Science.gov

Sample records for abisko northern sweden

  1. High-Resolution Remote Sensing and Stable Isotope Patterns Across Heath-Shrub-Forest Ecotone at Abisko and Vassijaure, Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, M. R.; Herrick, C.; Hobbie, E. A.; Chen, J.; Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Marek, E.; Kashi, N. N.; Smith, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid warming in arctic and sub-arctic environments shifts plant community structure which in turn can alter carbon cycling by releasing large stocks of carbon sequestered in arctic soils. Much work has been done in sub-arctic peatlands to understand how shifts in dominant vegetation cover can ultimately affect global carbon balances, but less focus has been given to upland environments where similar changes are occurring. Recent circumpolar expansion of deciduous shrubs and trees in sub-arctic upland environments may alter carbon cycling due to shrubs and trees sequestering less C in soils than the heath plants they typically replace. In this study we explored the relationship between nutrient and carbon cycling and above-ground vegetation on six transects which traverse an ecotone gradient from heath tundra (dominated by ericoid mycorrhizal plants) through deciduous shrubs to deciduous trees (dominated by ectomycorrhizal plants) in upland environments of sub-arctic Sweden near Vassijaure (~850 mm precipitation) and Abisko (~300 mm precipitation). We collected soil and foliage for analysis of natural abundances of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N), which can be a sensitive indicator of C and N dynamics. We also took high-resolution remote aerial imagery over the transects to calculate percent cover of vegetation types using GIS software. We concurrently estimated percent cover in smaller plots on the ground of three dominant species, Empetrum nigrum, Betula nana, and Betula pubescens, to serve as ground-truthing for the aerial imagery. Analysis of vegetation cover data shows significant differences in vegetation types along the transects. Preliminary multiple regression analysis of isotopes shows that δ13C in organic soil at the Vassijaure site is mostly controlled by distance along the transect, an interaction term between transect distance and soil depth, and δ15N (adjusted r2 = 0.85, p < 0.0001). Values of δ13C were lower in soils in the

  2. A Survey of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Three Sub-arctic Lakes near Abisko, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, J.; Stilson, K.; Varner, R. K.; Crill, P. M.; Wik, M.; Crawford, M.

    2014-12-01

    We surveyed the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in three sub-arctic lakes (Mellan Harrsjön, Inre Harrsjön, and Villasjön) located near Abisko in northern Sweden. Samples were collected using an extended rake, after which they were photographed and the plants identified. We also collected environmental data including temperature, dissolved oxygen, and secchi depth. Percent cover of SAV was taken twice using a 0.5 m. quadrat in shallow areas to track the changes in vegetation growth over time. In addition, we tested surface sediment samples for grain size and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur composition. The percent cover of SAV in Mellan Harrsjön varied from 36%-49% and in Inre Harrsjön it averaged 19%. Across all three lakes, the average percent clay, silt, and sand was 3.8%, 50.1%, 46%, respectively. Because little research similar to this has been conducted in the area in such a comprehensive manner, these results are important to establish a baseline. Furthermore, these data will help establish how the SAV and environmental data may contribute to methane production and emission in these sub-arctic lakes.

  3. Tracking Organic Carbon Transport From the Stordalen Mire to Glacial Lake Tornetrask, Abisko, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, M. A.; Hamilton, B. T.; Spry, E.; Johnson, J. E.; Palace, M. W.; McCalley, C. K.; Varner, R. K.; Bothner, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    In subarctic regions, labile organic carbon from thawing permafrost and productivity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation are sources of carbon to lake sediments. Methane is produced in lake sediments from the decomposition of organic carbon at rates affected by vegetation presence and type as well as sediment temperature. Recent research in the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has suggested that labile organic carbon sources in young, shallow lake sediments yield the highest in situ sediment methane concentrations. Ebullition (or bubbling) of this methane is predominantly controlled by seasonal warming. In this project we sampled stream, glacial and post-glacial lake sediments along a drainage transect through the Stordalen Mire into the large glacial Lake Torneträsk. Our results indicate that the highest methane and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were observed in lake and stream sediments in the upper 25 centimeters, consistent with previous studies. C/N ratios range from 8 to 32, and suggest that a mix of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation sources dominate the sedimentary record. Although water transport occurs throughout the mire, major depositional centers for sediments and organic carbon occur within the lakes and prohibit young, labile TOC from entering the larger glacial Lake Torneträsk. The lack of an observed sediment fan at the outlet of the Mire to the lake is consