Metselaar, Karin I; de Boer, Paulo; Roeselers, Guus; Moezelaar, Roy; Nierop Groot, Masja; Montijn, Roy C; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    2013-09-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon sequencing analysis was carried out on milk, final products, and fouling samples taken from dairy concentrate production lines. The analysis of these samples revealed the presence of DNA from a broad range of bacterial taxa, including a majority of mesophiles and a minority of (thermophilic) spore-forming bacteria. Enrichments of fouling samples at 55°C showed the accumulation of predominantly Brevibacillus and Bacillus, whereas enrichments at 65°C led to the accumulation of Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus species. Bacterial population analysis of biofilms grown using fouling samples as an inoculum indicated that both Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus preferentially form biofilms on surfaces at air-liquid interfaces rather than on submerged surfaces. Three of the most potent biofilm-forming strains isolated from the dairy factory industrial samples, including Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, have been characterized in detail with respect to their growth conditions and spore resistance. Strikingly, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, which forms the most thermostable spores of these three species, is not able to grow in dairy intermediates as a pure culture but appears to be dependent for growth on other spoilage organisms present, probably as a result of their proteolytic activity. These results underscore the importance of abiotic and microbiotic factors in niche colonization in dairy factories, where the presence of thermophilic sporeformers can affect the quality of end products. PMID:23851093

  8. Abiotic and Microbiotic Factors Controlling Biofilm Formation by Thermophilic Sporeformers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P. M.; Metselaar, Karin I.; de Boer, Paulo; Roeselers, Guus; Moezelaar, Roy; Nierop Groot, Masja; Montijn, Roy C.; Abee, Tjakko

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon sequencing analysis was carried out on milk, final products, and fouling samples taken from dairy concentrate production lines. The analysis of these samples revealed the presence of DNA from a broad range of bacterial taxa, including a majority of mesophiles and a minority of (thermophilic) spore-forming bacteria. Enrichments of fouling samples at 55°C showed the accumulation of predominantly Brevibacillus and Bacillus, whereas enrichments at 65°C led to the accumulation of Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus species. Bacterial population analysis of biofilms grown using fouling samples as an inoculum indicated that both Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus preferentially form biofilms on surfaces at air-liquid interfaces rather than on submerged surfaces. Three of the most potent biofilm-forming strains isolated from the dairy factory industrial samples, including Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, have been characterized in detail with respect to their growth conditions and spore resistance. Strikingly, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, which forms the most thermostable spores of these three species, is not able to grow in dairy intermediates as a pure culture but appears to be dependent for growth on other spoilage organisms present, probably as a result of their proteolytic activity. These results underscore the importance of abiotic and microbiotic factors in niche colonization in dairy factories, where the presence of thermophilic sporeformers can affect the quality of end products. PMID:23851093

  9. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  10. Unveiling the Redox Control of Plant Reproductive Development during Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zinta, Gaurav; Khan, Asif; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Verma, Vipasha; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Plants being sessile in nature are often challenged to various abiotic stresses including temperature fluctuations, water supply, salinity, and nutrient availability. Exposure of plants to such environmental perturbations result in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. To scavenge ROS, enzymatic and molecular antioxidants are produced at a cellular level. ROS act as a signaling entity at lower concentrations maintaining normal growth and development, but if their levels increase beyond certain threshold, they produce toxic effects in plants. Some developmental stages, such as development of reproductive organs are more sensitive to abiotic stress than other stages of growth. As success of plant reproductive development is directly correlated with grain yield, stresses coinciding with reproductive phase results in the higher yield losses. In this article, we summarize the redox control of plant reproductive development, and elaborate how redox homeostasis is compromised during abiotic stress exposure. We highlight why more emphasis should be given to understand redox control of plant reproductive organ development during abiotic stress exposure96to engineer crops with better crop yield. We specifically discuss the role of ROS as a signaling molecule and its cross-talk with other signaling molecules such as hormones and sugars. PMID:27379102

  11. Unveiling the Redox Control of Plant Reproductive Development during Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Zinta, Gaurav; Khan, Asif; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Verma, Vipasha; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Plants being sessile in nature are often challenged to various abiotic stresses including temperature fluctuations, water supply, salinity, and nutrient availability. Exposure of plants to such environmental perturbations result in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. To scavenge ROS, enzymatic and molecular antioxidants are produced at a cellular level. ROS act as a signaling entity at lower concentrations maintaining normal growth and development, but if their levels increase beyond certain threshold, they produce toxic effects in plants. Some developmental stages, such as development of reproductive organs are more sensitive to abiotic stress than other stages of growth. As success of plant reproductive development is directly correlated with grain yield, stresses coinciding with reproductive phase results in the higher yield losses. In this article, we summarize the redox control of plant reproductive development, and elaborate how redox homeostasis is compromised during abiotic stress exposure. We highlight why more emphasis should be given to understand redox control of plant reproductive organ development during abiotic stress exposure96to engineer crops with better crop yield. We specifically discuss the role of ROS as a signaling molecule and its cross-talk with other signaling molecules such as hormones and sugars. PMID:27379102

  12. SERDP ER-1421 Abiotic and Biotic Mechanisms Controlling In Situ Remediation of NDMA: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; McKinley, James P.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.; Thompson, Karen T.

    2009-09-30

    This laboratory-scale project was initiated to investigate in situ abiotic/biotic mineralization of NDMA. Under iron-reducing conditions, aquifer sediments showed rapid abiotic NDMA degradation to dimethylamine (DMA), nitrate, formate, and finally, CO2. These are the first reported experiments of abiotic NDMA mineralization. The NDMA reactivity of these different iron phases showed that adsorbed ferrous iron was the dominant reactive phase that promoted NDMA reduction, and other ferrous phases present (siderite, iron sulfide, magnetite, structural ferrous iron in 2:1 clays) did not promote NDMA degradation. In contrast, oxic sediments that were biostimulated with propane promoted biomineralization of NDMA by a cometabolic monooxygenase enzyme process. Other monooxygenase enzyme processes were not stimulated with methane or toluene additions, and acetylene addition did not block mineralization. Although NDMA mineralization extent was the highest in oxic, biostimulated sediments (30 to 82%, compared to 10 to 26% for abiotic mineralization in reduced sediments), large 1-D column studies (high sediment/water ratio of aquifers) showed 5.6 times higher NDMA mineralization rates in reduced sediment (half-life 410 ± 147 h) than oxic biomineralization (half life 2293 ± 1866 h). Sequential reduced/oxic biostimulated sediment mineralization (half-life 3180 ± 1094 h) was also inefficient compared to reduced sediment. These promising laboratory-scale results for NDMA mineralization should be investigated at field scale. Future studies of NDMA remediation should focus on the comparison of this in situ abiotic NDMA mineralization (iron-reducing environments) to ex situ biomineralization, which has been shown successful in other studies.

  13. Biotic control of an abiotic resource: Palmyra Atoll, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of abiotic resources as a control on the spatial distribution of plants in an ecosystem is well studied. Less well known is the impact of plants on the availability of abiotic resources and how this biotic control of the environment influences vegetative distribution over time. In order to investigate this question, we examined the influence of vegetation on the water balance of a tropical atoll. Palmyra is a small (2.5 km2) wet atoll in the northern Line Islands that hosts five species of native and introduced trees/shrubs, Cocos nucifera, Pisonia grandis, Tournefortia argentia, Terminalia catappa, and Scaevola sericea, accounting for ~85% percent of the vegetative coverage on the island. Using historical aerial photographs, climate data, published estimates of vegetative cover, and published estimates of transpiration rates we present estimates of the range of vegetative water demand and the change in water demand as influenced by changes in vegetation distribution through time.

  14. Subsoil Soil Organic Matter Complexation and Stabilization: Assessment of Abiotic and Biotic Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosier, C. L.; Kan, J.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Yoo, K.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1200-2000 petagrams (Pg-1015 g) of carbon are stored in the Earth's soil as soil organic matter (SOM), representing two times the amount of carbon stored in the Earth's vegetation and atmosphere combined. SOM significantly influences several essential ecosystem services including nutrient cycling, mitigation of soil erosion, and storage of atmospheric CO2. The majority of studies investigating SOM complexation and stabilization potential mainly occur within the A soil horizon completely ignoring deeper soil horizons. Studies aimed at investigating specific abiotic and biotic interactions that facilitate the complexation and stabilization potential of SOM to C-limited subsoil horizons are needed in order to develop an accurate soil carbon budget. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the presence or absence of iron oxide in combination with increasing degrees of biological processing (micro-macrofauna) would complex and stabilize SOM. We conducted a series of laboratory soil incubation experiments using carbon amended B horizon soils with low and high iron oxide concentrations with increasing levels of biological processing. The experimental design of our study allowed us to track the possible fate of soil carbon: (i) CO2 mineralization (modified Li-COR), (ii) particulate organic matter (density fractionization), mineral surface complexed carbon (N2 adsorption BET method) and (iii) organism biomass. Results from our study clearly demonstrate that the greater the degree of macro-scale biological processing (i.e. mixing) in conjunction with the presence of iron oxide significantly increased the complexation and stabilization potential of SOM. Our results further suggest that organic matter interaction with mineral surfaces and entombment within stable soil aggregates were the primary mechanisms controlling SOM storage. This study reveals the importance of biological SOM burial and mixing with C-limited subsoil horizons as a

  15. Abiotic controls of emergent macrophyte density in a bedrock channel - The Cahaba River, AL (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Ryan S.; Davis, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    Research examining bedrock channels is growing. Despite this, biotic-abiotic interactions remain a topic mostly addressed in alluvial systems. This research identified hydrogeomorphic factors operating at the patch-scale (100-102 m) in bedrock shoals of the Cahaba River (AL) that help determine the distribution of the emergent aquatic macrophyte, Justicia americana. Macrophyte patch density (number of stems/m2) and percent bedrock void surface area (rock surface area/m2 occupied by joints, fractures, and potholes) were measured (n = 24 within two bedrock shoals) using stem counts and underwater photography, respectively. One-dimensional hydrologic modeling (HEC-RAS 4.1.0) was completed for a section within a shoal to examine velocity and channel depth as controlling variables for macrophyte patch density. Results from binary logistic regression analysis identified depth and velocity as good predictors of the presence or absence of Justicia americana within shoal structures (depth p = 0.001, velocity p = 0.007), which is a similar finding to previous research conducted in alluvial systems. Correlation analysis between bedrock surface void area and stem density demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.665, p = 0.01), elucidating a link between abiotic-biotic processes that may well be unique to bedrock channels. These results suggest that the amount of void space present in bedrock surfaces, in addition to localized depth and velocity, helps control macrophyte patch density in bedrock shoal complexes. The utility of geomorphology in explaining patch-scale habitat heterogeneity in this study highlights geomorphology's potential to help understand macrophyte habitat heterogeneity at the reach scale, while also demonstrating its promise for mapping and understanding habitat heterogeneity at the system scale.

  16. Abiotic, biotic, and evolutionary control of the distribution of C and N isotopes in food webs.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, Paola; Illera, Juan Carlos; Meléndez, Leandro; Segura, Amalia; Obeso, José Ramón

    2015-02-01

    Ecosystem functioning depends on nutrient cycles and their responses to abiotic and biotic determinants, with the influence of evolutionary legacies being generally overlooked in ecosystem ecology. Along a broad elevation gradient characterized by shifting climatic and grazing environments, we addressed clines of plant N and C∶N content and of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in producers (herbs) and in primary (grasshoppers) and secondary (birds) consumers, both within and between species in phylogenetically controlled scenarios. We found parallel and significant intra- and interspecific trends of isotopic variation with elevation in the three groups. In primary producers, nutrient and isotope distributions had a detectable phylogenetic signal that constrained their variation along the environmental gradient. The influence of the environment could not be ascribed to any single factor, and both grazing and climate had an effect on leaf stoichiometry and, thus, on the resources available to consumers. Trends in consumers matched those in plants but often became nonsignificant after controlling for isotopic values of their direct resources, revealing direct bottom-up control and little phylogenetic dependence. By integrating ecosystem and mechanistic perspectives, we found that nutrient dynamics in food webs are governed at the base by the complex interaction between local determinants and evolutionary factors. PMID:25616137

  17. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm4+ > Spd3+ > Put2+. On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K+-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H+ pumps and Ca2+ pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca2+ influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment. PMID:24795739

  18. Chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic arsenic from Pleistocene aquifer sediments to groundwater.

    PubMed

    Gillispie, Elizabeth C; Andujar, Erika; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2016-08-10

    Over 150 million people in South and Southeast Asia consume unsafe drinking water from arsenic-rich Holocene aquifers. Although use of As-free water from Pleistocene aquifers is a potential mitigation strategy, such aquifers are vulnerable to geogenic As pollution, placing millions more people at potential risk. The goal of this research was to define chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic As to groundwater. Batch incubations of sediments with natural chemical variability from a Pleistocene aquifer in Cambodia were conducted to evaluate how interactions among arsenic, manganese and iron oxides, and dissolved and sedimentary organic carbon influenced As mobilization from sediments. The addition of labile dissolved organic carbon produced the highest concentrations of dissolved As after >7 months, as compared to sediment samples incubated with sodium azide or without added carbon, and the extent of As release was positively correlated with the percent of initial extractable Mn released from the sediments. The mode of As release was impacted by the source of DOC supplied to the sediments, with biological processes responsible for 81% to 85% of the total As release following incubations with lactate and acetate but only up to 43% to 61% of the total As release following incubations with humic and fulvic acids. Overall, cycling of key redox-active elements and organic-carbon reactivity govern the potential for geogenic As release to groundwater, and results here may be used to formulate better predictions of the arsenic pollution potential of aquifers in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:27463026

  19. Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol exchange above a temperate mountain grassland

    PubMed Central

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) fluxes were quantified above a managed temperate mountain grassland in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly methanol fluxes were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method using 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer and methanol volume mixing ratios measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). During (undisturbed) mature and growing phases methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with close-to-zero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m−2 s−1, which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature. Management events were found to represent the largest perturbations of methanol exchange at the studied grassland ecosystem: Peak emissions of 144.5 nmol m−2 s−1 were found during/after cutting of the meadow reflecting the wounding of the plant material and subsequent depletion of the leaf internal aqueous methanol pools. After the application of organic fertilizer, elevated methanol emissions of up to 26.7 nmol m−2 s−1 were observed, likely reflecting enhanced microbial activity associated with the applied manure. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed air temperature and radiation as the dominant abiotic controls, jointly explaining 47 % and 70 % of the variability in half-hourly and daily methanol fluxes. In contrast to published leaf-level laboratory studies, the surface conductance and the daily change in the amount of green plant area, used as ecosystem-scale proxies for stomatal conductance and growth, respectively, were found to exert only minor biotic controls on methanol exchange. PMID:24349901

  20. Global Patterns of Stem CO2 Efflux in Forests and its Biotic and Abiotic Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forest stem CO2 efflux (ES) plays an important role in the carbon balance of forest ecosystems. However, its primary controls at the global scale are poorly understood and observation-based global estimates are lacking. We synthesized data from XX published studies across global forest ecosystems and examined the relationships between annual ES and abiotic factors (mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP)) and biotic factors (gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), soil CO2 efflux (RS), root CO2 efflux (RA), foliar CO2 efflux, basal area, and stand age). Based on our compiled datasets, the mean annual ES was 90 ± 43 g C m-2 yr-1, 160 ± 79 g C m-2 yr-1 and 501 ± 363 g C m-2 yr-1 for boreal, temperate, and tropical forest ecosystems, respectively. Average apparent Q10 of ES for boreal forests was 1.85, 2.29 for temperate forests, and 2.26 for tropical forests. Globally, MAT and MAP explained 32% and 24% of the variation in annual ES, respectively. Positive linear relationships exist between ES and forest production (GPP and NPP), LAI, RS, and RA in different forest ecosystems. These correlations hold for the global dataset, as well as for temperate and tropical forest ecosystems independently. In addition, we found no correlation between ES and both RS and RA after accounting for temperature and GPP effects. The predicted a global annual ES was about 6.1Pg C yr-1.

  1. Authentic Research Experience and "Big Data" Analysis in the Classroom: Maize Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Makarevitch, Irina; Frechette, Cameo; Wiatros, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Integration of inquiry-based approaches into curriculum is transforming the way science is taught and studied in undergraduate classrooms. Incorporating quantitative reasoning and mathematical skills into authentic biology undergraduate research projects has been shown to benefit students in developing various skills necessary for future scientists and to attract students to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. While large-scale data analysis became an essential part of modern biological research, students have few opportunities to engage in analysis of large biological data sets. RNA-seq analysis, a tool that allows precise measurement of the level of gene expression for all genes in a genome, revolutionized molecular biology and provides ample opportunities for engaging students in authentic research. We developed, implemented, and assessed a series of authentic research laboratory exercises incorporating a large data RNA-seq analysis into an introductory undergraduate classroom. Our laboratory series is focused on analyzing gene expression changes in response to abiotic stress in maize seedlings; however, it could be easily adapted to the analysis of any other biological system with available RNA-seq data. Objective and subjective assessment of student learning demonstrated gains in understanding important biological concepts and in skills related to the process of science. PMID:26163561

  2. Silicon isotope fractionation during abiotic silica precipitation at low temperatures: Inferences from flow-through experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter Z.; Roerdink, Desiree L.; Van Cappellen, Philippe; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2014-10-01

    Silicon isotopes have considerable potential as proxy for (near-) surface processes and environmental conditions. However, unambiguous interpretations of isotope signatures in natural silica deposits are often hampered by a lack of independent quantitative information on isotopic fractionations operating under the environmental conditions of interest. We performed seeded silica precipitation experiments using flow-through reactors in the 10-60 °C temperature range to alleviate this problem. The principal objective was to quantify the silicon isotope fractionations during controlled precipitation of amorphous silica from a flowing aqueous solution. The experiments were designed to simulate silica deposition induced by a temperature drop, with particular relevance for (near-) surface hydrothermal systems associated with steep temperature gradients. Monitored differences in silicon isotope ratios (30Si/28Si and 29Si/28Si) between input and output solutions demonstrated a systematic sequence in behavior. During an initial time interval, that is, before the reaction system reached steady state, the observed isotope shifts were influenced by dissolution of the seed material, the saturation state of the solution and the specific surface area of the seeds. After reaching steady state, the selective incorporation of silicon isotopes by the solid phase exhibited an explicit temperature dependency: the lighter isotopes were preferentially incorporated, and apparent fractionation magnitudes increased with decreasing temperature. Calculated magnitudes of silicon isotope fractionations between precipitated and dissolved silica (Δ30Si = δ30Siprecipitate (calculated) - δ30Siinput solution) were -2.1‰ at 10 °C, -1.2‰ at 20 °C, -1.0‰ at 30 °C, -0.5‰ at 40 °C, 0.1‰ at 50 °C, and 0.2‰ at 60 °C (s.d. ⩽ 0.6‰, based on replicate experiments). Hence, fractionation was nearly insignificant at temperatures ⩾50 °C. Apart from this relationship with temperature

  3. Redox-dependent regulation, redox control and oxidative damage in plant cells subjected to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Stress development intricately involves uncontrolled redox reactions and oxidative damage to functional macromolecules. Three phases characterize progressing abiotic stress and the stress strength; in the first phase redox-dependent deregulation in metabolism, in the second phase detectable development of oxidative damage and in the third phase cell death. Each phase is characterized by traceable biochemical features and specific molecular responses that reflect on the one hand cell damage but on the other hand indicate specific regulation and redox signalling aiming at compensation of stress impact. PMID:20387040

  4. The influence of abiotic controls and management intensity on phosphorus cycling in established grassland and forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, F.; Oelmann, Y.; Wilcke, W.

    2011-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that the bioavailability and cycling of phosphorus (P) is mainly controlled by abiotic soil properties including soil pH and the concentrations and reactivities of clay minerals, CaCO3 and Al/Fe oxides In managed ecosystems, kind, timing and duration of P additions and type and amount of harvested biomass are the major input and output fluxes. Our objective was to disentangle the effects of abiotic controls, and type and intensity of management on the P cycle in soils of temperate grasslands and forests of different management intensity in three regions across Germany in the frame of the Biodiversity Exploratories project. The pH value was the most important variable explaining P concentrations and partitioning in soil and changes in pH are the main mechanism how land-use is affecting the P cycle. However, after the influence of pH was accounted for in a sequential statistical approach, land-use intensity, classified according to the extent of annual biomass removal, explained a significant (P < 0.05) part of the variance in the contributions of several P fractions to total P (TP) among all studied regions and land-use types. In grassland soils of highly diverse systems (up to 57 plant species) in one of the study regions, the Schwäbische Alb, a mid-range mountain area on limestone where soils showed a limited variation in pH in the carbonate buffer range, pedogenic Fe oxide concentrations, fertilizer-P application rates, and TP concentrations in soil explained more than half of the variation in bioavailable inorganic (Pi) concentrations extracted with NaHCO3 in soil. Our results demonstrate that mainly soil pH and mineralogical composition, and intensity of management of the managed ecosystems are significant controls of the P cycle determining the size of bioavailable P pool in soil.

  5. Abiotic and biotic controls of organic matter cycling in a managed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Jennifer W.; Grimm, Nancy B.

    2011-06-01

    Urbanization often alters the physical, chemical, and biological structure of aquatic ecosystems embedded within them, creating managed ecosystems with different structure and functioning as compared to their unmanaged counterparts. Our work focused on patterns in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along a managed stream in Phoenix, Arizona. We documented longitudinal changes in DOC concentrations and quality (defined as chemical complexity and measured as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, SUVA) along a 66 km stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent. DOC concentrations along the stream declined by an average of 64%, and chemical complexity increased substantially. We posed four hypotheses to explain changes in downstream water chemistry; including hydrologic dilution, microbial mineralization, abiotic sorption to suspended sediments, and photodegradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Only the second and fourth hypotheses represent permanent removal mechanisms. Our data most strongly supported predictions from the dilution hypothesis and microbial mineralization as an explanation for the changes in DOC chemistry. Surface-subsurface water linkages were important but altered from unmanaged streams, as deep groundwater was used to augment surface flows. Variation in the use of groundwater was linked to human decision making and engineering related to water management. Reduction in geomorphic complexity increased the importance of dilution in explaining patterns but also increased the importance of UV oxidation as a mechanism influencing DOC chemistry. Our findings suggest urban stream management has shifted dependence on microbially mediated C removal mechanisms to hydrologic dilution to reduce output concentrations. This shift lowers contaminant removal potential and increases dependence on limited groundwater resources.

  6. Flight control experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    A multidisciplinary medical-management team at mission control provided Skylab crew support by monitoring health, retrieving and compiling experimental data, assisting in the development of flight plans, and by contributing to in-flight procedures and checklists. Real time computers assisted the flight crews in performing medical and other experiments.

  7. Gamma irradiation: a method to produce an abiotic control for biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, C; Vázquez-Rodríguez, G A; Servais, P; Barbeau, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using gamma irradiation to inhibit the microbial activity of biological powder activated carbon (PAC) without impacting its adsorptive properties. First of all, the range of dose of gamma rays required to produce abiotic PAC was selected on the basis of heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) inactivation and methylene blue (MB) adsorption kinetics. Doses inferior to 10 kGy were not sufficient to inhibit the culture of heterotrophic bacteria. On the other hand, doses superior to 15 kGy were demonstrated to affect the adsorption rate of MB. Consequently, a dose comprised between 10 and 15 kGy was selected for further investigation. In order to validate the adequacy of the range of dose (i.e. 10-15 kGy), adsorption characteristics were tested by monitoring the removal kinetics of refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC). No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated biological PAC for the adsorption of RDOC. Irradiated, non-irradiated and virgin PAC were also evaluated in terms of abundance of viable (using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight method) bacteria and in terms of heterotrophic biomass activity. The results of the BacLight method demonstrated that attachment of the biofilm on the PAC was not impacted by the irradiation and heterotrophic activity measurements demonstrated that the latter could be radically reduced in the range of dose selected. In conclusion, when using a proper dose, the gamma irradiation of colonized activated carbon drastically reduced the heterotrophic activity on activated carbon without significantly impacting its adsorptive behaviour. PMID:24617066

  8. Abiotic and biotic controls of cryptobenthic fish assemblages across a Caribbean seascape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harborne, A.R.; Jelks, H.L.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Rocha, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of fish studies on coral reefs consider only non-cryptic species and, despite their functional importance, data on cryptic species are scarce. This study investigates inter-habitat variation in Caribbean cryptobenthic fishes by re-analysing a comprehensive data set from 58 rotenone stations around Buck Island, U.S. Virgin Islands. Boosted regression trees were used to associate the density and diversity of non-piscivorous cryptobenthic fishes, both in the entire data set and on reef habitats alone, with 14 abiotic and biotic variables. The study also models the habitat requirements of the three commonest species. Dead coral cover was the first or second most important variable in six of the eight models constructed. For example, within the entire data set, the number of species and total fish density increased approximately linearly with increasing dead coral cover. Dead coral was also important in multivariate analyses that discriminated 10 assemblages within the entire data set. On reef habitats, the number of species and total fish density increased dramatically when dead coral exceeded ~55 %. Live coral cover was typically less important for explaining variance in fish assemblages than dead coral, but live corals were important for maintaining high fish diversity. Coral species favoured by cryptobenthic species may be particularly susceptible to mortality, but dead coral may also provide abundant food and shelter for many fishes. Piscivore density was a key variable in the final models, but typically increased with increasing cryptobenthic fish diversity and abundance, suggesting both groups of fishes are responding to the same habitat variables. The density of territorial damselfishes reduced the number of cryptobenthic fish species on reef habitats. Finally, habitats delineated by standard remote sensing techniques supported distinct cryptobenthic fish assemblages, suggesting that such maps can be used as surrogates of general patterns of cryptic

  9. Biotic and abiotic controls on nitrogen leaching losses into waterways during successive bovine urine application to soil.

    PubMed

    Neilen, Amanda D; Chen, Chengrong R; Faggotter, Stephen J; Ellison, Tanya L; Burford, Michele A

    2016-07-01

    Cattle waste products high in nitrogen (N) that enter waterways via rainfall runoff can contribute to aquatic ecosystem health deterioration. It is well established that N leaching from this source can be reduced by plant assimilation, e.g. pasture grass. Additionally, N leaching can be reduced when there is sufficient carbon (C) in the soil such as plant litterfall to stimulate microbial processes, i.e. denitrification, which off-gas N from the soil profile. However, the relative importance of these two processes is not well understood. A soil microcosm experiment was conducted to determine the role of biotic processes, pasture grass and microbial activity, and abiotic processes such as soil sorption, in reducing N leaching loss, during successive additions of bovine urine. Pasture grass was the most effective soil cover in reducing N leaching losses, which leached 70% less N compared to exposed soil. Successive application of urine to the soil resulted in N accumulation, after which there was a breaking point indicated by high N leaching losses. This is likely to be due to the low C:N ratio within the soil profiles treated with urine (molar ratio 8:1) compared to water treated soils (30:1). In this experiment we examined the role of C addition in reducing N losses and showed that the addition of glucose can temporarily reduce N leaching. Overall, our results demonstrated that plant uptake of N was a more important process in preventing N leaching than microbial processes. PMID:27031296

  10. COP1 Controls Abiotic Stress Responses by Modulating AtSIZ1 Function through Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Y; Jang, In-Cheol; Seo, Hak S

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination and sumoylation are essential post-translational modifications that regulate growth and development processes in plants, including control of hormone signaling mechanisms and responses to stress. This study showed that COP1 (Constitutive photomorphogenic 1) regulated the activity of Arabidopsis E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Yeast two hybrid analysis demonstrated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 directly interacted with one another, and subcellular localization assays indicated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 co-localized in nuclear bodies. Analysis of ubiquitination showed that AtSIZ1 was polyubiquitinated by COP1. The AtSIZ1 level was higher in cop1-4 mutants than in wild-type seedlings under light or dark conditions, and overexpression of a dominant-negative (DN)-COP1 mutant led to a substantial increase in AtSIZ1 accumulation. In addition, under drought, cold, and high salt conditions, SUMO-conjugate levels were elevated in DN-COP1-overexpressing plants and cop1-4 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that COP1 controls responses to abiotic stress by modulation of AtSIZ1 levels and activity. PMID:27536318

  11. Abiotic controls on H{sub 2} production from basalt-water reactions and implications for aquifer biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, T.O.; McKinley, J.P.

    2000-03-01

    Abiotic production of H{sub 2} from basalt reactions in aqueous solutions is hypothesized to support microbial ecosystems in deep subsurface aquifers, such as those found in the Columbia River Basalt group (CRB). The authors investigated factors controlling this phenomenon, including rock composition, pH, temperature, sterilization method, reducing agents, and product removal. Ferrous silicate minerals were found to be the basalt components responsible for H{sub 2} production from anaerobic water-rock interactions. H{sub 2} evolution was faster at pH < 7 but occurred from pH 5 to pH 11, which covers the pH range (7--10) measured in CRB groundwaters. The onset of H{sub 2} evolution coincided with the appearance of dissolved Fe{sup 2+}, and an apparent alkaline inhibition could be alleviated by the addition of excess FeCl{sub 2}. This may reflect, in part, the low redox conditions needed for H{sub 2} evolution and suggests that H{sub 2} may be controlled by reaction rates of ferrous silicate minerals. Rates were higher at 60 C than at 30 C, suggesting that the geothermal gradient may lead to increased H{sub 2} production at depth. The results were consistent with the hypothesis at depth. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that basalt-redox reactions support primary production by microorganisms in some terrestrial subsurface environments.

  12. COP1 Controls Abiotic Stress Responses by Modulating AtSIZ1 Function through Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Y.; Jang, In-Cheol; Seo, Hak S.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination and sumoylation are essential post-translational modifications that regulate growth and development processes in plants, including control of hormone signaling mechanisms and responses to stress. This study showed that COP1 (Constitutive photomorphogenic 1) regulated the activity of Arabidopsis E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Yeast two hybrid analysis demonstrated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 directly interacted with one another, and subcellular localization assays indicated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 co-localized in nuclear bodies. Analysis of ubiquitination showed that AtSIZ1 was polyubiquitinated by COP1. The AtSIZ1 level was higher in cop1-4 mutants than in wild-type seedlings under light or dark conditions, and overexpression of a dominant-negative (DN)-COP1 mutant led to a substantial increase in AtSIZ1 accumulation. In addition, under drought, cold, and high salt conditions, SUMO-conjugate levels were elevated in DN-COP1-overexpressing plants and cop1-4 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that COP1 controls responses to abiotic stress by modulation of AtSIZ1 levels and activity. PMID:27536318

  13. Unraveling ecological and abiotic controls on seasonal runoff dynamics at lower mesoscale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Simon P.; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    To better understand how storage, catchment structure and vegetation controls stream flow release we explored the seasonal water balance of 22 mesoscale catchments (16-160 km²) along a distinct geological and physiographic gradient in southern Germany. Specifically we compared normalized annual double mass curves of accumulated normalized rainfall and runoff fluxes and normalized triple mass curves of accumulated normalized rainfall, evaporation and runoff depths. The double mass curves consistently revealed two different regimes of storage and release: steep slopes and thus large seasonal runoff coefficients during winter (CRw) and rather flat slopes and thus small seasonal runoff coefficients during summer (CRs). In fact summer runoff coefficients were rather constant and the double mass curves were simply parallel shifted during the vegetation period, depending on the length of the period when vegetation is dormant. Surprisingly we found that temperature data alone was able to accurately predict both, the onset and the strength of the regime shift (r²=0.72). To explore the controls on winter runoff coefficients and we compared it to a total number of 24 different topographic, pedological, ecological and physiographic predictors. The key finding was here, that the topographic gradient multiplied with the average saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly explained 22 % variance of the CRw, while the two variables alone were not significant. This corroborates, that gradients and resistances jointly control runoff behavior and thus, that they must be interpreted as parameter teams. It is particular interesting that their joint impact is even detectable at lower mesoscale catchments.

  14. Geophysical Evidence for Abiotic Controls on Peatland Patterning at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, J.; Slater, L.; Glaser, P.; Comas, X.; O'Brien, M.

    2007-12-01

    The autogenic and allogenic controls on the formation of distinctive and dramatic vegetation patterning found in northern peatlands remain unclear. Groundwater model studies and investigations using point measurements lack intensive data over multiple scales, primarily due to the intensive time required and difficult logistics required to work in these remote ecosystems. We provide geophysical evidence that lithological controls on vegetation patterning exist at multiple scales in ombrotrophic peatlands of northern Minnesota and Maine. Surveys using electrical imaging methods (including resistivity, induced polarization, and ground penetrating radar) at sites in the Red Lake Peatland Complex (160 km2), as well as Kanokolus Bog (1.65 km2) and the Caribou Bog Peatland Complex (22 km2) in Maine reveal sharp vegetation gradients coinciding with changes in the mineral soil lithology. In contrast, large-scale, continuous, patterned zones found in the Red lake Complex coincide with strikingly uniform mineral soil lithology as inferred from the geophysical images. Small-scale (0.3 km2) vegetation patterns observed in Caribou Bog also coincide with small scale lithologic changes in both the mineral and organic deposits. These results provide evidence that the subsurface hydrogeologic framework regulates vegetation patterning in peatlands across multiple scales, presumably by regulating (1) the supply of mineral solutes to the surface vegetation water, and (2) water levels within the organic soil.

  15. Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol fluxes above a temperate mountain grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    -hourly averages. As methanol is produced in expanding cell walls, the change in the measured green area index (?GAI) was used as a proxy for plant growth. However ?GAI was poorly correlated with methanol fluxes, possible explanations will be discussed. References: Davison, B., Brunner, A., Amman, C., Spirig, C., Jocher, M., Neftel, A. Cut-induced VOC emissions from agricultural grasslands. Plant Biol. 10, 76-85, 2008. Harley, P., Greenberg, J., Niinemets, Ü., and Guenther, A..: Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves. Biogeosciences, 4, 1083-1099, 2007. Hüve, K., Christ, M., Kleist, E., Uerlings, R., Niinemets, Ü., Walter, A. and Wildt, J.: Simultaneous growth and emission measurements demonstrate an interactive control of methanol release by leaf expansion and stomata. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm038, Journal of Experimental Botany, 2007. Niinemets, Ü. and Reichstein, M.: Controls on the emission of plant volatiles through stomata: A sensitivity analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4211, doi:10.1029/2002JD002626, 2003. Niinemets, Ü., Loreto, F. and Reichstein, M.: Physiological and physicochemical controls on foliar volatile organic compound emissions. Trends in Plant Science,9, 2004. Wohlfahrt G., Haslwanter A., Hörtnagl L., Jasoni R.L., Fenstermaker L.F., Arnone J.A. III, Hammerle A. (2009) On the consequences of the energy imbalance for calculating surface conductance to water vapour. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149, 15561559.

  16. Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

  17. GmFNSII-controlled soybean flavone metabolism responds to abiotic stresses and regulates plant salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhui; Wang, Biao; Jiang, Yina; Cheng, Linjing; Wu, Tianlong

    2014-01-01

    Flavones, a major group of flavonoids in most plant tissues, play multiple roles in plant-environment interactions. In our study, the expression of the two soybean flavone synthase genes, GmFNSII-1 and GmFNSII-2, was significantly increased by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), glucose, mannitol and NaCl treatment, which were also found to increase flavone aglycone accumulation in Glycine max (L.) Merrill. In the GmFNSII-1 promoter, a specific CGTCA motif in the region (-979 bp to -806 bp) involved in the MeJA response was identified. Promoter deletion analysis of GmFNSII-2 revealed the presence of osmotic-responsive (-1,143 bp to -767 bp) and glucose-repressive sequence elements (-767 bp to -475 bp), which strongly supported the hypothesis that glucose induces soybean flavone production by acting as both an osmotic factor and a sugar signaling molecule simultaneously. Silencing of the GmFNSII gene clearly reduced the production of flavone aglycones (apigenin, luteolin and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone) in hairy roots. The GmFNSII-RNAi (RNA interference) roots that had a reduced level of flavones accompanied by more malondialdehyde and H2O2 accumulation were more sensitive to salt stress compared with those of the control, and we concluded that flavones, as antioxidants, are associated with salt tolerance. PMID:24192294

  18. Biotic and abiotic controls on the distribution of tropical forest aboveground biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Schimel, D.; Keller, M. M.; Chambers, J. Q.; Dubayah, R.; Duffy, P.; Yu, Y.; Robinson, C. M.; Chowdhury, D.; Yang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    AUTHOR: Sassan Saatchi1,2, Yan Yang2, Diya Chowdhury2, Yifan Yu2, Chelsea Robinson2, David Schimel1, Paul Duffy3, Michael Keller4, Ralph Dubayah5, Jeffery Chambers6 1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA 2. Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA 3. Neptune and Company, Inc. Denver, CO, USA 4. International Institute of Tropical Forestry & International Programs, USDA Forest Service, Campinas, Brazil 5. Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA 6. Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA ABSTRACT BODY: In recent years, climate change policies and scientific research created a widespread interest in quantify the carbon stock and changes of global tropical forests extending from forest patches to national and regional scales. Using a combination of inventory data from field plots and forest structure from spaceborne Lidar data, we examine the main controls on the distribution of tropical forest biomass. Here, we concentrate on environmental and landscape variables (precipitation, temperature, topography, and soil), and biotic variables such as functional traits (density of large trees, and wood specific gravity). The analysis is performed using global bioclimatic variables for precipitation and temperature, SRTM data for topographical variables (elevation and ruggedness), and global harmonized soil data for soil type and texture. For biotic variables, we use the GLAS Lidar data to quantify the distribution of large trees, a combined field and remote sensing data for distribution of tree wood specific gravity. The results show that climate variables such as precipitation of dry season can explain the heterogeneity of forest biomass over the landscape but cannot predict the biomass variability significantly and particularly for high biomass forests. Topography such as elevation and ruggedness along with temperature can

  19. Quantum Control in Foundational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Céleri, Lucas C.; Gomes, Rafael M.; Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a new class of experiments designed to probe the foundations of quantum mechanics. Using quantum controlling devices, we show how to attain a freedom in temporal ordering of the control and detection of various phenomena. We consider wave-particle duality in the context of quantum-controlled and the entanglement-assisted delayed-choice experiments. Then we discuss a quantum-controlled CHSH experiment and measurement of photon's transversal position and momentum in a single set-up.

  20. The TOYSAT structural control experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. A.; Chambers, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Lockheed TOYSAT experiment is described. The experiment was designed to test hypothesis concerning the application of optimal control theory to flexible spacecraft. The theory is presented, and results described.

  1. Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

  2. Authentic Research Experience and “Big Data” Analysis in the Classroom: Maize Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makarevitch, Irina; Frechette, Cameo; Wiatros, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Integration of inquiry-based approaches into curriculum is transforming the way science is taught and studied in undergraduate classrooms. Incorporating quantitative reasoning and mathematical skills into authentic biology undergraduate research projects has been shown to benefit students in developing various skills necessary for future scientists and to attract students to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. While large-scale data analysis became an essential part of modern biological research, students have few opportunities to engage in analysis of large biological data sets. RNA-seq analysis, a tool that allows precise measurement of the level of gene expression for all genes in a genome, revolutionized molecular biology and provides ample opportunities for engaging students in authentic research. We developed, implemented, and assessed a series of authentic research laboratory exercises incorporating a large data RNA-seq analysis into an introductory undergraduate classroom. Our laboratory series is focused on analyzing gene expression changes in response to abiotic stress in maize seedlings; however, it could be easily adapted to the analysis of any other biological system with available RNA-seq data. Objective and subjective assessment of student learning demonstrated gains in understanding important biological concepts and in skills related to the process of science. PMID:26163561

  3. Effects of biotic and abiotic indices on long term soil moisture data in a grassland biodiversity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christine; Hohenbrink, Tobias; Leimer, Sophia; Roscher, Christiane; Ravenek, Janneke; de Kroon, Hans; Kreutziger, Yvonne; Wirth, Christian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Gleixner, Gerd; Weigelt, Alexandra; Mommer, Liesje; Beßler, Holger; Schröder, Boris; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2015-04-01

    small herbs led to higher than average soil moisture in some years (2008, 2012, 2013). Interestingly, plant species richness led to moister than average subsoil at the beginning of the experiment (2003 and 2004), which changed to lower than average up to the year 2010 in all depths. There was no effect of species diversity in the years since 2010, although species diversity generally increases leaf area index and aboveground biomass. The first component from the PCA analysis described the mean behavior in time of all soil moisture time series. The second component reflected the impact of soil depth. The first two components explained 76% of the data set total variance. The third component is linked to plant species richness and explained about 4 % of the total variance of soil moisture data. The fourth component, which explained 2.4 %, showed a high correlation to soil texture. Within this study we investigate the dominant factors controlling spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture at several soil depths. Although climate and soil depths were the most important drivers, other factors like plant species richness and soil texture affected the temporal variation while certain plant functional groups were important for the spatial variability.

  4. Interactive effects of xenobiotic, abiotic and biotic stressors on Daphnia pulex--results from a multiple stressor experiment with a fractional multifactorial design.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Christian; Seeland, Anne; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2013-08-15

    Pollutant effects on aquatic key species are confounded by multiple abiotic and biotic stressors. To better discriminate and understand the intrinsic and environmental correlates of changing aquatic ecosystems, we untangle in present study how the effects of a low-dosed fungicide on daphnids (via different exposure routes) becomes modified by increasing temperature and the presence of a predator. Using a fractional multifactorial test design, the individual growth, reproduction and population growth rate of Daphnia pulex were investigated under exposure to the fungicide pyrimethanil at an environmental relevant concentration--either directly (via the water phase), indirectly (via food), dually (via water and food) or for multiple generations (fungicide treated source population)--at three temperatures and in presence/absence of the predator kairomones of Chaoborus flavicans. Our results clearly illustrate that multiple stress factors can modify the response of an aquatic key species to pollutants. The environmentally relevant exposure of the contaminant via food or the medium is of same importance. Nevertheless, temperature and the presence of a predator are the dominant factors controlling the reproduction of D. pulex. We conclude that sublethal pyrimethanil pollution can disturb the zooplankton community at suboptimal temperature conditions, but the effects will become masked by low temperatures or if chaoborid larvae are present. PMID:23727598

  5. Diagnosing Abiotic Degradation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abiotic degradation of chlorinated solvents in ground water can be difficult to diagnose. Under current practice, most of the “evidence” is negative; specifically the apparent disappearance of chlorinated solvents with an accumulation of vinyl chloride, ethane, ethylene, or ...

  6. Abiotic Versus Biotic Weathering Of Olivine As Possible Biosignatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longazo, Teresa G.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Clemett, Simon J.; Southam, Gordon; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating the weathering of silicate minerals by both purely inorganic, and biologically mediated processes using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). By resolving surface textures and chemical compositions of weathered surfaces at the sub-micron scale we hope to be able to distinguish abiotic from biotic weathering processes and so establish a new biosignature applicable to the study of astromaterials including but not limited to the Martian meteorites. Sterilized olivine grains (San Carlos, Arizona) no more than 1-2 mm in their longest dimension were optically assayed to be uniform in color and free of inclusions were selected as weathering subjects. Prior to all experiments surface morphologies and Fe/Mg ratios were determined for each grain using FE-SEM and EDS. Experiments were divided into two categories abiotic and biotic and were compared with "naturally" weathered samples. For the preliminary experiments, two trials (open and closed to the ambient laboratory environment) were performed under abiotic conditions, and three trials under biotic conditions (control, day 1 and day 2). The open system abiotic trials used sterile grains heated at 98 C and 200 C for both 24 and 48 hours in 1L double distilled de-ionized water. The closed system abiotic trials were conducted under the same conditions but in a sealed two layer steel/Teflon "bomb" apparatus. The biotic trials used sterile grains mounted in a flow-through device attached to a wellhead on the Columbia River aquifer. Several discolored, altered, grains were selected to document "natural" weathering surface textures for comparison with the experimental samples. Preliminary results indicate there are qualitative differences in weathered surface textures among all the designed experiments. The olivine grains in abiotic trials displayed etching, pitting, denticulate margins, dissolution and clay formation. The scale of the features

  7. Oxygen and sulfur isotope systematics of sulfate produced by bacterial and abiotic oxidation of pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Shanks, Wayne C.; Mayer, Bernhard; Mandernack, Kevin W.

    2007-08-01

    To better understand reaction pathways of pyrite oxidation and biogeochemical controls on δ 18O and δ 34S values of the generated sulfate in acid mine drainage (AMD) and other natural environments, we conducted a series of pyrite oxidation experiments in the laboratory. Our biological and abiotic experiments were conducted under aerobic conditions by using O 2 as an oxidizing agent and under anaerobic conditions by using dissolved Fe(III) aq as an oxidant with varying δ 18O H 2O values in the presence and absence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In addition, aerobic biological experiments were designed as short- and long-term experiments where the final pH was controlled at ˜2.7 and 2.2, respectively. Due to the slower kinetics of abiotic sulfide oxidation, the aerobic abiotic experiments were only conducted as long term with a final pH of ˜2.7. The δ 34S SO 4 values from both the biological and abiotic anaerobic experiments indicated a small but significant sulfur isotope fractionation (˜-0.7‰) in contrast to no significant fractionation observed from any of the aerobic experiments. Relative percentages of the incorporation of water-derived oxygen and dissolved oxygen (O 2) to sulfate were estimated, in addition to the oxygen isotope fractionation between sulfate and water, and dissolved oxygen. As expected, during the biological and abiotic anaerobic experiments all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water. The percentage incorporation of water-derived oxygen into sulfate during the oxidation experiments by O 2 varied with longer incubation and lower pH, but not due to the presence or absence of bacteria. These percentages were estimated as 85%, 92% and 87% from the short-term biological, long-term biological and abiotic control experiments, respectively. An oxygen isotope fractionation effect between sulfate and water (ε18O-HO) of ˜3.5‰ was determined for the anaerobic (biological and abiotic) experiments. This measured ε18OO value was then

  8. Oxygen and sulfur isotope systematics of sulfate produced by bacterial and abiotic oxidation of pyrite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balci, N.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Mayer, B.; Mandernack, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand reaction pathways of pyrite oxidation and biogeochemical controls on ??18O and ??34S values of the generated sulfate in acid mine drainage (AMD) and other natural environments, we conducted a series of pyrite oxidation experiments in the laboratory. Our biological and abiotic experiments were conducted under aerobic conditions by using O2 as an oxidizing agent and under anaerobic conditions by using dissolved Fe(III)aq as an oxidant with varying ??18OH2O values in the presence and absence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In addition, aerobic biological experiments were designed as short- and long-term experiments where the final pH was controlled at ???2.7 and 2.2, respectively. Due to the slower kinetics of abiotic sulfide oxidation, the aerobic abiotic experiments were only conducted as long term with a final pH of ???2.7. The ??34SSO4 values from both the biological and abiotic anaerobic experiments indicated a small but significant sulfur isotope fractionation (???-0.7???) in contrast to no significant fractionation observed from any of the aerobic experiments. Relative percentages of the incorporation of water-derived oxygen and dissolved oxygen (O2) to sulfate were estimated, in addition to the oxygen isotope fractionation between sulfate and water, and dissolved oxygen. As expected, during the biological and abiotic anaerobic experiments all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water. The percentage incorporation of water-derived oxygen into sulfate during the oxidation experiments by O2 varied with longer incubation and lower pH, but not due to the presence or absence of bacteria. These percentages were estimated as 85%, 92% and 87% from the short-term biological, long-term biological and abiotic control experiments, respectively. An oxygen isotope fractionation effect between sulfate and water (??18 OSO4 s(-) H2 O) of ???3.5??? was determined for the anaerobic (biological and abiotic) experiments. This measured ??18 OSO42 - s(-) H2

  9. Abiotic origin of biopolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Stephen-Sherwood, E.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of methods have been investigated in different laboratories for the polymerization of amino acids and nucleotides under abiotic conditions. They include (1) thermal polymerization; (2) direct polymerization of certain amino acid nitriles, amides, or esters; (3) polymerization using polyphosphate esters; (4) polymerization under aqueous or drying conditions at moderate temperatures using a variety of simple catalysts or condensing agents like cyanamide, dicyandiamide, or imidazole; and (5) polymerization under similar mild conditions but employing activated monomers or abiotically synthesized high-energy compounds such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). The role and significance of these methods for the synthesis of oligopeptides and oligonucleotides under possible primitive-earth conditions is evaluated. It is concluded that the more recent approach involving chemical processes similar to those used by contemporary living organisms appears to offer a reasonable solution to the prebiotic synthesis of these biopolymers.

  10. Biotic vs. abiotic control of decomposition: a comparison of the effects of simulated extinctions and changes in temperature.

    PubMed

    Boyero, Luz; Cardinale, Bradley J; Bastian, Mikis; Pearson, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The loss of species is known to have significant effects on ecosystem functioning, but only recently has it been recognized that species loss might rival the effects of other forms of environmental change on ecosystem processes. There is a need for experimental studies that explicitly manipulate species richness and environmental factors concurrently to determine their relative impacts on key ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition. It is crucial to understand what factors affect the rate of plant litter decomposition and the relative magnitude of such effects because the rate at which plant litter is lost and transformed to other forms of organic and inorganic carbon determines the capacity for carbon storage in ecosystems and the rate at which greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide are outgassed. Here we compared how an increase in water temperature of 5°C and loss of detritivorous invertebrate and plant litter species affect decomposition rates in a laboratory experiment simulating stream conditions. Like some prior studies, we found that species identity, rather than species richness per se, is a key driver of decomposition, but additionally we showed that the loss of particular species can equal or exceed temperature change in its impact on decomposition. Our results indicate that the loss of particular species can be as important a driver of decomposition as substantial temperature change, but also that predicting the relative consequences of species loss and other forms of environmental change on decomposition requires knowledge of assemblages and their constituent species' ecology and ecophysiology. PMID:24466351

  11. Abiotic control of underwater light in a drinking water reservoir: Photon budget analysis and implications for water quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shohei; Laurion, Isabelle; Markager, Stiig; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-08-01

    In optically complex inland waters, the underwater attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is controlled by a variable combination of absorption and scattering components of the lake or river water. Here we applied a photon budget approach to identify the main optical components affecting PAR attenuation in Lake St. Charles, a drinking water reservoir for Québec City, Canada. This analysis showed the dominant role of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption (average of 44% of total absorption during the sampling period), but with large changes over depth in the absolute and relative contribution of the individual absorption components (water, nonalgal particulates, phytoplankton and CDOM) to PAR attenuation. This pronounced vertical variation occurred because of the large spectral changes in the light field with depth, and it strongly affected the average in situ diffuse absorption coefficients in the water column. For example, the diffuse absorption coefficient for pure-water in the ambient light field was 10-fold higher than the value previously measured in the blue open ocean and erroneously applied to lakes and coastal waters. Photon absorption budget calculations for a range of limnological conditions confirmed that phytoplankton had little direct influence on underwater light, even at chlorophyll a values above those observed during harmful algal blooms in the lake. These results imply that traditional measures of water quality such as Secchi depth and radiometric transparency do not provide a meaningful estimate of the biological state of the water column in CDOM-colored lakes and reservoirs.

  12. COMPUTER CONTROL OF BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIEGEL, LOUIS

    THE LINC COMPUTER PROVIDES A PARTICULAR SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT FOR BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS BY EXECUTING A SEQUENCE OF COMPUTER OPERATIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SPECIALLY DESIGNED INTERFACE. THE INTERFACE IS THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL CHAMBER AND THE COMPUTER. THE PROGRAM AND INTERFACE OF AN EXPERIMENT INVOLVING A PIGEON…

  13. Dynamic telerobotic control of crystallization experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, K. B.; Zuk, W. M.; Perozzo, M. A.; Walker, M. A.; Birnbaum, G. I.; Kung, W.; Cavaliere, A.; Uffen, D. R.; Scholaert, H.

    1992-01-01

    A dynamically controlled system has been used to prepare crystals of lysozyme. The temperature of the crystallization chamber was adjusted based upon a scintillation signal used to detect the degree of nucleation and incipient crystal growth. Experiments conducted in one country were controlled and monitored by researchers in another, providing the first demonstration of telerobotic control of a protein crystallization experiment.

  14. HOS3, an ELO-Like Gene, Inhibits Effects of ABA and Implicates a S-1-P/Ceramide Control System for Abiotic Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Tanya M.; Sokolchik, Irina; Shi, Huazhong; Joly, Robert J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino; Narsimhan, Meena; Li, Xia

    2009-01-01

    A hyper-osmotically sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, designated hos3-1 (high expression of osmotically responsive genes), was identified based on its hyper-luminescence of RD29A:LUC promoter fusion plants upon treatment with NaCl and ABA. These responses implicate the disrupted gene as a direct or indirect negative regulator of the RD29A stress-responsive pathway. By sequencing the flanking regions of the T-DNA borders, it was determined that the disrupted gene is at locus At4g36830, annotated as encoding a putative protein with high homology to CIG30 (ELO2/FEN1). CIG30 has been implicated in synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), which are essential precursors for sphingolipids and ceramides. Altered stress responses characteristic of ABA-hypersensitivity, including reduced root growth inhibition and reduced germination with ABA treatment and reduced water loss from leaves, were exhibited by allelic hos3-1 and hos3-2 mutants. The hos3-2 mutant is partially suppressed in its transcript abundance and is inherited as a recessive trait. Further, the HOS3 ORF under the control of the 35SCaMV promoter restored wild-type NaCl- and ABA-root growth sensitivity as well as RD29A:LUC luminescence in mutant plants. We also show here that the HOS3 wild-type gene functionally complements the sensitivity of elo2 and elo3 yeast mutants to monensin. Furthermore, both hos3-1 and hos3-2 alleles shared increased sensitivity to the herbicide Metolachlor, which inhibits acyl chain elongation in synthesis of VLCFA, and HOS3 functionally complemented both elo2 and elo3 and restored levels of VLCFA. Together, these data establish that HOS3 inhibits ABA-mediated stress responses and implicate the VLCFA pathway and products as control points for several aspects of abiotic stress signaling and responses. The results also provide support for a role of ceramide in the control of stomatal behavior. PMID:19529829

  15. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: program objectives; program features; flight experiment features; current activities; MACE development model lab testing; MACE test article deployed on STS middeck; and development model testing.

  16. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David W.

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: program objectives; program features; flight experiment features; current activities; MACE development model lab testing; MACE test article deployed on STS middeck; and development model testing.

  17. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  18. Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Strahl, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are altering temperature, carbon dioxide and precipitation levels across plots of forests, grasses and crops to see how plant life responds. Warmer temperatures and higher CO{sub 2} concentrations generally result in more leaf growth or crop yield, but these factors can also raise insect infestation and weaken plants ability to ward off pests and disease. Future field experiments that can manipulate all three conditions at once will lead to better models of how long-term climate changes will affect ecosystems worldwide.

  19. Temperature controls on sediment production in the Oregon Coast Range - abiotic frost-cracking processes vs. biotic-dominated processes over the last 40 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Roering, J. J.; Praskievicz, S. J.; Hales, T. C.; Gavin, D. G.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Oregon Coast Range (OCR) is a mid-latitude soil-mantled landscape wherein measured uplift rates are broadly consistent with long-term measured erosion rates. The OCR was unglaciated during the last glacial period (~ 26 to 13 ka) and therefore is considered an ideal steady-state landscape to study and model geomorphic processes. However, previously published paleoclimate data inferred from a 42 ka paleolake fossil archive in the OCR Little Lake watershed (3 km2) strongly suggest that temperatures in the OCR during the last glacial were well within the frost cracking temperature window of -3 to -8 °C. Therefore, we suggest that while present-day OCR sediment production is dominated by biota, specifically trees, frost-driven abiotic processes may have played a significant role in modulating erosion rates and landscape evolution during the last glacial interval. A new sediment core from the Little Lake basin at the lake's edge, centered proximal to hillslopes, spans ~ 50 ka to 20 ka. We observe a fourfold increase in sediment accumulation rates from the non-glacial interval (~50 ka to ~ 26 ka) to the last glacial interval (~ 26 ka to ~ 20 ka), including > 12 m of sediment from the last glacial maximum, dated at 23,062 - 23,581 cal yr B.P. The decreased inferred temperatures and increased sedimentation rates suggest increased sediment production and transport via frost processes during the last glacial interval, in contrast to sediment production and erosion rates controlled by biotic processes in the non-glacial intervals. We present a climate-time series scenario of likely frost-cracking intensity across the entire Oregon Coast Range from the non-glacial interval (at least 3 °C cooler than present-day temperatures) through the glacial interval (7 to 14 °C cooler) and into the Holocene (January temperatures ~ 5 °C). We use the PRISM dataset, which consists of monthly temperature and precipitation for the contiguous United States, to calculate local monthly

  20. Abiotic Buildup of Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Meadows, V. S.

    2010-10-01

    Two of the best biosignature gases for remote detection of life on extrasolar planets are oxygen (O2) and its photochemical byproduct, ozone (O3). The main reason for their prominence as biosignatures is that large abiotic fluxes of O2 and O3 are not considered sustainable on geological and astronomical timescales. We show here how buildup of O3 can occur on planets orbiting M stars, even in the absence of the large biological fluxes. This is possible because the destruction of O2 and O3 is driven by UV photochemistry. This chemistry is much slower on planets around these stars, due to the smaller incident UV flux. Because the destruction of these gases is slower, O3 can build up to detectable levels even if the O3 source is small. We will present atmospheric profiles of these gases for planets around AD Leo (an M dwarf) as well as spectra that show the implications for missions such as Darwin and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF).

  1. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David W.

    1991-07-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: science program objectives and rationale; science requirements; capturing the essential physics; science development approach; development model hardware; development model test plan; and flight hardware and operations.

  2. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: science program objectives and rationale; science requirements; capturing the essential physics; science development approach; development model hardware; development model test plan; and flight hardware and operations.

  3. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  4. Abiotic emissions of methane and reduced organic compounds from organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeckmann, T.; Keppler, F.; Vigano, I.; Derendorp, L.; Holzinger, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent laboratory studies show that the important greenhouse gas methane, but also other reduced atmospheric trace gases, can be emitted by abiotic processes from organic matter, such as plants, pure organic compounds and soils. It is very difficult to distinguish abiotic from biotic emissions in field studies, but in laboratory experiments this is easier because it is possible to carefully prepare/sterilize samples, or to control external parameters. For example, the abiotic emissions always show a strong increase with temperature when temperatures are increased to 70C or higher, well above the temperature optimum for bacterial activity. UV radiation has also been clearly shown to lead to emission of methane and other reduced gases from organic matter. Interesting information on the production mechanism has been obtained from isotope studies, both at natural abundance and with isotope labeling. For example, the methoxyl groups of pectin were clearly identified to produce methane. However, analysis of the isotopic composition of methane from natural samples clearly indicates that there must be other molecular mechanisms that lead to methane production. Abiotic methane generation could be a ubiquitous process that occurs naturally at low rates from many different sources.

  5. MIT Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): noncollocated payload pointing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.

    1993-09-01

    The Middeck Active Control Experiment is a space shuttle flight experiment intended to demonstrate high authority active structural control in zero gravity conditions. The prediction of on-orbit closed-loop dynamics is based on analysis and ground testing. The MACE test article is representative of multiple payload platforms, and includes two 2-axis gimballing payloads connected by a flexible bus. The goal of active control is to maintain pointing accuracy of one payload, while the remaining payload is moving independently. Current control results on the ground test article are presented. Multiple input, multiple output controllers are designed based on high order measurement based models. Linear Quadratic Gaussian controllers yield reasonable performance. At high authority, however, these controllers destabilize the actual structure, due to parametric errors in the control design model. A robust control design procedure is required to yield high performance in the presence of these errors.

  6. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): Identification for robust control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlov, Valery I.

    Viewgraphs on identification for robust control for the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: identification for robust control; three levels of identification; basic elements of the approach; advantages of 'post-ID' model of uncertainty; advantages of optimization; and practical realization.

  7. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): Identification for robust control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlov, Valery I.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on identification for robust control for the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: identification for robust control; three levels of identification; basic elements of the approach; advantages of 'post-ID' model of uncertainty; advantages of optimization; and practical realization.

  8. Abiotic immobilization/detoxification of recalcitrant organics

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Sims, R.C. )

    1990-11-01

    In contrast to many remedial techniques that simply transfer hazardous wastes from one part of the environment to another (e.g., off-site landfilling), in situ restoration may offer a safe and cost-effective solution through transformation (to less hazardous products) or destruction of recalcitrant organics. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Energy are encouraging research that addresses the development of innovative alternatives for hazardous-waste control. One such alternative is biotic and abiotic immobilization and detoxification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) as associated with the soil humification process. This paper discusses (1) the possibility of using abiotic catalysis (with manganese dioxide) to polymerize organic substances; (2) aspects associated with the thermodynamics and kinetics of the process, and (3) a simple model upon which analyses may be based. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flown. The objective of the TCSE on the LDEF was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post-flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low Earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in the lab. The performance of the TCSE flight system on the LDEF was excellent.

  10. Circadian regulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Jack; Stoker, Claire; Carré, Isabelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Extremes of temperatures, drought and salinity cause widespread crop losses throughout the world and impose severe limitations on the amount of land that can be used for agricultural purposes. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop crops that perform better under such abiotic stress conditions. Here, we discuss intriguing, recent evidence that circadian clock contributes to plants’ ability to tolerate different types of environmental stress, and to acclimate to them. The clock controls expression of a large fraction of abiotic stress-responsive genes, as well as biosynthesis and signaling downstream of stress response hormones. Conversely, abiotic stress results in altered expression and differential splicing of the clock genes, leading to altered oscillations of downstream stress-response pathways. We propose a range of mechanisms by which this intimate coupling between the circadian clock and environmental stress-response pathways may contribute to plant growth and survival under abiotic stress. PMID:26379680

  11. Work Experience and Control Orientation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Michael D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Longitudinal data in St. Paul (Minnesota) for 1,001 ninth graders and 962 of them as tenth graders show that part-time work experience and mastery orientation are reciprocally related for adolescents. Youth more internally oriented in grade 9 had less stressful jobs in grade 10. Extrinsic work conditions are sources of control orientation. (SLD)

  12. Distributed control network for optogenetic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowicz, G.; Juszczyk, B.; Mankiewicz, L.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays optogenetic experiments are constructed to examine social behavioural relations in groups of animals. A novel concept of implantable device with distributed control network and advanced positioning capabilities is proposed. It is based on wireless energy transfer technology, micro-power radio interface and advanced signal processing.

  13. Diffraction experiments with infrared remote controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment in which radiation emitted by an infrared remote control is passed through a diffraction grating. An image of the diffraction pattern is captured using a cell phone camera and then used to determine the wavelength of the radiation.

  14. PAINT COATINGS: CONTROLLED FIELD AND CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the impact of pollution levels on the weathering rates of coatings, laboratory chamber experiments and controlled field exposures at North Carolina and Ohio sites were conducted in such a manner to separate the contributions due to dry deposition, wet deposition, pre...

  15. Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Deluis, Javier; Miller, David W.

    1989-01-01

    A rationale to determine which structural experiments are sufficient to verify the design of structures employing Controlled Structures Technology was derived. A survey of proposed NASA missions was undertaken to identify candidate test articles for use in the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE). The survey revealed that potential test articles could be classified into one of three roles: development, demonstration, and qualification, depending on the maturity of the technology and the mission the structure must fulfill. A set of criteria was derived that allowed determination of which role a potential test article must fulfill. A review of the capabilities and limitations of the STS middeck was conducted. A reference design for the MACE test article was presented. Computing requirements for running typical closed-loop controllers was determined, and various computer configurations were studied. The various components required to manufacture the structure were identified. A management plan was established for the remainder of the program experiment development, flight and ground systems development, and integration to the carrier. Procedures for configuration control, fiscal control, and safety, reliabilty, and quality assurance were developed.

  16. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Rey, Daniel; Saarmaa, Erik; Crawley, Edward F.

    1993-01-01

    The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is a NASA In-Step and Control Structure Interaction (CSI) Office funded Shuttle middeck experiment. The objective is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero-gravity (0-g) can be predicted. This prediction becomes particularly difficult when dynamic behavior during ground testing exhibits extensive suspension and direct gravity coupling. On-orbit system identification and control reconfiguration is investigated to improve performance which would otherwise be limited due to errors in prediction. The program is presently in its preliminary design phase with launch expected in the summer of 1994. The MACE test article consists of three attitude control torque wheels, a two axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this will represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. This paper presents on-going work in the areas of modelling and control of the MACE test article in the zero and one-gravity environments. Finite element models, which include suspension and gravity effects, and measurement models, derived from experimental data, are used as the basis for Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller designs. Finite element based controllers are analytically used to study the differences in closed-loop performance as the test article transitions between the 0-g and 1-g environments. Measurement based controllers are experimentally applied to the MACE test article in the 1-g environment and achieve over an order of magnitude improvement in payload pointing accuracy when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The various aspects of the flight portion of the experiment are also discussed.

  17. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David W.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Rey, Daniel; Saarmaa, Erik; Crawley, Edward F.

    1993-02-01

    The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is a NASA In-Step and Control Structure Interaction (CSI) Office funded Shuttle middeck experiment. The objective is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero-gravity (0-g) can be predicted. This prediction becomes particularly difficult when dynamic behavior during ground testing exhibits extensive suspension and direct gravity coupling. On-orbit system identification and control reconfiguration is investigated to improve performance which would otherwise be limited due to errors in prediction. The program is presently in its preliminary design phase with launch expected in the summer of 1994. The MACE test article consists of three attitude control torque wheels, a two axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this will represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. This paper presents on-going work in the areas of modelling and control of the MACE test article in the zero and one-gravity environments. Finite element models, which include suspension and gravity effects, and measurement models, derived from experimental data, are used as the basis for Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller designs. Finite element based controllers are analytically used to study the differences in closed-loop performance as the test article transitions between the 0-g and 1-g environments. Measurement based controllers are experimentally applied to the MACE test article in the 1-g environment and achieve over an order of magnitude improvement in payload pointing accuracy when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The various aspects of the flight portion of the experiment are also discussed.

  18. Remote control of a DC discharge experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Arturo; Zwicker, A.; Wissel, S. A.; Ross, J.

    2013-10-01

    Glow discharges are an excellent tool to introduce plasmas to the general public, in part, because of their visual nature. In this poster, we present recent developments of the Remote DC Discharge Experiment. This experiment consists of a 36'' long × 3.5'' radius glass tube containing air held at pressures of approximately 30-200mTorr with a variable voltage between the ends which can be set between 0-2000V to create a glow discharge. Surrounding the tube, a set of Helmholtz coils can be controlled to demonstrate the effects of axial magnetic fields on the plasma. While the experiment is located at PPPL, a webcam displays the experiment online. The parameters (voltage, magnetic field and pressure) can be controlled remotely in real-time by opening a URL which shows the streaming video, as well as a set of Labview controls. The interface has been designed to attract users with a wide range of academic backgrounds by presenting different levels of interactivity, including the most advanced level which gives the user the possibility of empirically finding the breakdown voltage as a function of pressure and electrode separation.

  19. Computer controls for the WITCH experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandecki, M.; Beck, D.; Beck, M.; Brand, H.; Breitenfeldt, M.; De Leebeeck, V.; Friedag, P.; Herlert, A.; Kozlov, V.; Mader, J.; Roccia, S.; Soti, G.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Wauters, F.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2011-02-01

    The WITCH experiment is a medium-scale experimental set-up located at ISOLDE/CERN. It combines a double Penning trap system with a retardation spectrometer for energy measurements of recoil ions from β decay. For a correct operation of such a set-up a whole range of different devices is required. Along with the installation and optimization of the set-up a computer control system was developed to control these devices. The CS-Framework that is developed and maintained at GSI, was chosen as a basis for this control system as it is perfectly suited to handle the distributed nature of a control system.We report here on the required hardware for WITCH, along with the basis of this CS-Framework and the add-ons that were implemented for WITCH.

  20. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  1. Practicing Quality Control in a Bioanalytical Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Juliana; Ríos, Angel; Valcárcel, Miguel

    1995-10-01

    The quality of analytical results frequently requires assessment, which has fostered treatment of this subject in a host of chemical books for students. Accordingly, new experiments need to be devised in order to help students adapt to it. This paper presents a straightforward exercise to demonstrate how quality control and the analysis of variance technique are implemented in practice. The exercise also is attractive because the analyte (chlorophyl) is determined in real samples (plants) that students can collect by themselves. In this way, they can realize the significance of sampling and learn how to do it properly.

  2. Abiotic Methane Synthesis: Caveats and New Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, R.; Sharma, A.

    2005-12-01

    The role of mineral interaction with geochemical fluids under hydrothermal conditions has invoked models of geochemical synthesis of organic molecules at deep crustal conditions. Since Thomas Gold's (1992) hypothesis of the possibility of an abiotic organic synthesis, there have been several reports of hydrocarbon formation under high pressure and temperature conditions. Several previous experimental studies have recognized that small amounts of methane (and other light HC compounds) can be synthesized via catalysis by transition metals: Fe, Ni (Horita and Berndt, 1999 Science) and Cr (Foustavous and Seyfried, 2004 Science). In light of these pioneering experiments, an investigation of the feasibility of abiotic methane synthesis at higher pressure conditions in deep geological setting and the possible role of catalysis warrants a closer look. We conducted three sets of experiments in hydrothermal diamond anvil cell using FeO nanopowder, CaCO 3 and water at 300° - 600° C and 0.5 - 5 GPa : (a) with stainless steel gasket, (b) gold-lined gasket, and (c) gold-lined gasket with added Fe and Ni nanopowder. The reactions were monitored in-situ using micro-Raman spectroscopy with 532nm and 632nm lasers. The solids phases were characterized in-situ using synchrotron X-ray diffraction at CHESS-Cornell and quenched products with an electron microprobe. Interestingly, a variable amount of hydrocarbon was observed only in runs with stainless steel gasket and with Fe, Ni nanoparticles. Experiments with gold-lined reactors did not show any hydrocarbon formation. Added high resolution microscopy of the products and their textural relationship within the diamond cell with Raman spectroscopy data show that the hydrocarbon (methane and other light fractions) synthesis is a direct result of transition metal catalysis, rather than wustite - calcium carbonate reaction as recently reported by Scott et al (2004, PNAS). The author will further present new results highlighting abiotic

  3. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  4. The Comparative Experiences of Women in Control

    PubMed Central

    Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C.; Wiecha, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize participants’ experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

  5. Biological controls on dissolution of diatom frustules during their descent to the deep ocean: Lessons learned from controlled laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Uta; French, Megan A.; Robert, Maya

    2011-12-01

    The majority of opal produced by diatoms dissolves during their sedimentation to the seafloor, but spatial and temporal variability of dissolution rates are large. Controlled laboratory experiments using live phytoplankton or phyto-detritus may help identify the different processes, including those that are biologically mediated or physico-chemically driven, that impact the dissolution of frustules and the aforementioned variability. Results of eight bSiO 2 dissolution experiments, seven of which were conducted at low temperatures (<6 °C) are presented within the context of earlier similar studies, and different phases of dissolution dynamics characterized. TEP concentration, aggregation and the physiological status of the diatoms determined the period during which diatoms may maintain the protective membrane that surrounds their frustule and effectively reduces or completely inhibits (lag period) dissolution for some time. Once diatoms loose the capability to maintain their protective membrane, bacterial activity compromises it. Physico-chemical dissolution, which depends on frustule structure and abiotic environmental conditions, begins once the protective membrane is damaged. The ability of diatoms to maintain their membrane, the bacterial composition and activity governing its degradation, and the physico-chemical dissolution dynamics of exposed frustules are all impacted by temperature. In our experiments instantaneous dissolution rates were not dependant on bSiO 2 concentration at low temperatures, although such a relationship was observed under otherwise identical conditions at 15 °C, implying that biotic factors rather than physico-chemical processes initially dominated dissolution at polar temperatures. Since inhibition of bSiO 2 dissolution at low temperatures was inhibited to a greater extent than organic matter degradation, we postulate that it was not reduced bacterial activity but the enhanced ability of diatoms to maintain their membrane and thus

  6. Enhanced Attitude Control Experiment for SSTI Lewis Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peoman G.

    1997-01-01

    The enhanced attitude control system experiment is a technology demonstration experiment on the NASA's small spacecraft technology initiative program's Lewis spacecraft to evaluate advanced attitude control strategies. The purpose of the enhanced attitude control system experiment is to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing robust multi-input/multi-output attitude control strategies for enhanced pointing performance of spacecraft to improve the quality of the measurements of the science instruments. Different control design strategies based on modern and robust control theories are being considered for the enhanced attitude control system experiment. This paper describes the experiment as well as the design and synthesis of a mixed H(sub 2)/H(sub infinity) controller for attitude control. The control synthesis uses a nonlinear programming technique to tune the controller parameters and impose robustness and performance constraints. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed attitude control design strategy. Introduction

  7. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

  8. Abiotic Organic Chemistry in Hydrothermal Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Rushdi, A. I.

    2004-12-01

    Abiotic organic chemistry in hydrothermal systems is of interest to biologists, geochemists and oceanographers. This chemistry consists of thermal alteration of organic matter and minor prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds. Thermal alteration has been extensively documented to yield petroleum and heavy bitumen products from contemporary organic detritus. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and sulfur species have been used as precursors in prebiotic synthesis experiments to organic compounds. These inorganic species are common components of hot spring gases and marine hydrothermal systems. It is of interest to further test their reactivities in reductive aqueous thermolysis. We have synthesized organic compounds (lipids) in aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, and with carbon disulfide or ammonium bicarbonate at temperatures from 175-400° C. The synthetic lipids from oxalic acid solutions consisted of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkyl formates, n-alkanones, n-alkenes and n-alkanes, typically to C30 with no carbon number preferences. The products from CS2 in acidic aqueous solutions yielded cyclic thioalkanes, alkyl polysulfides, and thioesters with other numerous minor compounds. The synthesis products from oxalic acid and ammonium bicarbonate solutions were homologous series of n-alkyl amides, n-alkyl amines, n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, also to C30 with no carbon number predominance. Condensation (dehydration) reactions also occur under elevated temperatures in aqueous medium as tested by model reactions to form amide, ester and nitrile bonds. It is concluded that the abiotic formation of aliphatic lipids, condensation products (amides, esters, nitriles, and CS2 derivatives (alkyl polysulfides, cyclic polysulfides) is possible under hydrothermal conditions and warrants further studies.

  9. Genetic diversity in pollen abiotic stress tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been investigated by cotton breeders throughout the public and private sectors. The primary focus of these studies has been the evaluation of abiotic stress responses during the development of the flower prior to anthesis. Sterility in...

  10. Genetic Diversity in Pollen Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been investigated by cotton breeders throughout the public and private sectors. The primary focus of these studies has been the evaluation of abiotic stress responses during the development of the flower prior to anthesis. Sterility in...

  11. An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamdani, E. H.; Assilian, S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment on the "linguistic" synthesis of a controller for a model industrial plant (a steam engine). Fuzzy logic is used to convert heuristic control rules stated by a human operator into an automatic control strategy. (Author)

  12. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jomura, Mayuko; Akashi, Yuhei; Itoh, Hiromu; Yuki, Risa; Sakai, Yoshimi; Maruyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD) of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood]–1 h–1 in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model. PMID:26658727

  13. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jomura, Mayuko; Akashi, Yuhei; Itoh, Hiromu; Yuki, Risa; Sakai, Yoshimi; Maruyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD) of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood](-1) h(-1) in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model. PMID:26658727

  14. Physics experiments with Nintendo Wii controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from a spring undergoing simple harmonic motion, a pair of controllers mounted on colliding gliders on a linear air track, and a person jumping from a balance board.

  15. Evaluating reaction pathways of hydrothermal abiotic organic synthesis at elevated temperatures and pressures using carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were performed to better understand the role of environmental factors on reaction pathways and corresponding carbon isotope fractionations during abiotic hydrothermal synthesis of organic compounds using piston cylinder apparatus at 750 °C and 5.5 kbars. Chemical compositions of experimental products and corresponding carbon isotopic values were obtained by a Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS system. Alkanes (methane and ethane), straight-chain saturated alcohols (ethanol and n-butanol) and monocarboxylic acids (formic and acetic acids) were generated with ethanol being the only organic compound with higher δ13C than CO2. CO was not detected in experimental products owing to the favorable water-gas shift reaction under high water pressure conditions. The pattern of δ13C values of CO2, carboxylic acids and alkanes are consistent with their equilibrium isotope relationships: CO2 > carboxylic acids > alkanes, but the magnitude of the fractionation among them is higher than predicted isotope equilibrium values. In particular, the isotopic fractionation between CO2 and CH4 remained constant at ∼31‰, indicating a kinetic effect during CO2 reduction processes. No "isotope reversal" of δ13C values for alkanes or carboxylic acids was observed, which indicates a different reaction pathway than what is typically observed during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis under gas phase conditions. Under constraints imposed in experiments, the anomalous 13C isotope enrichment in ethanol suggests that hydroxymethylene is the organic intermediate, and that the generation of other organic compounds enriched in 12C were facilitated by subsequent Rayleigh fractionation of hydroxymethylene reacting with H2 and/or H2O. Carbon isotope fractionation data obtained in this study are instrumental in assessing the controlling factors on abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems. Knowledge on how environmental conditions affect reaction pathways of abiotic synthesis of organic

  16. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  17. Mismatch in microbial food webs: predators but not prey perform better in their local biotic and abiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Parain, Elodie C; Gravel, Dominique; Rohr, Rudolf P; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Gray, Sarah M

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how trophic levels respond to changes in abiotic and biotic conditions is key for predicting how food webs will react to environmental perturbations. Different trophic levels may respond disproportionately to change, with lower levels more likely to react faster, as they typically consist of smaller-bodied species with higher reproductive rates. This response could cause a mismatch between trophic levels, in which predators and prey will respond differently to changing abiotic or biotic conditions. This mismatch between trophic levels could result in altered top-down and bottom-up control and changes in interaction strength. To determine the possibility of a mismatch, we conducted a reciprocal-transplant experiment involving Sarracenia purpurea food webs consisting of bacterial communities as prey and a subset of six morphologically similar protozoans as predators. We used a factorial design with four temperatures, four bacteria and protozoan biogeographic origins, replicated four times. This design allowed us to determine how predator and prey dynamics were altered by abiotic (temperature) conditions and biotic (predators paired with prey from either their local or non-local biogeographic origin) conditions. We found that prey reached higher densities in warmer temperature regardless of their temperature of origin. Conversely, predators achieved higher densities in the temperature condition and with the prey from their origin. These results confirm that predators perform better in abiotic and biotic conditions of their origin while their prey do not. This mismatch between trophic levels may be especially significant under climate change, potentially disrupting ecosystem functioning by disproportionately affecting top-down and bottom-up control. PMID:27547320

  18. Map-Based Cloning of Sbbmc, a Major Locus Controlling the Profuse Wax Trait of Sorghum: a Case Study in Unlocking the Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Sorghum bicolor via Integrated Physiological and Genomic Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as key...

  19. Flexible manipulator control experiments and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, S.; Ozguner, U.; Tzes, A.; Kotnik, P. T.

    1987-01-01

    Modeling and control design for flexible manipulators, both from an experimental and analytical viewpoint, are described. From the application perspective, an ongoing effort within the laboratory environment at the Ohio State University, where experimentation on a single link flexible arm is underway is described. Several unique features of this study are described here. First, the manipulator arm is slewed by a direct drive dc motor and has a rigid counterbalance appendage. Current experimentation is from two viewpoints: (1) rigid body slewing and vibration control via actuation with the hub motor, and (2) vibration suppression through the use of structure-mounted proof-mass actuation at the tip. Such an application to manipulator control is of interest particularly in design of space-based telerobotic control systems, but has received little attention to date. From an analytical viewpoint, parameter estimation techniques within the closed-loop for self-tuning adaptive control approaches are discussed. Also introduced is a control approach based on output feedback and frequency weighting to counteract effects of spillover in reduced-order model design. A model of the flexible manipulator based on experimental measurements is evaluated for such estimation and control approaches.

  20. VNEC - A Virtual Network Experiment Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, François; Dej, Tomas; Esfandiari, Babak

    This paper presents VNEC, a tool to specify and execute network experiments in a virtual environment. The user first formulates the network topology and then provides the tasks that should be performed by the computers together with their execution. Next, VNEC initializes the environment by powering up and configuring the virtual machines to match the desired network topology. Finally, commands are dispatched to the right virtual machines in the specified order. VNEC provides an environment for several types of research experiments such as virus propagation patterns and reactions of different targets against a given attack.

  1. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for a laboratory experiment, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  2. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  3. Executive Control and the Experience of Regret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Patrick; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of regret rests on a counterfactual analysis of events. Previous research indicates that regret emerges at around 6 years of age, marginally later than the age at which children begin to answer counterfactual questions correctly. We hypothesized that the late emergence of regret relative to early counterfactual thinking is a result…

  4. Robust controllers for the Middeck Active Control Experiment using Popov controller synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in robust control with real parameter uncertainties has focused on absolute stability and its connections to real mu theory. In particular, the research has investigated the Popov stability criterion and its associated Lur'e-Postnikov Liapunov functions. State space representations of this Popov stability analysis tests are included in an H2 design formulation to provide a powerful technique for robust controller synthesis. This synthesis approach uses a state space optimization procedure to design controllers that minimize an overbound of an H2 cost functional and satisfy stability analysis tests based on the Popov multiplier. The controller and stability multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K algorithm of mu synthesis. While previous work has demonstrated this synthesis approach on benchmark control problems, the purpose of this paper is to use Popov controller synthesis to design robust compensators for the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE).

  5. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix R: Experiment T020 foot controlled maneuvering unit (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonetti, B. B.

    1972-01-01

    A series of analyses for experiment T020, foot controlled maneuvering unit (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight and post-flight conditions is reported. Experiment contingency plan procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  6. Dynamic nonprehensile manipulation: Controllability, planning, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, K.M.; Mason, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors are interested in using low-degree-of-freedom robots to perform complex tasks by nonprehensile manipulation (manipulation without a form- or force-closure grasp). By not grasping, the robot can use gravitational, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces as virtual motors to control more degrees of freedom of the part. The part`s extra motion freedoms are exhibited as rolling, slipping, and free flight. This paper describes controllability, motion planning, and implementation of planar dynamic nonprehensile manipulation. The authors show that almost any planar object is controllable by point contact, and the controlling robot requires only two degrees of freedom (a point translating in the plane). They then focus on a one-joint manipulator (with a two-dimensional state space), and show that even this simplest of robots, by using slipping and rolling, can control a planar object to a full-dimensional subset of its six-0dimensional state space. The authors have developed a one-joint robot to perform a variety of dynamic tasks, including snatching an object from a table, rolling an object on the surface of the arm, and throwing and catching. Nonlinear optimization is used to plan robot trajectories that achieve the desired object motion via coupling forces through the nonprehensile contact.

  7. Abiotic U(VI) reduction by sorbed Fe(II) on natural sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Patricia M.; Davis, James A.; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Singer, David M.; Bargar, John; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed as a function of aqueous Fe(II) concentration to determine the uptake and oxidation of Fe(II), and Fe(II)-mediated abiotic reduction of U(VI) by aquifer sediments from the DOE Rifle field research site in Colorado, USA. Mössbauer analysis of the sediments spiked with aqueous 57Fe(II) showed that 57Fe(II) was oxidized on the mineral surfaces to 57Fe(III) and most likely formed a nano-particulate Fe(III)-oxide or ferrihydrite-like phase. The extent of 57Fe oxidation decreased with increasing 57Fe(II) uptake, such that 98% was oxidized at 7.3 μmol/g Fe and 41% at 39.6 μmol/g Fe, indicating that the sediments had a limited capacity for oxidation of Fe(II). Abiotic U(VI) reduction was observed by XANES spectroscopy only when the Fe(II) uptake was greater than approximately 20 μmol/g and surface-bound Fe(II) was present, possibly as oligomeric Fe(II) surface species. The degree of U(VI) reduction increased with increasing Fe(II)-loading above this level to a maximum of 18% and 36% U(IV) at pH 7.2 (40.7 μmol/g Fe) and 8.3 (56.1 μmol/g Fe), respectively in the presence of 400 ppm CO2. Greater U(VI) reduction was observed in CO2-free systems [up to 44% and 54% at pH 7.2 (17.3 μmol/g Fe) and 8.3 (54.8 μmol/g Fe), respectively] compared to 400 ppm CO2 systems, presumably due to differences in aqueous U(VI) speciation. While pH affects the amount of Fe(II) uptake onto the solid phase, with greater Fe(II) uptake at higher pH, similar amounts of U(VI) reduction were observed at pH 7.2 and 8.3 for a similar Fe(II) uptake. Thus, it appears that abiotic U(VI) reduction is controlled primarily by sorbed Fe(II) concentration and aqueous U(VI) speciation. The range of Fe(II) loadings tested in this study are within the range observed in biostimulation experiments at the Rifle site, suggesting that Fe(II)-mediated abiotic U(VI) reduction could play a significant role in field settings.

  8. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  9. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  10. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    PubMed

    Agler, Matthew T; Ruhe, Jonas; Kroll, Samuel; Morhenn, Constanze; Kim, Sang-Tae; Weigel, Detlef; Kemen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes) using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the obligate biotrophic

  11. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation

    PubMed Central

    Agler, Matthew T.; Ruhe, Jonas; Kroll, Samuel; Morhenn, Constanze; Kim, Sang-Tae; Weigel, Detlef; Kemen, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe–microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes) using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe–microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial “hubs,” are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe–microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on “hub” microbes, which, via microbe–microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two “hub” microbes (the

  12. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-02-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  13. Experiments with a Magnetically Controlled Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically controlled pendulum is used for observing free and forced oscillations, including nonlinear oscillations and chaotic motion. A data-acquisition system stores the data and displays time series of the oscillations and related phase plane plots, Poincare maps, Fourier spectra and histograms. The decay constant of the pendulum can be…

  14. 2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENT CONTROL PANEL IN 1970. THE NUCLEAR SAFETY GROUP CONDUCTED ABOUT 1,700 CRITICAL MASS EXPERIMENTS USING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN SOLUTIONS (900 TESTS), COMPACTED POWDER (300), AND METALLIC FORMS (500). ALL 1,700 CRITICALITY ASSEMBLIES WERE CONTROLLED FROM THIS PANEL. - Rocky Flats Plant, Critical Mass Laboratory, Intersection of Central Avenue & 86 Drive, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment as a Remotely Controlled Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Bodo; Grober, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Jodl, Hans-Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The Millikan oil-drop experiment, to determine the elementary electrical charge e and the quantization of charge Q = n [middle dot] e, is an essential experiment in physics teaching but it is hardly performed in class for several reasons. Therefore, we offer this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL). We describe the interactivity…

  16. Aeroassist flight experiment guidance, navigation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Engel, Albert G.

    1986-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment scheduled for the early 1990's will demonstrate the use of a low L/D lifting brake using aerodynamic drag to return a spacecraft from a high energy to a low earth orbit. The experimental vehicle will be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle Orbiter. This paper reviews some of the challenges, problems, and solutions encountered to date during guidance system development, with emphasis on technology advances which will benefit an operational Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). Key factors to be discussed include guidance alternatives, aerodynamic modeling, navigation requirements, the impact of atmospheric uncertainties, and flight profile alternatives considered during initial planning.

  17. Experiment D010: Ion sensing attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagalyn, R. C.; Smiddy, M.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of an attitude control system that uses environmental positive ions and an electrostatic detection system to measure spacecraft pitch and yaw is studied. The secondary objective was to measure the spatial and temporal variations of ambient positively charged particles along the orbital path of the Gemini 10 and 12 spacecrafts. The results proved that the use of a horizon detector in conjunction with pitch and yaw sensors would facilitate complete description of the spacecraft position and attitude. Furthermore, with the addition of a servosystem, the unit could be used as a complete automatic attitude-control system that would be applicable from the lowest satellite altitudes up to at least 10 earth radii. Also, results established that the charge density along the trajectory of the satellite could be determined by transmission of output voltages from the individual electrometers.

  18. The run control and monitoring system of the CMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Gerry; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; O'Dell, Vivian; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; /CERN /Kyungpook Natl. U. /MIT /UCLA /CERN /INFN, Legnaro

    2007-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN will start taking data in 2008. To configure, control and monitor the experiment during data-taking the Run Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) was developed. This paper describes the architecture and the technology used to implement the RCMS, as well as the deployment and commissioning strategy of this important component of the online software for the CMS experiment.

  19. Flight experience with flight control redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.

  20. NASA experiments onboard the controlled impact demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The structural crashworthiness tests conducted by NASA on the December 1, 1984 controlled impact demonstration are discussed. The components and locations of the data acquisition and photographic systems developed by NASA to evaluate impact loads throughout the aircraft structure and the transmission of loads into the dummies are described. The effectiveness of the NASA designed absorbing seats and the vertical, longitudinal, and transverse impact loads are measured. Data that is extremely applicable to crash dynamics structural research was obtained by the data acquisition system and very low load levels were measured for the NASA energy absorbing seats.

  1. Experience with subsea well control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Coffelt, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1969, Conoco Inc. has installed ten offshore wells and one land test of subsea completion systems. These wells consist of four single zone oil wells plus one water injection well with Thru Flowline (TFL) pumpdown capability and three single zone gas wells plus three dual zone gas wells utilizing the ''Plain Jane'' wellheads without TFL capability. The control systems for these wells have varied from an electro-hydraulic sequential system to a straight discrete hydraulic system. This paper deals with the design, installation, and operational problems encountered and the remedial procedures taken to solve the problems to date.

  2. Atmosphere control for plant growth flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sudar, Martin; Timm, Marc; Yost, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    An atmosphere exchange system (AES) has been designed to provide a conditioned atmosphere supply to plant specimens in flight without incurring the large weight and volume associated with bottled gases. The paper examines the atmosphere filter cartridge (AFC) designed to remove trace organic atmosphere contaminants from the Space Shuttle cabin and to condition the cabin atmosphere prior to exposure to plant specimens. The AES and AFC are described and illustrated. The AFC design requirements are discussed and results are presented from tests on the performance of the AFC. Also, consideration is given to the potential applications of the AFC and future design concepts for atmosphere control.

  3. Biotic and abiotic mercury methylation and demethylation in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Planas, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) methylation and methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation may occur in the water column, sediment-water interface and subsurficial sediment of aquatic ecosystems. These transformations involve mainly microbial mechanisms, although abiotic methylation may play a more important role in the water compartment. The relative importance of biotic versus abiotic mechanisms of methylation has not been determined however, and abiotic demethylation remains unknown. Little quantitative information is available on the role of bacterial activity in mercury transformations. It has been reported that at least 16 genera of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms are able to methylate HG(II), and that a greater number are able to demethylate MeHg. Nevertheless, not all populations of these species are capable of methyl- and demethyl-transformations. The actual concentration of MeHg in the aquatic environment is regulated by the relative production and decomposition rates. This, in turn, depends on the availability of Hg(II), MeHg, and bacteria as well as on the physico-chemical properties of the sample. The objective of this study was to compare mercury methylation and demethylation rates in sediment samples with and without active bacterial populations. We therefore performed experiments to follow bacterial evolution during the course of Hg(II) methylation and MeHg demethylation in sediment slurries containing both sterile and non-sterile sediments.

  4. [Our experience with outside laboratory quality control].

    PubMed

    Dochev, D; Arakasheva, V; Nashkov, A; Tsachev, K

    1979-01-01

    The results from the national outside laboratory qualitative control of the clinical diagnostic laboratory investigations for the period September 1975 -- May 1977 were described. The following interlaboratory discrepancy was found on base of a systematic analysis of the data from the last two ring-like check-ups, November 1976 and May 1977, exressed by the variation coefficient (V.C. %); total protein, sodium, potassium and chlorides -- under 10%; cholesterol, urea and total fats -- between 10 and 20%; calcium, phosphorus, iron and creatinine -- over 20%. The highest per cent of admissible results are found with total protein -- to 85%; cholesterol -- to 70.38%; glucosa -- to 73.17%, urea -- to 69.23%, potassium -- to 59.46%, chlorides -- to 57.9%. With sodium, phosphorus, calcium, iron creatinine and uric acid the "admissibility" fluctuates about or under 50 per cent. The values of the qualitative-control indices discussed are comparable with the values obtained from them in the interlaboratory comparisons of other countries. PMID:494628

  5. Surface chemistry allows for abiotic precipitation of dolomite at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer A.; Kenward, Paul A.; Fowle, David A.; Goldstein, Robert H.; González, Luis A.; Moore, David S.

    2013-09-01

    Although the mineral dolomite is abundant in ancient low-temperature sedimentary systems, it is scarce in modern systems below 50 °C. Chemical mechanism(s) enhancing its formation remain an enigma because abiotic dolomite has been challenging to synthesize at low temperature in laboratory settings. Microbial enhancement of dolomite precipitation at low temperature has been reported; however, it is still unclear exactly how microorganisms influence reaction kinetics. Here we document the abiotic synthesis of low-temperature dolomite in laboratory experiments and constrain possible mechanisms for dolomite formation. Ancient and modern seawater solution compositions, with identical pH and pCO2, were used to precipitate an ordered, stoichiometric dolomite phase at 30 °C in as few as 20 d. Mg-rich phases nucleate exclusively on carboxylated polystyrene spheres along with calcite, whereas aragonite forms in solution via homogeneous nucleation. We infer that Mg ions are complexed and dewatered by surface-bound carboxyl groups, thus decreasing the energy required for carbonation. These results indicate that natural surfaces, including organic matter and microbial biomass, possessing a high density of carboxyl groups may be a mechanism by which ordered dolomite nuclei form. Although environments rich in organic matter may be of interest, our data suggest that sharp biogeochemical interfaces that promote microbial death, as well as those with high salinity may, in part, control carboxyl-group density on organic carbon surfaces, consistent with origin of dolomites from microbial biofilms, as well as hypersaline and mixing zone environments.

  6. Expectations and experience: Dissociable bases for cognitive control?

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M; Diede, Nathaniel T; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Selmeczy, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Classic theories emphasized the role of expectations in the intentional control of attention and action. However, recent theorizing has implicated experience-dependent, online adjustments as the primary basis for cognitive control--adjustments that appear to be implicit (Blais, Harris, Guerrero, & Bunge, 2012). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether explicit expectations play any role in cognitive control above and beyond experience. In a novel precued lists paradigm, participants were administered abbreviated lists of Stroop trials. For half of the lists, precues led participants to validly expect lists of varying proportion congruency (e.g., mostly congruent [MC], mostly incongruent [MI]; Experiments 1 to 4). The Stroop effect was greater in cued MC relative to uncued MC lists. By contrast, the Stroop effect was equivalent in cued MI and uncued MI lists. Only when preparation was encouraged via a speed manipulation (Experiment 3) or incentives (Experiment 4) did we find evidence of heightened control when an MI list was expected, in the form of a short-lived reduction in the Stroop effect on the first (experience-free) trial. These patterns suggest (a) expectations play a role in the relaxation of cognitive control, independent of experience (as also shown in Experiment 5, wherein expectations were varied while holding experience constant across lists), but (b) experience is the dominant basis for the sustained heightening of cognitive control (after the first trial). Theoretical implications of dissociating the contributions of expectations and experience to cognitive control are discussed, including interpretations of the list-wide proportion congruence effect. PMID:25689002

  7. Abiotic U(VI) Reduction by Sorbed Fe(II) on Natural Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patricia M.; Davis, James A.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Singer, David M.; Bargar, John R.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2013-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed as a function of aqueous Fe(II) concentration to determine the uptake and oxidation of Fe(II), and Fe(II)-mediated abiotic reduction of U(VI) by aquifer sediments from the Rifle IFRC field site in Colorado, USA. Mössbauer analysis of the sediments spiked with aqueous 57Fe(II) showed that 57Fe(II) was oxidized on the mineral surfaces to 57Fe(III) and most likely formed a nano-particulate Fe(III)-oxide or ferrihydrite-like phase. The extent of 57Fe oxidation decreased with increasing 57Fe(II) uptake, such that 100 % was oxidized at 7.3 μmol/g Fe and 52 % at 39.6 μmol/g Fe, indicating that the sediments had a finite capacity for oxidation of Fe(II). Abiotic U(VI) reduction was observed by XANES spectroscopy only when the Fe(II) uptake was greater than approximately 20 μmol/g and surface-bound Fe(II) was present. The level of U(VI) reduction increased with increasing Fe(II)- loading above this level to a maximum of 18 and 36 % U(IV) at pH 7.2 (40.7 μmol/g Fe) and 8.3 (56.1 μmol/g Fe), respectively in the presence of 400 ppm CO2. Greater U(VI) reduction was observed in CO2 free systems [up to 44 and 54 % at pH 7.2 (17.3 μmol/g Fe) and 8.3 (54.8 μmol/g Fe), respectively] compared to 400 ppm CO2 systems, presumably due to differences in aqueous U(VI) speciation. While pH affects the amount of Fe(II) uptake onto the solid phase, with greater Fe(II) uptake at higher pH, similar amounts of U(VI) reduction were observed at pH 7.2 and 8.3 for a similar Fe(II) uptake. Thus, it appears that abiotic U(VI) reduction is controlled primarily by Fe(II) concentration and aqueous U(VI) speciation. The range of Fe(II) loadings tested in this study are within the range observed in bioreduced sediments, suggesting that Fe(II)-mediated abiotic U(VI) reduction may indeed play a role in field settings.

  8. Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hou, Quancan; Ufer, Guido; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-05-01

    Lipids are one of the major components of biological membranes including the plasma membrane, which is the interface between the cell and the environment. It has become clear that membrane lipids also serve as substrates for the generation of numerous signalling lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, oxylipins, N-acylethanolamines, free fatty acids and others. The enzymatic production and metabolism of these signalling molecules are tightly regulated and can rapidly be activated upon abiotic stress signals. Abiotic stress like water deficit and temperature stress triggers lipid-dependent signalling cascades, which control the expression of gene clusters and activate plant adaptation processes. Signalling lipids are able to recruit protein targets transiently to the membrane and thus affect conformation and activity of intracellular proteins and metabolites. In plants, knowledge is still scarce of lipid signalling targets and their physiological consequences. This review focuses on the generation of signalling lipids and their involvement in response to abiotic stress. We describe lipid-binding proteins in the context of changing environmental conditions and compare different approaches to determine lipid-protein interactions, crucial for deciphering the signalling cascades. PMID:26510494

  9. Experiment pointing control during space shuttle sortie missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicaise, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The pointing and stability problems of the space shuttle sortie mission are examined from the standpoint of basic shuttle capability and the techniques that could be used for improving this capability to accommodate a maximum number of experiments. Augmentation of the basic shuttle control system is proposed to provide an acceptable pointing environment. A stabilized reference base is recommended as a general pointing instrument for certain earth observation and astronomy experiments. Simulation results are presented which were obtained by modeling the Skylab Experiment Pointing Control (EPC) system on a thruster controlled shuttle.

  10. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments. PMID:27587112

  11. A unified control system for the STAR experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.; McShane, T.S.; Cherney, M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-02-01

    The control system for the STAR experiment at RHIC is presented. The VME-based architecture is described. Reasons for the hardware and software choices are discussed. A significant new application of a slow control system (EPICS) to a run control setting is discussed. Interfaces to the detector subsystems are described. The initial implementation of the control systems for the baseline STAR detector is summarized.

  12. A feasibility study of orbiter flight control experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of orbiter flight control experiments performed are summarized. Feasibility studies were performed on a group of 14 experiments selected from a candidate list of 35 submitted to the study contractor by the flight control community. Concepts and requirements were developed for the 14 selected experiments and they were ranked on a basis of technical value, feasibility, and cost. It was concluded that all the selected experiments can be considered as potential candidates for the Orbiter Experiment program, which is being formulated for the Orbiter Flight Tests and subsequent operational flights, regardless of the relative ranking established during the study. None of the selected experiments has significant safety implications and the cost of most was estimated to be less than $200K.

  13. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  14. Experience of Control and Student Satisfaction with Higher Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungki; Anantharaman, Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Although the delivery of satisfactory services is an important strategic goal in many colleges, students are known to face challenges and experience a significant amount of stress during their school life. This study proposes and tests students' experience of control over their college life as a promising factor that would enhance their…

  15. Mixing-controlled biodegradation in a toluene plume — Results from two-dimensional laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Robert D.; Maloszewski, Piotr; Zhang, Yanchun; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Griebler, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Various abiotic and biotic processes such as sorption, dilution, and degradation are known to affect the fate of organic contaminants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons in saturated porous media. Reactive transport modeling of such plumes indicates that the biodegradation of organic pollutants is, in many cases, controlled by mixing and therefore occurs locally at the plume's fringes, where electron donors and electron-acceptors mix. Herein, we aim to test whether this hypothesis can be verified by experimental results obtained from aerobic and anaerobic degradation experiments in two-dimensional sediment microcosms. Toluene was selected as a model compound for oxidizable contaminants. The two-dimensional microcosm was filled with quartz sand and operated under controlled flow conditions simulating a contaminant plume in otherwise uncontaminated groundwater. Aerobic degradation of toluene by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 reduced a continuous 8.7 mg L - 1 toluene concentration by 35% over a transport distance of 78 cm in 15.5 h. In comparison, under similar conditions Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1 degraded 98% of the toluene infiltrated using nitrate (68.5 ± 6.2 mg L - 1 ) as electron acceptor. A major part of the biodegradation activity was located at the plume fringes and the slope of the electron-acceptor gradient was steeper during periods of active biodegradation. The distribution of toluene and the significant overlap of nitrate at the plume's fringe indicate that biokinetic and/or microscale transport processes may constitute additional limiting factors. Experimental data is corroborated with results from a reactive transport model using double Monod kinetics. The outcome of the study shows that in order to simulate degradation in contaminant plumes, detailed data sets are required to test the applicability of models. These will have to deal with the incorporation of existing parameters coding for substrate conversion kinetics and microbial growth.

  16. Abiotic production of iodine molecules in irradiated ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro

    2015-04-01

    Reactive halogen species play an important role in Earth's environmental systems. Iodine compounds are related to ozone depletion event (ODE) during Antarctic spring, formation of CCN (cloud condensation nuclei), and controlling the atmospheric oxidizing capacity. However, the processes and mechanisms for abiotic formation of iodine compounds in polar region are still unclear. Although the chemical reactions taking place in ice are greatly different from those in aquatic environment, reaction processes of halogens in frozen condition have rarely studied compared to those in water. In this study, we investigated iodide oxidation to form triiodide (I3-) in ice phase under UV irradiation ( λ > 300 nm) and dark condition. The production of I3- through iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, was significantly accelerated in ice phase even in the absence of UV irradiation. The following release of gaseous iodine molecule (I2) to the atmosphere was also monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). We speculate that the markedly enhanced iodide oxidation in polycrystalline ice is due to the freeze concentration of iodides, protons, and dissolved oxygen in the ice crystal grain boundaries. The experiments conducted under ambient solar radiation of the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S 58°47'W, sea level) also confirmed that the generation of I3- via iodide oxidation process is enhanced when iodide is trapped in ice. The observed intrinsic oxidative transformation of iodide to generate I3-(aq) and I2(g) in frozen environment suggests a previously unknown pathway for the substantial release of reactive iodine species to the atmosphere.

  17. A Process Dynamics and Control Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process control experiment. The apparatus includes a three-vessel glass flow system with a variable flow configuration, means for feeding dye solution controlled by a stepper-motor driven valve, and a flow spectrophotometer. Students use impulse response data and nonlinear regression to estimate three parameters of a model…

  18. Expectations and Experience: Dissociable Bases for Cognitive Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; Diede, Nathaniel T.; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R.; Selmeczy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Classic theories emphasized the role of expectations in the intentional control of attention and action. However, recent theorizing has implicated experience-dependent, online adjustments as the primary basis for cognitive control--adjustments that appear to be implicit (Blais, Harris, Guerrero, & Bunge, 2012). The purpose of the current study…

  19. Controlled powder morphology experiments in megabar 304 stainless steel compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Staudhammer, K.P.; Johnson, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with controlled morphology including shape, size, and size distribution were made on 304L stainless steel powders. These experiments involved not only the powder variables but pressure variables of 0.08 to 1.0 Mbar. Also included are measured container strain on the material ranging from 1.5% to 26%. Using a new strain controllable design it was possible to seperate and control, independently, strain and pressure. Results indicate that powder morphology, size distribution, packing density are among the pertinent parameters in predicting compaction of these powders.

  20. Limits of control: the effects of uncontrollability experiences on the efficiency of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Marcin; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecová, Anna; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of experiencing uncontrollability on the efficiency of attentional control. The experience of uncontrollability was induced either by unsolvable tasks (Experiment 1) or by tasks in which non-contingent feedback was provided (Experiment 2). A version of the Attentional Network Test-Interactions with an additional measure of vigilance (ANTI-V) was used to evaluate the efficiency of the attentional networks (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive). Results of both experiments revealed a decreased efficiency of executive attention in participants who experienced stable control deprivation but no negative effects in participants who were able to restore their sense of previously deprived control. Additionally, when participants were asked to perform unsolvable tasks and did not receive feedback (Experiment 1), detrimental effects on the orienting network and vigilance were observed. The motivational and cognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of various uncontrollability experiences on conflict resolution and attentional control are discussed. PMID:25482404

  1. ABIOTIC ORGANIC REACTIONS AT MINERAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abiotic organic reactions, such as hydrolysis, elimination, substitution, redox, and polymerization reactions, can be influenced by surfaces of clay and primary minerals, and of metal oxides. This influence is due to adsorption of the reactants to surface Lewis and Bronsted sites...

  2. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM. PMID:26468620

  3. In-space technology flight experiments: Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) and Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.

    1991-01-01

    The topics addressed are covered in viewgraph form. The objective of the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) programs is to study gravity dependent nonlinearities associated with fluid slosh and truss structure dynamics. MODE provides a reusable facility for on-orbit dynamics testing of small scale test articles in the shirt sleeve environment on the Shuttle middeck. Flight program objective of Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is to study gravity effects on the performance and stability of controlled structures.

  4. The impact of quality control in RNA-seq experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Gabriela A.; Fresno, Cristóbal; Netto, Frederico; Dias Netto, Emmanuel; Pratto, Laura; Fernández, Elmer A.

    2016-04-01

    High throughput mRNA sample sequencing, known as RNA-seq, is as a powerful approach to detect differentially expressed genes starting from millions of short sequence reads. Although several workflows have been proposed to analyze RNA-seq data, the experiment quality control as a whole is not usually considered, thus potentially biasing the results and/or causing information lost. Experiment quality control refers to the analysis of the experiment as a whole, prior to any analysis. It not only inspects the presence of technical effects, but also if general biological assumptions are fulfilled. In this sense, multivariate approaches are crucial for this task. Here, a multivariate approach for quality control in RNA-seq experiments is proposed. This approach uses simple and yet effective well-known statistical methodologies. In particular, Principal Component Analysis was successfully applied over real data to detect and remove outlier samples. In addition, traditional multivariate exploration tools were applied in order to asses several controls that can help to ensure the results quality. Based on differential expression and functional enrichment analysis, here is demonstrated that the information retrieval is significantly enhanced through experiment quality control. Results show that the proposed multivariate approach increases the information obtained from RNA-seq data after outlier samples removal.

  5. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  6. AFTI/F-16 digital flight control system experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Flighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 program is investigating the integration of emerging technologies into an advanced fighter aircraft. The three major technologies involved are the triplex digital flight control system; decoupled aircraft flight control; and integration of avionics, pilot displays, and flight control. In addition to investigating improvements in fighter performance, the AFTI/F-16 program provides a look at generic problems facing highly integrated, flight-crucial digital controls. An overview of the AFTI/F-16 systems is followed by a summary of flight test experience and recommendations.

  7. Tank Pressure Control Experiment/thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Knoll, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP)' is a reflight of the tank pressure control experiment (TPCE), flown on STS-43 in a standard Get-Away Special (GAS) container in August 1991. The TPCE obtained extensive video and digital data of the jet induced mixing process in a partially filled tank in low gravity environments. It also provided limited data on the thermal processes involved. The primary objective of the reflight of TPCE is to investigate experimentally the phenomena of liquid superheating and pool nucleate boiling at very low heat fluxes in a long duration low gravity environment. The findings of this experiment will be of direct relevance to space based subcritical cryogenic fluid system design and operation. Experiment hardware and results from the first TPCE are described in outline and graphic form.

  8. Low-cost Active Structural Control Space Experiment (LASC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinett, Rush; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1992-01-01

    The DOE Lab Director's Conference identified the need for the DOE National Laboratories to actively and aggressively pursue ways to apply DOE technology to problems of national need. Space structures are key elements of DOD and NASA space systems and a space technology area in which DOE can have a significant impact. LASC is a joint agency space technology experiment (DOD Phillips, NASA Marshall, and DOE Sandia). The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: phase 4 investigator testbed; control of large flexible structures in orbit; INFLEX; Controls, Astrophysics; and structures experiments in space; SARSAT; and LASC mission objectives.

  9. Control system design for spacecraft formation flying: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew Dunbar

    Spacecraft formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space science missions, such as separated spacecraft interferometers (SSI). However the sensing, control and coordination of such instruments pose many new design challenges. SSI missions will require precise relative sensing and control, fuel-efficient, fuel-balanced operation to maximize mission life and group-level autonomy to reduce operations costs. Enabling these new formation flying capabilities requires precise relative sensing and estimation, enhanced control capabilities such as cooperative control (multiple independent spacecraft acting together), group-level formation management and informed design of a system architecture to manage distributed sensing and control-system resources. This research defines an end-to-end control system, including the key elements unique to the formation flying problem: cooperative control, relative sensing, coordination, and the control-system architecture. A new control-system design optimizes performance under typical spacecraft constraints (e.g., on-off actuators, finite fuel, limited computation power, limited contact with ground control, etc.). Standard control techniques have been extended, and new ones synthesized to meet these goals. In designing this control system, several contributions have been made to the field of spacecraft formation flying control including: an analytic two-vehicle fuel-time-optimal cooperative control algorithm, a fast numeric multi-vehicle, optimal cooperative control algorithm that can be used as a feedforward or a feedback controller, a fleet-level coordinator for autonomous fuel balancing, validation of GPS-based relative sensing for formation flying, and trade studies of the relative control and relative-estimation-architecture design problems. These research contributions are mapped to possible applications for three spacecraft formation flying missions currently in development. The lessons learned from this research

  10. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1990-01-01

    A research program and strategy are described which include fundamental teleoperation issues and autonomous-control issues of sensing and navigation for satellite robots. The program consists of developing interfaces for visual operation and studying the consequences of interface designs as well as developing navigation and control technologies based on visual interaction. A space-robot-vehicle simulator is under development for use in virtual-environment teleoperation experiments and neutral-buoyancy investigations. These technologies can be utilized in a study of visual interfaces to address tradeoffs between head-tracking and manual remote cameras, panel-mounted and helmet-mounted displays, and stereoscopic and monoscopic display systems. The present program can provide significant data for the development of control experiments for autonomously controlled satellite robots.

  11. Experiment Study on Fuzzy Vibration Control of Solar Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxu X.; Xu, Rui; Jiang, Jiangjian P.

    Some flexible appendages of spacecraft are cantilever plate structures, such as solar panels. These structures usually have very low damping ratios, high dimensional order, low modal frequencies and parameter uncertainties in dynamics. Their unwanted vibrations will be caused unavoidably, and harmful to the spacecraft. To solve this problem, the dynamic equations of the solar panel with piezoelectric patches are derived, and an accelerometer based fuzzy controller is designed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the vibration control algorithms, experiment research was conducted on a piezoelectric adaptive composite honeycomb cantilever panel. The experiment results demonstrate that the accelerometer-based fuzzy vibration control method can suppress the vibration of the solar panel effectively, the first bending mode damping ratio of the controlled system increase to 1.64%, and that is 3.56 times of the uncontrolled system.

  12. Voyager Saturn encounter attitude and articulation control experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, G.; Hill, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager attitude and articulation control system is designed for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft; it uses a biasable sun sensor and a Canopus Star Tracker (CST) for celestial control, as well as a dry inertial reference unit, comprised of three dual-axis dry gryos, for inertial control. A series of complex maneuvers was required during the first of two Voyager spacecraft encounters with Saturn (November 13, 1980); these maneuvers involved rotating the spacecraft simultaneously about two or three axes while maintaining accurate pointing of the scan platform. Titan and Saturn earth occulation experiments and a ring scattering experiment are described. Target motion compensation and the effects of celestial sensor interference are also considered. Failure of the CST, which required an extensive reevaluation of the star reference and attitude control mode strategy, is discussed. Results analyzed thus far show that the system performed with high accuracy, gathering data deeper into Saturn's atmosphere than on any previous planetary encounter.

  13. Stable Isotope Systematics of Abiotic Nitrite Reduction Coupled with Anaerobic Iron Oxidation: The Role of Reduced Clays and Fe-bearing Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabb, K. C.; Buchwald, C.; Hansel, C. M.; Wankel, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, it is widely assumed that nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) reduction is primarily the result of microbial respiration. However, it has also been shown that abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite by reduced iron (Fe(II)), whether mineral-bound or surface-associated, may also occur under certain environmentally relevant conditions. With a range of experimental conditions, we investigated the nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope systematics of abiotic nitrite reduction by Fe(II) in an effort to characterize biotic and abiotic processes in the environment. While homogenous reactions between NO2- and Fe(II) in artificial seawater showed little reduction, heterogeneous reactions involving Fe-containing minerals showed considerable nitrite loss. Specifically, rapid nitrite reduction was observed in experiments that included reduced clays (illite, Na-montmorillonite, and nontronite) and those that exhibited iron oxide formation (ferrihydrite, magnetite and/or green rust). While these iron oxides and clay minerals offer both a source of reduced iron in the mineral matrix as well as a surface for Fe(II) activation, control experiments with corundum as a non-Fe containing mineral surface showed little NO2- loss, implicating a more dominant role of structural Fe in the clays during nitrite reduction. The isotope effects for 15N and 18O (15ɛ and 18ɛ) ranged from 5 to 14‰ for 15ɛ and 5 to 17‰ for 18ɛ and were typically coupled such that 15ɛ ~ 18ɛ. Reactions below pH 7 were slower and the 18ɛ was affected by oxygen atom exchange with water. Although little data exist for comparison with the dual isotopes of microbial NO2- reduction, these data serve as a benchmark for evaluating the role of abiotic processes in N reduction, particularly in sediment systems low in organic carbon and high in iron.

  14. Possibilities of implanted control in stimulated light scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarenko, Anatoliy G.; Andreev, Alexandr N.; Kanaev, Andrey V.

    2004-09-01

    Some possibilities of simple and thus reliable schemes of experiment "self-control" exploiting intrinsic features of studied non-linear phenomena like wave front reversal under stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) rather than outer sensors and controls are described. The schemes discussed provide input signal dynamic region broadening in stimulated scattering converters and angle of synchronism self-tuning while two frequency pumping.

  15. Slow control systems of the Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Jang, H. I.; Choi, W. Q.; Choi, Y.; Jang, J. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kim, B. R.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y. D.; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, J. K.; Lim, I. T.; Pac, M. Y.; Park, I. G.; Park, J. S.; Park, R. G.; Seo, H. K.; Seo, S. H.; Shin, C. D.; Siyeon, K.; Yeo, I. S.; Yu, I.

    2016-02-01

    The RENO experiment has been in operation since August 2011 to measure reactor antineutrino disappearance using identical near and far detectors. For accurate measurements of neutrino mixing parameters and efficient data taking, it is crucial to monitor and control the detector in real time. Environmental conditions also need to be monitored for stable operation of detectors as well as for safety reasons. In this paper, we report the design, hardware, operation, and performance of the slow control system.

  16. Decentralized control experiments on the JPL flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozguner, U.; Ossman, K.; Donne, J.; Boesch, M.; Ahmed, A.

    1990-01-01

    Decentralized control experiments were successfully demonstrated for the JPL/AFAL Flexible Structure. A simulation package using MATRIXx showed strong correlation between the simulations and experimental result, while providing a means for test and debug of the various control strategies. Implementation was simplified by a modular software design that was easily transported from the simulation environment to the experimental environment. Control designs worked well for suppression of the dominant modes of the structure. Static decentralized output feedback dampened the excited modes of the structure, but sometimes excited higher order modes upon startup of the controller. A second-order frequency shaping controller helped to eliminate excitation of the higher order modes by attenuating high frequencies in the control effort. However, it also resulted in slightly longer settling times.

  17. Experiments on Socio-Technical Systems: The Problem of Control.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Peter

    2016-06-01

    My aim is to question whether the introduction of new technologies in society may be considered to be genuine experiments. I will argue that they are not, at least not in the sense in which the notion of experiment is being used in the natural and social sciences. If the introduction of a new technology in society is interpreted as an experiment, then we are dealing with a notion of experiment that differs in an important respect from the notion of experiment as used in the natural and social sciences. This difference shows itself most prominently when the functioning of the new technological system is not only dependent on technological hardware but also on social 'software', that is, on social institutions such as appropriate laws, and actions of operators of the new technological system. In those cases we are not dealing with 'simply' the introduction of a new technology, but with the introduction of a new socio-technical system. I will argue that if the introduction of a new socio-technical system is considered to be an experiment, then the relation between the experimenter and the system on which the experiment is performed differs significantly from the relation in traditional experiments in the natural and social sciences. In the latter experiments it is assumed that the experimenter is not part of the experimental system and is able to intervene in and control the experimental system from the outside. With regard to the introduction of new socio-technical systems the idea that there is an experimenter outside the socio-technical system who intervenes in and controls that system becomes problematic. From that perspective we are dealing with a different kind of experiment. PMID:25702146

  18. Abiotic CO2 reduction during geologic carbon sequestration facilitated by Fe(II)-bearing minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L. C.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Thomas, B.; Johnson, N. C.; Rosenbauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Redox reactions involving subsurface minerals and fluids and can lead to the abiotic generation of hydrocarbons from CO2 under certain conditions. Depleted oil reservoirs and saline aquifers targeted for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) can contain significant quantities of minerals such as ferrous chlorite, which could facilitate the abiotic reduction of carbon dioxide to n-carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and amorphous carbon (C0). If such reactions occur, the injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) could significantly alter the oxidation state of the reservoir and cause extensive reorganization of the stable mineral assemblage via dissolution and reprecipitation reactions. Naturally occurring iron oxide minerals such as magnetite are known to catalyze CO2 reduction, resulting in the synthesis of organic compounds. Magnetite is thermodynamically stable in Fe(II) chlorite-bearing mineral assemblages typical of some reservoir formations. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that GCS reservoirs buffered by the chlorite-kaolinite-carbonate(siderite/magnesite)-quartz assemblage favor the reduction of CO2 to n-carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and C0, although the extent of abiotic CO2 reduction may be kinetically limited. To investigate the rates of abiotic CO2 reduction in the presence of magnetite, we performed batch abiotic CO2 reduction experiments using a Dickson-type rocking hydrothermal apparatus at temperatures (373 K) and pressures (100 bar) within the range of conditions relevant to GCS. Blank experiments containing CO2 and H2 were used to rule out the possibility of catalytic activity of the experimental apparatus. Reaction of brine-suspended magnetite nanoparticles with scCO2 at H2 partial pressures typical of reservoir rocks - up to 100 and 0.1 bars respectively - was used to investigate the kinetics of magnetite-catalyzed abiotic CO2 reduction. Later experiments introducing ferrous chlorite (ripidolite) were carried out to determine the potential for

  19. Using thermodynamics to assess biotic and abiotic impediments to root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, Marcel; Hildebrandt, Anke; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Root water uptake has been the subject of extensive research, dealing with understanding the processes limiting transpiration and understanding strategies of plants to avoid water stress. Many of those studies use models of water flow from the soil through the plant into the atmosphere to learn about biotic and abiotic factors affecting plant water relations. One important question in this context is to identify those processes that are most limiting to water transport, and specifically whether these processes lie within the plant or the soil? Here, we propose to use a thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake to answer this question. The method allows us to separate the energy exported at the root collar into a sum of energy fluxes related to all processes along the flow path, notably including the effect of increasing water retention in drier soils. Evaluation of the several contributions allows us to identify and rank the processes by how much these impede water flow from the soil to the atmosphere. The application of this approach to a complex 3-dimensional root water uptake model reveals insights on the role of root versus soil resistances to limit water flow. We investigate the efficiency of root water uptake in an ensemble of root systems with varying root hydraulic properties. While root morphology is kept the same, root radial and axial resistances are artificially varied. Starting with entirely young systems (uptake roots, high radial, low axial conductance) we increasingly add older roots (transport roots, high axial, low radial conductance) to improve transport within root systems. This yields a range of root hydraulic architectures, where the extremes are limited either by radial uptake capacity or low capacity to transport water along the root system. We model root water uptake in this range of root systems with a 3-dimensional root water uptake model in two different soils, applying constant flux boundary conditions in a dry down experiment and

  20. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  1. The control architecture of the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J. Fredrick Bartlett et al.

    2002-11-21

    From a controls viewpoint, contemporary high energy physics collider detectors are comparable in complexity to small to medium size accelerators: however, their controls requirements often differ significantly. D0, one of two collider experiments at Fermilab, has recently started a second, extended running period that will continue for the next five years. EPICS [1], an integrated set of software building blocks for implementing a distributed control system, has been adapted to satisfy the slow controls needs of the D0 detector by (1) extending the support for new device types and an additional field bus, (2) by the addition of a global event reporting system that augments the existing EPICS alarm support, and (3) by the addition of a centralized database with supporting tools for defining the configuration of the control system. This paper discusses the control architecture of the current D0 experiment, how the EPICS system was extended to meet the control requirements of a large, high-energy physics detector, and how a formal control system contributes to the management of detector operations.

  2. Reactive oxygen species in abiotic stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Pinja; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to accumulate during abiotic stresses, and different cellular compartments respond to them by distinctive profiles of ROS formation. In contrast to earlier views, it is becoming increasingly evident that even during stress, ROS production is not necessarily a symptom of cellular dysfunction but might represent a necessary signal in adjusting the cellular machinery to the altered conditions. ROS can modulate many signal transduction pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and ultimately influence the activity of transcription factors. However, the picture of ROS-mediated signaling is still fragmentary and the issues of ROS perception as well as the signaling specificity remain open. Here, we review some of the recent advances in plant abiotic stress signaling with emphasis on processes known to be affected heavily by ROS. PMID:20028478

  3. Abiotic ammonification and gross ammonium photoproduction in the upwelling system off central Chile (36° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rain-Franco, A.; Muñoz, C.; Fernandez, C.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the production of ammonium via photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36° S). Photoammonification experiments were carried out using exudates obtained from representative diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule) and natural marine DOM under simulated solar radiation conditions. Additionally, we evaluated the use of photoproduced ammonium by natural microbial communities and separated ammonium oxidizing archaea and bacteria by using GC-7 as an inhibitor of the archaeal community. We found photoammonification operating at two levels: via the transformation of DOM by UV radiation (abiotic ammonification) and via the simultaneous occurrence of abiotic phototransformation and biological remineralization of DOM into NH4+ (referred as gross photoproduction of NH4+). The maximum rates of abiotic ammonification reached 0.057 μmol L-1 h-1, whereas maximum rates of gross photoproduction reached 0.746 μmol L-1 h-1. Our results also suggest that ammonium oxidizing archaea could dominate the biotic remineralization induced by photodegradation of organic matter and consequently play an important role in the local N cycle. Abiotic ammonium photoproduction in coastal upwelling systems could support between 7 and 50% of the spring-summer phytoplankton NH4+ demand. Surprisingly, gross ammonium photoproduction (remineralization induced by abiotic ammonification) might support 50 to 180% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4+ assimilation.

  4. Coupled Abiotic-Biotic Degradation of Bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, J.; Prevatte, C.; Campagna, S. R.; Loeffler, F.

    2014-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with weak estrogenic activity. BPA is readily biodegradable with oxygen available, but is recalcitrant to microbial degradation under anoxic conditions. However, BPA is susceptible to abiotic transformation under anoxic conditions. To better understand the fate of BPA in anoxic environments, the kinetics of BPA transformation by manganese oxide (d-MnO2) were investigated. BPA was rapidly transformed by MnO2 with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.413 min-1. NMR and LC-MS analyses identified 4-hydroxycumyl alcohol (HCA) as a major intermediate. Up to 64% of the initial amount of BPA was recovered as HCA within 5 min, but the conversion efficiency decreased with time, suggesting that HCA was further degraded by MnO2. Further experiments confirmed that HCA was also susceptible to transformation by MnO2, albeit at 5-fold lower rates than BPA transformation. Mass balance approaches suggested that HCA was the major BPA transformation intermediate, but other compounds may also be formed. The abiotic transformation of BPA by MnO2 was affected by pH, and 10-fold higher transformation rates were observed at pH 4.5 than at pH 10. Compared to BPA, HCA has a lower octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Log Kow) of 0.76 vs 2.76 for BPA and a higher aqueous solubility of 2.65 g L-1 vs 0.31 g L-1 for BPA, suggesting higher mobility of HCA in the environment. Microcosms established with freshwater sediment materials collected from four geographically distinct locations and amended with HCA demonstrated rapid HCA biodegradation under oxic, but not under anoxic conditions. These findings suggest that BPA is not inert under anoxic conditions and abiotic reactions with MnO2 generate HCA, which has increased mobility and is susceptible to aerobic degradation. Therefore, coupled abiotic-biotic processes can affect the fate and longevity of BPA in terrestrial environments.

  5. CONTROL OF MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS - THE U.S. EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical overview of the U.S. experience with controlling emissions from highway motor vehicles is presented. he evolution of new motor vehicle emissions certification practice, end-of-assembly-line inspection, in-use surveillance and recall, inspection and maintenance, and ...

  6. Equations of motion for control of the SCOLE laboratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meirovitch, L.; Quinn, R. D.; Norris, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study are listed as follows: (1) to develop Lagrange's equations of motion for the shuttle antenna configuration in orbit; (2) to modify equations using the Lagrange multiplier method to develop equations of motion for the laboratory experiment; and (3) to discuss methods for simulation and control. The equations are presented in graph form.

  7. SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS TO TEST OXIDANT RELATED CONTROL STRATEGY ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxyni...

  8. Unconscious Modulation of the Conscious Experience of Voluntary Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linser, Katrin; Goschke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    How does the brain generate our experience of being in control over our actions and their effects? Here, we argue that the perception of events as self-caused emerges from a comparison between anticipated and actual action-effects: if the representation of an event that follows an action is activated before the action, the event is experienced as…

  9. Controls, astrophysics, and structures experiment in space ground test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Jones, Victoria L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the initial configuration of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Controls/Structures Interaction Advanced Development Facility (CSI ADF), which is a ground test facility (GTF) for the proposed Controls, Astrophysics, and Structures Experiment in Space (CASES). The laboratory has been developed for the purpose of implementing, testing, and evaluating CSI modeling, control system design, failure analysis, and system identification techniques on a representative large space structure. The facility has been configured to represent as closely as possible an actual flight article.

  10. The SNS Cryogenic Control System: Experiences in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    W.H. Strong; P.A. Gurd; J.D. Creel; B.S. Bevins

    2001-11-01

    The cryogenic system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed by Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) personnel and is based on the existing JLab facility. Our task is to use the JLab control system design [2] as much as practical while remaining consistent with SNS control system standards. Some aspects of the systems are very similar, including equipment to be controlled, the need for PID loops and automatic sequences,and the use of EPICS. There are differences in device naming, system hardware, and software tools. The cryogenic system is the first SNS system to be developed using SNS standards. This paper reports on our experiences in integrating the new and the old.

  11. Biotic-Abiotic Interactions: Factors that Influence Peptide-Graphene Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Steve S; Kuang, Zhifeng; Ngo, Yen H; Farmer, Barry L; Naik, Rajesh R

    2015-09-16

    Understanding the factors that influence the interaction between biomolecules and abiotic surfaces is of utmost interest in biosensing and biomedical research. Through phage display technology, several peptides have been identified as specific binders to abiotic material surfaces, such as gold, graphene, silver, and so forth. Using graphene-peptide as our model abiotic-biotic pair, we investigate the effect of graphene quality, number of layers, and the underlying support substrate effect on graphene-peptide interactions using both experiments and computation. Our results indicate that graphene quality plays a significant role in graphene-peptide interactions. The graphene-biomolecule interaction appears to show no significant dependency on the number of graphene layers or the underlying support substrate. PMID:26305504

  12. Abiotic Transformation Of Estrogens In Synthetic Municipal Wastewater: An Alternative For Treatment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3, and ...

  13. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  14. Skylab D024 thermal control coatings and polymeric films experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, William L.; Hurley, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The Skylab D024 Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Films Experiment was designed to determine the effects of the external Skylab space environment on the performance and properties of a wide variety of selected thermal control coatings and polymeric films. Three duplicate sets of thermal control coatings and polymeric films were exposed to the Skylab space environment for varying periods of time during the mission. The specimens were retrieved by the astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVA) and placed in hermetically sealed return containers, recovered, and returned to the Wright Laboratory/Materials Laboratory/WPAFB, Ohio for analysis and evaluation. Postflight analysis of the three sets of recovered thermal control coatings indicated that measured changes in specimen thermo-optical properties were due to a combination of excessive contamination and solar degradation of the contaminant layer. The degree of degradation experienced over-rode, obscured, and compromised the measurement of the degradation of the substrate coatings themselves. Results of the analysis of the effects of exposure on the polymeric films and the contamination observed are also presented. The D024 results were used in the design of the LDEF M0003-5 Thermal Control Materials Experiment. The results are presented here to call to the attention of the many other LDEF experimenters the wealth of directly related, low earth orbit, space environmental exposure data that is available from the ten or more separate experiments that were conducted during the Skylab mission. Results of these experiments offer data on the results of low altitude space exposure on materials recovered from space with exposure longer than typical STS experiments for comparison with the LDEF results.

  15. Slew maneuvers of Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakad, Yogendra P.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report on the dynamics and control of slew maneuvers of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) test facility. The report documents the basic dynamical equation derivations for an arbitrary large angle slew maneuver as well as the basic decentralized slew maneuver control algorithm. The set of dynamical equations incorporate rigid body slew maneuver and three dimensional vibrations of the complete assembly comprising the rigid shuttle, the flexible beam, and the reflector with an offset mass. The analysis also includes kinematic nonlinearities of the entire assembly during the maneuver and the dynamics of the interactions between the rigid shuttle and the flexible appendage. The equations are simplified and evaluated numerically to include the first ten flexible modes to yield a model for designing control systems to perform slew maneuvers. The control problem incorporates the nonlinear dynamical equations and is expressed in terms of a two point boundary value problem.

  16. Apollo experience report: Lunar module environmental control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, R. J.; Brady, J. C.; Collier, F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of the environmental control subsystem is presented. Development, tests, checkout, and flight experiences of the subsystem are discussed; and the design fabrication, and operational difficulties associated with the various components and subassemblies are recorded. Detailed information is related concerning design changes made to, and problems encountered with, the various elements of the subsystem, such as the thermal control water sublimator, the carbon dioxide sensing and control units, and the water section. The problems associated with water sterilization, water/glycol formulation, and materials compatibility are discussed. The corrective actions taken are described with the expection that this information may be of value for future subsystems. Although the main experiences described are problem oriented, the subsystem has generally performed satisfactorily in flight.

  17. Space flight experience with the Shuttle Orbiter control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. J.; Daly, K. C.; Hattis, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Experience gained through the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test program has matured the engineering understanding of the Shuttle on-orbit control system. The geneology of the control systems (called digital autopilots, or DAPs, and used by the Shuttle for on-orbit operations) is reviewed, the flight experience gained during the flight test program is examined within the context of preflight analysis and test results, and issues for the operational phase of the Shuttle, including constraints upon both operations and analysis still required to increase confidence in the Shuttle's ability to handle capabilities not experienced during the flight test program are addressed. Two orbital autopilots have resulted from computer memory and time constraints on a flight control system, with many different, flight phase unique requirements. The transition DAP, used for insertion and deorbit, has more active sensors and redundancy but a less complex data processing scheme excluding state estimation with fewer choices of operational mode.

  18. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. PMID:25087863

  19. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S; Anjum, Naser A; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; PMID:26175738

  20. Expression of the tetrahydrofolate-dependent nitric oxide synthase from the green alga Ostreococcus tauri increases tolerance to abiotic stresses and influences stomatal development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Foresi, Noelia; Mayta, Martín L; Lodeyro, Anabella F; Scuffi, Denise; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; García-Mata, Carlos; Casalongué, Claudia; Carrillo, Néstor; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule with diverse biological functions in plants. NO plays a crucial role in growth and development, from germination to senescence, and is also involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In animals, NO is synthesized by well-described nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. NOS activity has also been detected in higher plants, but no gene encoding an NOS protein, or the enzymes required for synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor of mammalian NOS activity, have been identified so far. Recently, an NOS gene from the unicellular marine alga Ostreococcus tauri (OtNOS) has been discovered and characterized. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with OtNOS under the control of the inducible short promoter fragment (SPF) of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Hahb-4 gene, which responds to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid. Transgenic plants expressing OtNOS accumulated higher NO concentrations compared with siblings transformed with the empty vector, and displayed enhanced salt, drought and oxidative stress tolerance. Moreover, transgenic OtNOS lines exhibited increased stomatal development compared with plants transformed with the empty vector. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that OtNOS, unlike mammalian NOS, efficiently uses tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor in Arabidopsis plants. The modulation of NO production to alleviate abiotic stress disturbances in higher plants highlights the potential of genetic manipulation to influence NO metabolism as a tool to improve plant fitness under adverse growth conditions. PMID:25880454

  1. Ultraviolet Radiation Accelerates Litter Decomposition Mainly By Increasing Its Biodegradability but Not Abiotic Photomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been shown to stimulate litter decomposition. Despite years of research, it is still not fully understood that whether the fast litter degradation is mostly attributed to abiotic photo-mineralization or the combined abiotic and biotic degradation. Here we used meta-analysis to synthesize photodegradation studies and compared the effects of UV radiation on litter mass decomposition and chemistry with and without inhibiting microbial activities. We also conducted a microcosm experiment to separate UV's impacts on abiotic and biotic process during decomposition. Overall, our meta-analysis found that, under abiotic condition, UV radiation reduced litter carbon (C) content by 1% and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by 16%, but had no significant impacts on litter mass remaining. Under the combined abiotic and biotic biodegradation, UV radiation reduced litter lignin content by 14% and mass remaining by 3%. In addition, high UV radiation reduced N immobilization by 19%. Results of our microcosm experiment further found that the amount of respired C induced by UV treated litter increased with UV exposure length, which suggested that longer UV exposure duration leads to greater biodegradability. The microcosm study also found that elevated UV did not alter microbial biomass carbon (MBC) or microbe's ability to degrade organic matter. Overall, our meta-analysis and microcosm study suggested that although UV radiation significantly increase C loss by photo-mineralization, abiotic photo-mineralization was not great enough to induce significantly change in litter mass balance. However, with the presence of microbial activities, UV greatly facilitated litter decomposition. Such facilitating effect could be due to that elevated UV radiation increases lignin's accessibility to microbes, and also increases labile carbon supply to microbes. Our results also highlighted that UV radiation could have significant impacts on

  2. Controls on coarse wood decay in temperate tree species: birth of the LOGLIFE experiment.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Poorter, Lourens; van Geffen, Koert; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sterck, Frank J; Klaassen, René K W M; Freschet, Grégoire T; van der Wal, Annemieke; Eshuis, Henk; Zuo, Juan; de Boer, Wietse; Lamers, Teun; Weemstra, Monique; Cretin, Vincent; Martin, Rozan; Ouden, Jan den; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Hefting, Mariet M

    2012-01-01

    Dead wood provides a huge terrestrial carbon stock and a habitat to wide-ranging organisms during its decay. Our brief review highlights that, in order to understand environmental change impacts on these functions, we need to quantify the contributions of different interacting biotic and abiotic drivers to wood decomposition. LOGLIFE is a new long-term 'common-garden' experiment to disentangle the effects of species' wood traits and site-related environmental drivers on wood decomposition dynamics and its associated diversity of microbial and invertebrate communities. This experiment is firmly rooted in pioneering experiments under the directorship of Terry Callaghan at Abisko Research Station, Sweden. LOGLIFE features two contrasting forest sites in the Netherlands, each hosting a similar set of coarse logs and branches of 10 tree species. LOGLIFE welcomes other researchers to test further questions concerning coarse wood decay that will also help to optimise forest management in view of carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22864697

  3. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems. [for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Chacon, Claude V.; Lock, Wilton P.

    1986-01-01

    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  4. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, V. A.; Chacon, C. V.; Lock, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  5. Enhancing schistosomiasis control strategy for zimbabwe: building on past experiences.

    PubMed

    Chimbari, Moses J

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata) are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized. PMID:22655171

  6. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  7. Field experiments using SPEAR: a speech control system for UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Blanco, Chris; Czerniak, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Orin; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Liu, Dongqing; Karlsen, Robert; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on a Field Experiment carried out by the Human Research and Engineering Directorate at Ft. Benning to evaluate the efficacy of using speech to control an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) concurrently with a handcontroller. The SPEAR system, developed by Think-A-Move, provides speech-control of UGVs. The system picks up user-speech in the ear canal with an in-ear microphone. This property allows it to work efficiently in high-noise environments, where traditional speech systems, employing external microphones, fail. It has been integrated with an iRobot PackBot 510 with EOD kit. The integrated system allows the hand-controller to be supplemented with speech for concurrent control. At Ft. Benning, the integrated system was tested by soldiers from the Officer Candidate School. The Experiment had dual focus: 1) Quantitative measurement of the time taken to complete each station and the cognitive load on users; 2) Qualitative evaluation of ease-of-use and ergonomics through soldier-feedback. Also of significant benefit to Think-A-Move was soldier-feedback on the speech-command vocabulary employed: What spoken commands are intuitive, and how the commands should be executed, e.g., limited-motion vs. unlimited-motion commands. Overall results from the Experiment are reported in the paper.

  8. Surface chemistry allows for abiotic precipitation of dolomite at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer A.; Kenward, Paul A.; Fowle, David A.; Goldstein, Robert H.; González, Luis A.; Moore, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the mineral dolomite is abundant in ancient low-temperature sedimentary systems, it is scarce in modern systems below 50 °C. Chemical mechanism(s) enhancing its formation remain an enigma because abiotic dolomite has been challenging to synthesize at low temperature in laboratory settings. Microbial enhancement of dolomite precipitation at low temperature has been reported; however, it is still unclear exactly how microorganisms influence reaction kinetics. Here we document the abiotic synthesis of low-temperature dolomite in laboratory experiments and constrain possible mechanisms for dolomite formation. Ancient and modern seawater solution compositions, with identical pH and pCO2, were used to precipitate an ordered, stoichiometric dolomite phase at 30 °C in as few as 20 d. Mg-rich phases nucleate exclusively on carboxylated polystyrene spheres along with calcite, whereas aragonite forms in solution via homogeneous nucleation. We infer that Mg ions are complexed and dewatered by surface-bound carboxyl groups, thus decreasing the energy required for carbonation. These results indicate that natural surfaces, including organic matter and microbial biomass, possessing a high density of carboxyl groups may be a mechanism by which ordered dolomite nuclei form. Although environments rich in organic matter may be of interest, our data suggest that sharp biogeochemical interfaces that promote microbial death, as well as those with high salinity may, in part, control carboxyl-group density on organic carbon surfaces, consistent with origin of dolomites from microbial biofilms, as well as hypersaline and mixing zone environments. PMID:23964124

  9. Ion Transporters and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brini, Faïçal; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of plants to salt stress requires cellular ion homeostasis involving net intracellular Na+ and Cl− uptake and subsequent vacuolar compartmentalization without toxic ion accumulation in the cytosol. Sodium ions can enter the cell through several low- and high-affinity K+ carriers. Some members of the HKT family function as sodium transporter and contribute to Na+ removal from the ascending xylem sap and recirculation from the leaves to the roots via the phloem vasculature. Na+ sequestration into the vacuole depends on expression and activity of Na+/H+ antiporter that is driven by electrochemical gradient of protons generated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase and the H+-pyrophosphatase. Sodium extrusion at the root-soil interface is presumed to be of critical importance for the salt tolerance. Thus, a very rapid efflux of Na+ from roots must occur to control net rates of influx. The Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 localized to the plasma membrane is the only Na+ efflux protein from plants characterized so far. In this paper, we analyze available data related to ion transporters and plant abiotic stress responses in order to enhance our understanding about how salinity and other abiotic stresses affect the most fundamental processes of cellular function which have a substantial impact on plant growth development. PMID:27398240

  10. Instrument Control and Data Acquisition for NMR Experiments

    1999-03-29

    This is a software program which is intended to do some instrument control and data acquisition for NMR experiments. The basic purpose of the program is to allow a user of the NMR system to create a list of instructions which tells the program what steps should be done, the stat the data taking program and let the system run by itself (depending on the type of sample and the type of experiment being run,more » it can take from several minutes to many hours to do a data collection run).« less

  11. An active thermal control surfaces experiment. [spacecraft temperature determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Brown, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    An active flight experiment is described that has the objectives to determine the effects of the low earth natural environment and the Shuttle induced environment on selected thermal control and optical surfaces. The optical and thermal properties of test samples will be measured in-situ using an integrating sphere reflectrometer and using calorimetric methods. This experiment has been selected for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight which will be carried to orbit by the NASA Space Shuttle. The LDEF will remain in orbit to be picked up by a later Shuttle mission and returned for postflight evaluation.

  12. EURECA mission control experience and messages for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, H.; Ferri, P.; Wimmer, W.

    1994-01-01

    EURECA is a retrievable space platform which can perform multi-disciplinary scientific and technological experiments in a Low Earth Orbit for a typical mission duration of six to twelve months. It is deployed and retrieved by the NASA Space Shuttle and is designed to support up to five flights. The first mission started at the end of July 1992 and was successfully completed with the retrieval in June 1993. The operations concept and the ground segment for the first EURECA mission are briefly introduced. The experiences in the preparation and the conduction of the mission from the flight control team point of view are described.

  13. Environmentally Regulated Abiotic Release of Volatile Pheromones from the Sugar-based Oral Secretions of Caribflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report an abiotic mechanism for the emission of volatile insect pheromones that is controlled by environmentally-induced change in the physicochemical properties of the sugar-based release matrix. Male Anastrepha suspensa [Loew] (caribflies) mark mating sites on leaf surfaces by depositing oral ...

  14. Apollo experience report: Command and service module environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samonski, F. H., Jr.; Tucker, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the design philosophy of the Apollo environmental control system together with the development history of the total system and of selected components within the system. In particular, discussions are presented relative to the development history and to the problems associated with the equipment cooling coldplates, the evaporator and its electronic control system, and the space radiator system used for rejection of the spacecraft thermal loads. Apollo flight experience and operational difficulties associated with the spacecraft water system and the waste management system are discussed in detail to provide definition of the problem and the corrective action taken when applicable.

  15. Experiments with a small behaviour controlled planetary rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Gat, Erann; Ivlev, Robert; Loch, John

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments that were performed on the Rocky 3 robot is described. Rocky 3 is a small autonomous rover capable of navigating through rough outdoor terrain to a predesignated area, searching that area for soft soil, acquiring a soil sample, and depositing the sample in a container at its home base. The robot is programmed according to a reactive behavior control paradigm using the ALFA programming language. This style of programming produces robust autonomous performance while requiring significantly less computational resources than more traditional mobile robot control systems. The code for Rocky 3 runs on an eight bit processor and uses about ten k of memory.

  16. Implementation of BN Control in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S; Bell, M G; Cropper, M; Gates, D A; Koleman, E; Lawson, J; Marsala, B; Menard, J E; Mueller, D

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and constructed a system for control of the normalized B in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. A PID operator is applied to the difference between the present value of B N (from realtime equilibrium reconstruction) and a time-dependent request, in order to calculate the required injected power. This injected power request is then turned into modulations of the neutral beams. The details of this algorithm are described, including the techniques used to develop the appropriate control gains. Example uses of the system are shown

  17. Temporal dynamics of biotic and abiotic drivers of litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Shaw, E Ashley; Wall, Diana H; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Climate, litter quality and decomposers drive litter decomposition. However, little is known about whether their relative contribution changes at different decomposition stages. To fill this gap, we evaluated the relative importance of leaf litter polyphenols, decomposer communities and soil moisture for litter C and N loss at different stages throughout the decomposition process. Although both microbial and nematode communities regulated litter C and N loss in the early decomposition stages, soil moisture and legacy effects of initial differences in litter quality played a major role in the late stages of the process. Our results provide strong evidence for substantial shifts in how biotic and abiotic factors control litter C and N dynamics during decomposition. Taking into account such temporal dynamics will increase the predictive power of decomposition models that are currently limited by a single-pool approach applying control variables uniformly to the entire decay process. PMID:26947573

  18. Formation of Intermediate Carbon Phases in Hydrothermal Abiotic Organic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Foustoukos, D. I.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2005-12-01

    With high dissolved concentrations of methane and other hydrocarbon species revealed at the Rainbow and Logatchev vent systems on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, it is essential to better understand reaction pathways of abiotic organic synthesis in hydrothermal systems. Thus, we performed a hydrothermal carbon reduction experiment with 13C labeled carbon source at temperature and pressure conditions that approximate those inferred for ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems. Pentlandite, a common alteration mineral phase in subseafloor reaction zones, acted as a potential catalyst. Surface analysis techniques (XPS and ToF-SIMS) were used to characterize intermediate carbon species within this process. Time series dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations indicated thermodynamic equilibrium. Dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations of 13 and 2 mmol/kg, respectively, are approximately equivalent to measured values in Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal systems. Isotopically pure 13C methane and other alkane species (C2H6 and C3H8) were observed throughout the experiment, and attained steady state conditions. XPS analysis on mineral product surface indicated carbon enrichment on mineral surface following reaction. The majority of surface carbon involves species containing C-C or C-H bonds, such as alkyl or methylene groups. Alcohol and carboxyl groups in fewer amounts were also observed. ToF-SIMS analysis, which can offer isotope identification with high mass resolution, showed that most of these carbon species were 13C-labeled. Unlike gas phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, no carbide was observed on mineral product surface during the experiment. Therefore, a reaction pathway is proposed for formation of dissolved linear alkane species in hydrothermal abiotic organic synthesis, where oxygen-bearing organic compounds are expected to form in aqueous products by way of alcohol and carboxyl groups on mineral catalyst surface.

  19. The payload control unit - An advanced experiment control and data management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, A.; di Tolle, F.; Ranieri, R.

    1988-10-01

    The development of the Payload Control Unit (PCU) as part of the In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Program is discussed. The PCU is an on-board computer designed to control experiments and support systems. The general architecture of the PCU and the development of software for the PCU are examined.

  20. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  1. The JPL telerobot operator control station: Operational experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1990-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstration System provides an efficient man-machine interface for the performance of telerobot tasks. Its hardware and software have been designed with high flexibility. It provides a feedback-rich interactive environment in which the Operator performs teleoperation tasks, robotic tasks, and telerobotic tasks with ease. The to-date operational experiences of this system, particularly related to the Object Designate Process and the Voice Input/Output Process are discussed.

  2. Dynamics and control simulation of the Spacelab Experiment Pointing Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, E. L.; Ward, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations were developed to evaluate the performance of four Experiment Pointing Mounts (EPM) being considered for Spacelab experiments in the 1980-1990 time frame. The system modeled compromises a multibody system consisting of the shuttle, a mechanical isolation device, the EPM, celestial and inertial sensors, bearings, gimbal torque motors and associated nonlinearities, the experiment payload, and control and estimator algorithms. Each mount was subjected to a common disturbance (shuttle vernier thruster firing and man push off) and command (stellar pointing or solar raster scan) input. The fundamental limitation common to all mounts was found to be sensor noise. System dynamics and hardware nonlinearities have secondary effects on pointing performance for sufficiently high bandwidth.

  3. IRIS Controlled Source Seismic Experiments: Continental Structure, Instrumentation, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    The controlled-source seismology program of IRIS/PASSCAL has made major contributions to the study of continental structure and evolution. It has also undergone major developments in seismic instrumentation. The first PASSCAL experiments (1984/85) targeted the Basin and Range Province and the Ouachita orogenic belt. The Basin and Range study provided remarkably clear images of this thin, highly-extended crust, while the Ouachita experiment tested competing hypotheses for the deep structure of this Paleozoic orogen. However, both of these projects were limited by a lack of seismic instruments. The situation improved in the late 1980's with the benefit of a mixed array of 600 seismic recorders from the USGS, Stanford, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The resolution achieved with these instruments was revolutionary. Results include the imaging of such remarkable features as crustal-scale duplexes in the Brooks Range compressional orogen of northern Alaska, and of crustal "core complexes" in the extended crust of southwest Arizona. The 3-channel PASSCAL Jr. instrument was developed, leading to experiments in which ˜1000 instruments were deployed, including three-component recording. This complex mix of instruments served the community well for several years, but required large, complex instrument centers and lots of technical support. With input from PASSCAL and the international community, a newly designed, compact instrument (the Texan) was finalized in the spring of 1998, and the first 200 instruments was delivered to the Univ. of Texas-El Paso in late 1998. The present instrument pool of Texans exceeds 1,400 and these have been used on such projects as the high-resolution imaging of the Los Angeles and San Fernando basins (LARSE I and II experiments), where active thrust faults have been imaged. Controlled-source seismic experiments are now very numerous. During calendar year 2004 alone, portable Texan instruments have traveled from Venezuela to Denmark

  4. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  5. Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

  6. Automated Microwave Frequency Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Ethan; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin; Solid Polarized Target Group Team

    2016-03-01

    To achieve highest polarization levels in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments, target materials must be subjected to microwave irradiation at a particular frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. However, this resonant frequency is variable; it drifts as a result of radiation damage. Manually adjusting the frequency to accommodate for this fluctuation can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In response to this problem, a controller has been developed which automates the process of seeking and maintaining optimal frequency. The creation of such a controller has necessitated research into the correlation between microwave frequency and corresponding polarization growth or decay rates in DNP experiments. Knowledge gained from the research of this unique relationship has additionally lead to the development of a Monte-Carlo simulation which accurately models polarization as a function of frequency and a number of other parameters. The simulation and controller continue to be refined, however, recent DNP experimentation has confirmed the controller's effectiveness.

  7. Role Based Access Control system in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, M. L.; Dobson, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schlenker, S.; Filimonov, V.; Khomoutnikov, V.; Dumitru, I.; Zaytsev, A. S.; Korol, A. A.; Bogdantchikov, A.; Avolio, G.; Caramarcu, C.; Ballestrero, S.; Darlea, G. L.; Twomey, M.; Bujor, F.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The RBAC implementation uses a directory service based on Lightweight Directory Access Protocol to store the users (~3000), roles (~320), groups (~80) and access policies. The information is kept in sync with various other databases and directory services: human resources, central CERN IT, CERN Active Directory and the Access Control Database used by DCS. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system.

  8. Overexpression of wheat ubiquitin gene, Ta-Ub2, improves abiotic stress tolerance of Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hanhan; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shumei; Guo, Qifang; Chen, Fengjuan; Wu, Jiajie; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating plant's development and adaptability to abiotic stress. To investigate the possible functions of a wheat monoubiquitin gene Ta-Ub2 in abiotic stress in monocot and compare it with that in dicot, we generated transgenic Brachypodium plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 under the control of CaMV35s and stress-inducible RD29A promoters. The constitutive expression of Ta-Ub2 displayed slight growth inhibition in the growth of transgenic Brachypodium distachyon under the control conditions. However, this inhibition was minimized by expression of Ta-Ub2 under the control of stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants preserved more water and showed higher enzymatic antioxidants under drought stress, which might be related to the change in the expression of some antioxidant genes. The expression of C-repeat binding factors transcription factor genes in the transgenic B. distachyon lines were upregulated under water stress. Salt and cold tolerances of transgenic B. distachyon were also improved. Although the phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants were different, overexpression of Ta-Ub2 improved the abiotic stress tolerance in both dicot and monocot plants. The improvement in Ta-Ub2 transgenic plants in abiotic stress tolerance might be, at least partly, through regulating the gene expression and increasing the enzymatic antioxidants. PMID:27181952

  9. Tank Pressure Control Experiment - A low-g mixing investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, M. D.; Meserole, J. S.; Knoll, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) was conceived to meet the need for an aspect of cryogenic fluid management technology that is critical to several future national space missions: control of cryogenic storage tank pressures by active mixing. In-space testing is the only means of obtaining the fluid dynamic data necessary to develop and test predictive models of mixing. These models, when validated, will allow future cryogenic systems to be designed with more efficient and reliable pressure control systems. The objectives of the TPCE project are to characterize the fluid dynamics of jet-induced mixing in low gravity, evaluate the validity of empirical models and correlations, and provide data for use in developing and validating computational fluid dynamic models. This paper discusses prior studies of low-g mixing, the objectives and benefits of TPCE, the design and status of the payload, and preliminary results obtained from low-g aircraft testing.

  10. Control of the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, P. G.; Hsu, O. C,; ODonnell, J. R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 7 (ST7) experiment will perform an on-orbit system-level validation of two specific Disturbance Reduction System technologies: colloidal micronewton thrusters and drag-free control. The ST7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to a free-floating test mass while limiting the residual accelerations of that test mass over the frequency range of 1 to 30 mHz. This paper presents the overall design and analysis of the spacecraft drag-free and attitude controllers, with particular attention given to its primary mission mode. These controllers close the loop between the drag-free sensors and the colloidal micronewton thrusters.

  11. Abiotic synthesis of acylglycerols under simulated hydrothermal conditions and micelle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, B.; Rushdi, A.; Deamer, D.

    Abiotic formation of aliphatic lipid compounds i e fatty acids alcohols and acylglycerols has been reported to occur at elevated temperatures and pressures under simulated hydrothermal conditions McCollom et al 1999 Rushdi and Simoneit 2001 2006 Although abiotic chemistry may occur at these conditions the prebiotic self-assembly of micelles to bilayer to vesicles protocells may have occurred elsewhere Amphipathic compounds such as fatty acids and acylglycerols are important candidates for micelle bilayer vesicle formation Thus it is of interest to demonstrate that abiotic lipids amphiphiles precursor compounds for abiotic cellular membranes Deamer 1997 can be synthesized under hydrothermal conditions Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to study condensation reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media to form acylglycerols glyceryl alkanoates at elevated temperatures under confining pressures Stainless steel vessels 316SS Sno-Trik high pressure couplings with internal capacities of 286 underline 2 mu l were used for the condensation reactions using a mixture of 0 14 mM glycerol and 0 35 mM of n-alkanoic acid Nine different alkanoic acids ranging from C 7 to C 16 except C 8 were used in these experiments The condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols as well as the corresponding triacylglycerol The product yields were 13-28 for monoacylglycerols 6-13 for diacylglycerols and 1-4 for triacylglycerols The results indicated that 1

  12. Carbon isotope fractionation during abiotic reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE).

    PubMed

    Bill, M; Schüth, C; Barth, J A; Kalin, R M

    2001-08-01

    Dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE) in the aqueous phase, either on palladium catalysts with hydrogen as the reductant or on metallic iron, was associated with strong changes in delta13C. In general, the delta13C of product phases were more negative than those of the parent compound and were enriched with time and fraction of TCE remaining. For dehalogenation with iron, the delta13C of TCE and products varied from -42/1000 to +5/1000. For the palladium experiments, the final product, ethane, reached the initial delta13C of TCE at completion of the dehalogenation reaction. During dehalogenation, the carbon isotope fractionation between TCE and product phases was not constant. The variation in delta13C of TCE and products offers a new monitoring tool that operates independently of the initial concentration of pollutants for abiotic degradation processes of TCE in the subsurface, and may be useful for evaluation of remediation efficiency. PMID:11513419

  13. Abiotic dechlorination in rock matrices impacted by long-term exposure to TCE.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Towne, Rachael M; Lippincott, David R; Lacombe, Pierre J; Bishop, Michael E; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Field and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the abiotic reaction of trichloroethene (TCE) in sedimentary rock matrices. Hydraulically conductive fractures, and the rock directly adjacent to the hydraulically conductive fractures, within a historically contaminated TCE bedrock aquifer were used as the basis for this study. These results were compared to previous work using rock that had not been exposed to TCE (Schaefer et al., 2013) to assess the impact of long-term TCE exposure on the abiotic dechlorination reaction, as the longevity of these reactions after long-term exposure to TCE was hitherto unknown. Results showed that potential abiotic TCE degradation products, including ethane, ethene, and acetylene, were present in the conductive fractures. Using minimally disturbed slices of rock core at and near the fracture faces, laboratory testing on the rocks confirmed that abiotic dechlorination reactions between the rock matrix and TCE were occurring. Abiotic daughter products measured in the laboratory under controlled conditions were consistent with those measured in the conductive fractures, except that propane also was observed as a daughter product. TCE degradation measured in the laboratory was well described by a first order rate constant through the 118-d study. Observed bulk first-order TCE degradation rate constants within the rock matrix were 1.3×10(-8) s(-1). These results clearly show that abiotic dechlorination of TCE is occurring within the rock matrix, despite decades of exposure to TCE. Furthermore, these observed rates of TCE dechlorination are expected to have a substantial impact on TCE migration and uptake/release from rock matrices. PMID:25192648

  14. Tank pressure control experiment on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The tank pressure control experiment is a demonstration of NASA intent to develop new technology for low-gravity management of the cryogenic fluids that will be required for future space systems. The experiment will use freon as the test fluid to measure the effects of jet-induced fluid mixing on storage tank pressure and will produce data on low-gravity mixing processes critical to the design of on-orbit cryogenic storage and resupply systems. Basic data on fluid motion and thermodynamics in low gravity is limited, but such data is critical to the development of space transfer vehicles and spacecraft resupply facilities. An in-space experiment is needed to obtain reliable data on fluid mixing and pressure control because none of the available microgravity test facilities provide a low enough gravity level for a sufficient duration to duplicate in-space flow patterns and thermal processes. Normal gravity tests do not represent the fluid behavior properly; drop-tower tests are limited in length of time available; aircraft low-gravity tests cannot provide the steady near-zero gravity level and long duration needed to study the subtle processes expected in space.

  15. Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Lin, Chin S.; Knoll, Richard H.; Bentz, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83% by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/sq m). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well as the jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheats for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.86 to 1.1 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 0.97 kW/sq m, a wall superheat of 17.9 C was attained in 10 min of heating. This superheat was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied by a pressure spike of about 38% of the tank pressure at the inception of boiling. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Steady nucleate boiling continued after the explosive boiling. The jet-induced fluid mixing results were obtained for jet Reynolds numbers of 1900 to 8000 and Weber numbers of 0.2 to 6.5. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments

  16. C-SIDE: The control-structure interaction demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, James B.; Davis, Hugh W.

    1993-01-01

    The Control-Structure Interaction Demonstration Experiment (C-SIDE) is sponsored by the Electro-Optics and Cryogenics Division of Ball Aerospace Systems Group. Our objective is to demonstrate methods of solution to structure control problems utilizing currently available hardware in a system that is an extension of our corporate experience. The larger space structures with which Ball has been associated are the SEASAT radar antenna, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) -A, -B and -C antennas and the Radarsat spacecraft. The motivation for the C-SIDE configuration is to show that integration of active figure control in the radar's system-level design can relieve antenna mechanical design constraints. This presentation is primarily an introduction to the C-SIDE testbed. Its physical and functional layouts, and major components are described. The sensor is of special interest as it enables direct surface figure measurements from a remote location. The Remote Attitude Measurement System (RAMS) makes high-rate, unobtrusive measurements of many locations, several of which may be collocated easily with actuators. The control processor is a 386/25 executing a reduced order model-based algorithm with provision for residual mode filters to compensate for structure interaction. The actuators for the ground demonstration are non-contacting, linear force devices. Results presented illustrate some basic characteristics of control-structure interaction with this hardware. The testbed will be used for evaluation of current technologies and for research in several areas. A brief indication of the evolution of the C-SIDE is given at the conclusion.

  17. Theileriosis control modelling (experiences from Southern Province, Zambia).

    PubMed

    Penne, K; D'Haese, L

    1999-09-01

    Effects of different tick-borne disease control strategies on cattle productivity are simulated based on a 30-year herd projection, calculated by a modified Markov Chain model. Input data can be grouped in technical, economic and epidemiological parameters. The output is a set of economic parameters such as benefit/cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) of the profit, internal rate of return (IRR), total economic cost (TEC) as well as graphs showing animal production over time. Shadow prices are obtained for input and output in kind. Throughout the calculations a distinction is made between transactions in cash and transactions in kind. A case study was run for Southern Province, Zambia, to illustrate the model. Either vector control or treatment, or a combination of these, controls theileriosis at farm level after natural infection. Preventive immunization against the parasite is also possible. Although the calculations are based on a mixture of data obtained from literature, field experience, expert opinion and assumptions, the importance of theileriosis control is clearly indicated. Immunization gives better economic results than chemotherapy. Vector control can only be used as a last resort. PMID:10540313

  18. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment is proposed that will perform the tasks associated with the control and energy storage/power generation functions attendant to space operations. It was shown in past studies that the integration of these functions into one system can result in significant weight, volume, and cost savings. The Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept is discussed. During orbit day, power is derived from the solar cell arrays and, after appropriate conditioning, is used to operate the spacecraft subsystems, including the control system. In conventional approaches, a part of the collected solar energy is stored in a bank of batteries to permit operation of the vehicle's systems during orbit night. In the IPACS concept, the solar energy is stored in the spinning flywheels of the control system in the form of kinetic energy. During orbit night, the wheels are despun and, through the use of a wheel-shaft mounted generator, power is generated for the onboard subsystems. Operating these flywheels over a 50-percent speed variation permits the extraction of 75 percent of the stored energy while at the same time preserving 50 percent of the momentum capacity for control of the vehicle. Batteries can therefore be eliminated and significant weight and volume savings realized.

  19. Experimenting from a distance—remotely controlled laboratory (RCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Eckert, Bodo; Jodl, Hans-Jörg

    2007-05-01

    The use of computers and multimedia, as well as the World Wide Web and new communication technologies, allows new forms of teaching and learning such as distance learning, blended learning, use of virtual libraries and many more. The herewith discussed remotely controlled laboratory (RCL) project shall offer an additional contribution. The basic idea is for a user to connect via the Internet with a computer from place A to a real experiment carried out in place B. An overview of our technical and didactical developments as well as an outlook on future plans is presented. Currently, about ten RCLs have been implemented. The essential characteristics of an RCL are the intuitive use and interactivity (operating the technical parameters), the possibility of different points of view of the ongoing experiment thanks to web cams and the quickest possible transfer of the data measured by the user. A reasonable use of sensibly chosen real experiments as remote labs allows a new form of homework and exercises, as well as project work and the execution of experiments, which usually would be a teacher's prerogative only.

  20. The MODE family of on-orbit experiments: The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.; Deluis, Javier; Waldman, Mel; Bicos, Andy

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment entitled the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), proposed by the Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is described. This is the second in a family of flight experiments being developed at MIT. The first is the Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) which investigates the nonlinear behavior of contained fluids and truss structures in zero gravity. The objective of the MACE program is to investigate and validate the modeling of the dynamics of an actively controlled flexible, articulating, multibody platform free floating in zero gravity. A rationale and experimental approach for the program are presented. The rationale shows that on-orbit testing, coupled with ground testing and a strong analytical program, is necessary in order to fully understand both how flexibility of the platform affects the pointing problem, as well as how gravity perturbs this structural flexibility causing deviations between 1- and 0-gravity behavior. The experimental approach captures the essential physics of multibody platforms, by identifying the appropriate attributes, tests, and performance metrics of the test article and defines the tests required to successfully validate the analytical framework.

  1. The MODE family of on-orbit experiments: The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.; Deluis, Javier; Waldman, Mel; Bicos, Andy

    1990-12-01

    A flight experiment entitled the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), proposed by the Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is described. This is the second in a family of flight experiments being developed at MIT. The first is the Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) which investigates the nonlinear behavior of contained fluids and truss structures in zero gravity. The objective of the MACE program is to investigate and validate the modeling of the dynamics of an actively controlled flexible, articulating, multibody platform free floating in zero gravity. A rationale and experimental approach for the program are presented. The rationale shows that on-orbit testing, coupled with ground testing and a strong analytical program, is necessary in order to fully understand both how flexibility of the platform affects the pointing problem, as well as how gravity perturbs this structural flexibility causing deviations between 1- and 0-gravity behavior. The experimental approach captures the essential physics of multibody platforms, by identifying the appropriate attributes, tests, and performance metrics of the test article and defines the tests required to successfully validate the analytical framework.

  2. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  3. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    PubMed

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  4. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  5. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuga, Maïa; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Bernard, Sylvain; Rigaudier, Thomas; Fleury, Benjamin; Tissandier, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The formation of organic compounds is generally assumed to result from abiotic processes in the Solar System, with the exception of biogenic organics on Earth. Nitrogen-bearing organics are of particular interest, notably for prebiotic perspectives but also for overall comprehension of organic formation in the young Solar System and in planetary atmospheres. We have investigated abiotic synthesis of organics upon plasma discharge, with special attention to N isotope fractionation. Organic aerosols were synthesized from N2-CH4 and N2-CO gaseous mixtures using low-pressure plasma discharge experiments, aimed at simulating chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere and in the protosolar nebula, respectively. The nitrogen content, the N speciation and the N isotopic composition were analyzed in the resulting organic aerosols. Nitrogen is efficiently incorporated into the synthesized solids, independently of the oxidation degree, of the N2 content of the starting gas mixture, and of the nitrogen speciation in the aerosols. The aerosols are depleted in 15N by 15-25‰ relative to the initial N2 gas, whatever the experimental setup is. Such an isotopic fractionation is attributed to mass-dependent kinetic effect(s). Nitrogen isotope fractionation upon electric discharge cannot account for the large N isotope variations observed among Solar System objects and reservoirs. Extreme N isotope signatures in the Solar System are more likely the result of self-shielding during N2 photodissociation, exotic effect during photodissociation of N2 and/or low temperature ion-molecule isotope exchange. Kinetic N isotope fractionation may play a significant role in the Titan's atmosphere. On the Titan's night side, 15N-depletion resulting from electron driven reactions may counterbalance photo-induced 15N enrichments occurring on the day's side. We also suggest that the low δ15N values of Archaean organic matter (Beaumont and Robert, 1999) are partly the result of abiotic synthesis of

  6. Decompression experiments identify kinetic controls on explosive silicic eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangan, M.T.; Sisson, T.W.; Hankins, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Eruption intensity is largely controlled by decompression-induced release of water-rich gas dissolved in magma. It is not simply the amount of gas that dictates how forcefully magma is propelled upwards during an eruption, but also the rate of degassing, which is partly a function of the supersaturation pressure (??Pcritical) triggering gas bubble nucleation. High temperature and pressure decompression experiments using rhyolite and dacite melt reveal compositionally-dependent differences in the ??Pcritical of degassing that may explain why rhyolites have fueled some of the most explosive eruptions on record.

  7. DASHBOARDS & CONTROL CHARTS EXPERIENCES IN IMPROVING SAFETY AT HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2006-02-27

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of safety methodology, quality tools, leadership, and teamwork at Hanford and their significant positive impact on safe performance of work. Dashboards, Leading Indicators, Control charts, Pareto Charts, Dr. W. Edward Deming's Red Bead Experiment, and Dr. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge have been the principal tools and theory of an integrated management system. Coupled with involved leadership and teamwork, they have led to significant improvements in worker safety and protection, and environmental restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  8. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  9. Thermal control surfaces experiment (SOO69) flight systems performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal control surfaces experiment (TCSE) was the most complex hardware system aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The TCSE system consists of a scanning spectroreflectometer that measured test samples mounted on a rotatable carousel assembly. A microprocessor based data system controlled all aspects of TCSE system operation. Power was provided by four primary batteries. Flight measurement and housekeeping data were stored on a tape recorder for postflight analysis. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed by NASA, DoD, and the aerospace community. The TCSE provides valuable data on the performance of these systems in space. The TCSE flight system and its excellent performance on the LDEF mission are described. A few operational anomalies were encountered and are discussed. Initial post-flight tests show that the TCSE system remains functional although some degradation in the optical measurements were observed. The results of these tests are also presented.

  10. Operator experiences on working in screen-based control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, L.; Laarni, J.; Savioja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces the results of two interview studies carried out in Finland in four conventional power plants and one nuclear power plant. The aim of the studies was to gather data on user experiences on the effects of control room modernization and digital control room technology on operator work Since the number of completed digitalization projects in nuclear power plants is small supplementary information was gathered by interviewing operators in conventional power plants. Our results suggest that even though the modernization processes have been success stories, they have created new challenges for operator personnel. Examples of these challenges are increased requirements for competence and collaboration, problems in trust calibration and development of awareness of the process state. Some major differences in the digitalization of human-system interfaces between conventional and nuclear power plants were discussed. (authors)

  11. Novel NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC67 Confers Enhanced Multi-Abiotic Stress Tolerances in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinguo; Chen, Shuangshuang; Li, Ang; Zhai, Chaochao; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops. PMID:24427285

  12. Biotic and Abiotic Degradation of CL-20 and RDX in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Fiona H.; Thompson, Karen T.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-11-01

    The caged cyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is a new explosive that has the potential to replace existing military explosives, but little is known about its environmental toxicity, transport, and fate. We quantified and compared the aerobic environmental fate of CL-20 to the widely used cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in surface and subsurface soil microcosms. Soil-free controls and biologically mediated processes. Both abiotic and biological processes significantly degraded CL-20 in all soils examined. Apparent abiotic, first-order degradation rates (k) for CL-20 were not significantly different between soil-free controls (0.018 < k < 0.030 d-1) and biologically attenuated soil controls (0.003 abiotic degradation rates of RDX were generally slower (0 < k < 0.032 d-1) than abiotic CL-20 degradation rates. In biologically active soil microcosms amended with glucose aerobic RDX degradation rates varied between 0.010 and 0.474 d-1. Biodegradation was a key factor in determining the environmental fate of RDX, while a combination of biotic and abiotic processes was important with CL-20. Our data suggest that CL-20 should be less recalcitrant than RDX in aerobic soils.

  13. Abiotic Formation of Methyl Halides in the Terrestrial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, F.

    2011-12-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide are the most abundant chlorine and bromine containing organic compounds in the atmosphere. Since both compounds have relatively long tropospheric lifetimes they can effectively transport halogen atoms from the Earth's surface, where they are released, to the stratosphere and following photolytic oxidation form reactive halogen gases that lead to the chemical destruction of ozone. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide account for more than 20% of the ozone-depleting halogens delivered to the stratosphere and are predicted to grow in importance as the chlorine contribution to the stratosphere from anthropogenic CFCs decline. Today methyl chloride and methyl bromide originate mainly from natural sources with only a minor fraction considered to be of anthropogenic origin. However, until as recently as 2000 most of the methyl chloride and methyl bromide input to the atmosphere was considered to originate from the oceans, but investigations in recent years have clearly demonstrated that terrestrial sources such as biomass burning, wood-rotting fungi, coastal salt marshes, tropical vegetation and organic matter degradation must dominate the atmospheric budgets of these trace gases. However, many uncertainties still exist regarding strengths of both sources and sinks, as well as the mechanisms of formation of these naturally occurring halogenated gases. A better understanding of the atmospheric budget of both methyl chloride and methyl bromide is therefore required for reliable prediction of future ozone depletion. Biotic and abiotic methylation processes of chloride and bromide ion are considered to be the dominant pathways of formation of these methyl halides in nature. In this presentation I will focus on abiotic formation processes in the terrestrial environment and the potential parameters that control their emissions. Recent advances in our understanding of the abiotic formation pathway of methyl halides will be discussed. This will

  14. Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Mauro, Ernesto

    Generation of RNA in abiotic conditions. Ernesto Di Mauro Dipartimento di Genetica Bi-ologia Molecolare, Universit` "Sapienza" Roma, Italy. a At least four conditions must be satisfied for the spontaneous generation of (pre)-genetic poly-mers: 1) availability of precursors that are activated enough to spontaneously polymerize. Preliminary studies showed that (a) nucleic bases and acyclonucleosides can be synthesized from formamide H2NCOH by simply heating with prebiotically available mineral catalysts [last reviewed in (1)], and that b) nucleic bases can be phosphorylated in every possible posi-tion [2'; 3'; 5'; cyclic 2',3'; cyclic 3',5' (2)]. The higher stability of the cyclic forms allows their accumulation. 2) A polymerization mechanism. A reaction showing the formation of RNA polymers starting from prebiotically plausible precursors (3',5' cyclic GMP and 3', 5'cyclic AMP) was recently reported (3). Polymerization in these conditions is thermodynamically up-hill and an equilibrium is attained that limits the maximum length of the polymer produced to about 40 nucleotides for polyG and 100 nucleotides for polyA. 3) Ligation of the synthesized oligomers. If this type of reaction could occur according to a terminal-joining mechanism and could generate canonical 3',5' phosphodiester bonds, exponential growth would be obtained of the generated oligomers. This type of reaction has been reported (4) , limited to homogeneous polyA sequences and leading to the production of polyA dimers and tetramers. What is still missing are: 4) mechanisms that provide the proof of principle for the generation of sequence complexity. We will show evidence for two mechanisms providing this proof of principle for simple complementary sequences. Namely: abiotic sequence complementary-driven terminal ligation and sequence-complementary terminal growth. In conclusion: all the steps leading to the generation of RNA in abiotic conditions are satisfied. (1) R Saladino, C Crestini, F

  15. Propulsion control experience used in the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will integrate the propulsion and flight control systems on an F-15 airplane at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Ames-Dryden has conducted several propulsion control programs that have contributed to the HIDEC program. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) flight evaluation investigated the performance and operability of the F100 engine equipped with a full-authority digital electronic control system. Investigations of nozzle instability, fault detection and accommodation, and augmentor transient capability provided important information for the HIDEC program. The F100 engine model derivative (EMD) was also flown in the F-15 airplane, and airplane performance was significantly improved. A throttle response problem was found and solved with a software fix to the control logic. For the HIDEC program, the F100 EMD engines equipped with DEEC controls will be integrated with the digital flight control system. The control modes to be implemented are an integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine control system mode. The engine control experience that will be used in the HIDEC program is discussed.

  16. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans. PMID:25481818

  17. EXCON: a graphics-based experiment-control manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mumit; Anderson, Paul D.; Cerrina, Franco

    1991-08-01

    EXCON is a software package developed to control and define the modeling of experiments. In this case, EXCON is used to integrate various individual modeling systems, in a user- definable manner, to simulate the semiconductor manufacturing process. These numerous systems model specific aspects of the integrated circuit fabrication process. Each can be a large complex software program requiring many system resources to reliably emulate the physical processes, in many cases at the atomic level, in an analytical manner. There are many different program data formats and user interfaces within the modeling systems used. EXCON addresses the automatic insertion of configuration and process data, the conversion of data formats between modeling systems, and the sequence of model execution. EXCON also has a mechanism to re-run the sequence of models with variations in one or several configuration or data parameters, thereby creating an environment to do controlled experiments. EXCON assists in the visualization of the data in the experimental data sequence. EXCON allows for coarse-grained parallelism by connecting processes with an interprocess and inter-machine communication mechanism, thereby allowing for concurrent execution of processes on multiple machines. System performance enhancement is done with a incremental directed graph analysis technique. EXCON will, when appropriate, transparently convert file formats between modeling systems.

  18. Experience in control of avian influenza in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sims, L D

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia for over ten years, providing considerable experience on which to base appropriate long-term strategies for their control. Experience in Hong Kong SAR demonstrates that existing production and marketing practices should be changed and a range of parallel measures used. It also shows the extent of surveillance required to ensure continuing freedom from infection. Certain high-risk practices should be changed or otherwise overcome in order to control and prevent disease, including intensive rearing of large numbers of poultry in premises without biosecurity commensurate with the level of risk for exposure; complex market chains involving many smallholders selling poultry through large numbers of transporters and middlemen in poorly regulated live poultry markets; and rearing of large numbers of ducks outdoors. These high-risk practices are compounded by weak veterinary services and poor reporting systems. In many parts of Asia, these methods of rearing and marketing are an integral way of life, support the poorest members of the community or cannot be changed quickly without severe socioeconomic consequences. The gains made so far will be ephemeral unless there is a shift from an emergency focus to one of consolidation in which these high-risk practices are identified and sustainable measures implemented to minimize the risks they pose, taking account of the socioeconomic effects of interventions. Vaccination will play a key role, as it currently does in China and Viet Nam. PMID:18411934

  19. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  20. ALMA test interferometer control system: past experiences and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, Ralph G.; Pokorny, Martin; Kern, Jeff; Stauffer, Fritz; Perrigouard, Alain; Gustafsson, Birger; Ramey, Ken

    2004-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) will, when it is completed in 2012, be the world's largest millimeter & sub-millimeter radio telescope. It will consist of 64 antennas, each one 12 meters in diameter, connected as an interferometer. The ALMA Test Interferometer Control System (TICS) was developed as a prototype for the ALMA control system. Its initial task was to provide sufficient functionality for the evaluation of the prototype antennas. The main antenna evaluation tasks include surface measurements via holography and pointing accuracy, measured at both optical and millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we will present the design of TICS, which is a distributed computing environment. In the test facility there are four computers: three real-time computers running VxWorks (one on each antenna and a central one) and a master computer running Linux. These computers communicate via Ethernet, and each of the real-time computers is connected to the hardware devices via an extension of the CAN bus. We will also discuss our experience with this system and outline changes we are making in light of our experiences.

  1. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation.

    PubMed

    Arden, Madelynne A; Abbott, Rachel L

    2015-10-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods that relies on the presence of self-feeding skills and is increasing in popularity in the UK and New Zealand. This study aimed to investigate the reported experiences and feelings of mothers using a BLW approach in order to better understand the experiences of the mother and infant, the benefits and challenges of the approach, and the beliefs that underpin these experiences. Fifteen UK mothers were interviewed over the course of a series of five emails using a semi-structured approach. The email transcripts were anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. There were four main themes identified from the analysis: (1) trusting the child; (2) parental control and responsibility; (3) precious milk; and (4) renegotiating BLW. The themes identified reflect a range of ideals and pressures that this group of mothers tried to negotiate in order to provide their infants with a positive and healthy introduction to solid foods. One of the key issues of potential concern is the timing at which some of the children ingested complementary foods. Although complementary foods were made available to the infants at 6 months of age, in many cases they were not ingested until much later. These findings have potentially important implications for mother's decision-making, health professional policy and practice, and future research. PMID:24521206

  2. Doing C2 (Command Control) experiments using war games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. S., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    In the last few years considerable progress has been made in the development of an analytic theory of military Command Control (C2), both as a process and as a large-scale system. There are now models of C2 organizations which permit the examination of the effects of various changes in a C2 system and which can predict some of the behavior of such a system in a gross sense. And, due to the increased attention being given the field, with the attendant increase in papers, workshops, etcetera, there is slowly developing a common vocabulary for use in the emerging C2 Theory. What is still lacking, however, is a body of experimental data which can be used as a touchstone to guide further theoretical developments, and against which theoretical predictions can be tested. This paper reports the results of a very rudimentary experiment which was conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California, during the 1983 Winter Quarter to test two specific hypotheses. As is often the case, it was found necessary to modify or restate the hypotheses during the conduct of the experiment in order to accommodate certain real world constraints. The results, however, are both interesting in their own right and reassuring for the prospect of being able to do further experiments in the C2 arena.

  3. The LHC Compact Muon Solenoid experiment Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Beccati, B.; Behrens, U.; Biery, K.; Bouffet, O.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cano, E.; Cheung, H.; Ciganek, M.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hatton, D.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Moser, R.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, M.; Sumorok, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is a multi-purpose experiment designed to exploit the physics of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider collision energy (14TeV at centre of mass) over the full range of expected luminosities (up to 1034cm-2s-1). The CMS detector control system (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient operation of the detector so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The system is also required to operate the detector with a small crew of experts who can take care of the maintenance of its software and hardware infrastructure. The subsystems size sum up to more than a million parameters that need to be supervised by the DCS. A cluster of roughly 100 servers is used to provide the required processing resources. A scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made clear a division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing plugging in of functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ensure the correct operation of the detector, DCS organizes the communication between the accelerator and the experiment systems making sure that the detector is in a safe state during hazardous situations and is fully operational when stable conditions are present. This paper describes the current status of the CMS DCS focusing on operational aspects and the role of DCS in this communication.

  4. Genetic Dissection of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, the fifth most important cereal crop in the world is a highly versatile crop and an excellent model species due to its overall tolerance to a number of abiotic stress conditions. To gain a better understanding of the physiological and genetic basis of abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum w...

  5. Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted all the peroxidase substrates in the cell wall. If ROS-levels remain high during prolonged stress, OH°-radicals are formed which lead to polymer cleavage. In concert with xyloglucan modifying enzymes and expansins, the resulting cell wall loosening allows further growth of stressed organs. PMID:25709610

  6. Improved abiotic stress tolerance of bermudagrass by exogenous small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhulong; Shi, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    As a widely used warm-season turfgrass in landscapes and golf courses, bermudagrass encounters multiple abiotic stresses during the growth and development. Physiology analysis indicated that abiotic stresses induced the accumulation of ROS and decline of photosynthesis, resulting in increased cell damage and inhibited growth. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed that antioxidant enzymes and osmoprotectant contents (sugar, sucrose, dehydrin, proline) were extensively changed under abiotic stress conditions. Exogenous application of small molecules, such as ABA, NO, CaCl2, H2S, polyamine and melatonin, could effectively alleviate damages caused by multiple abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, heat and cold. Based on high through-put RNA seq analysis, genes involved in ROS, transcription factors, hormones, and carbohydrate metabolisms were largely enriched. The data indicated that small molecules induced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and antioxidants, kept cell membrane integrity, increased photosynthesis and kept ion homeostasis, which protected bermudagrass from damages caused by abiotic stresses. PMID:25757363

  7. Designing a Hybrid Laminar-Flow Control Experiment: The CFD-Experiment Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/Boeing hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment, designed during 1993-1994 and conducted in the NASA LaRC 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel in 1995, utilized computational fluid dynamics and numerical simulation of complex fluid mechanics to an unprecedented extent for the design of the test article and measurement equipment. CFD was used in: the design of the test wing, which was carried from definition of desired disturbance growth characteristics, through to the final airfoil shape that would produce those growth characteristics; the design of the suction-surface perforation pattern that produced enhanced crossflow-disturbance growth: and in the design of the hot-wire traverse system that produced minimal influence on measured disturbance growth. These and other aspects of the design of the test are discussed, after the historical and technical context of the experiment is described.

  8. Dynamics of spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE) slew maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakad, Y. P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first of two reports on the dynamics and control of slewing maneuvers of the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE). In this report, the dynamics of slewing maneuvers of SCOLE are developed in terms of an arbitrary maneuver about any given axis. The set of dynamical equations incorporate rigid-body slew maneuver and three-dimensional vibrations of the complete assembly comprising the rigid shuttle, the flexible beam, and the reflector with an offset mass. The analysis also includes kinematic nonlinearities of the entire assembly during the maneuver and the dynamics of the interaction between the rigid shuttle and the flexible appendage. The final set of dynamical equations obtained for slewing maneuvers is highly nonlinear and coupled in terms of the flexible modes and the rigid-body modes. The equations are further simplified and evaluated numerically to include the first ten flexible modes and the SCOLE data to yield a model for designing control systems to perform slew maneuvers.

  9. ROCK: The readout controller for the KLOE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aloisio, A.; Cavaliere, S.; Cevenini, F.; Volpe, D. della; Merola, L. |; Fiore, D.J.; Parascandolo, P.

    1996-02-01

    A read-out controller (ROCK) has been developed for the Data Acquisition System of the KLOE High Energy Physics experiment, based in Frascati, Italy. The ROCK performs data acquisition in an event-driven fashion on the AUXbus, a custom high speed parallel bus. The AUXbus`s main features are data cycles labeled by event number, sparse data scan operations and an asynchronous protocol optimized to achieve data rates up to 15 MHz. On a standard VMEbus, the ROCK allows for data snooping and real-time performance monitoring, without additional overhead on data acquisition. ROCK boards can be linked together via a custom cable bus (Cbus) to build a complex DAQ subsystem. The ROCK board has been designed around three 4.2 K gate XILINX FPGAs. Dual port FIFO banks are used to decouple the asynchronous buses. A preliminary version of the board is presented and test results are briefly discussed.

  10. Synthetic clay-magnetite aggregates designed for controlled deposition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Galindo-Gonzalez, C.; Kasama, T.; Cervera, L.; Posfai, M.; Harrison, R. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    The behavior of magnetic particles in fluid environments is key to the acquisition of detrital remanence magnetization and is essential to a multitude of industrial applications. This study introduces a series of synthetic clay-magnetite aggregates whose physical attributes can be tailored for controlled depositional experiments. We describe the mineralogical structure and magnetic behavior of montmorillonite platelets coated with nanometer-scale magnetite crystals using both electron microscopy and rock magnetism techniques. Selected area electron diffraction of the magnetite and the montmorillonite host shows no evidence of preferred orientation or oriented aggregation. Grain size distributions of magnetite in three different clay-magnetite assemblages were directly measured using conventional bright-field transmission electron microscopy. The spacing of the magnetite grains and their three-dimensional distribution around individual clay platelets was imaged using a tomographic reconstruction generated from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images. The grain size distributions determined from the bright-field images and the tomographic reconstruction agree within error with estimates derived from magnetic granulometry techniques based on magnetic hysteresis and low-field susceptibility measurements. All three samples behave superparamagnetically at room temperature, and display increasing levels of single domain behavior as the samples are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures (- 195°C). Off-axis electron holography images show that superparamagnetic grains are also stabilized into flux closure structures at -195°C. The average spacing between adjacent magnetite crystals and the overall platelet shape of the aggregates creates an anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility that allows assemblages to align with external magnetic fields at room temperature. By adjusting the dimensions and concentrations of the magnetite grains in these aggregates, we can create

  11. A General Purpose Experiment Controller for low cost Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Garcia, D.; Rowland, D. E.; Uribe, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2012-12-01

    Space activities are very expensive and include a high degree of risk. Nowadays, CubeSat missions represent a fast and inexpensive way to conduct scientific space research. These platforms are less expensive to develop and build than conventional satellites. There are ample demonstration that these platforms are well suited for a wide range of science missions in different fields, such as astrobiology, astronomy, atmospheric science, space weather and biology. This paper presents a hybrid "processor in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)" experiment/spacecraft controller for Cubesat missions. The system has two objectives, first is to obtain a multipurpose and easily customizable system aimed at processing the data from the widest kind of instruments and second, to provide the system with the highest processing capabilities in order to be able to perform complex onboard algorithms. Due to the versatility of the system and its reduced dimensions, it can be employed in different space platforms. The system is envisioned to be employed for the first time as the smart radio receiver for the upcoming NASA FireStation instrument. It is one of four experiments manifested to fly on an experiment pallet the U.S Department of Defense plans to deploy on the International Space Station in 2013. FireStation will continue analyzing the link between the Lightning and the Terrestrial Gamma Rays initiated by the FireFly Cubesat. The system is responsible for the management of a set of small Heliophysics instrumentats, including a photometer, magnetometer, and electric and magnetic field antennas. A description of the system architecture and its main features are presented. The main functional and performance tests during the integration and calibration phase of the instruments are also discussed.

  12. The 5th Annual NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) Workshop, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    A collection of papers from the workshop are presented. The topics addressed include: the modeling, systems identification, and control synthesis for the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) configuration.

  13. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  14. Regulation of Photosynthesis during Abiotic Stress-Induced Photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Venkatesh, Jelli; Tran, Lam Son Phan

    2015-09-01

    Plants as sessile organisms are continuously exposed to abiotic stress conditions that impose numerous detrimental effects and cause tremendous loss of yield. Abiotic stresses, including high sunlight, confer serious damage on the photosynthetic machinery of plants. Photosystem II (PSII) is one of the most susceptible components of the photosynthetic machinery that bears the brunt of abiotic stress. In addition to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by abiotic stress, ROS can also result from the absorption of excessive sunlight by the light-harvesting complex. ROS can damage the photosynthetic apparatus, particularly PSII, resulting in photoinhibition due to an imbalance in the photosynthetic redox signaling pathways and the inhibition of PSII repair. Designing plants with improved abiotic stress tolerance will require a comprehensive understanding of ROS signaling and the regulatory functions of various components, including protein kinases, transcription factors, and phytohormones, in the responses of photosynthetic machinery to abiotic stress. Bioenergetics approaches, such as chlorophyll a transient kinetics analysis, have facilitated our understanding of plant vitality and the assessment of PSII efficiency under adverse environmental conditions. This review discusses the current understanding and indicates potential areas of further studies on the regulation of the photosynthetic machinery under abiotic stress. PMID:25997389

  15. Dynamics and control of multipayload platforms - The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Crawley, Edward F.; De Luis, Javier

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment entitled the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) proposed by the Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is described. The objective of this program is to investigate and validate the modeling of the dynamics of an actively controlled flexible, articulating, multibody platform free floating in zero gravity. A rationale and experimental approach for the program are presented. The rationale shows that on-orbit testing, coupled with ground testing and a strong analytical program, is necessary in order to fully understand both how flexibility of the platform affects the pointing problem, as well as how gravity perturbs this structural flexibility causing deviations between 1-and 0-gravity behavior. The experimental approach captures the essential physics of multibody platforms, by identifying the appropriate attributes, tests, and performance metrics of the test article, and defines the tests required to successfully validate the analytical framework.

  16. Dynamics and control of multipayload platforms. The middeck active control experiment (MACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David W.; de Luis, Javier; Crawley, Edward F.

    A flight experiment entitled the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) proposed by the Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is described. The objective of this program is to investigate and validate the modeling of the dynamics of an actively controlled flexible, articulating, multibody platform free floating in zero gravity. A rationale and experimental approach for the program are presented. The rationale shows that on-orbit testing, coupled with ground testing and a strong analytical program, is necessary in order to fully understand both how flexibility of the platform affects the pointing problem, as well as how gravity perturbs this structural flexibility causing deviations between 1-and 0-gravity behavior. The experimental approach captures the essential physics of multibody platforms, by identifying the appropriate attributes, tests, and performance metrics of the test article, and defines the tests required to successfully validate the analytical framework.

  17. Real-Time Manganese Phase Dynamics during Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jena E; Savalia, Pratixa; Davis, Ryan; Kocar, Benjamin D; Webb, Samuel M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-04-19

    Manganese oxides are often highly reactive and easily reduced, both abiotically, by a variety of inorganic chemical species, and biologically during anaerobic respiration by microbes. To evaluate the reaction mechanisms of these different reduction routes and their potential lasting products, we measured the sequence progression of microbial manganese(IV) oxide reduction mediated by chemical species (sulfide and ferrous iron) and the common metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under several endmember conditions, using synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic measurements complemented by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on precipitates collected throughout the reaction. Crystalline or potentially long-lived phases produced in these experiments included manganese(II)-phosphate, manganese(II)-carbonate, and manganese(III)-oxyhydroxides. Major controls on the formation of these discrete phases were alkalinity production and solution conditions such as inorganic carbon and phosphate availability. The formation of a long-lived Mn(III) oxide appears to depend on aqueous Mn(2+) production and the relative proportion of electron donors and electron acceptors in the system. These real-time measurements identify mineralogical products during Mn(IV) oxide reduction, contribute to understanding the mechanism of various Mn(IV) oxide reduction pathways, and assist in interpreting the processes occurring actively in manganese-rich environments and recorded in the geologic record of manganese-rich strata. PMID:27018915

  18. Mathematical inference and control of molecular networks from perturbation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed-Rasheed, Mohammed

    in order to affect the time evolution of molecular activity in a desirable manner. In this proposal, we address both the inference and control problems of GRNs. In the first part of the thesis, we consider the control problem. We assume that we are given a general topology network structure, whose dynamics follow a discrete-time Markov chain model. We subsequently develop a comprehensive framework for optimal perturbation control of the network. The aim of the perturbation is to drive the network away from undesirable steady-states and to force it to converge to a unique desirable steady-state. The proposed framework does not make any assumptions about the topology of the initial network (e.g., ergodicity, weak and strong connectivity), and is thus applicable to general topology networks. We define the optimal perturbation as the minimum-energy perturbation measured in terms of the Frobenius norm between the initial and perturbed networks. We subsequently demonstrate that there exists at most one optimal perturbation that forces the network into the desirable steady-state. In the event where the optimal perturbation does not exist, we construct a family of sub-optimal perturbations that approximate the optimal solution arbitrarily closely. In the second part of the thesis, we address the inference problem of GRNs from time series data. We model the dynamics of the molecules using a system of ordinary differential equations corrupted by additive white noise. For large-scale networks, we formulate the inference problem as a constrained maximum likelihood estimation problem. We derive the molecular interactions that maximize the likelihood function while constraining the network to be sparse. We further propose a procedure to recover weak interactions based on the Bayesian information criterion. For small-size networks, we investigated the inference of a globally stable 7-gene melanoma genetic regulatory network from genetic perturbation experiments. We considered five

  19. Identification of Genes Involved in the Response of Arabidopsis to Simultaneous Biotic and Abiotic Stresses1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Nicky J.; Lilley, Catherine J.; Urwin, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    In field conditions, plants may experience numerous environmental stresses at any one time. Research suggests that the plant response to multiple stresses is different from that for individual stresses, producing nonadditive effects. In particular, the molecular signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact and antagonize one another. The transcriptome response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to concurrent water deficit (abiotic stress) and infection with the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii (biotic stress) was analyzed by microarray. A unique program of gene expression was activated in response to a combination of water deficit and nematode stress, with 50 specifically multiple-stress-regulated genes. Candidate genes with potential roles in controlling the response to multiple stresses were selected and functionally characterized. RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR-LIKE8 (AtRALFL8) was induced in roots by joint stresses but conferred susceptibility to drought stress and nematode infection when overexpressed. Constitutively expressing plants had stunted root systems and extended root hairs. Plants may produce signal peptides such as AtRALFL8 to induce cell wall remodeling in response to multiple stresses. The methionine homeostasis gene METHIONINE GAMMA LYASE (AtMGL) was up-regulated by dual stress in leaves, conferring resistance to nematodes when overexpressed. It may regulate methionine metabolism under conditions of multiple stresses. AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 (AZI1), involved in defense priming in systemic plant immunity, was down-regulated in leaves by joint stress and conferred drought susceptibility when overexpressed, potentially as part of abscisic acid-induced repression of pathogen response genes. The results highlight the complex nature of multiple stress responses and confirm the importance of studying plant stress factors in combination. PMID:23800991

  20. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops. PMID:22942725

  1. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management. PMID:26704665

  2. Abiotic uptake of gases by organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.

    2007-12-01

    Methodological and experimental studies of the abiotic uptake of gaseous substances by organic soils were performed. The static adsorption method of closed vessels for assessing the interaction of gases with the solid and liquid soil phases and the dynamic method of determining the sorption isotherms of gases by soils were analyzed. The theoretical substantiation of the methods and their practical implementations on the basis of a PGA-7 portable gas analyzer (Russia) were considered. Good agreement between the equilibrium sorption isotherms of the gases and the Langmuir model was revealed; for the real ranges of natural gas concentrations, this model can be reduced to the linear Henry equation. The limit values of the gas sorption (Langmuir monolayer capacity) are typical for dry samples; they vary from 670 4000 g/m3 for methane and oxygen to 20 000 25 000 g/m3 for carbon dioxide. The linear distribution coefficients of gases between the solid and gas phases of organic soils (Henry constants) are 8 18 units for poorly sorbed gases (O2, CH4) and 40 60 units for CO2. The kinetics of the chemicophysical uptake of gases by the soil studied is linear in character and obeys the relaxation kinetic model of the first order with the corresponding relaxation constants, which vary from 1 h -1 in wet samples to 10 h -1 in dry samples.

  3. Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental stresses including climate change, especially global warming, are severely affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. It has been estimated that two-thirds of the yield potential of major crops are routinely lost due to the unfavorable environmental factors. On the other hand, the world population is estimated to reach about 10 billion by 2050, which will witness serious food shortages. Therefore, crops with enhanced vigour and high tolerance to various environmental factors should be developed to feed the increasing world population. Maintaining crop yields under adverse environmental stresses is probably the major challenge facing modern agriculture where polyamines can play important role. Polyamines (PAs)(putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are group of phytohormone-like aliphatic amine natural compounds with aliphatic nitrogen structure and present in almost all living organisms including plants. Evidences showed that polyamines are involved in many physiological processes, such as cell growth and development and respond to stress tolerance to various environmental factors. In many cases the relationship of plant stress tolerance was noted with the production of conjugated and bound polyamines as well as stimulation of polyamine oxidation. Therefore, genetic manipulation of crop plants with genes encoding enzymes of polyamine biosynthetic pathways may provide better stress tolerance to crop plants. Furthermore, the exogenous application of PAs is also another option for increasing the stress tolerance potential in plants. Here, we have described the synthesis and role of various polyamines in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:20592804

  4. Oxygen and sulfur isotope systematics of sulfate produced during abiotic and bacterial oxidation of sphalerite and elemental sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Mayer, Bernhard; Shanks, Wayne C.; Mandernack, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of metal sulfide oxidation in acid mine drainage (AMD) systems have primarily focused on pyrite oxidation, although acid soluble sulfides (e.g., ZnS) are predominantly responsible for the release of toxic metals. We conducted a series of biological and abiotic laboratory oxidation experiments with pure and Fe-bearing sphalerite (ZnS & Zn0.88Fe0.12S), respectively, in order to better understand the effects of sulfide mineralogy and associated biogeochemical controls of oxidation on the resultant δ34S and δ18O values of the sulfate produced. The minerals were incubated in the presence and absence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at an initial solution pH of 3 and with water of varying δ18O values to determine the relative contributions of H2O-derived and O2-derived oxygen in the newly formed sulfate. . Experiments were conducted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using O2 and Fe(III)aq as the oxidants, respectively. Aerobic incubations with A. ferrooxidans, and So as the sole energy source were also conducted. The δ34SSO4 values from both the biological and abiotic oxidation of ZnS and ZnSFe by Fe(III)aq produced sulfur isotope fractionations (ε34SSO4-ZnS) of up to -2.6‰, suggesting the accumulation of sulfur intermediates during incomplete oxidation of the sulfide. No significant sulfur isotope fractionation was observed from any of the aerobic experiments. Negative sulfur isotope enrichment factors (ε34SSO4-ZnS) in AMD systems could reflect anaerobic, rather than aerobic pathways of oxidation. During the biological and abiotic oxidation of ZnS and ZnSFe by Fe(III)aq all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water, with measured ε18OSO4-H2O values of 8.2 ± 0.2‰ and 7.5 ± 0.1‰, respectively. Also, during the aerobic oxidation of ZnSFe and So by A. ferrooxidans, all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water with similar measured ε18OSO4-H2O values of 8.1 ± 0.1‰ and 8.3 ± 0.3‰, respectively. During biological oxidation of ZnS by O

  5. Oxygen and sulfur isotope systematics of sulfate produced during abiotic and bacterial oxidation of sphalerite and elemental sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balci, N.; Mayer, B.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Mandernack, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of metal sulfide oxidation in acid mine drainage (AMD) systems have primarily focused on pyrite oxidation, although acid soluble sulfides (e.g., ZnS) are predominantly responsible for the release of toxic metals. We conducted a series of biological and abiotic laboratory oxidation experiments with pure and Fe-bearing sphalerite (ZnS & Zn 0.88Fe 0.12S), respectively, in order to better understand the effects of sulfide mineralogy and associated biogeochemical controls of oxidation on the resultant ?? 34S and ?? 18O values of the sulfate produced. The minerals were incubated in the presence and absence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at an initial solution pH of 3 and with water of varying ?? 18O values to determine the relative contributions of H 2O-derived and O 2-derived oxygen in the newly formed sulfate. Experiments were conducted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using O 2 and Fe(III) aq as the oxidants, respectively. Aerobic incubations with A. ferrooxidans, and S o as the sole energy source were also conducted. The ??34SSO4 values from both the biological and abiotic oxidation of ZnS and ZnS Fe by Fe(III) aq produced sulfur isotope fractionations (??34SSO4-ZnS) of up to -2.6???, suggesting the accumulation of sulfur intermediates during incomplete oxidation of the sulfide. No significant sulfur isotope fractionation was observed from any of the aerobic experiments. Negative sulfur isotope enrichment factors (??34SSO4-ZnS) in AMD systems could reflect anaerobic, rather than aerobic pathways of oxidation. During the biological and abiotic oxidation of ZnS and ZnS Fe by Fe(III) aq all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water, with measured ?? 18OSO 4-H 2O values of 8.2??0.2??? and 7.5??0.1???, respectively. Also, during the aerobic oxidation of ZnS Fe and S o by A. ferrooxidans, all of the sulfate oxygen was derived from water with similar measured ?? 18OSO 4-H 2O values of 8.1??0.1??? and 8.3??0.3???, respectively. During biological oxidation

  6. Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Kissoudis, Christos; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signaling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, reactive oxygen species, and redox signaling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step toward the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops. PMID:24904607

  7. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure. PMID:21506878

  8. Ground control system for the midcourse space experiment UTC clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard

    1994-01-01

    One goal of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft Operations Planning Center is to maintain the onboard satellite UTC clock (UTC(MSX)) to within 1 millisecond of UTC(APL) (the program requirement is 10 msec). The UTC(MSX) clock employs as its time base an APL built 5 MHz quartz oscillator, which is expected to have frequency instabilities (aging rate + drift rate + frequency offset) that will cause the clock to drift approximately two to ten milliseconds per day. The UTC(MSX) clock can be advanced or retarded by the APL MSX satellite ground control center by integer multiples of 1 millisecond. The MSX Operations Planning Center is developing software which records the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) and which schedules the time of day and magnitude of UTC(MSX) clock updates up to 48 hours in advance. Because of the manner in which MSX spacecraft activities are scheduled, MSX clock updates are planned 24 to 48 hours in advance, and stored in the satellite's computer controller for later execution. Data will be collected on the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) over a three to five day period. Approximately six times per day, the time offset between UTC(MSX) and UTC(APL) will be measured by APL with a resolution of less than 100 microseconds. From this data a second order analytical model of the clock's drift will be derived. This model will be used to extrapolate the offset of the MSX clock in time from the present to 48 hours in the future. MSX clock updates will be placed on the spacecraft's daily schedule whenever the predicted clock offset exceeds 0.5 milliseconds. The paper includes a discussion of how the empirical model of the MSX clock is derived from satellite telemetry data, as well as the algorithm used to schedule MSX clock updates based on the model.

  9. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  10. Evaluating vortex generator jet experiments for turbulent flow separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Stillfried, F.; Kékesi, T.; Wallin, S.; Johansson, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    Separating turbulent boundary-layers can be energized by streamwise vortices from vortex generators (VG) that increase the near wall momentum as well as the overall mixing of the flow so that flow separation can be delayed or even prevented. In general, two different types of VGs exist: passive vane VGs (VVG) and active VG jets (VGJ). Even though VGs are already successfully used in engineering applications, it is still time-consuming and computationally expensive to include them in a numerical analysis. Fully resolved VGs in a computational mesh lead to a very high number of grid points and thus, computational costs. In addition, computational parameter studies for such flow control devices take much time to set-up. Therefore, much of the research work is still carried out experimentally. KTH Stockholm develops a novel VGJ model that makes it possible to only include the physical influence in terms of the additional stresses that originate from the VGJs without the need to locally refine the computational mesh. Such a modelling strategy enables fast VGJ parameter variations and optimization studies are easliy made possible. For that, VGJ experiments are evaluated in this contribution and results are used for developing a statistical VGJ model.

  11. Particle Control in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.D.; Hill, D.N.; Hooper, E.B.; Buchenauer, D.; McLean, H.; Wang, Z.; Woodruff, S.; Wurden, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we report on density and impurity measurements in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) which has recently started operation. The SSPX spheromak plasma is sustained by coaxial helicity injection for a duration of 2msec with peak toroidal currents of up to 0.5MA. The plasma-facing components consist of tungsten-coated copper to minimize sputtering. The surfaces are conditioned by a combination of baking at 150 C, glow discharge cleaning, Titanium gettering, and pulse-discharge cleaning with helium plasmas. In this way we can achieve density control so that the plasma density ({approx} 1-4 x 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}) matches the gas input. Low-density operation is presently limited by breakdown requirements, but we hope that new gas valves with supersonic nozzles will allow for a further reduction in density. We find that the conditioning reduces the impurity radiation to the point where it is no longer important to the energy balance, and long-lived spheromak plasmas are obtained (decay times of 1.5msec).

  12. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur

    2012-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and test a capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments where oxygen fugacity could be controlled in the vicinity of the QFM buffer without H2O loss or carbon contamination of the sample material. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) plus H2O and an inner AuPd-capsule, containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. No H2O loss is observed from the sample, even after 48 h, but a slight increase in H2O content is found in longer runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO (NNO) and Co-CoO (CoCO) buffers was measured by analyzing Fe dissolved in the Pt-wire and in the AuPd-capsule. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer values, whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values.

  13. Complete photoionization experiments via ultrafast coherent control with polarization multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Lux, C; Baumert, T

    2014-06-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) obtained from ionization of potassium atoms using moderately intense femtosecond IR fields (∼10^{12}  W cm^{-2}) of various polarization states are shown to provide a route to "complete" photoionization experiments. Ionization occurs by a net three-photon absorption process, driven via the 4s→4p resonance at the one-photon level. A theoretical treatment incorporating the intrapulse electronic dynamics allows for a full set of ionization matrix elements to be extracted from 2D imaging data. 3D PADs generated from the extracted matrix elements are also compared to experimental, tomographically reconstructed, 3D photoelectron distributions, providing a sensitive test of their validity. Finally, application of the determined matrix elements to ionization via more complex, polarization-shaped, pulses is demonstrated, illustrating the utility of this methodology towards detailed understanding of complex ionization control schemes and suggesting the utility of such "multiplexed" intrapulse processes as powerful tools for measurement. PMID:24949763

  14. Comparative study of biogenic and abiotic iron-containing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z.; Shopska, M.; Paneva, D.; Kovacheva, D.; Kadinov, G.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Series of iron-based biogenic materials prepared by cultivation of Leptothrix group of bacteria in different feeding media ( Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium, Adler, Lieske and silicon-iron-glucose-peptone) were studied. Control samples were obtained in the same conditions and procedures but the nutrition media were not infected with bacteria, i.e. they were sterile. Room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to reveal the composition and physicochemical properties of biomass and respective control samples. Comparative analysis showed differences in their composition and dispersity of present phases. Sample composition included different ratio of nanodimensional iron oxyhydroxide and oxide phases. Relaxation phenomena such as superparamagnetism or collective magnetic excitation behaviour were registered for some of them. The experimental data showed that the biogenic materials were enriched in oxyhydroxides of high dispersion. Catalytic behaviour of a selected biomass and abiotic material were studied in the reaction of CO oxidation. In situ diffuse-reflectance (DR) IRS was used to monitor the phase transformations in the biomass and CO conversion.

  15. A Controllable Earthquake Rupture Experiment on the Homestake Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L. C.; Garagash, D.; Reches, Z.; Martel, S. J.; Gwaba, D.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fault-slip is typically simulated in the laboratory at the cm-to-dm scale. Laboratory results are then up-scaled by orders of magnitude to understand faulting and earthquakes processes. We suggest an experimental approach to reactivate faults in-situ at scales ~10-100 m using thermal techniques and fluid injection to modify in situ stresses and the fault strength to the point where the rock fails. Mines where the modified in-situ stresses are sufficient to drive faulting, present an opportunity to conduct such experiments. During our recent field work in the former Homestake gold mine in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, we found a large fault present on multiple mine levels. The fault is subparallel to the local foliation in the Poorman formation, a Proterozoic metamorphic rock deformed into regional-scale folds with axes plunging ~40° to the SSE. The fault extends at least 1.5 km along strike and dip, with a center ~1.5 km deep. It strikes ~320-340° N, dips ~45-70° NE, and is recognized by a ~0.3-0.5 m thick distinct gouge that contains crushed host rock and black material that appears to be graphite. Although we could not find clear evidence for fault displacement, secondary features suggest that it is a normal fault. The size and distinct structure of this fault make it a promising target for in-situ experimentation of fault strength, hydrological properties, and slip nucleation processes. Most earthquakes are thought to be the result of unstable slip on existing faults, Activation of the Homestake fault in response to the controlled fluid injection and thermally changing background stresses is likely to be localized on a crack-like patch. Slow patch propagation, moderated by the injection rate and the rate of change of the background stresses, may become unstable, leading to the nucleation of a small earthquake (dynamic) rupture. This controlled instability is intimately related to the dependence of the fault strength on the slip process and has been

  16. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level. PMID:26867623

  17. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  18. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T; Artaev, Viatcheslav B; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  19. Olivine Weathering: Abiotic Versus Biotic Processes as Possible Biosignatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Southam, G.; Clemett, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study to determine how abiotic versus biotic processes affect the weathering of olivine crystals. Perhaps the differences between these weathering processes could be used as biosignatures. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Abiotic stress responses in plant roots: a proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dipanjana; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress conditions adversely affect plant growth, resulting in significant decline in crop productivity. To mitigate and recover from the damaging effects of such adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies at cellular and metabolic levels. Most of these strategies involve dynamic changes in protein abundance that can be best explored through proteomics. This review summarizes comparative proteomic studies conducted with roots of various plant species subjected to different abiotic stresses especially drought, salinity, flood, and cold. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and classify the protein level changes in abiotic stress response pathways specifically in plant roots. Shared as well as stressor-specific proteome signatures and adaptive mechanism(s) are simultaneously described. Such a comprehensive account will facilitate the design of genetic engineering strategies that enable the development of broad-spectrum abiotic stress-tolerant crops. PMID:24478786

  1. Roles of melatonin in abiotic stress resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Cao, Yunyun; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In recent years melatonin has emerged as a research highlight in plant studies. Melatonin has different functions in many aspects of plant growth and development. The most frequently mentioned functions of melatonin are related to abiotic stresses such as drought, radiation, extreme temperature, and chemical stresses. This review mainly focuses on the regulatory effects of melatonin when plants face harsh environmental conditions. Evidence indicates that environmental stress can increase the level of endogenous melatonin in plants. Overexpression of the melatonin biosynthetic genes elevates melatonin levels in transgenic plants. The transgenic plants show enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses. Exogenously applied melatonin can also improve the ability of plants to tolerate abiotic stresses. The mechanisms by which melatonin alleviates abiotic stresses are discussed. PMID:25124318

  2. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  3. Tissue specific and abiotic stress regulated transcription of histidine kinases in plants is also influenced by diurnal rhythm.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anupama; Kushwaha, Hemant R; Soni, Praveen; Gupta, Himanshu; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Two-component system (TCS) is one of the key signal sensing machinery which enables species to sense environmental stimuli. It essentially comprises of three major components, sensory histidine kinase proteins (HKs), histidine phosphotransfer proteins (Hpts), and response regulator proteins (RRs). The members of the TCS family have already been identified in Arabidopsis and rice but the knowledge about their functional indulgence during various abiotic stress conditions remains meager. Current study is an attempt to carry out comprehensive analysis of the expression of TCS members in response to various abiotic stress conditions and in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis and rice using MPSS and publicly available microarray data. The analysis suggests that despite having almost similar number of genes, rice expresses higher number of TCS members during various abiotic stress conditions than Arabidopsis. We found that the TCS machinery is regulated by not only various abiotic stresses, but also by the tissue specificity. Analysis of expression of some representative members of TCS gene family showed their regulation by the diurnal cycle in rice seedlings, thus bringing-in another level of their transcriptional control. Thus, we report a highly complex and tight regulatory network of TCS members, as influenced by the tissue, abiotic stress signal, and diurnal rhythm. The insights on the comparative expression analysis presented in this study may provide crucial leads toward dissection of diverse role(s) of the various TCS family members in Arabidopsis and rice. PMID:26442025

  4. Tissue specific and abiotic stress regulated transcription of histidine kinases in plants is also influenced by diurnal rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anupama; Kushwaha, Hemant R.; Soni, Praveen; Gupta, Himanshu; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Two-component system (TCS) is one of the key signal sensing machinery which enables species to sense environmental stimuli. It essentially comprises of three major components, sensory histidine kinase proteins (HKs), histidine phosphotransfer proteins (Hpts), and response regulator proteins (RRs). The members of the TCS family have already been identified in Arabidopsis and rice but the knowledge about their functional indulgence during various abiotic stress conditions remains meager. Current study is an attempt to carry out comprehensive analysis of the expression of TCS members in response to various abiotic stress conditions and in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis and rice using MPSS and publicly available microarray data. The analysis suggests that despite having almost similar number of genes, rice expresses higher number of TCS members during various abiotic stress conditions than Arabidopsis. We found that the TCS machinery is regulated by not only various abiotic stresses, but also by the tissue specificity. Analysis of expression of some representative members of TCS gene family showed their regulation by the diurnal cycle in rice seedlings, thus bringing-in another level of their transcriptional control. Thus, we report a highly complex and tight regulatory network of TCS members, as influenced by the tissue, abiotic stress signal, and diurnal rhythm. The insights on the comparative expression analysis presented in this study may provide crucial leads toward dissection of diverse role(s) of the various TCS family members in Arabidopsis and rice. PMID:26442025

  5. Classical oscillators in the control of quantum tunneling: Numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of a classical anharmonic oscillator is exploited to control the tunneling dynamics of a quantum particle to which the classical oscillator is coupled. The mixed quantum classical problem is investigated at a mean-field like level. The anharmonic strength (λ) , particle mass (Mc) and harmonic stiffness (ωc) of the classical controller are explored as possible control parameters for the tunneling dynamics. The strength, the type of coupling between the quantum system and classical controller and the effective frequency of the controller emerge as crucial factors in shaping the nature and extent of the control. A whole spectrum of possibilities starting from enhancement, suppression to complete destruction of tunneling emerge depending on values assigned to the control parameters, the type of coupling and the control configuration used. When classical controller is replaced by a quantum controller, the control landscape becomes much simpler.

  6. The dynamics and control of the orbiting spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE) during station keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Diarra, Cheick M.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the dynamics of the proposed orbiting Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment during the station keeping phase. The Shuttle as well as the reflector are assumed to be rigid, the mast is flexible and is assumed to undergo elastic displacements very small as compared with its length. The equations of motion are derived using a Newton-Euler formulation. The model includes the effects of gravity, flexibility, and orbital dynamics. The control is assumed to be provided to the system through the Shuttle's three torquers, and through six actuators located by pairs at two points on the mast and at the mass center of the reflector. At each of the locations, an actuator acts parallel to the roll axis while the other one acts parallel to the pitch axis. It is seen that, in the presence of gravity-gradient torques in the system dynamics, the system assumes a new equilibrium position about which the equations must be linearized, primarily due to the offset in the mast attachment point to the reflector. The linear regulator theory is used to derive control laws for the linear model of the SCOLE including the first four flexible modes. Numerical results confirm the robustness of this control strategy for station keeping with maximum control efforts significantly below saturation levels.

  7. Coupled biotic-abiotic oxidation of organic matter by biogenic MnO_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Julia; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    Some reactive soil minerals are strongly implicated in stabilising organic matter. However, others can play an active role in the oxidation of organic molecules. In natural systems, layer-type manganese oxide minerals (MnO2) typically occur as biomineral assemblages consisting of mineral particles and microbial biomass. Both the mineral and biological fractions of the assemblage can be powerful oxidants of organic C. The biological compartment relies on a set of enzymes to drive oxidative transformations of reduced C-substrates, whereas MnO2 minerals are strong, less specific abiotic oxidants that are assumed to rely on interfacial interactions between C-substrates and the mineral surface. This project aims to understand the coupling between microbial C mineralization and abiotic C oxidation mediated by MnO2 in bacterial-MnO2 assemblages. Specifically, under conditions of high C turnover, microbial respiration can significantly alter local pH, dissolved oxygen and pool of available reductants, which may modify rates and mechanism of C oxidation by biotic and abiotic components. We first investigated changes in the solution chemistry of Pseudomonas putida suspensions exposed to varying concentrations of glucose, chosen to represent readily bioavailable substrates in soils. Glucose concentrations tested ranged between 0 and 5.5mM and changes in pH, dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon were tracked over 48h. We then combined literature review and wet-chemical experiments to compile the pH dependence of rates of organic substrate oxidation by MnO2, including glucose. Our results demonstrate a strong pH dependence for these abiotic reactions. In assemblages of P. putida - MnO2, kinetic limitations for abiotic C oxidation by MnO2 are overcome by changes in biogeochemical conditions that result from bacterial C metabolism. When extrapolated to a soil solution confronted to an input of fresh dissolved organic matter, bacterial C metabolism of the

  8. 14-3-3 proteins: Macro-regulators with great potential for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Shaohong; Liu, Bin

    2016-08-12

    14-3-3 proteins (14-3-3s) are highly conserved regulatory proteins that are uniquely eukaryotic, and deeply involved in protein-protein interactions that mediate diverse signaling pathways. In plants, 14-3-3s have been validated to regulate many biological processes, such as metabolism, light and hormone signaling, cell-cycle control and protein trafficking. Recent years we have also witnessed an increasing number of reports describing the functions of 14-3-3s in plant stress responses through interactions with key proteins in both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review, we highlight the advances that have been made in investigating the roles of 14-3-3s in plant abiotic stress tolerance. These advances provide a framework for our understanding of how signals are integrated to perceive and respond to the abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27233603

  9. Evolution and Adaptation of Wild Emmer Wheat Populations to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Raats, Dina; Sela, Hanan; Klymiuk, Valentina; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel; Feng, Lihua; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion

    2016-08-01

    The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways. The study of genetic diversity, genomic organization, expression profiles, protein structure and function of biotic and abiotic stress-resistance genes, and QTLs could shed light on the evolutionary history and adaptation mechanisms of wild emmer populations for their natural habitats. The continuous evolution and adaptation of wild emmer to the changing environment provide novel solutions that can contribute to safeguarding food for the rapidly growing human population. PMID:27296141

  10. The White Pine Mine explosively induced, controlled collapse experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    On September 3, 1995, the White Pine Mine, which is owned by Copper Range Company, conducted the first of a planned series of explosive removal of existing pillars in their underground mining operations. The purpose of this operation is to evaluate the effectiveness of pillar rubbilization and roof collapse for planned in-situ leaching of the copper ore from the rock mass. This type of seismic source is unique in that a large, delay fired, explosive source was expected to be followed by collapse of the rock immediately above the explosion into the void created. Characterization of this type of mining source is of interest to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Seismic Program due to its unique properties. These include the controlled nature of the source in time, location, and magnitude, the fact that the source is located in an active region of underground mining, and that natural collapse of large portions of this mine have occurred in the recent past. The Mine operator is concerned with the characterization of the vibration induced by both the explosive and implosive components of the procedure and determination of the depth to which chimneying of the roof proceeded. This report will document: The reasons for conducting both the explosively induced collapse and the Los Alamos National Laboratory CTBT R&D Experimental Field Program experiment; The local and regional seismic, acoustic, and videographic data acquired; Analysis of the explosion/collapse seismic signal generated; Analysis and location of the aftershocks associated with the collapse; and Conclusions made concerning this type of mining explosion in relation to verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  11. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Veselin; Hille, Jacques; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko S.

    2015-01-01

    During the course of their ontogenesis plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD). This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process. PMID:25741354

  12. MICROSCALE METABOLIC, REDOX AND ABIOTIC REACTIONS IN HANFORD 300 AREA SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Beyenal, Haluk; McLEan, Jeff; Majors, Paul; Fredrickson, Jim

    2013-11-14

    The Hanford 300 Area is a unique site due to periodic hydrologic influence of river water resulting in changes in groundwater elevation and flow direction. This area is also highly subject to uranium remobilization, the source of which is currently believed to be the region at the base of the vadose zone that is subject to period saturation due to the changes in the water levels in the Columbia River. We found that microbial processes and redox and abiotic reactions which operate at the microscale were critical to understanding factors controlling the macroscopic fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. The combined laboratory and field research showed how microscale conditions control uranium mobility and how biotic, abiotic and redox reactions relate to each other. Our findings extended the current knowledge to examine U(VI) reduction and immobilization using natural 300 Area communities as well as selected model organisms on redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive minerals. Using innovative techniques developed specifically to probe biogeochemical processes at the microscale, our research expanded our current understanding of the roles played by mineral surfaces, bacterial competition, and local biotic, abiotic and redox reaction rates on the reduction and immobilization of uranium.

  13. Preliminary structural control results from the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Saarmaa, Erik; Jacques, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of on-going closed-loop ground experiments on the MACE test article, the objective of which is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero gravity can be predicted, as well as to examine orbit system identification and control reconfiguration. The MACE hardware consists of three torque wheels, a two-axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors, and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this is to represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. When linear quadratic Gaussian control is used, payload pointing accuracy is improved by an order of magnitude when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The successes and failures of the design and implementation process are discussed.

  14. Structural control sensors for CASES. [Control, Astrophysics and Structures Experiment in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hugh W.; Sharkey, John P.; Carrington, Connie K.

    1990-01-01

    The Remote Attitude Measurement Sensor (RAMS) is currently baselined to meet two important sensor needs for CASES (Control, Astrophysics and Structures Experiment in Space). First, as a tip displacement sensor, RAMS is designed to provide accurate knowledge of the position and orientation of the boom tip assembly. Secondly, as a boom motion tracker, it is designed to monitor 43 reflective targets which are distributed along the length of the boom and provide displacment information for post facto processing. The design and operation of RAMS as these two types of sesnors are described, and attention is given to how RAMS interfaces with the CASES closed-loop control system and how systems identification is accommodated.

  15. FATE OF FENTHION IN SALT-MARSH ENVIRONMENTS: 1. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC DEGRADATION RATES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenthion (Baytex), an organophosphate insecticide, is frequently applied to salt-marsh environments to control mosquitoes. hake-flask tests were used to study rates of abiotic and biotic degradation of fenthion and the environmental parameters that affect these rates. Water or wa...

  16. Circadian Redox Signaling in Plant Immunity and Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Spoel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Plant crops are critically important to provide quality food and bio-energy to sustain a growing human population. Circadian clocks have been shown to deliver an adaptive advantage to plants, vastly increasing biomass production by efficient anticipation to the solar cycle. Plant stress, on the other hand, whether biotic or abiotic, prevents crops from reaching maximum productivity. Recent Advances: Stress is associated with fluctuations in cellular redox and increased phytohormone signaling. Recently, direct links between circadian timekeeping, redox fluctuations, and hormone signaling have been identified. A direct implication is that circadian control of cellular redox homeostasis influences how plants negate stress to ensure growth and reproduction. Critical Issues: Complex cellular biochemistry leads from perception of stress via hormone signals and formation of reactive oxygen intermediates to a physiological response. Circadian clocks and metabolic pathways intertwine to form a confusing biochemical labyrinth. Here, we aim to find order in this complex matter by reviewing current advances in our understanding of the interface between these networks. Future Directions: Although the link is now clearly defined, at present a key question remains as to what extent the circadian clock modulates redox, and vice versa. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis by which the circadian clock gates redox- and hormone-mediated stress responses remains largely elusive. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 3024–3039. PMID:23941583

  17. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  18. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  19. Understanding molecular mechanism of higher plant plasticity under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Guo, Qing-Jie; Chu, Li-Ye; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Su, Zhong-Liang; Hu, Ya-Chen; Cheng, Jiang-Feng

    2007-01-15

    Higher plants play the most important role in keeping a stable environment on the earth, which regulate global circumstances in many ways in terms of different levels (molecular, individual, community, and so on), but the nature of the mechanism is gene expression and control temporally and spatially at the molecular level. In persistently changing environment, there are many adverse stress conditions such as cold, drought, salinity and UV-B (280-320 mm), which influence plant growth and crop production greatly. Plants differ from animals in many aspects, but the important may be that plants are more easily influenced by environment than animals. Plants have a series of fine mechanisms for responding to environmental changes, which has been established during their long-period evolution and artificial domestication. These mechanisms are involved in many aspects of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, development, evolution and molecular biology, in which the adaptive machinery related to molecular biology is the most important. The elucidation of it will extremely and purposefully promote the sustainable utilization of plant resources and make the best use of its current potential under different scales. This molecular mechanism at least include environmental signal recognition (input), signal transduction (many cascade biochemical reactions are involved in this process), signal output, signal responses and phenotype realization, which is a multi-dimensional network system and contain many levels of gene expression and regulation. We will focus on the molecular adaptive machinery of higher plant plasticity under abiotic stresses. PMID:16914294

  20. [A field study of tundra plant litter decomposition rate via mass loss and carbon dioxide emission: the role of biotic and abiotic controls, biotope, season of year, and spatial-temporal scale].

    PubMed

    Pochikalov, A V; Karelin, D V

    2014-01-01

    Although many recently published original papers and reviews deal with plant matter decomposition rates and their controls, we are still very short in understanding of these processes in boreal and high latiude plant communities, especially in permafrost areas of our planet. First and foremost, this is holds true for winter period. Here, we present the results of 2-year field observations in south taiga and south shrub tundra ecosystems in European Russia. We pioneered in simultaneous application of two independent methods: classic mass loss estimation by litter-bag technique, and direct measurement of CO2 emission (respiration) of the same litter bags with different types of dead plant matter. Such an approach let us to reconstruct intra-seasonal dynamics of decomposition rates of the main tundra litter fractions with high temporal resolution, to estimate the partial role of different seasons and defragmentation in the process of plant matter decomposition, and to determine its factors under different temporal scale. PMID:25771676

  1. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  2. Control and Stabilization: Making Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Hill, Christoph; Heering, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Educational versions of Millikan's oil-drop experiment have frequently been criticized; suggestions for improvement either focus on technical innovations of the setup or on replacing the experiment by other approaches of familiarization, such as computer simulations. In our approach, we have analysed experimental procedures. In doing so, we were…

  3. Feelings of Control: Contingency Determines Experience of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James W.; Lagnado, David; Deal, Darvany C.; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The experience of causation is a pervasive product of the human mind. Moreover, the experience of causing an event alters subjective time: actions are perceived as temporally shifted towards their effects [Haggard, P., Clark, S., & Kalogeras, J. (2002). Voluntary action and conscious awareness. "Nature Neuroscience," 5(4), 382-385]. This temporal…

  4. Adaptive-Control Experiments On A Large Flexible Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ih, Che-Hang C.; Bayard, David S.; Wang, Shyh J.; Eldred, Daniel B.

    1990-01-01

    Antennalike flexible structure built for research in advanced technology including suppression of vibrations and control of initial deflections. Structure instrumented with sensors and actuators connected to digital electronic control system, programmed with control algorithms to be tested. Particular attention in this research focused on direct model-reference adaptive-control algorithm based on command generator tracker theory. Built to exhibit multiple vibrational modes, low modal frequencies, and low structural damping. Made three-dimensional so complicated interactions among components of structure and control system investigated.

  5. Polyamines and abiotic stress in plants: a complex relationship.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Rakesh; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Minocha, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    The physiological relationship between abiotic stress in plants and polyamines was reported more than 40 years ago. Ever since there has been a debate as to whether increased polyamines protect plants against abiotic stress (e.g., due to their ability to deal with oxidative radicals) or cause damage to them (perhaps due to hydrogen peroxide produced by their catabolism). The observation that cellular polyamines are typically elevated in plants under both short-term as well as long-term abiotic stress conditions is consistent with the possibility of their dual effects, i.e., being protectors from as well as perpetrators of stress damage to the cells. The observed increase in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress when their cellular contents are elevated by either exogenous treatment with polyamines or through genetic engineering with genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes is indicative of a protective role for them. However, through their catabolic production of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein, both strong oxidizers, they can potentially be the cause of cellular harm during stress. In fact, somewhat enigmatic but strong positive relationship between abiotic stress and foliar polyamines has been proposed as a potential biochemical marker of persistent environmental stress in forest trees in which phenotypic symptoms of stress are not yet visible. Such markers may help forewarn forest managers to undertake amelioration strategies before the appearance of visual symptoms of stress and damage at which stage it is often too late for implementing strategies for stress remediation and reversal of damage. This review provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the published literature on interactions between abiotic stress and polyamines in plants, and examines the experimental strategies used to understand the functional significance of this relationship with the aim of improving plant productivity, especially under conditions of abiotic stress. PMID:24847338

  6. Polyamines and abiotic stress in plants: a complex relationship1

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Rakesh; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Minocha, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological relationship between abiotic stress in plants and polyamines was reported more than 40 years ago. Ever since there has been a debate as to whether increased polyamines protect plants against abiotic stress (e.g., due to their ability to deal with oxidative radicals) or cause damage to them (perhaps due to hydrogen peroxide produced by their catabolism). The observation that cellular polyamines are typically elevated in plants under both short-term as well as long-term abiotic stress conditions is consistent with the possibility of their dual effects, i.e., being protectors from as well as perpetrators of stress damage to the cells. The observed increase in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress when their cellular contents are elevated by either exogenous treatment with polyamines or through genetic engineering with genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes is indicative of a protective role for them. However, through their catabolic production of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein, both strong oxidizers, they can potentially be the cause of cellular harm during stress. In fact, somewhat enigmatic but strong positive relationship between abiotic stress and foliar polyamines has been proposed as a potential biochemical marker of persistent environmental stress in forest trees in which phenotypic symptoms of stress are not yet visible. Such markers may help forewarn forest managers to undertake amelioration strategies before the appearance of visual symptoms of stress and damage at which stage it is often too late for implementing strategies for stress remediation and reversal of damage. This review provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the published literature on interactions between abiotic stress and polyamines in plants, and examines the experimental strategies used to understand the functional significance of this relationship with the aim of improving plant productivity, especially under conditions of abiotic stress. PMID:24847338

  7. Adaptive independent joint control of manipulators - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The proposed control scheme for each joint consists of a PID (proportional integral and differential) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. The static and dynamic couplings that exist between the joint motions are compensated by the adaptive independent joint controllers while ensuring trajectory tracking. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the first three joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite strongly coupled, highly nonlinear joint dynamics. The results confirm that the proposed decentralized adaptive control of manipulators is feasible, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. The control scheme presented is computationally very fast and is amenable to parallel processing implementation within a distributed computing architecture, where each joint is controlled independently by a simple algorithm on a dedicated microprocessor.

  8. Structural control research and experiments at NASA/LaRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Research progress in the area of structural dynamics and control using the flexible beam facility at the NASA Langley Research Center is reviewed. Particular attention is placed on the progress in adaptive control and reliability improvements using advanced control concepts. Both theoretical and experimental results are given to indicate the nature of the work being undertaken. In the adaptive control area, emphasis is placed on parameter and system identification and in comparison of competing on-line algorithms. Also, results are presented for on-line modal control laws that are interfaced to a parameter identification scheme. This provides an on-line distributed adaptive control system. In the reliability area, a design process is outlined that incorporates reliability over the design mission life.

  9. Structural control research and experiments at NASA/LaRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The advances made in the area of structural dynamics and control using the flexible beam facility at the NASA Langley Research Center are surveyed. Spectral attention is given to the progress in adaptive control and reliability improvements using advanced control concepts. Both theoretical and experimental results are given to delineate the nature of the work being undertaken. With regard to adaptive control, emphasis is placed on parameter and system identification and on comparisons between competing on-line algorithms. In addition, results are presented for on-line modal control laws that are interfaced to a parameter identification scheme. This gives an on-line distributed adaptive control system. With regard to reliability, a design process is outlined that incorporates reliability over the design mission life.

  10. Experiments in identification and control of flexible-link manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Tzes, Anthony P.

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented on an ongoing effort for end-point position control of flexible-link manipulators under realistic conditions in laboratory setups consisting of one- and two-link manipulators. The authors treat modeling, identification, and control of flexible-link manipulators that are required to carry payloads, possibly unknown and varying, while undergoing disturbance effects from the environments and the workspace. The various identification and control techniques being investigated are summarized, with emphasis on the ability of the controller to adjust to changes in dynamics, payload, and working environment. It is found that time-domain methods offer identified model structures that are readily available for control design, whereas frequency-domain methods, particularly the time-varying transfer function estimation approach developed for this application, are more desirable when rapid controller tuning is required.

  11. Active control of space structures: Proof of concept experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Modern control theory easily works with multiple input/multiple output systems. Two types of systems which fall into this category are flexible systems, where many measurements and several actuators are necessary to provide control over bending behavior, and articulated systems which consist of several rigid bodies connected together by pivoting connections. In this latter case, multiple controls are implemented as torquers at the joints.

  12. Active control of space structures: Proof of concept experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breakwell, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Modern control theory easily works with multiple input/multiple output systems. Two types of systems which fall into this category are flexible systems, where many measurements and several actuators are necessary to provide control over bending behavior, and articulated systems which consist of several rigid bodies connected together by pivoting connections. In this latter case, multiple controls are implemented as torquers at the joints.

  13. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  14. Flight experience with manually controlled unconventional aircraft motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfield, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    A modified YF-16 aircraft was used to flight demonstrate decoupled modes under the USAF Fighter Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) Program. The direct force capabilities were used to implement seven manually controlled unconventional modes on the aircraft, allowing flat turns, decoupled normal acceleration control, independent longitudinal and lateral translations, uncoupled elevation and azimuth aiming, and blended direct lift. This paper describes the design, development, and flight testing of these control modes. The need for task-tailored mode authorities, gain-scheduling and selected closed-loop design is discussed.

  15. Some experiences with active control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.

    1981-01-01

    Flight and wind tunnel tests were conducted and multidiscipline computer programs were developed as part of investigations of active control technology conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Unsteady aerodynamics approximation, optimal control theory, optimal controller design, and the Delta wing and DC-10 models are described. The drones for aerodynamics and structural testing (DAST program) for evaluating procedures for aerodynamic loads prediction and the design of active control systems on wings with significant aeroelastic effects is described as well as the DAST model used in the wind tunnel tests.

  16. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  17. Impacts of biotic and abiotic stress on major quality attributing metabolites of coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Vaddadi, Sridevi; Parvatam, Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    Biotic stress factors such as Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus niger mycelial extracts and abiotic elements methyljasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA), when administered through floral spray to Coffea canephora, showed significant influence on major bioactive metabolites of beans. Up to 42% caffeine, 39% theobromine and 46% trigonelline, along with 32% cafestol and kahweol content elevation was evident under respective elicitor treatments. Over all, the surge in respective metabolites depends on elicitor stress type and concentration. Abiotic factors MJ and SA were found to be efficient at 1 to 5 microM concentration in augmenting all the metabolites, compared to R. oligosporus and A. niger spray at 0.5-2.0% wherein the response was moderate as compared to abiotic stress, however significant compared to control. Though this elevation in caffeine, theobromine, cafestol and kahweol is not warranted from quality point of view, increase in trigonelline improves coffee quality. Besides increase in metabolites, stress mediated augmentation of bioactive compounds in coffee has a wide scope for studying gene expression pattern. PMID:25895259

  18. Recent Advances in Utilizing Transcription Factors to Improve Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Transgenic Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Honglei; Shao, Hongbo; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs) are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions. PMID:26904044

  19. Biotic and abiotic experimental identification of bacterial influence on calcium isotopic signatures.

    PubMed

    Cobert, Florian; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Lemarchand, Damien; Collignon, Christelle; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2011-10-15

    In this study, we tested experimentally the influence of plant and bacterial activities on the calcium (Ca) isotope distribution between soil solutions and plant organs. Abiotic apatite weathering experiments were performed under two different pH conditions using mineral and organic acids. Biotic experiments were performed using either apatite or Ca-enriched biotite substrates in the presence of Scots pines, inoculated or not with the rhizosphere bacterial strain Bulkholderia glathei PML1(12), or the B. glathei PML1(12) alone. For each experiment, the percolate was collected every week and analyzed for Ca concentrations and Ca isotopic ratios. No Ca isotopic fractionation was observed for the different abiotic experimental settings. This indicates that no Ca isotopic fractionation occurs during apatite dissolution, whatever the nature of the acid (mineral or organic). The main result of the biotic experiments is the 0.22 ‰ (44)Ca enrichment recorded for a solution in contact with Scots pines grown on the bacteria-free apatite substrate. In contrast, the presence of bacteria did not cause Ca isotopic fractionation of the solution collected after 14 weeks of the experiments. These preliminary results suggest that bacteria influence the Ca isotopic signatures by dissolving Ca from apatite more efficiently. Therefore, Ca isotopes might be suitable for detecting bacteria-mediated processes in soils. PMID:21913253

  20. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyurjyan, V.; Abbott, D.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2008-07-01

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  1. AFECS. Multi-Agent Framework for Experiment Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2008-01-23

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  2. Numerical experiments on the stability of controlled boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear simulations are presented for instability and transition in parallel water boundary layers subjected to pressure gradient, suction, or heating control. In the nonlinear regime, finite amplitude, 2-D Tollmein-Schlichting waves grow faster than is predicted by linear theory. Moreover, this discrepancy is greatest in the case of heating control. Likewise, heating control is found to be the least effective in delaying secondary instabilities of both the fundamental and subharmonic type. Flow field details (including temperature profiles) are presented for both the uncontrolled boundary layer and the heated boundary layer.

  3. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  4. Experiments on the active control of transitional boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.; Rioual, J.-L.; Fisher, M. J.

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the streamwise position of the transition region of a flat plate boundary layer can be actively controlled. The means of control is through the application of suction through the surface of the plate, a progressive increase in suction rate being capable of producing transition at progressively larger distances downstream from the plate leading edge. A simple digital feedback regulator based on an integral control law is shown to be most effective in regulating the position of transition, an error signal being derived from measurements of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the plate.

  5. A single-axis testbed for slewing control experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jonathan; Lee, Gordon K. F.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1990-01-01

    A simple single-axis testbed is described, and initial experimental results are presented to illustrate collocated and noncollocated control for this structure. The testbed is made up of a pair of single-axis flexible beams attached to a DC servo motor. An optical encoder and strain gauges provide hub and beam position information, respectively. The system is driven by an IBM PC system; with a motor controller, a programmable digital filter processes position error information through user-selected gains and pole-zero configurations. A 25-kHz data acquisition system provides the necessary interface between processor and motor. The control approaches currently being investigated include collocated PD control and noncollocated phase compensation.

  6. Study of thermal control systems for orbiting power systems. Materials experiment carrier thermal control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Four possible arrangements of the materials experiment carrier (MEC) and power system (PS) thermal control loops were defined which would provide one kW of heat rejection for each kW of power to the MEC payload. These arrangements were compared to the baseline reference concept which provides only 16 kW heat rejection to show the cost of obtaining symmetry in terms of dollars, weight, complexity, growth potential, ease of integration, technology and total launch weight. The results of these comparisons was that the concept which splits the PS thermal control loop into two systems, one to reject PS waste heat and one payload waste heat, appeared favorable. The fluid selection study resulted in recommendation of FC72 as the MEC heat transport fluid based on the thermal and physical characteristics. The coatings reviewed indicated anodized and alodine treated aluminum surfaces or silver teflon are the best choices for the MEC vehicle where durability is an important factor. For high temperature radiators silver teflon or zinc orthotitanate are recommended choices.

  7. Infection control policies and guidelines--Scandinavian experience.

    PubMed

    Nyström, B

    1991-06-01

    In the Scandinavian countries few regulations govern hospital infection control. In Sweden a common procedure manual is used nationwide, consisting of guidelines covering a wide range of nursing and medical procedures performed by the nursing staff. It is revised every fifth year. A recent enquiry to over 150 wards in some 100 hospitals demonstrated that the manual is widely accepted and used. In the other Scandinavian countries, guidelines and policies on a variety of infection control topics have been published. PMID:1679772

  8. Diverse roles of jasmonates and ethylene in abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and ethylene (ET), often acting cooperatively, play essential roles in regulating plant defense against pests and pathogens. Recent research reviewed here has revealed mechanistic new insights into the mode of action of these hormones in plant abiotic stress tolerance. During cold stress, JAs and ET differentially regulate the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway. Major JA and ET signaling hubs such as JAZ proteins, CTR1, MYC2, components of the mediator complex, EIN2, EIN3, and several members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family all have complex regulatory roles during abiotic stress adaptation. Better understanding the roles of these phytohormones in plant abiotic stress tolerance will contribute to the development of crop plants tolerant to a wide range of stressful environments. PMID:25731753

  9. Current perspectives in proteomic analysis of abiotic stress in Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    George, Iniga S.; Haynes, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are an important crop plant which forms the basis of a globally important industry. Grape and wine production is particularly vulnerable to environmental and climatic fluctuations, which makes it essential for us to develop a greater understanding of the molecular level responses of grape plants to various abiotic stresses. The completion of the initial grape genome sequence in 2007 has led to a significant increase in research on grapes using proteomics approaches. In this article, we discuss some of the current research on abiotic stress in grapevines, in the context of abiotic stress research in other plant species. We also highlight some of the current limitations in grapevine proteomics and identify areas with promising scope for potential future research. PMID:25538720

  10. A Nonlinear, Multiinput, Multioutput Process Control Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brent R.; van der Lee, James H.; Svrcek, William Y.

    2006-01-01

    Experience in using a user-friendly software, Mathcad, in the undergraduate chemical reaction engineering course is discussed. Example problems considered for illustration deal with simultaneous solution of linear algebraic equations (kinetic parameter estimation), nonlinear algebraic equations (equilibrium calculations for multiple reactions and…

  11. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  12. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  13. Abiotic and biotic controls of spatial pattern at alpine treeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Xiao, Ningchuan; Alftine, K.J.; Bekker, Mathew; Butler, David R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Cairns, David M.; Fagre, Daniel; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    At alpine treeline, trees and krummholz forms affect the environment in ways that increase their growth and reproduction. We assess the way in which these positive feedbacks combine in spatial patterns to alter the environment in the neighborhood of existing plants. The research is significant because areas of alpine tundra are susceptible to encroachment by woody species as climate changes. Moreover, understanding the general processes of plant invasion is important. The importance of spatial pattern has been recognized, but the spatial pattern of positive feedbacks per se has not been explored in depth. We present a linked set of models of vegetation change at an alpine forest-tundra ecotone. Our aim is to create models that are as simple as possible in order to test specific hypotheses. We present results from a model of the resource averaging hypothesis and the positive feedback switch hypothesis of treelines. We compare the patterns generated by the models to patterns observed in fine scale remotely sensed data.

  14. Modeling abiotic processes of aniline in water-saturated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrega-Duque, J.R.; Jafvert, C.T.; Li, H.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-05-01

    The long-term interactions of aromatic amines with soils are important in defining the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Abiotic loss of aniline from the aqueous phase to the soil phase occurs with an initial rapid loss due to reversible mass transfer processes, followed by a slow loss due to irreversible reactions. A kinetic model describing these processes in water-saturated soils was developed and evaluated. The model assumes that instantaneous equilibrium occurs for the following reversible processes: (1) acid dissociation of the protonated organic base (BH+) in the aqueous phase; (2) ion exchange between inorganic divalent cations (D{sup 2+} = Ca{sup 2+} + Mg{sup 2+}) on the soil and the protonated organic base; and (3) partitioning of the nonionic species of aniline (B{sub aq}) to soil organic carbon. The model assumes that irreversible loss of aniline occurs through reaction of B{sub aq} with irreversible sites (C{sub ir}) on the soil. A kinetic rate constant, k{sub ir}, and the total concentration of irreversible sites, C{sub T}, were employed as adjustable model parameters. The model was evaluated as adjustable model parameters. The model was evaluated with measured mass distributions of aniline between water and five soils ranging in pH (4.4--7.3), at contact times ranging from 2 to 1,600 h. Some experiments were performed at different soil mass to water volume ratios. A good fit was obtained with a single value of k{sub ir} for all soils, pH values, and soil-water ratios. To accurately predict soil-water distributions at contact times <24 h, mass transfer of the neutral species to the soil was modeled as a kinetic process, again, assuming that ion exchange processes are instantaneous.

  15. A proposed abiotic reaction scheme for hydroxylamine and monochloramine under chloramination relevant drinking water conditions.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E; Machavaram, Madhav V

    2014-09-01

    Drinking water monochloramine (NH2Cl) use may promote ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). AOB use (i) ammonia monooxygenase for biological ammonia (NH3) oxidation to hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and (ii) hydroxylamine oxidoreductase for NH2OH oxidation to nitrite. NH2Cl and NH2OH may react, providing AOB potential benefits and detriments. The NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction would benefit AOB by removing the disinfectant (NH2Cl) and releasing their growth substrate (NH3), but the NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction would also provide a possible additional inactivation mechanism besides direct NH2Cl reaction with cells. Because biological NH2OH oxidation supplies the electrons required for biological NH3 oxidation, the NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction provides a direct mechanism for NH2Cl to inhibit NH3 oxidation, starving the cell of reductant by preventing biological NH2OH oxidation. To investigate possible NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction implications on AOB, an understanding of the underlying abiotic reaction is first required. The present study conducted a detailed literature review and proposed an abiotic NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction scheme (RS) for chloramination relevant drinking water conditions (μM concentrations, air saturation, and pH 7-9). Next, RS literature based kinetics and end-products were evaluated experimentally between pHs 7.7 and 8.3, representing (i) the pH range for future experiments with AOB and (ii) mid-range pHs typically found in chloraminated drinking water. In addition, a (15)N stable isotope experiment was conducted to verify nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas production and their nitrogen source. Finally, the RS was slightly refined using the experimental data and an AQUASIM implemented kinetic model. A chloraminated drinking water relevant RS is proposed and provides the abiotic reaction foundation for future AOB biotic experiments. PMID:24862953

  16. Experiments in identification and control of flexible-link manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Tzes, Anthony P.; Pacheco, Fernando E.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in the study of flexible-link manipulators for space-based applications has risen strongly in recent years. Moreover, numerous experimental results have appeared for the various problems in the modeling, identification and control of such systems. Nevertheless, relatively little literature has appeared involving laboratory verification of tuning controllers for certain types of realistic flexible-link manipulators. Specifically flexible-link manipulators which are required to maintain endpoint accuracy while manipulating loads that are possibly unknown and varying as they undergo disturbance effects from the environment and workspace. Endpoint position control of flexible-link manipulators in these areas are discussed, with laboratory setups consisting of one and two-link manipulators.

  17. Abiotic constraints eclipse biotic resistance in determining invasibility along experimental vernal pool gradients.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Fritz; Collinge, Sharon K

    2007-04-01

    Effective management of invasive species requires that we understand the mechanisms determining community invasibility. Successful invaders must tolerate abiotic conditions and overcome resistance from native species in invaded habitats. Biotic resistance to invasions may reflect the diversity, abundance, or identity of species in a community. Few studies, however, have examined the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors determining community invasibility. In a greenhouse experiment, we simulated the abiotic and biotic gradients typically found in vernal pools to better understand their impacts on invasibility. Specifically, we invaded plant communities differing in richness, identity, and abundance of native plants (the "plant neighborhood") and depth of inundation to measure their effects on growth, reproduction, and survival of five exotic plant species. Inundation reduced growth, reproduction, and survival of the five exotic species more than did plant neighborhood. Inundation reduced survival of three species and growth and reproduction of all five species. Neighboring plants reduced growth and reproduction of three species but generally did not affect survival. Brassica rapa, Centaurea solstitialis, and Vicia villosa all suffered high mortality due to inundation but were generally unaffected by neighboring plants. In contrast, Hordeum marinum and Lolium multiflorum, whose survival was unaffected by inundation, were more impacted by neighboring plants. However, the four measures describing plant neighborhood differed in their effects. Neighbor abundance impacted growth and reproduction more than did neighbor richness or identity, with growth and reproduction generally decreasing with increasing density and mass of neighbors. Collectively, these results suggest that abiotic constraints play the dominant role in determining invasibility along vernal pool and similar gradients. By reducing survival, abiotic constraints allow only species with the

  18. Abiotic Dissolved Organic Matter-Mineral Interaction in the Karstic Floridan Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Zimmerman, A.

    2007-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM)-mineral interaction (e.g. adsorption, desorption, mineral dissolution) in groundwater is a significant factor controlling geochemical, environmental and microbial processes and may be helpful in efforts to track groundwater sources or contaminant fate. Despite its importance, the dynamics and consequences of these abiotic interactions remain poorly understood, largely due to the inaccessibility and heterogeneity of the subsurface, as well as the chemical complexity of DOM. This study models the OM-mineral interactions that takes place in the Floridan aquifer through laboratory adsorption-desorption experiments using DOM (groundwater, river water, soil extracts) and carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) collected in north Florida. High performance liquid chromatography-size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC) and UV-fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrophotometry was used to examine the organic compound types exhibiting preferential affinity for carbonate minerals. Our results show that the DOM-carbonate adsorption/desorption isotherms are well described by the Freundlich model. Freundlich exponents (average value: 0.6488) less than one indicated a filling of adsorption sites. Minerals from Ocala tend to have higher adsorption affinity as well as adsorption capacity than those from Suwannee River Basin; however, both were found to have mineral dissolution. Two fluorescent signals, indicative of a fulvic-like (at excitation wavelength 295-310 nm, emission 400-420 nm) and a protein-like (275/345nm) moiety, were detected in DOM. A reduction in the fulvic-like peak intensity occurred following carbonate adsorption while the protein-like peaks remain almost unchanged indicating the preferential adsorption of fulvic acids. HPLC-SEC results (DOM properties as a function of molecular weight) will be discussed. The chemical properties of DOM in environmental groundwater samples will also be presented and evaluated in light of

  19. Radiopurity control in the NEXT-100 double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, V.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Díaz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gil, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Serra, L.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; and others

    2013-08-08

    An extensive material screening and selection process is underway in the construction of the 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC' (NEXT), intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe. Determination of the radiopurity levels of the materials is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (Spain) and also on Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry. Materials to be used in the shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage components and energy and tracking readout planes have been already taken into consideration. The measurements carried out are presented, describing the techniques and equipment used, and the results obtained are shown, discussing their implications for the NEXT experiment.

  20. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement. PMID:24112531

  1. [Internal quality control for antimicrobial susceptibility test: an experience feedback].

    PubMed

    Vedy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) position in antimicrobial susceptibility testing must be evaluated attentively before using. Ours S. aureus ATCC 25923 use during year 2011 has given precious information that can be useful for other laboratories. First, IQC should never be used before checking that all the realisation process steps are controlled. It will then appear that reagents are the most susceptible to give false results. That's what happens in 2.74% of antimicrobial susceptibility test. IQC is then useful to limit their clinical's impact. However, IQC use also shows that quality improvement will be difficult without industrial producer's involvement. PMID:22826843

  2. Rapid adaptive divergence of life-history traits in response to abiotic stress within a natural population of a parthenogenetic nematode

    PubMed Central

    Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Wojewodzic, Marcin W; Kammenga, Jan E

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is acknowledged to facilitate adaptation to novel environments while asexual eukaryotes are often regarded as having low adaptive potential. This view has been challenged in a number of studies, but the adaptive potential of asexual populations in the field is poorly documented. We investigated the response of natural populations of the parthenogenetic nematode Acrobeloides nanus to imposed divergent selective pressures. For this purpose, we employed a replicated evolution experiment in the field. After 20 years of evolution under abiotic stress and control conditions, life-history traits were assessed in reaction norm- and reciprocal transplant experiments. Both these experiments indicated adaptive divergence within the population of A. nanus. Namely, the transplant experiment demonstrated that in the stressed soil environment, body growth rate was more reduced in the nematodes originating from the control treatment. In the reaction norm experiment, survival and reproduction were higher under test conditions corresponding to the native environment of the nematodes. The differences in the analysed traits are discussed in the context of life-history theory. Overall, our results strongly support high adaptive potential of A. nanus and suggest that population structure and distribution of asexual species is shaped by local adaptation events. PMID:17002946

  3. Inter-annual variability of carbon fluxes in temperate forest ecosystems: effects of biotic and abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Keenan, T. F.; Hufkens, K.; Munger, J. W.; Bohrer, G.; Brzostek, E. R.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems are influenced by both abiotic and biotic factors. Abiotic factors, such as variation in meteorological conditions, directly drive biophysical and biogeochemical processes; biotic factors, referring to the inherent properties of the ecosystem components, reflect the internal regulating effects including temporal dynamics and memory. The magnitude of the effect of abiotic and biotic factors on forest ecosystem carbon exchange has been suggested to vary at different time scales. In this study, we design and conduct a model-data fusion experiment to investigate the role and relative importance of the biotic and abiotic factors for inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of temperate deciduous forest ecosystems in the Northeastern US. A process-based model (FöBAAR) is parameterized at four eddy-covariance sites using all available flux and biometric measurements. We conducted a "transplant" modeling experiment, that is, cross- site and parameter simulations with different combinations of site meteorology and parameters. Using wavelet analysis and variance partitioning techniques, analysis of model predictions identifies both spatial variant and spatially invariant parameters. Variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP), with relative contributions varying from hourly to yearly time scales. The inter-annual variability of GPP and NEE is more regulated by meteorological forcing, but spatial variability in certain model parameters (biotic response) has more substantial effects on the inter-annual variability of ecosystem respiration (Reco) through the effects on carbon pools. Both the biotic and abiotic factors play significant roles in modulating the spatial and temporal variability in terrestrial carbon cycling in the region. Together, our study quantifies the relative importance of both, and calls for better understanding of them to better predict regional CO2

  4. Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Kristin E; Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-02-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a rich cultural repertoire--traditions common in some communities are not present in others. The majority of reports describe functional, material traditions, such as tool use. Arbitrary conventions have received far less attention. In the same way that observations of material culture in wild apes led to experiments to confirm social transmission and identify underlying learning mechanisms, experiments investigating how arbitrary habits or conventions arise and spread within a group are also required. The few relevant experimental studies reported thus far have relied on cross-species (i.e. human-ape) interaction offering limited ecological validity, and no study has successfully generated a tradition not involving tool use in an established group. We seeded one of two rewarded alternative endpoints to a complex sequence of behaviour in each of two chimpanzee groups. Each sequence spread in the group in which it was seeded, with many individuals unambiguously adopting the sequence demonstrated by a group member. In one group, the alternative sequence was discovered by a low ranking female, but was not learned by others. Since the action-sequences lacked meaning before the experiment and had no logical connection with reward, chimpanzees must have extracted both the form and benefits of these sequences through observation of others. PMID:17164200

  5. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: I. Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daehan; Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Heesu; Ahn, Eunhye; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we construct a model of a ski jumper by using three-dimensional surface data obtained by scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). An experiment on this model is conducted in a wind tunnel. We consider four posture parameters (forward leaning angle, ski opening angle, ski rolling angle, and ski spacing) and measure the drag and lift forces for various flight postures at various angles of attack (α = 0° - 40°) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 5.4 × 105 - 1.6 × 106) based on the length of the jump ski. Then, we derive optimum values of posture parameters for maximum lift-to-drag ratio using a response surface method. We also conduct a full-scale wind tunnel experiment with members of the Korean national team and confirm the results obtained from the experiment on the model. Supported by the NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848).

  6. Experiments on rotamak plasma equilibrium and shape control

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Yuri; Yang Xiaokang; Wang Yonghui; Huang, T.-S.

    2010-01-15

    A set of magnetic shaping coils and copper rings is installed in cylindrical chamber rotamak to allow for an active equilibrium control in 40 ms plasma discharges. The coils, which are powered by programmable current source, are used to control both the plasma shape and the boundary poloidal magnetic flux. Without the active equilibrium control, the boundary flux drops from its vacuum value of 0.3 mWb to zero after the plasma current is generated. If the coils are activated, the boundary magnetic flux can be sustained within the 0.2-0.3 mWb range, thus keeping the separatrix away from chamber wall during whole period of the shot. The passive copper rings help in eliminating the fast variations of the boundary magnetic flux. The response of rotamak plasma to the active equilibrium control is drastically different in regimes with or without external toroidal field. A model is presented that describes the change in plasma shape, plasma current, and pressure under the effect of active equilibrium coils.

  7. Experimenting from a Distance--Remotely Controlled Laboratory (RCL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grober, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Eckert, Bodo; Jodl, Hans-Jorg

    2007-01-01

    The use of computers and multimedia, as well as the World Wide Web and new communication technologies, allows new forms of teaching and learning such as distance learning, blended learning, use of virtual libraries and many more. The herewith discussed remotely controlled laboratory (RCL) project shall offer an additional contribution. The basic…

  8. Dimensions of Locus of Control: Impact of Early Educational Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    A study was conducted to: (1) assess the equivalence of the Nowicki Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, the Stephens-Delys Reinforcement Contingency Interview, and the Gruen-Korte-Stephens test and the construct validity of each; and (2) investigate the impact on IE of the open classroom Follow Through program sponsored by the…

  9. Experiments in structural dynamics and control using a grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Future spacecraft are being conceived that are highly flexible and of extreme size. The two features of flexibility and size pose new problems in control system design. Since large scale structures are not testable in ground based facilities, the decision on component placement must be made prior to full-scale tests on the spacecraft. Control law research is directed at solving problems of inadequate modelling knowledge prior to operation required to achieve peak performance. Another crucial problem addressed is accommodating failures in systems with smart components that are physically distributed on highly flexible structures. Parameter adaptive control is a method of promise that provides on-orbit tuning of the control system to improve performance by upgrading the mathematical model of the spacecraft during operation. Two specific questions are answered in this work. They are: What limits does on-line parameter identification with realistic sensors and actuators place on the ultimate achievable performance of a system in the highly flexible environment? Also, how well must the mathematical model used in on-board analytic redundancy be known and what are the reasonable expectations for advanced redundancy management schemes in the highly flexible and distributed component environment?

  10. Second Careers: The Air Traffic Controller Experience and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Second careers are examined from an organizational viewpoint, and new directions for education-work policy, suggested by a unique second career program of the Federal Aviation Administration for air traffic controllers, are explored. Focus is on age, organizational and training factors, and community involvement. (Author/JMD)

  11. Apollo experience report: Lunar module display and control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar module display and control subsystem equipment is described with emphasis on major problems and their solutions. Included in the discussion of each item is a description of what the item does and how the item is constructed. The development, hardware history, and testing for each item are also presented.

  12. PID Controller Settings Based on a Transient Response Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Lito, Patricia F.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental work on controller tuning for chemical engineering undergraduate students is proposed using a small heat exchange unit. Based upon process reaction curves in open-loop configuration, system gain and time constant are determined for first order model with time delay with excellent accuracy. Afterwards students calculate PID…

  13. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Nara Lúcia Perondi; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Bettiol, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil. PMID:27176597

  14. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot.

    PubMed

    Ghini, Raquel; Fortes, Nara Lúcia Perondi; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Bettiol, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil. PMID:27176597

  15. Controlled Experiment Replication in Evaluation of E-Learning System's Educational Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubisic, Ani; Stankov, Slavomir; Rosic, Marko; Zitko, Branko

    2009-01-01

    We believe that every effectiveness evaluation should be replicated at least in order to verify the original results and to indicate evaluated e-learning system's advantages or disadvantages. This paper presents the methodology for conducting controlled experiment replication, as well as, results of a controlled experiment and an internal…

  16. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... of Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Greenfield, Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65798). At the request of the state, the... Employment and Training Administration Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division,...

  17. Citrus Quality Control: An NMR/MRI Problem-Based Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Sarah E.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment seated in an industrial context can provide an engaging framework and unique learning opportunity for an upper-division physical chemistry laboratory. An experiment that teaches NMR/MRI through a problem-based quality control of citrus products was developed. In this experiment, using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, students…

  18. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestner, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  19. Remote Manipulator System (RMS)-based Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) flight experiment feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demeo, Martha E.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of an experiment which will provide an on-orbit validation of Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology, was investigated. The experiment will demonstrate the on-orbit characterization and flexible-body control of large flexible structure dynamics using the shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with an attached payload as a test article. By utilizing existing hardware as well as establishing integration, operation and safety algorithms, techniques and procedures, the experiment will minimize the costs and risks of implementing a flight experiment. The experiment will also offer spin-off enhancement to both the Shuttle RMS (SRMS) and the Space Station RMS (SSRMS).

  20. VCSELs with optically controlled current confinement: experiments and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Sven; Gerlach, Philipp; Michalzik, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    We have devised a novel oxide-free and regrowth-free approach for optically controlled current confinement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This is realized with a monolithically integrated phototransistor (PT), which is configured as an optical switch and embedded between the two Bragg reflectors. We have fabricated functional PT-VCSELs by one-step epitaxial growth plus metal deposition with different top contact sizes. We present light-current-voltage characteristics of the lasers as well as a simple theoretical model explaining the occurrence of a distinct turn-on point and clarify epitaxial design requirements to reach strong optically controlled current confinement.

  1. Experience in control of avian influenza in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2007-01-01

    The outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Canada in 1966, the USA in 1984 and Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improved intensive poultry production systems. In the past 12 years (1994-2006), there have been four outbreaks of HPAI on the American continent: in Mexico in 1994 (H5N2), in Chile in 2002 (H7N3), in the USA in 2004 (H5N2) and in Canada in 2004 (H7N3). In all cases, the control and eradication measures were based on prompt detection, depopulation of infected farms and epidemiological contacts, increased biosecurity measures and control of the movement of live poultry and their products, by-products and infected material. In Mexico, in addition to the aforementioned measures, the use of massive vaccination allowed eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas of high-density commercial poultry. PMID:18416017

  2. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.

    2006-11-01

    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f < 1 mHz and which by extension is suitable for in-flight thermal control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  3. Active spacecraft potential control: An ion emitter experiment. [Cluster mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, W.; Goldstein, R.; Hamelin, M.; Maehlum, B. N.; Troim, J.; Olsen, R. C.; Pedersen, A.; Grard, R. J. L.; Schmidt, R.; Rudenauer, F.

    1988-01-01

    The cluster spacecraft are instrumented with ion emitters for charge neutralization. The emitters produce indium ions at 6 keV. The ion current is adjusted in a feedback loop with instruments measuring the spacecraft potential. The system is based on the evaporation of indium in the apex field of a needle. The design of the active spacecraft potential control instruments, and the ion emitters is presented.

  4. Experiments on anthelmintic control of Fasciola hepatica in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, F A; Correa, M B; Wehrle, R D; Correa, I F

    1992-07-01

    Two separate field trials involving naturally infected cattle were carried out on two farms known to have a history of Fasciola hepatica infection. On the first farm, 15 animals per group were allocated as follows: G1, triclabendazole (TCBZ) four times a year; G2, TCBZ twice a year (May and September); G3, untreated control. All groups grazed together and after 3.5 years the animals were slaughtered and their livers examined by federal meat inspectors who condemned 100% of livers in G3 and 8.3% in G2 owing to the presence of lesions of fasciolosis. In G1 no livers were condemned. Significant differences in weight gains were not detected and fluke counts remained at low levels in the treated groups. Also, in the control group, egg counts started to decrease when animals were 2 years old. On the second farm, groups of 20 animals were treated as follows: G1, TCBZ three times a year (May, September and December); G2, TCBZ twice a year (May and September); G3, nitroxynil twice a year (May and September); G4, rafoxanide twice a year (May and September); G5, untreated controls. All animals were weighed and faecal samples examined at approximately 28-day intervals. During the period of the study, larger weight gains were detected in the TCBZ treated groups than in the others. TCBZ treatment kept F. hepatica egg counts at a lower level for longer periods than the other drugs and significant differences in weight gains were only obtained between the group receiving TCBZ three times a year and the control group. PMID:1413453

  5. Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S; Taylor, Margaret R; Hounshell, David A

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. We use patent data to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus "forcing" innovation. We also demonstrate that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to approximately 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale. PMID:16408687

  6. A survey of experiments and experimental facilities for active control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Horner, Garnett C.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Klose, Gerhard

    1989-01-01

    A brief survey of large space structure control related experiments and facilities was presented. This survey covered experiments performed before and up to 1982, and those of the present period (1982-...). Finally, the future planned experiments and facilities in support of the control-structure interaction (CSI) program were reported. It was stated that new, improved ground test facilities are needed to verify the new CSI design techniques that will allow future space structures to perform planned NASA missions.

  7. Digital Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Validation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Jarvis, C. R.; Krier, G. E.; Megna, V. A.; Brock, L. D.; Odonnell, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained in digital fly-by-wire technology through a flight test program being conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in an F-8C aircraft is described. The system requirements are outlined, along with the requirements for flight qualification. The system is described, including the hardware components, the aircraft installation, and the system operation. The flight qualification experience is emphasized. The qualification process included the theoretical validation of the basic design, laboratory testing of the hardware and software elements, systems level testing, and flight testing. The most productive testing was performed on an iron bird aircraft, which used the actual electronic and hydraulic hardware and a simulation of the F-8 characteristics to provide the flight environment. The iron bird was used for sensor and system redundancy management testing, failure modes and effects testing, and stress testing in many cases with the pilot in the loop. The flight test program confirmed the quality of the validation process by achieving 50 flights without a known undetected failure and with no false alarms.

  8. Data Quality Control and Maintenance for the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiner, Nicholas; Spayde, Damon

    2014-03-01

    The Qweak collaboration seeks to quantify the weak charge of a proton through the analysis of the parity-violating electron asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering. The asymmetry is calculated by measuring how many electrons deflect from a hydrogen target at the chosen scattering angle for aligned and anti-aligned electron spins, then evaluating the difference between the numbers of deflections that occurred for both polarization states. The weak charge can then be extracted from this data. Knowing the weak charge will allow us to calculate the electroweak mixing angle for the particular Q2 value of the chosen electrons, which the Standard Model makes a firm prediction for. Any significant deviation from this prediction would be a prime indicator of the existence of physics beyond what the Standard Model describes. After the experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab, collected data was stored within a MySQL database for further analysis. I will present an overview of the database and its functions as well as a demonstration of the quality checks and maintenance performed on the data itself. These checks include an analysis of errors occurring throughout the experiment, specifically data acquisition errors within the main detector array, and an analysis of data cuts.

  9. Soil respiration in the cold desert environment of the Colorado Plateau (USA): Abiotic regulators and thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, D.P.; Neff, J.C.; Belnap, J.; Reynolds, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Decomposition is central to understanding ecosystem carbon exchange and nutrient-release processes. Unlike mesic ecosystems, which have been extensively studied, xeric landscapes have received little attention; as a result, abiotic soil-respiration regulatory processes are poorly understood in xeric environments. To provide a more complete and quantitative understanding about how abiotic factors influence soil respiration in xeric ecosystems, we conducted soil- respiration and decomposition-cloth measurements in the cold desert of southeast Utah. Our study evaluated when and to what extent soil texture, moisture, temperature, organic carbon, and nitrogen influence soil respiration and examined whether the inverse-texture hypothesis applies to decomposition. Within our study site, the effect of texture on moisture, as described by the inverse texture hypothesis, was evident, but its effect on decomposition was not. Our results show temperature and moisture to be the dominant abiotic controls of soil respiration. Specifically, temporal offsets in temperature and moisture conditions appear to have a strong control on soil respiration, with the highest fluxes occurring in spring when temperature and moisture were favorable. These temporal offsets resulted in decomposition rates that were controlled by soil moisture and temperature thresholds. The highest fluxes of CO2 occurred when soil temperature was between 10 and 16??C and volumetric soil moisture was greater than 10%. Decomposition-cloth results, which integrate decomposition processes across several months, support the soil-respiration results and further illustrate the seasonal patterns of high respiration rates during spring and low rates during summer and fall. Results from this study suggest that the parameters used to predict soil respiration in mesic ecosystems likely do not apply in cold-desert environments. ?? Springer 2006.

  10. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  11. ABIOTIC DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE UNDER THERMAL REMEDIATION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of TCE (C2HCl3) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride (Cl-) has been reported to occur during thermal remediation of subsurface environments. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate abiotic degradation of TCE at el...

  12. ABIOTIC REDUCTION OF NITRO AROMATIC PESTICIDES IN ANAEROBIC LABORATORY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid abiotic reduction of nitro aromatic pesticides occurs in homogeneous solutions of quinone redox couples, which were selected to model the redox-labile functianal groups in natural organic matter. he kinetics of methyl parathion disappearance are first order in methyl parath...

  13. Recent advances in polyamine metabolism and abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Parimalan; Subramani, Rajkumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is an alarming problem in agriculture and its effect on yield loss has been estimated to be five per cent for every degree centigrade rise in temperature. Plants exhibit multiple mechanisms like optimizing signaling pathway, involvement of secondary messengers, production of biomolecules specifically in response to stress, modulation of various metabolic networks in accordance with stress, and so forth, in order to overcome abiotic stress factors. Many structural genes and networks of pathway were identified and reported in plant systems for abiotic stress tolerance. One such crucial metabolic pathway that is involved in normal physiological function and also gets modulated during stress to impart tolerance is polyamine metabolic pathway. Besides the role of structural genes, it is also important to know the mechanism by which these structural genes are regulated during stress. Present review highlights polyamine biosynthesis, catabolism, and its role in abiotic stress tolerance with special reference to plant systems. Additionally, a system based approach is discussed as a potential strategy to dissect the existing variation in crop species in unraveling the interacting regulatory components/genetic determinants related to PAs mediated abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:25136565

  14. Genetic Diversity In Abiotic Stress Tolerances Among Wheat Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landraces and close related species of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) offer a vast reservoir of genetic resources for wheat improvement to production on abiotic stressed soils. In order to utilize the wheat landrace and close relative gene pools, the evaluation of wheat landrace and close r...

  15. Are karrikins involved in plant abiotic stress responses?

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have shown that strigolactones play a positive role in plant responses to drought and salt stress through MAX2 (More Axillary Growth 2). Increasing evidence suggests that MAX2 is also involved in karrikin signaling, raising the question whether karrikins play any role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. PMID:26255855

  16. ABIOTIC TRANSFORMATION PATHWAYS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is presented for assessing the potential of an organic chemical to undergo abiotic transformation in aquatic ecosystems. hen predicting the environmental fate of an organic chemical, two primary questions must be addressed. irst, what are the reaction kinetics for the...

  17. A membraneless single compartment abiotic glucose fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Sunday, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    A simple energy harvesting strategy has been developed to selectively catalyze glucose in the presence of oxygen in a glucose/O2 fuel cell. The anode consists of an abiotic catalyst Al/Au/ZnO, in which ZnO seed layer was deposited on the surface of Al/Au substrate using hydrothermal method. The cathode is constructed from a single rod of platinum with an outer diameter of 500 μm. The abiotic glucose fuel cell was studied in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) containing 5 mM glucose at a temperature of 22 °C. The cell is characterized according to its open-circuit voltage, polarization profile, and power density plot. Under these conditions, the abiotic glucose fuel cell possesses an open-circuit voltage of 840 mV and delivered a maximum power density of 16.2 μW cm-2 at a cell voltage of 495 mV. These characteristics are comparable to biofuel cell utilizing a much more complex system design. Such low-cost lightweight abiotic catalyzed glucose fuel cells have a great promise to be optimized, miniaturized to power bio-implantable devices.

  18. Weighing Abiotic and Biotic Influences on Weed Seed Predation Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed predation is an important ecosystem service supporting weed management in low-external-input agroecosystems. Current knowledge of weed seed predation focuses on biotic mechanisms, with less understood about the relative impact of abiotic variables. In order to quantify relative contributio...

  19. Weighing Abiotic and Biotic Influences on Weed Seed Predation Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed predation is an important ecosystem service supporting weed management in low-external-input agroecosystems. Current knowledge of weed seed predation in arable systems focuses on biotic mechanisms, with less understood about the relative impact of abiotic variables on this process. In orde...

  20. Genetic mapping of abiotic stress responses in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to rich genetic diversity for tolerance to various abiotic stress conditions, sorghum is an ideal system for genetic mapping and elucidation of genome regions that confer such response among cereal crops. Coupled with the development of DNA marker technologies and most recently the sequencing o...

  1. Plastid transformation for abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Bansal, K C; Singh, A K; Wani, S H

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures are major limiting factors in plant growth and development and pose serious threat to global agricultural production. Here we describe a procedure, using a tobacco plastid transformation vector, to generate transplastomic plants with an enhanced ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold stress. The procedure involves biolistic delivery of a plastid transformation vector into explants, antibiotic selection procedures, and -identification of transplastomic lines. The plastid transformation vector contains an aadA gene that encodes resistance to spectinomycin as a selectable marker along with the gene of interest for developing transplastomic plants that are tolerant to abiotic stresses. Shoot buds appear over the surface of bombarded explants following spectinomycin selection. Transplastomic shoots are multiplied following several rounds of -spectinomycin selection. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection over a period of 4-5 weeks. The available reports suggest that transplastomic technology is a useful tool for expressing genes in plastids or chloroplasts for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:22895771

  2. Recent Advances in Polyamine Metabolism and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Parimalan; Subramani, Rajkumar; Singh, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is an alarming problem in agriculture and its effect on yield loss has been estimated to be five per cent for every degree centigrade rise in temperature. Plants exhibit multiple mechanisms like optimizing signaling pathway, involvement of secondary messengers, production of biomolecules specifically in response to stress, modulation of various metabolic networks in accordance with stress, and so forth, in order to overcome abiotic stress factors. Many structural genes and networks of pathway were identified and reported in plant systems for abiotic stress tolerance. One such crucial metabolic pathway that is involved in normal physiological function and also gets modulated during stress to impart tolerance is polyamine metabolic pathway. Besides the role of structural genes, it is also important to know the mechanism by which these structural genes are regulated during stress. Present review highlights polyamine biosynthesis, catabolism, and its role in abiotic stress tolerance with special reference to plant systems. Additionally, a system based approach is discussed as a potential strategy to dissect the existing variation in crop species in unraveling the interacting regulatory components/genetic determinants related to PAs mediated abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:25136565

  3. Fluorescence measurements of the thermal control experiments coatings on LDEF S0069 and A0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, J. M.; Mell, R. J.; Peters, P. N.; Gregory, J. C.; Wilkes, D. R.; Miller, E. R.

    1993-01-01

    Fluorescence measurements were made on the thermal control coatings from the Long Duration Experiment Facility (LDEF) S0069, Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE); and the A0114, Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Material Surfaces in Low Earth orbit. Fluorescence was observed in two types of thermal control coatings and is attributed to pigments or binders. In addition, fluorescence measurement on the silver Teflon from the front cover of TCSE led to confirmation of damage (cracking) to the metal layers during application.

  4. Monitoring hyporheic exchanges during a dam controlled experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzé, Clémence; Varnède, Lucie; Durand, Véronique; Pessel, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Precise understanding of the hyporheic exchanges response to stream flow fluctuations remains a great challenge for many environmental and hydrological problems. Multiplication of natural stream restoration programs and anthropic structures removal highlight that a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and ecological functioning of hyporheic exchanges is critical . The objective of this field experiment was to monitor the dynamic exchanges within the hyporheic zone due to an artificial stream head variation. Various types of measurements were performed, using natural tracers and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The dam downstream the studied river reach was successively lowered during two days, and raised during three days, implying river heads variations of about 15cm. The studied area was equipped with CTD probes (measuring the head and the conductivity) within the river, 2 multi-depths water sampling tubes inserted up to one meter depth within the riverbed deposits and 3 ERT profiles with various electrode spacing (20 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm). During the 5 days experiment, water sampling and ERT profiles were done regularly. Estimations of the sediments hydraulic conductivity were obtained by several slug tests in plastic tubes at different depths within the streambed. First results showed that stream fluctuation leads to a rapid hyporheic response according to chloride variations between stream and riverbed sediments. Similar results between geochemical and geophysical tools were found. A decrease in stream head leads to reduce the depth of the mixing zone, as the river gaining conditions intensify. On the contrary, we observed that an increased river head tends to deepen the hyporheic exchange zone.

  5. Using genetics to control cattle parasites-the Rockhampton experience.

    PubMed

    Frisch, J E; O'Neill, C J; Kelly, M J

    2000-03-01

    Ever since their accidental introduction, cattle ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and buffalo flies have been major parasites of cattle in northern Australia. Enormous effort and resources have been directed at chemical control of these parasites but the problem persists in undiminished form. The principal control measure remains the use of breeds that have some degree of parasite resistance. No breed is completely resistant and all are at times adversely affected by parasites. Complete resistance is the ultimate solution but has been generally ignored as a commercial reality. Studies at Rockhampton have demonstrated that completely resistant lines can be developed by genetic means within a commercially acceptable timeframe from even the most parasite-susceptible breeds. Genetic changes in tick and worm resistance over 15 years in response to selection for increased tick resistance in the Belmont Adaptaur (Bos taurus) line are reported. Costs and benefits of achieving increased tick resistance are examined and the applicability of the results to other breeds is discussed. Breed differences in resistance to buffalo flies and their effects on live weight are also reported and the possibility of selecting for increased buffalo fly resistance is explored. PMID:10719118

  6. TRANSFORMATIONS OF HALOGENATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS: OXIDATION, REDUCTION, SUBSTITUTION, AND DEHYDROHALOGENATION REACTIONS OCCUR ABIOTICALLY OR IN MICROBIAL AND MAMMALIAN SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current understanding of abiotic and biotic chemistry of halogenated aliphatic compounds is systematized and summarized. Knowledge of abiotic transformations can provide a conceptual framework for understanding biologically mediated transformations. Most abiotic transformatio...

  7. In-step Two-phase Flow (TPF) Thermal Control Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Two-Phase Flow Thermal Control Experiment is part of the NASA/OAST In-Space Technology Experiments (In-STEP) Program. The experiment is configured for the Hitchhiker Shuttle payload system and consists of a capillary pumped loop, heatpipe radiator, and two-phase flow heat exchanger. The flight experiment design approach, test plan, payload design, and test components are described in outline and graphic form.

  8. Automated Testing Experience of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    System controllers must be fail-safe, low cost, flexible to software changes, able to output health and status words, and permit rapid retest qualification. The system controller designed and tested for the aerospike engine program was an attempt to meet these requirements. This paper describes (1) the aerospike controller design, (2) the automated simulation testing techniques, and (3) the real time monitoring data visualization structure. Controller cost was minimized by design of a single-string system that used an off-the-shelf 486 central processing unit (CPU). A linked-list architecture, with states (nodes) defined in a user-friendly state table, accomplished software changes to the controller. Proven to be fail-safe, this system reported the abort cause and automatically reverted to a safe condition for any first failure. A real time simulation and test system automated the software checkout and retest requirements. A program requirement to decode all abort causes in real time during all ground and flight tests assured the safety of flight decisions and the proper execution of mission rules. The design also included health and status words, and provided a real time analysis interpretation for all health and status data.

  9. Influence of abiotic stress, flower morphology, and pollen dehydration sensitivity on cotton out-crossing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified ...

  10. Integrating omic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Rupesh; Sonah, Humira; Patil, Gunvant; Chen, Wei; Prince, Silvas; Mutava, Raymond; Vuong, Tri; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean production is greatly influenced by abiotic stresses imposed by environmental factors such as drought, water submergence, salt, and heavy metals. A thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stress at the molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. The molecular mechanism of stress tolerance is complex and requires information at the omic level to understand it effectively. In this regard, enormous progress has been made in the omics field in the areas of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The emerging field of ionomics is also being employed for investigating abiotic stress tolerance in soybean. Omic approaches generate a huge amount of data, and adequate advancements in computational tools have been achieved for effective analysis. However, the integration of omic-scale information to address complex genetics and physiological questions is still a challenge. In this review, we have described advances in omic tools in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to dissect abiotic stress tolerance in soybean. Emphasis was given to approaches such as quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS). Comparative genomics and candidate gene approaches are also discussed considering identification of potential genomic loci, genes, and biochemical pathways involved in stress tolerance mechanism in soybean. This review also provides a comprehensive catalog of available online omic resources for soybean and its effective utilization. We have also addressed the significance of phenomics in the integrated approaches and recognized high-throughput multi-dimensional phenotyping as a major limiting factor for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in soybean. PMID:24917870

  11. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  12. Transmission electron microscope in situ fatigue experiments: a computer-control approach.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, K S; Hunt, J A; Williams, D B

    1991-03-01

    A computer-control procedure was developed to facilitate in situ fatigue experiments within an intermediate voltage transmission electron microscope using a goniometer-type straining holder. The procedure was designed to allow sine-wave tension-tension cyclic loading of a microfatigue specimen similar in geometry to a center-crack panel fatigue specimen. Computer control allows greater freedom for the operator to control the experiments while providing better reproducibility from one test to another. Further development of this procedure is possible by coupling this computer-control technique with computer-controlled stage motion and digitized TV imaging. PMID:2045966

  13. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  14. Space simulation experiments on reaction control system thruster plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A space simulation procedure was developed for studying rocket plume contamination effects using a 5-pound bipropellant reaction control system thruster. Vacuum chamber pressures of 3 x 10 to the minus 5 torr (70 miles altitude) were achieved with the thruster firing in pulse trains consisting of eight pulses (50 msec on, 100 msec off, and seven minutes between pulse trains). The final vacuum was achieved by cooling all vacuum chamber surfaces to liquid helium temperature and by introducing a continuous argon leak of 48 std. cc/sec into the test chamber. An effort was made to simulate propellant system flow dynamics corresponding to actual spacecraft mission use. Fast time response liquid flow rate measurements showed that large variations occurred in the ratio of oxidizer to fuel flow for pulse-on times up to 120 msec. These variations could lead to poor combustion efficiency and the production of contamination.

  15. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  16. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  17. Radiative transfer theory verified by controlled laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Goldstein, Dennis H; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-09-15

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2% to 10%. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to ∼2%. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5% should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination. PMID:24104804

  18. Control of malaria: a successful experience from Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Q.; Vries, Peter J. de; Giao, Phan T.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Binh, Tran Q.; Chong, M. T.; Quoc, N. T. T. A.; Thanh, T. N.; Hung, L. N.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To follow malaria prospectively in an ethnic minority commune in the south of Viet Nam with high malaria transmission and seasonal fluctuation, during malaria control interventions using insecticide-treated bednets (ITBNs) and early diagnosis and treatment (EDT) of symptomatic patients. METHODS: From 1994 onwards the following interventions were used: distribution of ITBNs to all households with biannual reimpregnation; construction of a health post and appointment of staff trained in microscopic diagnosis and treatment of malaria; regular supply of materials and drugs; annual cross-sectional malaria surveys with treatment of all parasitaemic subjects, and a programme of community involvement and health education. Surveys were held yearly at the end of the rainy season. During the surveys, demographic data were updated. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria were free of charge. Plasmodium falciparum infection was treated with artesunate and P. vivax infection with chloroquine plus primaquine. FINDINGS: The baseline survey in 1994 recorded 716 inhabitants. Of the children under 2 years of age, 37% were parasitaemic; 56% of children aged 2-10 years, and 35% of the remaining population were parasitaemic. P. falciparum accounted for 73-79% of these infections. The respective splenomegaly rates for the above-mentioned age groups were 20%, 56%, and 32%. In 1999, the proportion of parasitaemic subjects was 4%, 7% and 1%, respectively, of which P.falciparum contributed 56%. The splenomegaly rate was 0%, 5% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of ITBNs and EDT, provided free of charge, complemented by annual diagnosis and treatment during malaria surveys and community involvement with health education successfully brought malaria under control. This approach could be applied to other regions in the south of Viet Nam and provides a sound basis for further studies in other areas with different epidemiological patterns of malaria. PMID:12219158

  19. Spliced synthetic genes as internal controls in RNA sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Simon A; Chen, Wendy Y; Wong, Ted; Deveson, Ira W; Blackburn, James; Andersen, Stacey B; Nielsen, Lars K; Mattick, John S; Mercer, Tim R

    2016-09-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) can be used to assemble spliced isoforms, quantify expressed genes and provide a global profile of the transcriptome. However, the size and diversity of the transcriptome, the wide dynamic range in gene expression and inherent technical biases confound RNA-seq analysis. We have developed a set of spike-in RNA standards, termed 'sequins' (sequencing spike-ins), that represent full-length spliced mRNA isoforms. Sequins have an entirely artificial sequence with no homology to natural reference genomes, but they align to gene loci encoded on an artificial in silico chromosome. The combination of multiple sequins across a range of concentrations emulates alternative splicing and differential gene expression, and it provides scaling factors for normalization between samples. We demonstrate the use of sequins in RNA-seq experiments to measure sample-specific biases and determine the limits of reliable transcript assembly and quantification in accompanying human RNA samples. In addition, we have designed a complementary set of sequins that represent fusion genes arising from rearrangements of the in silico chromosome to aid in cancer diagnosis. RNA sequins provide a qualitative and quantitative reference with which to navigate the complexity of the human transcriptome. PMID:27502218

  20. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Thompson, Andrew J; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar "Heinz 1706" (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8 and 16 h. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10-35°C, relative humidity 30-90%, and, CO2 concentration 200-1500 μmol mol(-1). Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume, and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners. PMID:25477888

  1. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Thompson, Andrew J.; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar “Heinz 1706” (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8 and 16 h. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10–35°C, relative humidity 30–90%, and, CO2 concentration 200–1500 μmol mol−1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume, and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners. PMID:25477888

  2. The Navstar GPS master control station's Kalman filter experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardera, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) is a highly accurate space based navigation system providing all weather, 24 hour a day service to both military and civilian users. The system provides a Gaussian position solution with four satellites, each providing its ephemeris and clock offset with respect to GPS time. The GPS Master Clock Station (MCS) is charged with tracking each Navstar spacecraft and precisely defining the ephemeris and clock parameters for upload into the vehicle's navigation message. Briefly described here are the Navstar system and the Kalman filter estimation process used by MCS to determine, predict, and ensure quality control for each of the satellite's ephemeris and clock states. Routine performance is shown. Kalman filter reaction and response is discussed for anomalous clock behavior and trajectory perturbations. Particular attention is given to MCS efforts to improve orbital adjust modeling. The satellite out of service time due to orbital maneuvering has been reduced in the past year from four days to under twelve hours. The planning, reference trajectory model, and Kalman filter management improvements are explained.

  3. A robot in space as a large space structures control experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gran, R.

    1983-01-01

    The control systems design issues for large space structures can be addressed by a robotics experiment which defines a teleoperator or a robot or uses the RMS. The robotics control demonstration brings the large space structures control technology to an effective state of readiness and provides a useful robot when the experiment is finished. Three major options in such an experiment are the RMS, a flexible arm that is going to be put on the Shuttle for other reasons, or a dexetrous manipulator or teleoperator.

  4. A controlled experiment to evaluate the impact of summer research experiences on attitudes towards science in high school aged students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Tcherednichenko, I.; Hamar, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Litizzette, L.

    2006-12-01

    United States funding agencies increasingly are supporting activities designed to increase the enrollment of United States high school students in science, math, or engineering careers. However, in many cases, the likely outcomes of educational activities are unknown. A common approach within the physical and natural sciences is to provide high school aged students with a summer research experience, with the expectation that such experiences will increase student interest in science, possibly as a career choice. With funding support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Investigator Grant program, we conducted a controlled experiment to test this assumption. In collaboration with Mountain Crest High School in Logan, UT, we recruited 40 students currently enrolled in science courses, assessed attitudes towards science (with informed consent), and randomly assigned 20 students to a control group and 20 students to an experimental group. Students in the experimental group were paired with faculty and graduate students in a wide range of field and laboratory research groups in natural resources and biology. Students were employed in at least two different research groups for an average of 30-40 hours per week for eight weeks in the summer of 2006. Following the completion of the summer work experience, we again assessed attitudes towards science in both groups and gathered additional information from the experimental group on satisfaction with the work experience and reasons for participating. Results are presented and discussed.

  5. Numerical controlled polishing, continued force wear and part correction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J.; McClure, E.R.

    1994-09-01

    This abstract reports the near completion of the first phase of this program. It is the aim of this program to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine (jig grinder) with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The second phase of this program addresses a different problem, although solving this problem is highly dependent on the results of the first phase. Diamond turned, or any lathe turned surface, exhibits regular tool marks due to the tool passing over the surface being cut. Changes in depth of cut, feed rate and work rpm will change the character of these groves, but will not eliminate them. Optical surfaces produced by this process exhibit increased scattering as the light wavelength decreases limiting their use; at least for optical purposes, to IR and some visible applications. Utilizing wear information gathered in the first part of this program we will attempt to reduce these residual tool marks by polishing. The polishing of diamond turned surfaces is not new. Diamond turned metal surfaces, especially in electroless nickel and high phosphorus nickel electroplate have been polished to improve their scatter characteristics. What we believe is unique is the use of a spherical wheel, rotating on axis and being moved over the part in a prescribed manner by numerical control. Over the past year we have made some major changes in our polishing methods and procedures. We have listed below these changes, as a refresher for the reader as to our previous procedures. These changes will be addressed in the body of the text.

  6. Stable carbon isotope analysis to distinguish biotic and abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Broholm, Mette M; Hunkeler, Daniel; Tuxen, Nina; Jeannottat, Simon; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    The fate and treatability of 1,1,1-TCA by natural and enhanced reductive dechlorination was studied in laboratory microcosms. The study shows that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) identified an alternative 1,1,1-TCA degradation pathway that cannot be explained by assuming biotic reductive dechlorination. In all biotic microcosms 1,1,1-TCA was degraded with no apparent increase in the biotic degradation product 1,1-DCA. 1,1,1-TCA degradation was documented by a clear enrichment in (13)C in all biotic microcosms, but not in the abiotic control, which suggests biotic or biotically mediated degradation. Biotic degradation by reductive dechlorination of 1,1-DCA to CA only occurred in bioaugmented microcosms and in donor stimulated microcosms with low initial 1,1,1-TCA or after significant decrease in 1,1,1-TCA concentration (after∼day 200). Hence, the primary degradation pathway for 1,1,1-TCA does not appear to be reductive dechlorination via 1,1-DCA. In the biotic microcosms, the degradation of 1,1,1-TCA occurred under iron and sulfate reducing conditions. Biotic reduction of iron and sulfate likely resulted in formation of FeS, which can abiotically degrade 1,1,1-TCA. Hence, abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-TCA mediated by biotic FeS formation constitute an explanation for the observed 1,1,1-TCA degradation. This is supported by a high 1,1,1-TCA (13)C enrichment factor consistent with abiotic degradation in biotic microcosms. 1,1-DCA carbon isotope field data suggest that this abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-TCA is a relevant process also at the field site. PMID:24559936

  7. Biogeomorphology of a Mojave Desert landscape - Configurations and feedbacks of abiotic and biotic land surfaces during landform evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrasiak, Nicole; Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Santiago, Louis S.; Graham, Robert C.

    2014-02-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems can be more holistically understood by investigating the morphology of landscape mosaics, the assemblage of their ecological communities, and the linkages and feedbacks between the mosaics and communities. The overarching objectives of this study were to: (1) study the abiotic and biotic configurations of landform units as mosaics within a Mojave Desert chronosequence; and (2) elucidate their potential feedbacks, interactions, and dynamics during landform evolution. Seven landform units distributed over three geomorphic ages were identified, including: young bars and swales; intermediate-aged flattened bars, flattened swales, and bioturbation units; and old desert pavements and shrub zones. These landform units were characterized according to abiotic and biotic land surface properties. Landform units were statistically distinct and predictable based on a specific suite of abiotic and biotic properties. Vascular plant functional group and biological soil crust community diversity varied with geomorphology, with greatest diversity associated with bars and shrub zones and lowest diversity associated with desert pavements. Biological soil crust communities were controlled by geomorphic age, surface rock size, and protruding rocks with young bar units having the highest abundance and diversity. Perennial forbs were observed in old shrub zones with small rocks and few protruding rocks. A high clast density and a finer-sized clast distribution were found particularly in desert pavements and flattened swales, and generally inhibited biological soil crust and plant cover. Evolutionary trajectories for landforms of a lower piedmont landscape can be dominated by either abiotic and biotic landform processes. These two trajectories are distinctly different and are associated with their own unique linkages, feedbacks, and dynamics of abiotic and biotic land surface properties, producing a highly diverse desert landscape.

  8. Overview of CFD Validation Experiments for Circulation Control Applications at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. S.; Lin, J. C.; Allan, B. G.; Milholen, W. E.; Rumsey, C. L.; Swanson, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Circulation control is a viable active flow control approach that can be used to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project s Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing goals. Currently, circulation control systems are primarily designed using empirical methods. However, large uncertainty in our ability to predict circulation control performance has led to the development of advanced CFD methods. This paper provides an overview of a systematic approach to developing CFD tools for basic and advanced circulation control applications. This four-step approach includes "Unit", "Benchmar", "Subsystem", and "Complete System" experiments. The paper emphasizes the ongoing and planned 2-D and 3-D physics orientated experiments with corresponding CFD efforts. Sample data are used to highlight the challenges involved in conducting circulation control computations and experiments.

  9. The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Michael; Williamson, David L.; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrea M.; Rajendran, Kavirajan; Kotoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    experimental hierarchy used to evaluate AGCMs. This comparison does suggest that the range of model behaviour could be better understood and reduced in conjunction with Earth climate simulations. Controlled experimentation is required to explore individual model behavior and investigate convergence of the aqua-planet climate with increasing resolution.

  10. Controlling balance during quiet standing: proportional and derivative controller generates preceding motor command to body sway position observed in experiments.

    PubMed

    Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H; Popovic, Milos R

    2006-02-01

    To compensate for significant time delays in the control of human bipedal stance, it was suggested that a feed-forward control mechanism is needed to generate a preceding motor command to the body sway position observed in quiet standing. In this article, we present evidence that a feedback proportional-derivative (PD) controller can effectively generate a desired preceding motor command. We also discuss the following characteristics of the proposed PD controller: (1) the level of robustness of the controller with respect to neurological time delays and (2) how well the controller replicates the system's dynamics observed in experiments with able bodied subjects, i.e. how well the controller generates the observed preceding motor command. Human quiet stance was simulated using an inverted pendulum model regulated by a PD controller. The simulations were used to calculate the center of mass (COM) position and velocity data, and the motor command (ankle joint torque) data as a function of time. These data and the data obtained in the experiments were compared using cross-correlation functions (CCFs). The results presented herein imply that a PD feedback controller is capable of ensuring balance during human bipedal quiet stance, even if the neurological time delays are considerable. The proposed feedback controller can generate the preceding motor command that was observed in the experiments. Therefore, we conclude that a feed-forward mechanism is not necessary to compensate for the long closed-loop time delay in human bipedal stance as suggested in recent literature, and that the PD controller is a good approximation of the control strategy applied by able bodied subjects during quiet stance. PMID:16399512

  11. Active structural control design and experiment for the Mini-Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Horta, Lucas; Sulla, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Control system design and closed-loop test results for the Mini-Mast truss structure located at the NASA Langley Research Center are presented. The simplicity and effectiveness of a classical control approach to the active structural control design are demonstrated by ground experiments. The concepts of robust nonminimum phase compensation and periodic disturbance rejection are also experimentally validated. The practicality of a sensor output decoupling approach is demonstrated for the inherent, multivariable control problem of the Mini-Mast.

  12. Anaerobic abiotic transformations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene in fractured sandstone.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Ramona; Lehmicke, Leo G; Andrachek, Richard G; Freedman, David L

    2013-02-01

    A fractured sandstone aquifer at an industrial site is contaminated with trichloroethene to depths greater than 244 m. Field data indicate that trichloroethene is undergoing reduction to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE); vinyl chloride and ethene are present at much lower concentrations. Transformation of cDCE by pathways other than reductive dechlorination (abiotic and/or biotic) is of interest. Pyrite, which has been linked to abiotic transformation of chlorinated ethenes, is present at varying levels in the sandstone. To evaluate the possible role of pyrite in transforming cDCE, microcosms were prepared with groundwater, ~40 mg L(-1) cDCE+[(14)C]cDCE, and crushed solids (pure pyrite, pyrite-rich sandstone, or typical sandstone). During 120 d of incubation, the highest level of cDCE transformation occurred with typical sandstone (11-14% (14)CO(2), 1-3% (14)C-soluble products), followed by pyrite-rich sandstone (2-4% (14)CO(2), 1% (14)C-soluble products) and even lesser amounts with pure pyrite. These results indicate pyrite is not likely the mineral involved in transforming cDCE. A separate experiment using only typical sandstone compared the rate of cDCE transformation in non-sterilized, autoclaved, and propylene-oxide sterilized treatments, with pseudo-first order rate constants of 8.7, 5.4, and 1.0 yr(-1), respectively; however, transformation stopped after several months of incubation. Autoclaving increased the volume of pores, adsorption pore diameter, and surface area in comparison to non-sterilized typical sandstone. Nevertheless, autoclaving was less disruptive than chemical sterilization. The results provide definitive experimental evidence that cDCE undergoes anaerobic abiotic and biotic transformation in typical sandstone, with formation of CO(2) and soluble products. PMID:23102697

  13. Abiotic Nitrous Oxide Production in Natural and Artificial Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, H.; Stanton, C. L.; Cavazos, A. R.; Ostrom, N. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean contributes approximately one third of global sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. While nitrification is thought to be the dominant pathway for marine N2O production, mechanisms remain unresolved. Previous studies have carried the implicit assumption that marine N2O originates directly from enzymatic sources. However, abiotic production of N2O is possible via chemical reactions between nitrogenous intermediates and redox active trace metals in seawater. In this study, we investigated N2O production and isotopic composition in treatments with and without added hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitric oxide (NO), intermediates in microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and Fe(III). Addition of substrates to sterile artificial seawater was compared with filtered and unfiltered seawater from Sapelo Island, coastal Georgia, USA. N2O production was observed immediately after addition of Fe(III) in the presence of NH2OH at pH 8 in sterile artificial seawater. Highest N2O production was observed in the presence of Fe(III), NO, and NH2OH. The isotopomer site preference of abiotically produced N2O was consistent with previous studies (31 ± 2 ‰). Higher abiotic N2O production was observed in sterile artificial seawater (salinity: 35 ppt) than filtered Sapelo Island seawater (salinity: 25 ppt) whereas diluted sterile artificial seawater (18 ppt) showed lowest N2O production, suggesting that higher salinity promotes enhanced abiotic N2O production. Addition of Fe(III) to unfiltered Sapelo Island seawater stimulated N2O production. The presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), which lack known N2O producing enzymes, in Sapelo Island seawater was confirmed by successful amplification of the archaeal amoA gene, whereas ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which contain N2O-producing enzymes were undetected. Given the few Fe-containing proteins present in AOA, it is likely that Fe(III) addition promoted N2O production via an abiotic vs. enzymatic N2O mechanism

  14. Canopy Level Solar Induced Fluorescence for Vegetation in Controlled Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva

    2007-01-01

    Solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) was retrieved from high resolution reflectance spectra acquired one meter above saplings of three deciduous tree species during springtime (three weeks after leaf flush) and in late summer when foliage was mature. SIF was determined by application of the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) Principal to above-canopy spectra acquired with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec spectroradiometer (3.2 nm resolution with 1.2 nm sampling interval). SIF retrievals were made at the two atmospheric oxygen (O2) absorption features that occur in the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) region (660 -780 nm). These telluric features are 02V, the broader and deeper feature centered at 760 nm, but located on the shoulder of the far-red ChlF peak at 740 nm; and 023, a narrow feature centered at 688 nm that is positioned near the red ChlF peak at 685 nm. Supporting, coincident leaf level fluorescence, reflectance, photochemical and other measurements were also made. At the leaf level, these measurements included in situ photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and light adapted total chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs') collected at steady state under high light and controlled chamber conditions (e.g., temperature, PAR, humidity, and COz); optical properties (reflectance, transmittance, absorptance); chlorophyll and carotenoid content; specific leaf mass; carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content; fluorescence emission spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths; the ChlF contribution to red (R) and far-red (FR) reflectance; fluorescence imagery; and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). The tree species examined were tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraczflua L.), and each had been provided four levels of N augmentation (0, 19, 37, and 75 kg Nhectare seasonally) to simulate atmospheric deposition from air pollution. Whole-plant SIF measurements of these species were compared with SIF

  15. A negative association between video game experience and proactive cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence demonstrates that video game experience has a beneficial effect on visuospatial cognition. In contrast, other evidence indicates that video game experience may be negatively related to cognitive control. In this study we examined the specificity of the influence of video game experience on cognitive control. Participants with high and low video game experience performed the Stroop task while event-related brain potentials were recorded. The behavioral data revealed no difference between high and low gamers for the Stroop interference effect and a reduction in the conflict adaptation effect in high gamers. The amplitude of the medial frontal negativity and a frontal slow wave was attenuated in high gamers, and there was no effect of gaming status on the conflict slow potential. These data lead to the suggestion that video game experience has a negative influence on proactive, but not reactive, cognitive control. PMID:19818048

  16. Resist Profile Control Obtained Through A Desirability Function And Statistically Designed Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Kenneth L.; Christensen, Lorna D.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes a technique used to determine an optimized microlithographic process using statistical methods which included a statistically designed experiment (SDE); a desirability function, d(θ*) and a rigorous daily statistical process control program, (SPC).

  17. Effects of a Structured Camp Experience on Locus of Control Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Barnes, Jarvis

    1973-01-01

    Inner-city teenagers experienced a structured camp program for a week. It was predicted and found that this experience led to a change toward internality, in the locus of control orientation of these youngsters. (Authors)

  18. An application of the IMC software to controller design for the JPL LSCL Experiment Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Guoming; Skelton, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A software package which Integrates Model reduction and Controller design (The IMC software) is applied to design controllers for the JPL Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment Facility. Modal Cost Analysis is used for the model reduction, and various Output Covariance Constraints are guaranteed by the controller design. The main motivation is to find the controller with the 'best' performance with respect to output variances. Indeed it is shown that by iterating on the reduced order design model, the controller designed does have better performance than that obtained with the first model reduction.

  19. The human operator in manual preview tracking /an experiment and its modeling via optimal control/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomizuka, M.; Whitney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    A manual preview tracking experiment and its results are presented. The preview drastically improves the tracking performance compared to zero-preview tracking. Optimal discrete finite preview control is applied to determine the structure of a mathematical model of the manual preview tracking experiment. Variable parameters in the model are adjusted to values which are consistent to the published data in manual control. The model with the adjusted parameters is found to be well correlated to the experimental results.

  20. Development and Evaluation of Sequential Control Educational Materials with Module Structure for Engineering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Sakae; Chida, Kazunori; Noguchi, Takafumi; Arai, Makoto; Koshimizu, Makoto

    We have developed educational materials to learn about sequential control technology for engineering students. The educational materials have use-friendly characteristics and high-visibility. The characteristics are based on Keller's ARCS model of motivation. At the end of experiments, a questionnaire about these educational materials was administered to the students. The analysis of the questionnaire showed that most students achieved a good understanding and were very interested in experiments of sequential control.

  1. F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.

  2. Nicotiana tabacum Tsip1-Interacting Ferredoxin 1 Affects Biotic and Abiotic Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Sung Un; Lee, In-Ju; Ham, Byung-Kook; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Tsip1, a Zn finger protein that was isolated as a direct interactor with tobacco stress-induced 1 (Tsi1), plays an important role in both biotic and abiotic stress signaling. To further understand Tsip1 function, we searched for more Tsip1-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening using a tobacco cDNA library. Screening identified a new Tsip1-interacting protein, Nicotiana tabacum Tsip1-interacting ferredoxin 1 (NtTfd1), and binding specificity was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. The four repeats of a cysteine-rich motif (CXXCXGXG) of Tsip1 proved important for binding to NtTfd1. Virus-induced gene silencing of NtTfd1, Tsip1, and NtTfd1/Tsip1 rendered plants more susceptible to salinity stress compared with TRV2 control plants. NtTfd1- and Tsip1-silenced tobacco plants were more susceptible to infection by Cucumber mosaic virus compared with control plants. These results suggest that NtTfd1 might be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stresses in chloroplasts by interaction with Tsip1. PMID:22699755

  3. Viewing Artworks: Contributions of Cognitive Control and Perceptual Facilitation to Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupchik, Gerald C.; Vartanian, Oshin; Crawley, Adrian; Mikulis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    When we view visual images in everyday life, our perception is oriented toward object identification. In contrast, when viewing visual images "as artworks", we also tend to experience subjective reactions to their stylistic and structural properties. This experiment sought to determine how cognitive control and perceptual facilitation contribute…

  4. WebLab of a DC Motor Speed Control Didactical Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Karine; Mendes, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Weblabs are an additional resource in the execution of experiments in control engineering education, making learning process more flexible both in time, by allowing extra class laboratory activities, and space, bringing the learning experience to remote locations where experimentation facilities would not be available. The purpose of this…

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal responses to abiotic stresses: A review.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Ingrid; Fontaine, Joël; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    The majority of plants live in close collaboration with a diversity of soil organisms among which arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role. Mycorrhizal symbioses contribute to plant growth and plant protection against various environmental stresses. Whereas the resistance mechanisms induced in mycorrhizal plants after exposure to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and pollution, are well documented, the knowledge about the stress tolerance mechanisms implemented by the AMF themselves is limited. This review provides an overview of the impacts of various abiotic stresses (pollution, salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, CO2, calcareous, acidity) on biodiversity, abundance and development of AMF and examines the morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms implemented by AMF to survive in the presence of these stresses. PMID:26803396

  6. Demonstration of significant abiotic iron isotope fractionation in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; White, A.F.; Childs, C.W.; Vivit, D.V.; Schultz, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies reveal that the mineral ferrihydrite, formed as a result of abiotic oxidation of aqueous ferrous to ferric Fe, contains Fe that is isotopically heavy relative to coexisting aqueous Fe. Because the electron transfer step of the oxidation process at pH >5 is essentially irreversible and should favor the lighter Fe isotopes in the ferric iron product, this result suggests that relatively heavy Fe isotopes are preferentially partitioned into the readily oxidized Fe(II)(OH)x(aq) species or their transition complexes prior to oxidation. The apparent Fe isotope fractionation factor, ??ferrihydrite-water, depends primarily on the relative abundances of the Fe(II)(aq) species. This study demonstrates that abiotic processes can fractionate the Fe isotopes to the same extent as biotic processes, and thus Fe isotopes on their own do not provide an effective biosignature.

  7. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynamic activities of that organism in different environments. In this review, research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses is summarized from the physiological level to the molecular level. New insights obtained from the integration of omics datasets are highlighted. Gaps in our knowledge are identified, providing additional focus areas for crop improvement research in the future. PMID:22094046

  8. Abiotic mediation of a mutualism drives herbivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Emily H; Phillips, Joseph S; Tillberg, Chadwick V; Sandrow, Cheryl; Nelson, Annika S; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Species abundance is typically determined by the abiotic environment, but the extent to which such effects occur through the mediation of biotic interactions, including mutualisms, is unknown. We explored how light environment (open meadow vs. shaded understory) mediates the abundance and ant tending of the aphid Aphis helianthi feeding on the herb Ligusticum porteri. Yearly surveys consistently found aphids to be more than 17-fold more abundant on open meadow plants than on shaded understory plants. Manipulations demonstrated that this abundance pattern was not due to the direct effects of light environment on aphid performance, or indirectly through host plant quality or the effects of predators. Instead, open meadows had higher ant abundance and per capita rates of aphid tending and, accordingly, ants increased aphid population growth in meadow but not understory environments. The abiotic environment thus drives the abundance of this herbivore exclusively through the mediation of a protection mutualism. PMID:26563752

  9. Development of Skylab experiment T020 employing a foot controlled maneuvering unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, D. E.; Glover, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    A review of the plans and preparations is presented for Skylab experiment T020, entitled Foot-Controlled Maneuvering Unit (FCMU). The FCMU is an experimental system intended to explore the use of simple astronaut maneuvering devices in the zero-gravity environment of space. This review also includes discussions of the FCMU concept and experiment hardware systems, as well as supporting experiment definition and development research studies conducted with the aid of zero-gravity simulators.

  10. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Mario; Belcaid, Mahdi; Ouellet, François; Danyluk, Jean; Monroy, Antonio F; Dryanova, Ani; Gulick, Patrick; Bergeron, Anne; Laroche, André; Links, Matthew G; MacCarthy, Luke; Crosby, William L; Sarhan, Fathey

    2006-01-01

    Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS) project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets). Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in wheat and other cereals. PMID

  11. Abiotic carbonate dissolution traps carbon in a semiarid desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Keyu; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yuqing; Qin, Shugao; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jiabin

    2016-03-01

    It is generally considered that desert ecosystems release CO2 to the atmosphere, but recent studies in drylands have shown that the soil can absorb CO2 abiotically. However, the mechanisms and exact location of abiotic carbon absorption remain unclear. Here, we used soil sterilization, 13CO2 addition, and detection methods to trace 13C in the soil of the Mu Us Desert, northern China. After 13CO2 addition, a large amount of 13CO2 was absorbed by the sterilised soil, and 13C was found enriched both in the soil gaseous phase and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Further analysis indicated that about 79.45% of the total 13C absorbed by the soil was trapped in DIC, while the amount of 13C in the soil gaseous phase accounted for only 0.22% of the total absorbed 13C. However, about 20.33% of the total absorbed 13C remained undetected. Our results suggest that carbonate dissolution might occur predominately, and the soil liquid phase might trap the majority of abiotically absorbed carbon. It is possible that the trapped carbon in the soil liquid phase leaches into the groundwater; however, further studies are required to support this hypothesis.

  12. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    PubMed Central

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Hashimoto, Hideki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Taketa, Eisuke; Tamura, Katsunori; Takano, Mikio; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II) concentrations, Fe(III) precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II) to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III) was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II) medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter), while those in the Fe(III) medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter) with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved) of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths. PMID:27271677

  13. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Hashimoto, Hideki; McFarlane, Ian R; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Taketa, Eisuke; Tamura, Katsunori; Takano, Mikio; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II) concentrations, Fe(III) precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II) to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III) was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II) medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter), while those in the Fe(III) medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter) with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved) of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths. PMID:27271677

  14. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets. PMID:26354078

  15. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets. PMID:26354078

  16. Abiotic carbonate dissolution traps carbon in a semiarid desert

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Keyu; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yuqing; Qin, Shugao; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jiabin

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that desert ecosystems release CO2 to the atmosphere, but recent studies in drylands have shown that the soil can absorb CO2 abiotically. However, the mechanisms and exact location of abiotic carbon absorption remain unclear. Here, we used soil sterilization, 13CO2 addition, and detection methods to trace 13C in the soil of the Mu Us Desert, northern China. After 13CO2 addition, a large amount of 13CO2 was absorbed by the sterilised soil, and 13C was found enriched both in the soil gaseous phase and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Further analysis indicated that about 79.45% of the total 13C absorbed by the soil was trapped in DIC, while the amount of 13C in the soil gaseous phase accounted for only 0.22% of the total absorbed 13C. However, about 20.33% of the total absorbed 13C remained undetected. Our results suggest that carbonate dissolution might occur predominately, and the soil liquid phase might trap the majority of abiotically absorbed carbon. It is possible that the trapped carbon in the soil liquid phase leaches into the groundwater; however, further studies are required to support this hypothesis. PMID:27020762

  17. Abiotic Reductive Immobilization of U(VI) by Biogenic Mackinawite

    SciTech Connect

    Veeramani, Harish; Scheinost, Andreas; Monsegue, Niven; Qafoku, Nikolla; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Newville, Mathew; Lanzirotti, Anthony; Pruden, Amy; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F.

    2013-03-01

    During subsurface bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites, indigenous metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria may utilize a variety of electron acceptors, including ferric iron and sulfate that could lead to the formation of various biogenic minerals in-situ. Sulfides, as well as structural and adsorbed Fe(II) associated with biogenic Fe(II)-sulfide phases, can potentially catalyze abiotic U6+ reduction via direct electron transfer processes. In the present work, the propensity of biogenic mackinawite (Fe1+xS, x = 0 to 0.11) to reduce U6+ abiotically was investigated. The biogenic mackinawite produced by Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 was characterized by employing a suite of analytical techniques including TEM, SEM, XAS and Mössbauer analyses. Nanoscale and bulk analyses (microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively) of biogenic mackinawite after exposure to U6+ indicate the formation of nanoparticulate UO2. This study suggests the relevance of Fe(II) and sulfide bearing biogenic minerals in mediating abiotic U6+ reduction, an alternative pathway in addition to direct enzymatic U6+ reduction.

  18. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Saroj K.; Reddy, Kambham R.; Li, Jiaxu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a primary threat to fulfill the demand of agricultural production to feed the world in coming decades. Plants reduce growth and development process during stress conditions, which ultimately affect the yield. In stress conditions, plants develop various stress mechanism to face the magnitude of stress challenges, although that is not enough to protect them. Therefore, many strategies have been used to produce abiotic stress tolerance crop plants, among them, abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone engineering could be one of the methods of choice. ABA is an isoprenoid phytohormone, which regulates various physiological processes ranging from stomatal opening to protein storage and provides adaptation to many stresses like drought, salt, and cold stresses. ABA is also called an important messenger that acts as the signaling mediator for regulating the adaptive response of plants to different environmental stress conditions. In this review, we will discuss the role of ABA in response to abiotic stress at the molecular level and ABA signaling. The review also deals with the effect of ABA in respect to gene expression. PMID:27200044

  19. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets.Reference:Narita N. et al.,Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13977 (2015)http://www.nature.com/articles/srep13977

  20. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  1. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  2. Abiotic formation of acylglycerols under simulated hydrothermal conditions and self-assembly properties of such lipid products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Deamer, David W.

    The abiotic formation of aliphatic lipid compounds (i.e., fatty acids, alcohols, and acylglycerols) has been reported to occur at elevated temperatures and pressures under simulated hydrothermal conditions. Although abiotic synthetic chemistry can occur under these conditions, the prebiotic self-assembly of micelles to bilayer to vesicles (protocells) may have occurred elsewhere. Amphiphilic compounds such as fatty acids are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation, because they are abundant products of Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions and are also found in carbonaceous meteorites. Thus, it is of interest to determine whether more complex amphiphilic precursor compounds, capable of assembling into stable membrane structures, can be synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to study condensation reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media, i.e., glycerol and alkanoic acids, to form acylglycerols (glyceryl alkanoates) at elevated temperature under confining pressure. Nine different alkanoic acids ranging from C 7 to C 16 (except C 8) were used in these experiments. The condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols, as well as the corresponding triacylglycerol. The results indicated that: (1) condensation (dehydration) reactions are possible under aqueous pyrolysis conditions; (2) abiotic synthesis and subsequent condensation reactions of aliphatic lipid compounds are possible under hydrothermal conditions; and (3) such molecules have robust properties of self-assembly into membranous structures that would be suitable boundary structures for primitive forms of cellular life.

  3. Technetium Reduction and Permanent Sequestration by Abiotic and Biotic Formation of Low-Solubility Sulfide Mineral Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, Paul G.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Szecsody, Jim; Jansik, Danielle

    2015-11-14

    One way to minimize the mobility of the TcVII oxyanion pertechnetate (TcO4-) is to effect reduction under sulfidogenic conditions (generated abiotically by Fe0 or biotically) to form TcSx, which is significantly slower to oxidize than TcIVO2. In sediment systems, TcSx and other precipitates may oxidize more slowly due to oxygen diffusion limitations to these low permeability precipitate zones. In addition, the TcO4- reduction rate may be more rapid in the presence of sediment because of additional reductive surface phases. This project aims to provide a fundamental understanding of the feasibility of immobilization of TcO4- as TcSx in the vadose zone or groundwater by application nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), and sulfide or sulfate. Biotic batch experiments have used the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfotomaculum reducens. The iron sulfide mineral mackinawite was generated under these conditions, while vivianite was formed in nZVI only controls. The sulfide/bacteria-containing system consistently reduced aqueous pertechnetate rapidly (> 95% in the first hour), a rate similar to that for the sulfide-free, nZVI only system. Reduced Tc (aged for 3 months) generated in both SRB/nZVI systems was highly resistant to reoxidation. In reduced samples, Tc was found associated with solid phases containing Fe and S (D. reducens/nZVI) or Fe (nZVI only). Experiments using D. reducens without nZVI provided some additional insights. Firstly, stationary phase cultures were able to slowly reduce pertechnetate. Secondly, addition of pertechnetate at the beginning of cell growth (lag phase) resulted in a faster rate of Tc reduction, possibly indicating a direct (e.g. enzymatic) role for D. reducens in Tc reduction. Abiotic batch experiments were conducted with Na2S as the sulfide source. Pertechnetate reduction was

  4. Preservice Students' Attitudes toward Pupil Control as They Develop throughout the Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Joyce E.; McIntyre, D. John

    This study used repeated measures of the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) instrument to examine the change in student teacher orientation toward pupil control ideology occurring during a three semester field experience. The instrument was given to elementary and secondary education majors at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale five different…

  5. Action-Control Beliefs and School Experiences of Tanzanian Primary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Wanner, Brigitte; Sumra, Suleman; Little, Todd D.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated urban and rural Tanzanian elementary students' experiences and action-control beliefs about school performance using the revised Control, Agency, and Means-End Interview. Student surveys indicated that the Tanzanian educational system and teaching format were reflected in low performance-belief relationships. High achievers were more…

  6. Abiotic production of methylmercury by solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Steven D; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Tordon, Robert; Hill, Jonathan; Beauchamp, Stephen; Lean, David R S

    2005-02-15

    Methylmercury [MeHg(I) in the aerobic surface water of lakes is thought to be rapidly degraded, but contrary to expectations, we show that MeHg(I) concentrations often increase during sunlight hours or remain relatively constant. We hypothesized that there were water column processes that generated MeHg(I) and that these processes were linked to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and solar radiation. A 2-day diurnal pattern of MeHg(I) in surface water with corresponding bottled controls was assessed for two contrasting lakes in Kejimikujik, Nova Scotia, Canada. Following this study, a tangential ultrafiltrator was used to size-fractionate and generate a concentration gradient of DOM from four different lakes located near Lac Berthelot, Quebec, Canada. The watersheds of two of these lakes were not substantially logged whereas the other two had been extensively logged. Different size fractions of DOM as well as different concentrations of DOM were exposed to sunlight for varying periods of time. We observed that, in Keiimikujik, the concentration of MeHg(I) in surface waters peaked in the early afternoon. Furthermore, this also occurred in bottled water for one of the lakes, Puzzle, eliminating the possibility that in-lake mixing played a role in this pattern. The formation of MeHg(I) was found to be dependent on the size fraction and amount of DOM present in the water. Specifically, DOM less than 5 kDa or between 30 and 300 kDa generated MeHg(I) when exposed to sunlight, but larger fractions did not. Furthermore, although data are limited, we found that water from lakes with logged watersheds generated MeHg(I) when exposed to sunlight, whereas water from lakes with low levels of logging in the undisturbed watersheds did not. Our results demonstrate that MeHg(I) can be formed in freshwaters of certain lakes in response to solar radiation. This photoproduction of MeHg(I) is dependent on DOM concentrations and type, with the importance of water chemistry not yet clear. The

  7. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  8. Spatial variability of biotic and abiotic tree establishment constraints across a treeline ecotone in the Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stueve, K.M.; Isaacs, R.E.; Tyrrell, L.E.; Densmore, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout interior Alaska (USA), a gradual warming trend in mean monthly temperatures occurred over the last few decades (;2-48C). The accompanying increases in woody vegetation at many alpine treeline (hereafter treeline) locations provided an opportunity to examine how biotic and abiotic local site conditions interact to control tree establishment patterns during warming. We devised a landscape ecological approach to investigate these relationships at an undisturbed treeline in the Alaska Range. We identified treeline changes between 1953 (aerial photography) and 2005 (satellite imagery) in a geographic information system (GIS) and linked them with corresponding local site conditions derived from digital terrain data, ancillary climate data, and distance to 1953 trees. Logistic regressions enabled us to rank the importance of local site conditions in controlling tree establishment. We discovered a spatial transition in the importance of tree establishment controls. The biotic variable (proximity to 1953 trees) was the most important tree establishment predictor below the upper tree limit, providing evidence of response lags with the abiotic setting and suggesting that tree establishment is rarely in equilibrium with the physical environment or responding directly to warming. Elevation and winter sun exposure were important predictors of tree establishment at the upper tree limit, but proximity to trees persisted as an important tertiary predictor, indicating that tree establishment may achieve equilibrium with the physical environment. However, even here, influences from the biotic variable may obscure unequivocal correlations with the abiotic setting (including temperature). Future treeline expansion will likely be patchy and challenging to predict without considering the spatial variability of influences from biotic and abiotic local site conditions. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Connecting RNA Processing to Abiotic Environmental Response in Arabidopsis: the role of a polyadenylation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. Q.; Xu, R.; Hunt, A. G.; Falcone, D. L.

    Plants are constantly challenged by numerous environmental stresses both biotic and abiotic It is clear that plants have evolved to counter these stresses using all but limited means We recently discovered the potential role of a messenger RNA processing factor namely the Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 kDa subunit AtCPSF30 when a mutant deficient in this factor displayed altered responses to an array of abiotic stresses This AtCPSF30 mutant named oxt6 exhibited an elevated tolerance to oxidative stress Microarray experiments of oxt6 and its complemented lines revealed an altered gene expression profile among which were antioxidative defense genes Interestingly the same gene encoding AtCPSF30 can also be transcribed into a large transcript that codes for a potential splicing factor Both protein products have a domain for RNA binding and a calmodulin binding domain activities of which have been confirmed by biochemical assays Surprisingly binding of AtCPSF30 to calmodulin inhibits the RNA-binding activity of the protein Mutational analysis shows that a small part of the protein is responsible for calmodulin binding and point mutations in this region abolished both RNA binding activity and the inhibition of this activity by calmodulin Analyses of the potential splicing factor are on going and the results will be presented The interesting possibilities for both the interplay between splicing and polyadenylation and the regulation of these processes by stimuli that act through

  10. Predominance of biotic over abiotic formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in hypersaline sediments in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, A; Weigold, P; Behrens, S; Jochmann, M; Laaks, J; Kappler, A

    2014-08-19

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOX) contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. There is evidence of natural VOX formation in many environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Laboratory studies have suggested that VOX formation can be chemically stimulated by reactive Fe species while field studies have provided evidence for direct biological (enzymatic) VOX formation. However, the relative contribution of abiotic and biotic processes to global VOX budgets is still unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify VOX release from sediments from a hypersaline lake in Western Australia (Lake Strawbridge) and to distinguish between the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic VOX formation in microbially active and sterilized microcosms. Our experiments demonstrated that the release of organochlorines from Lake Strawbridge sediments was mainly biotic. Among the organochlorines detected were monochlorinated, e.g., chloromethane (CH3Cl), and higher chlorinated VOX compounds such as trichloromethane (CHCl3). Amendment of sediments with either Fe(III) oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite) or a mixture of lactate/acetate or both ferrihydrite and lactate/acetate did not stimulate VOX formation. This suggests that although microbial Fe(III) reduction took place, there was no stimulation of VOX formation via Fe redox transformations or the formation of reactive Fe species under our experimental conditions. PMID:25073729

  11. Abiotic degradation of methyl parathion by manganese dioxide: Kinetics and transformation pathway.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Yinwen; Wu, Sisi; Yuan, Songhu; Zhu, Zhenli

    2016-05-01

    Methyl parathion, a widely used insecticide around the world, has aroused gradually extensive concern of researchers due to its degradation product such as methyl paraoxon, with higher toxicity for mammals and more recalcitrant. Given the ubiquity of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in soils and aquatic sediments, the abiotic degradation of methyl parathion by α-MnO2 was investigated in batch experiments. It was found that methyl parathion was decomposed up to 90% by α-MnO2 in 30 h and the removal efficiency of methyl parathion depended strongly on the loading of α-MnO2 and pH value in the solution where the reactions followed pseudo-first-order model well. The coexisting metal ions (such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+)) weakened markedly the degradation of methyl parathion by α-MnO2. However, the effect of dissolved organic matter (HA-Na) on reaction rates presented two sides: to improve hydrolysis rate but deteriorate oxidation rate of methyl parathion. Based on the degradation products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometer (LC/HRMS), both hydrolysis and oxidation processes were proposed to be two predominant reaction mechanisms contributing to methyl parathion degradation by α-MnO2. This study provided meaningful information to elucidate the abiotic dissipation of methyl parathion by manganese oxide minerals in the environment. PMID:26891361

  12. Microarray: gateway to unravel the mystery of abiotic stresses in plants.

    PubMed

    Gul, Ambreen; Ahad, Ammara; Akhtar, Sidra; Ahmad, Zarnab; Rashid, Bushra; Husnain, Tayyab

    2016-04-01

    Environmental factors, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperature, ozone poisoning, metal toxicity etc., significantly affect crops. To study these factors and to design a possible remedy, biological experimental data concerning these crops requires the quantification of gene expression and comparative analyses at high throughput level. Development of microarrays is the platform to study the differential expression profiling of the targeted genes. This technology can be applied to gene expression studies, ranging from individual genes to whole genome level. It is now possible to perform the quantification of the differential expression of genes on a glass slide in a single experiment. This review documents recently published reports on the use of microarrays for the identification of genes in different plant species playing their role in different cellular networks under abiotic stresses. The regulation pattern of differentially-expressed genes, individually or in group form, may help us to study different pathways and functions at the cellular and molecular level. These studies can provide us with a lot of useful information to unravel the mystery of abiotic stresses in important crop plants. PMID:26667130

  13. Response of plant tundra communities to changes in abiotic and biotic environments: Importance of the temporal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, P.; Virtanen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of ecosystem response to changing environment have been improved by the convergence of observational and experimental approaches that allow disentangling mechanisms involved and large scale subsequent patterns. However, such approaches often face context-dependence of underlying processes, and a major challenge of community ecology is to deepen our understanding of this context-dependency for reliable upscaling. Here we used the results from several transplant experiments of heath communities in the Northern Fennoscandian during the last two decades to investigate the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers and the plant functional response. The plant community composition of blocks of heath vegetation from diverse origins transplanted in contrasted abiotic and biotic conditions was monitored from 6 to 23 years depending on the design. Considering both abiotic severity and biotic environment, the transplantation along altitudinal gradient constituted major habitat perturbation, in particular for communities from the mountain tundra vulnerable to strong functional shift. In addition, the joint effects of multiple drivers associated to grazing pressure and abiotic micro heterogeneity resulted in divergent community in the long-term. However, the different factors operated on different temporal scales. The vegetation depending on their origin and functional type also showed contrasted patterns from immediate and transient response to strong biological inertia. Our results reveal the potential for alternative response of plant communities depending on the interplay between the multiple drivers and the functional attributes of the vegetation. This interplay should drive plant communities toward divergent alternative states, but our ability to extrapolate longer-term trajectories from partial dynamics is challenged by the temporal differences in drivers pressure and plant response. The responses to manipulation appear as successional processes and

  14. Carbon Isotopes of Alkanes in Hydrothermal Abiotic Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperatures and Pressures: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques [1-4]. With more evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history [5-7], abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis during serpentization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars [8, 9]. While the experimental studies performed to date leave little doubt that chemical reactions exist for the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds by mineral surface-catalyzed reactions [10-12], little is known about the reaction pathways by which CO2 and/or CO are reduced under hydrothermal conditions. Carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements of alkanes have been used as an effective tool to constrain the origin and reaction pathways of hydrocarbon formation. Alkanes generated by thermal breakdown of high molecular weight organic compounds have carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures completely distinct from those formed abiotically [13-15]. Recent experimental studies, however, showed that different abiogenic hydrocarbon formation processes (e.g., polymerization vs. depolymerization) may have different carbon and hydrogen isotopic patterns [16]. Results from previous experiments studying decomposition of higher molecular weight organic compounds (lignite) also suggested that pressure could be a crucial factor affecting fractionation of carbon isotopes [17]. Under high pressure conditions, no experimental data are available describing fractionation of carbon isotope during mineral catalyzed FTT synthesis. Thus, hydrothermal experiments present an excellent opportunity to provide the requisite carbon isotope data. Such data can also be used to identify reaction pathways of abiotic organic synthesis under experimental conditions.

  15. Birth control sabotage and forced sex: experiences reported by women in domestic violence shelters.

    PubMed

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Rostovtseva, Daria P; Khera, Satin; Godhwani, Nita

    2010-05-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence often experience birth control sabotage, forced sex, and partner's unwillingness to use condoms. We interviewed 53 women at four domestic violence shelters. Participants reported that their abusive partners frequently refused to use condoms, impeded them from accessing health care, and subjected them to birth control sabotage, infidelity, and forced sex. However, women also reported strategies to counteract these actions, particularly against birth control sabotage and attempts to force them to abort or continue a pregnancy. Domestic violence counselors can focus on these successful strategies to validate coping skills and build self-esteem. PMID:20388933

  16. CSM digital autopilot testing in support of ASTP experiments control requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of CSM digital autopilot (DAP) testing. The testing was performed to demonstrate and evaluate control modes which are currently planned or could be considered for use in support of experiments on the ASTP mission. The testing was performed on the Lockheed Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Functional Simulator (GNCFS). This simulator, which was designed to test the Apollo and Skylab DAP control system, has been used extensively and is a proven tool for CSM DAP analysis.

  17. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Automated control system for unmanned mission AS-201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo command module heat shield and Apollo command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle structural integrity were evaluated in an unmanned test flight. An automated control system was developed to provide the mission event sequencing, the real-time ground control interface, and the backup attitude reference system for the unmanned flight. The required mission events, the design logic, the redundancy concept, and the ground-support-equipment concept are described and some development problem areas are discussed. The mission event time line and the real-time ground command list are included to provide an outline of the control system capabilities and requirements. The mission was accomplished with the automated control system, which functioned without flight anomalies.

  18. Construction of AC Motor Controllers for NOvA Experiment Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Patrick; /Fermilab

    2011-08-04

    I have been constructing Alternating Current (AC) motor controllers for manipulation of particle beam detectors. The capability and reliability of these motor controllers are essential to the Laboratory's mission of accurate analysis of the particle beam's position. The device is moved in and out of the beam's path by the motor controller followed by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance (NOvA) Experiment further down the beam pipe. In total, I built and tested ten ac motor controllers for new beam operations in the NOvA experiment. These units will prove to be durable and provide extremely accurate beam placement for NOvA Experiment far into the future.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil leaves induced by selected abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Szymanowska, Urszula; Złotek, Urszula; Karaś, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates changes in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves induced by arachidonic acid (AA), jasmonic acid (JA) and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA). The anthocyanins content was significantly increased by all elicitors used in this study; however, no increase was observed in the antioxidant activity of the analyzed extracts. Additionally, a significant decrease by about 50% in the ability to chelate Fe(II) was noted. Further, an increase in the potential anti-inflammatory activity of basil anthocyanins was observed after treatment with each the abiotic elicitor. The IC50 value for lipoxygenase inhibition was almost twice as low after elicitation as that of the control. Also, cyclooxygenase inhibition by anthocyanins was stimulated by abiotic elicitors, except for JA-sample. Additionally, HPLC-analysis indicated that elicitation with AA, JA and BABA caused increases in content most of all anthocyanin compounds. PMID:25442525

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of Cell Cycle Genes in Response to Abiotic Stresses Correlates with Dynamic Changes in Histone Modifications in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Haoli; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yapei; Yan, Shihan; Huang, Yan; Li, Hui; Tan, Junjun; Hu, Ao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yingnan; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Lijia

    2014-01-01

    The histone modification level has been shown to be related with gene activation and repression in stress-responsive process, but there is little information on the relationship between histone modification and cell cycle gene expression responsive to environmental cues. In this study, the function of histone modifications in mediating the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes under various types of stress was investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). Abiotic stresses all inhibit the growth of maize seedlings, and induce total acetylation level increase compared with the control group in maize roots. The positive and negative regulation of the expression of some cell cycle genes leads to perturbation of cell cycle progression in response to abiotic stresses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that dynamic histone acetylation change in the promoter region of cell cycle genes is involved in the control of gene expression in response to external stress and different cell cycle genes have their own characteristic patterns for histone acetylation. The data also showed that the combinations of hyperacetylation and hypoacetylation states of specific lysine sites on the H3 and H4 tails on the promoter regions of cell cycle genes regulate specific cell cycle gene expression under abiotic stress conditions, thus resulting in prolonged cell cycle duration and an inhibitory effect on growth and development in maize seedlings. PMID:25171199

  1. Resilience of Penicillium resedanum LK6 and exogenous gibberellin in improving Capsicum annuum growth under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how endophytic fungi mitigate abiotic stresses in plants will be important in a changing global climate. A few endophytes can produce phytohormones, but their ability to induce physiological changes in host plants during extreme environmental conditions are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the ability of Penicillium resedanum LK6 to produce gibberellins and its role in improving the growth of Capsicum annuum L. under salinity, drought, and heat stresses. These effects were compared with exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3). Endophyte treatment significantly increased shoot length, biomass, chlorophyll content, and the photosynthesis rate compared with the uninfected control during abiotic stresses. The endophyte and combined endophyte + GA3 treatments significantly ameliorated the negative effects of stresses compared with the control. Stress-responsive endogenous abscisic acid and its encoding genes, such as zeaxanthin epoxidase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3, and ABA aldehyde oxidase 3, were significantly reduced in endophyte-treated plants under stress. Conversely, salicylic acid and biosynthesis-related gene (isochorismate synthase) had constitutive expressions while pathogenesis related (PR1 and PR5) genes showed attenuated responses during endophyte treatment under abiotic stresses. The present findings suggest that endophytes have effects comparable to those of exogenous GA3; both can significantly increase plant growth and yield under changing environmental conditions by reprogramming the host plant's physiological responses. PMID:25537300

  2. Improvement of lipid production in the marine strains Alexandrium minutum and Heterosigma akashiwo by utilizing abiotic parameters.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Garcés, E; Alacid, E; Sampedro, N; Rossi, S; Camp, J

    2012-01-01

    Two different strains of microalgae, one raphidophyte and one dinoflagellate, were tested under different abiotic conditions with the goal of enhancing lipid production. Whereas aeration was crucial for biomass production, nitrogen deficiency and temperature were found to be the main abiotic parameters inducing the high-level cellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Net neutral lipid production and especially triacylglycerol (TAG) per cell were higher in microalgae (>200% in Alexandrium minutum, and 30% in Heterosigma akashiwo) under treatment conditions (25°C; 330 μM NaNO(3)) than under control conditions (20°C; 880 μM NaNO(3)). For both algal species, oil production (free fatty acids plus TAG fraction) was also higher under treatment conditions (57 mg L(-1) in A. minutum and 323 mg L(-1) in H. akashiwo). Despite the increased production and accumulation of lipids in microalgae, the different conditions did not significantly change the fatty acids profiles of the species analyzed. These profiles consisted of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in significant proportions. However, during the stationary phase, the concentrations per cell of some PUFAs, especially arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), were higher in treated than in control algae. These results suggest that the adjustment of abiotic parameters is a suitable and one of the cheapest alternatives to obtain sufficient quantities of microalgal biomass, with high oil content and minimal changes in the fatty acid profile of the strains under consideration. PMID:21766212

  3. Contributions of Abiotic and Biotic Dechlorination Following Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Injection.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Chris M D; Lomheim, Line; Boparai, Hardiljeet K; Chowdhury, Ahmed I A; Weber, Kela P; Austrins, Leanne M; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Sleep, Brent E; O'Carroll, Denis M

    2015-07-21

    A pilot scale injection of nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was performed at an active field site contaminated with a range of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOC). The cVOC concentrations and microbial populations were monitored at the site before and after nZVI injection. The remedial injection successfully reduced parent compound concentrations on site. A period of abiotic degradation was followed by a period of enhanced biotic degradation. Results suggest that the nZVI/CMC injection created conditions that stimulated the native populations of organohalide-respiring microorganisms. The abundance of Dehalococcoides spp. immediately following the nZVI/CMC injection increased by 1 order of magnitude throughout the nZVI/CMC affected area relative to preinjection abundance. Distinctly higher cVOC degradation occurred as a result of the nZVI/CMC injection over a 3 week evaluation period when compared to control wells. This suggests that both abiotic and biotic degradation occurred following injection. PMID:26090687

  4. EXB1/WRKY71 transcription factor regulates both shoot branching and responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongshu; Qin, Genji

    2016-03-01

    As the sessile organisms, plants evolve different strategies to survive in adverse environmental conditions. The elaborate regulation of shoot branching is an important strategy for plant morphological adaptation to various environments, while the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) is pivotal for plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recently, we have demonstrated that Arabidopsis EXB1, a WRKY transcription factor, is a positive regulator of shoot branching as a cover story in Plant Cell. Here we show that WRKY23, an EXB1 close member, has a redundant role in control of shoot branching. We further show that EXB1 is induced by H2O2, ABA or mannitol treatments, suggesting that EXB1 may also play roles in plant responses to abiotic stresses. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis using 4EnhpEXB1-EXB1GR inducible line indicates that the genes involved in oxidative stress, oxidation reduction, SA or JA signaling pathway are regulated by EXB1 induction in a short time. We suggest that EXB1/WRKY71 transcription factor may play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environments by both morphological and physiological ways. PMID:26914912

  5. Transgenic Alfalfa Plants Expressing the Sweetpotato Orange Gene Exhibit Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429

  6. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

  7. Application of the object-oriented paradigm for scientific experiment monitoring & control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racaud, Thierry; Assis-Arantes, Patrick

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the monitoring and control of scientific experiments. This new approach is based on an object-oriented environment composed of three elements: (a) A graphical environment that allows the creation of an object-oriented model of the experiment based on objects, attributes and methods. (b) A language for writing procedures to access the model by sending messages in order to operate the experiment. (c) A man-machine interface based on an interactive graphical layer above the object-oriented representation for controlling and monitoring the experiment. This new approach has been prototyped in a project called "Man-Machine Interface Software for Ground User Terminal", or User Terminal in short. The project is carried out by SPACEBEL Informatique on behalf of the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC). Although this project has been undertaken for the operation of scientific experiments in space, User Terminal can naturally be used for the monitoring and control of ground based experiments. This article presents the User Terminal system as well as one of the first practical exercises performed in the context of the teleoperation of a liquid science experiment to be shipped into space.

  8. Water-deficiency effects on single leaf gas exchange and on C4 pathway enzymes of maize genotypes with differing abiotic stress tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses to drought were studied using two maize inbred lines (B76 and B106) and a commercial maize hybrid (Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen) with differing resistance to abiotic stress. Maize seedlings were grown in pots in controlled environment chambers for 17 days and watering was withheld from on...

  9. Apollo experience report. Guidance and control systems: Command and service module stabilization and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littleton, O. P.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts, design, development, testing, and flight results of the command and service module stabilization and control system are discussed. The period of time covered was from November 1961 to December 1972. Also included are a functional description of the system, a discussion of the major problems, and recommendations for future programs.

  10. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, De-Tai; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  11. Middeck Active Control Experiment Reflight (MACE II): lessons learned and reflight status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninneman, Ronald R.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    2000-06-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is sponsoring the Middeck Active Control Experiment Reflight (MACE II) Program. MACE II is a manned space experiment that evaluates the capabilities of adaptive control of flexible structures in the zero-g environment of the space shuttle's Middeck. MACE II has grown out of lessons learned from the original MACE flight and from AFRL sponsored structural control experiments. Previous experiments required extensive testing and 'tuning' for their particular test environment to meet their performance expectations. Such a process is too inefficient to be seriously considered for operational systems, especially space-based systems where access is limited. MACE II takes the next logical step by evaluating the capability of adaptive structural control algorithms AFRL has assembled a team of five small businesses and universities to develop and evaluate several adaptive control methodologies. In addition, AFRL has recruited a second science team led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to evaluate control system for time-varying and geometrically nonlinear systems. This paper is an overview of the AFRL science team only.

  12. Neural network setpoint control of an advanced test reactor experiment loop simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, G.A.; Bryan, S.R.; Powell, R.H.; Chick, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the design, implementation, and application of artificial neural networks to achieve temperature and flow rate control for a simulation of a typical experiment loop in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of the project was to research multivariate, nonlinear control using neural networks. A loop simulation code was adapted for the project and used to create a training set and test the neural network controller for comparison with the existing loop controllers. The results for three neural network designs are documented and compared with existing loop controller action. The neural network was shown to be as accurate at loop control as the classical controllers in the operating region represented by the training set. 9 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong

    2014-12-15

    The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes.

  14. Applications of small computers for systems control on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bork, R.G.; Kane, R.J.; Moore, T.L.

    1983-11-29

    Desktop computers operating into a CAMAC-based interface are used to control and monitor the operation of the various subsystems on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These systems include: shot sequencer/master timing, neutral beam control (four consoles), magnet power system control, ion-cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) control, thermocouple monitoring, getter system control, gas fueling system control, and electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) monitoring. Two additional computers are used to control the TMX-U neutral beam test stand and provide computer-aided repair/test and development of CAMAC modules. These machines are usually programmed in BASIC, but some codes have been interpreted into assembly language to increase speed. Details of the computer interfaces and system complexity are described as well as the evolution of the systems to their present states.

  15. Active control and experiment study of a flexible hub-beam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guoping; Teng, Youyou; Lim, C. W.

    2010-05-01

    The first-order approximation coupling (FOAC) model was proposed recently for dynamics and control of flexible hub-beam systems. This model may deal with system dynamics for both low and high rotation speed, while the classical zeroth-order approximation coupling (ZOAC) model is only available for low rotation speed. This paper assumes the FOAC model to present experimental study of active positioning control of a flexible hub-beam system. Linearization and nonlinear control strategies are both considered. An experiment system based on a DSP TMS320F2812 board is introduced. The difference between linearization and nonlinear control strategies are studied both numerically and experimentally. Simulation and experimental results indicate that, linearized controller can make the system reach an expected position with suppressed vibration of flexible beam, but the time taken to position is longer than expected, whereas nonlinear controller works well with precise positioning, suppression of vibration and time control.

  16. Status report and preliminary results of the spacecraft control laboratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.

    1987-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) was conceived to provide a physical test bed for investigation of control techniques for large flexible spacecraft. The SCOLE problem is defined as two design challenges. The first challenge is to design control laws for a mathematical model of a large antenna attached to the space shuttle by a long flexible mast. The second challenge is to design and implement a control scheme on a laboratory representation of the structure modelled in the first part. Control sensors and actuators are typical of those which the control designer would have to deal with on an actual spacecraft. The primary control processing computer is representative of the capacity and speed which may be expected in actual flight computers. A brief description is given of the laboratory apparatus along with some preliminary results of structural dynamics tests and actuator effectiveness tests.

  17. Preliminary experiments on active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; Burdisso, R. A.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    In the preliminary experiments reported here, active acoustic sources positioned around the circumference of a turbofan engine were used to control the fan noise radiated forward through the inlet. The main objective was to demonstrate the potential of active techniques to alleviate the noise pollution that will be produced by the next generation of larger engines. A reduction of up to 19 dB in the radiation directivity was demonstrated in a zone that encompasses a 30-deg angle, near the error sensor, while spillover effects were observed toward the lateral direction. The simultaneous control of two tones was also demonstrated using two identical controllers in a parallel control configuration.

  18. HyPRP1 Gene Suppressed by Multiple Stresses Plays a Negative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Luo, Zhidan; Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Sima, Wei; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Many hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, but little is known about their roles other than as putative cell-wall structural proteins. A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous microarray experiments on drought-tolerant tomato. In this study, the expression of the HyPRP1 gene in tomato was suppressed under various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, cold, heat, and oxidative stress. Transgenic functional analysis showed no obvious changes in phenotypes, but enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses (e.g., oxidative stress, dehydration, and salinity) was observed in RNAi transgenic plants. Interestingly, several SO2 detoxification-related enzymes, including sulfite oxidase, ferredoxins (Fds), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid screening. More sulfates and transcripts of Msr A and Fds were accumulated in HyPRP1 knockdown lines when wild-type plants were exposed to SO2 gas. Our findings illustrate that the tomato HyPRP1 is a negative regulator of salt and oxidative stresses and is probably involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:27446190

  19. HyPRP1 Gene Suppressed by Multiple Stresses Plays a Negative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Luo, Zhidan; Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Sima, Wei; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Many hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, but little is known about their roles other than as putative cell-wall structural proteins. A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous microarray experiments on drought-tolerant tomato. In this study, the expression of the HyPRP1 gene in tomato was suppressed under various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, cold, heat, and oxidative stress. Transgenic functional analysis showed no obvious changes in phenotypes, but enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses (e.g., oxidative stress, dehydration, and salinity) was observed in RNAi transgenic plants. Interestingly, several SO2 detoxification-related enzymes, including sulfite oxidase, ferredoxins (Fds), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid screening. More sulfates and transcripts of Msr A and Fds were accumulated in HyPRP1 knockdown lines when wild-type plants were exposed to SO2 gas. Our findings illustrate that the tomato HyPRP1 is a negative regulator of salt and oxidative stresses and is probably involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:27446190

  20. The foot-controlled maneuvering unit: Summary report on Skylab experiment T-020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, D. E.; Glover, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab experiment T-020 was conducted to study the maneuvering capabilities of astronauts using a relatively simple experimental self-locomotive device, referred to as the foot-controlled maneuvering unit, and to evaluate the effectiveness of ground-based facilities simulating the operation of this device in weightless conditions of space. The final results as presented of this experiment which includes comparison of the tests performed during missions SL-3 and SL-4 of the Skylab with those performed on the simulators. Some of the results of this experiment and those of Skylab experiment M509, which employed an experimental hard-controlled maneuvering unit, are discussed in terms of the development of a possible future operational maneuvering system.

  1. A system for conducting igneous petrology experiments under controlled redox conditions in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle and the planned Space Station will permit experimentation under conditions of reduced gravitational acceleration offering experimental petrologists the opportunity to study crystal growth, element distribution, and phase chemistry. In particular the confounding effects of macro and micro scale buoyancy-induced convection and crystal settling or floatation can be greatly reduced over those observed in experiments in the terrestrial laboratory. Also, for experiments in which detailed replication of the environment is important, the access to reduced gravity will permit a more complete simulation of processes that may have occurred on asteroids or in free space. A technique that was developed to control, measure, and manipulate oxygen fugacites with small quantities of gas which are recirculated over the sample is described. This system should be adaptable to reduced gravity space experiments requiring redox control. Experiments done conventionally and those done using this technique yield identical results done in a 1-g field.

  2. The central trigger control system of the CMS experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitler, M.; Taurok, A.; Bergauer, H.; Kastner, K.; Mikulec, I.; Neuherz, B.; Padrta, M.; Sakulin, H.; Strauss, J.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2010-05-01

    The Level-1 (L1) Trigger of the CMS experiment uses custom-made, fast electronics, while the experiment's high-level trigger is implemented in computer farms. The Central Trigger Control System described in this poster receives physics triggers from the Global Trigger Logic unit, collects information from the various subdetector systems to check if they are ready to accept triggers, reduces excessive trigger rates according to preset rules and finally distributes the trigger ("Level-1 Accept") together with timing signals to the subdetectors over the so-called "Trigger, and Timing and Control" (TTC) network of the experiment. The complete functionality of the Central Trigger Control System is implemented in one 9U-VME module and several ancillary boards for input and output functions. The system has been used successfully during CMS test runs with cosmics and beam.

  3. The service telemetry and control device for space experiment “GRIS”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyanenko, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Problems of scientific devices control (for example, fine control of measuring paths), collecting auxiliary (service information about working capacity, conditions of experiment carrying out, etc.) and preliminary data processing are actual for any space device. Modern devices for space research it is impossible to imagine without devices that didn't use digital data processing methods and specialized or standard interfaces and computing facilities. For realization of these functions in “GRIS” experiment onboard ISS for purposes minimization of dimensions, power consumption, the concept “system-on-chip” was chosen and realized. In the programmable logical integrated scheme by Microsemi from ProASIC3 family with maximum capacity up to 3M system gates, the computing kernel and all necessary peripherals are created. In this paper we discuss structure, possibilities and resources the service telemetry and control device for “GRIS” space experiment.

  4. Optimized feedback control system modeling of resistive wall modes for burning plasmas experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuro-Hopkins, Oksana Nikolaevna

    A numerical study of active feedback control system performance and optimization for tokamak Resistive Wall Modes (RWM) is the subject of this thesis. The ability to accurately model and predict the performance of an active MHD control systems is critical to present and future advanced confinement scenarios and fusion reactor design studies. The computer code VALEN has been designed to calculate the performance of a MHD feedback control system in an arbitrary geometry. The simulation of realistic effects in feedback systems, such as noise, time delays and filters is of particular importance. In this work realistic measurement noise analysis was added to VALEN and used to design the RWM feedback control amplifier power level for the DIII-D experiment. Modern control theory based on a state-space formulation obtained from VALEN was applied to design an Optimal Controller and Observer based on a reduced VALEN model. A quantitative low order model of the VALEN state space was derived from the high dimensional intrinsic state space structure of the VALEN using methods of a balanced realization and matched DC gain truncation. These techniques for the design of an optimal controller and optimal observer were applied to models of the DIII-D and ITER experiments and showed an order of magnitude reduction of the required control coil current and voltage in the presence of white noise as compared to a traditional, classical PID controller. This optimal controller for the ITER burning plasma experiment was robust from the no-wall pressure limit to a pressure value well above those achieved with a classical PID controller and could approach the ideal wall limit.

  5. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  6. Design of a CO2 laser power control system for a Spacelab microgravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzler, Carl J.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The surface tension driven convection experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment manifested to fly aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission. A CO2 laser is used to heat a spot on the surface of silicone oil contained inside a test chamber. Several CO2 laser control systems were evaluated and the selected system will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware to constitute a working engineering model. Descriptions and a discussion of these various design approaches are presented.

  7. Pathways for abiotic organic synthesis at submarine hydrothermal fields

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Jill M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.; Sylva, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Arguments for an abiotic origin of low-molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hot springs are compelling owing to implications for the sustenance of deep biosphere microbial communities and their potential role in the origin of life. Theory predicts that warm H2-rich fluids, like those emanating from serpentinizing hydrothermal systems, create a favorable thermodynamic drive for the abiotic generation of organic compounds from inorganic precursors. Here, we constrain two distinct reaction pathways for abiotic organic synthesis in the natural environment at the Von Damm hydrothermal field and delineate spatially where inorganic carbon is converted into bioavailable reduced carbon. We reveal that carbon transformation reactions in a single system can progress over hours, days, and up to thousands of years. Previous studies have suggested that CH4 and higher hydrocarbons in ultramafic hydrothermal systems were dependent on H2 generation during active serpentinization. Rather, our results indicate that CH4 found in vent fluids is formed in H2-rich fluid inclusions, and higher n-alkanes may likely be derived from the same source. This finding implies that, in contrast with current paradigms, these compounds may form independently of actively circulating serpentinizing fluids in ultramafic-influenced systems. Conversely, widespread production of formate by ΣCO2 reduction at Von Damm occurs rapidly during shallow subsurface mixing of the same fluids, which may support anaerobic methanogenesis. Our finding of abiogenic formate in deep-sea hot springs has significant implications for microbial life strategies in the present-day deep biosphere as well as early life on Earth and beyond. PMID:26056279

  8. Pathways for abiotic organic synthesis at submarine hydrothermal fields.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Jill M; Seewald, Jeffrey S; German, Christopher R; Sylva, Sean P

    2015-06-23

    Arguments for an abiotic origin of low-molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hot springs are compelling owing to implications for the sustenance of deep biosphere microbial communities and their potential role in the origin of life. Theory predicts that warm H2-rich fluids, like those emanating from serpentinizing hydrothermal systems, create a favorable thermodynamic drive for the abiotic generation of organic compounds from inorganic precursors. Here, we constrain two distinct reaction pathways for abiotic organic synthesis in the natural environment at the Von Damm hydrothermal field and delineate spatially where inorganic carbon is converted into bioavailable reduced carbon. We reveal that carbon transformation reactions in a single system can progress over hours, days, and up to thousands of years. Previous studies have suggested that CH4 and higher hydrocarbons in ultramafic hydrothermal systems were dependent on H2 generation during active serpentinization. Rather, our results indicate that CH4 found in vent fluids is formed in H2-rich fluid inclusions, and higher n-alkanes may likely be derived from the same source. This finding implies that, in contrast with current paradigms, these compounds may form independently of actively circulating serpentinizing fluids in ultramafic-influenced systems. Conversely, widespread production of formate by ΣCO2 reduction at Von Damm occurs rapidly during shallow subsurface mixing of the same fluids, which may support anaerobic methanogenesis. Our finding of abiogenic formate in deep-sea hot springs has significant implications for microbial life strategies in the present-day deep biosphere as well as early life on Earth and beyond. PMID:26056279

  9. Distinguishing Biotic from Abiotic Phosphate Oxygen Isotopic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R.; Moyer, C.; Colman, A.; Liang, Y.; Dogru, D.

    2006-05-01

    On earth, phosphate has a strong biological oxygen isotope signature due to its concentration and intense cycling by living organisms as an essential nutrient. Phosphate does not undergo oxygen isotope exchange with water at low temperature without enzymatic catalysis, making the oxygen isotope ratio (18O/16O) of phosphate, δ18OP, an attractive biosignature in the search for early and extraterrestrial life. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that the δ18OP value of dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO4) records specific microbial activity and enzymatic reaction pathways in both laboratory cultures and natural waters/sediments (Blake et al., 2005; Colman et al 2005; Liang and Blake, 2005). Phosphate oxygen isotope biosignatures may be distinguished from abiotic signatures by: (1) evaluating the degree of temperature-dependent PO4-water oxygen isotope exchange in aqueous systems and deviation from equilibrium; and (2) evolution from an abiotic P reservoir signature towards a biotic P reservoir signature. Important abiotic processes potentially affecting phosphate δ18OP values include dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, recrystallization of PO4 mineral phases, diagenesis and metamorphism. For most of these processes, the recording, retention and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures have not been evaluated. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are an ideal system in which to study the preservation and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures, as well as potential look-alikes produced by heat-promoted PO4 -water oxygen isotope exchange. Results from recent studies of δ18OP biosignatures in hydrothermal deposits near 9 and 21 degrees N. EPR and at Loihi seamount will be presented.

  10. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Dykema, John A; Keith, David W; Anderson, James G; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-12-28

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of 'unknown unknowns' exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment-provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment-is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering. PMID:25404681

  11. Epigenetic control of mobile DNA as an interface between experience and genome change

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile DNA in the genome is subject to RNA-targeted epigenetic control. This control regulates the activity of transposons, retrotransposons and genomic proviruses. Many different life history experiences alter the activities of mobile DNA and the expression of genetic loci regulated by nearby insertions. The same experiences induce alterations in epigenetic formatting and lead to trans-generational modifications of genome expression and stability. These observations lead to the hypothesis that epigenetic formatting directed by non-coding RNA provides a molecular interface between life history events and genome alteration. PMID:24795749

  12. Model Comparison for Abiotic versus Biotic Pollen Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Foster, Erich L; Chan, David M; Dyer, Rodney J

    2016-10-01

    An agent-based model with a correlated random walk is used to explore pollination within a forest. For abiotic dispersal, say via the wind, we use a purely random walk where there is no correlation between consecutive steps and for biotic dispersal, say via insect, we use a moderate or highly correlated random walk. In particular, we examine the differences in a number of biological measurement between a purely random walk and a correlated random walk in terms of gene dispersal in low and high plant densities. PMID:27550704

  13. May Cyclic Nucleotides Be a Source for Abiotic RNA Synthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele; di Mauro, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Nucleic bases are obtained by heating formamide in the presence of various catalysts. Formamide chemistry also allows the formation of acyclonucleosides and the phosphorylation of nucleosides in every possible position, also affording 2',3' and 3',5' cyclic forms. We have reported that 3',5' cyclic GMP and 3',5' cyclic AMP polymerize in abiotic conditions yielding short oligonucleotides. The characterization of this reaction is being pursued, several of its parameters have been determined and experimental caveats are reported. The yield of non-enzymatic polymerization of cyclic purine nucleotides is very low. Polymerization is strongly enhanced by the presence of base-complementary RNA sequences.

  14. Abiotic gas formation drives nitrogen loss from a desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Carmody K; Sparks, Jed P

    2009-11-01

    In arid environments such as deserts, nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient for biological activity. The majority of the ecosystem nitrogen flux is typically thought to be driven by production and loss of reactive nitrogen species by microorganisms in the soil. We found that high soil-surface temperatures (greater than 50 degrees C), driven by solar radiation, are the primary cause of nitrogen loss in Mojave Desert soils. This abiotic pathway not only enables the balancing of arid ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but also changes our view of global nitrogen cycling and the predicted impact of climate change and increased temperatures on nitrogen bioavailability. PMID:19892980

  15. Flexible structure experiments at JPL and WPAFB - H-infinity controller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddie, Scott A.; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Ozguner, Umit; Smith, Malcolm C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe some control system experiments which were carried out on flexible structure facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). They document some recent design studies for two contrasting flexible structure facilities. The first facility was the JPL/AFAL flexible antenna in Pasadena, California. The second was the WPAFB 12-meter cantilever truss in Dayton, Ohio. Each structure possessed a number of flexible modes of vibration which were lightly damped. The purpose of the experiments was to achieve active damping of the flexible modes via a digital control system. The feedback controllers were designed using the H-infinity technique of weighted gap optimization to increase the structural damping and achieve robust control.

  16. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  17. Archaeal (Per)Chlorate Reduction at High Temperature: An Interplay of Biotic and Abiotic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebensteiner, Martin G.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Schaap, Peter J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Lomans, Bart P.

    2013-04-01

    Perchlorate and chlorate anions [(per)chlorate] exist in the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources, where they can serve as electron acceptors for bacteria. We performed growth experiments combined with genomic and proteomic analyses of the hyperthermophile Archaeoglobus fulgidus that show (per)chlorate reduction also extends into the archaeal domain of life. The (per)chlorate reduction pathway in A. fulgidus relies on molybdo-enzymes that have similarity with bacterial enzymes; however, chlorite is not enzymatically split into chloride and oxygen. Evidence suggests that it is eliminated by an interplay of abiotic and biotic redox reactions involving sulfur compounds. Biological (per)chlorate reduction by ancient archaea at high temperature may have prevented accumulation of perchlorate in early terrestrial environments and consequently given rise to oxidizing conditions on Earth before the rise of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  18. Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2015-06-01

    Acetic acid was used in abiotic experiments to adjust the solution pH and investigate its influence on the chemical hydrolysis of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was used to measure the hydrolysis under oxidative conditions (positive oxidation-reduction potential values), and pH 4 allowed for 20% (±2%) of the COD added to be solubilized, whereas only 12% (±1%) was solubilized at pH7. Under reducing conditions (negative oxidation-reduction potential values) and pH 4, 32.3% (±3%) of the OFMSW was solubilized which shows that acidogenesis at pH 4 during the anaerobic digestion of solid waste can result in chemical hydrolysis. In comparison, bacterial hydrolysis resulted in 54% (±6%) solubilization. PMID:25794810

  19. Control design challenges of large space systems and spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jiguan Gene

    1987-01-01

    The quick suppression of the structural vibrations excited by bang-bang (BB) type time-optional slew maneuvers via modal-dashpot design of velocity output feedback control was investigated. Simulation studies were conducted, and modal dashpots were designed for the SCOLE flexible body dynamics. A two-stage approach was proposed for rapid slewing and precision pointing/retargeting of large, flexible space systems: (1) slew the whole system like a rigid body in a minimum time under specified limits on the control moments and forces, and (2) damp out the excited structural vibrations afterwards. This approach was found promising. High-power modal/dashpots can suppress very large vibrations, and can add a desirable amount of active damping to modeled modes. Unmodeled modes can also receive some concomitant active damping, as a benefit of spillover. Results also show that not all BB type rapid pointing maneuvers will excite large structural vibrations. When properly selected small forces (e.g., vernier thrusters) are used to complete the specified slew maneuver in the shortest time, even BB-type maneuvers will excite only small vibrations (e.g., 0.3 ft peak deflection for a 130 ft beam).

  20. Controlling factors of Ca isotope fractionation in scleractinian corals evaluated by temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Gussone, Nikolaus; Koga, Yasuko; Iwase, Akihiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the 44Ca/40Ca ratios of Porites australiensis grown under three different culture experiments composed of temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments are measured. The temperature dependent isotope fractionation of 0.02‰/°C deduced from this study is similar to inorganic aragonite, but the degree of isotope fractionation is about +0.4‰ offset in corals. These observations agree with earlier results on different coral species, suggesting Ca isotope fractionation during Ca transmembrane transport in corals. While in cultured corals a significant temperature dependence of δ44Ca is observed, the relationships between calcium isotope fractionation and pH as well as light intensity are negligible. Therefore variation of δ44Ca in Porites corals is mainly controlled by temperature. A combination of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca of corals in temperature controlled experiments cannot be explained by Rayleigh type fractionation directly from a fluid, which is seawater-like in terms of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca. Through coral-specific biomineralization processes, overall mean δ44Ca of scleractinian corals including previous studies are different from biogenic aragonites secreted by sclerosponges and pteropods, but are comparable with those of bivalves as well as calcitic coccolithophores and foraminifers. These findings are important for better understanding biomineralization in corals and in order to constrain the Ca isotopic composition of oceanic Ca sinks in response to climate changes and associated with shifts of calcite and aragonite seas.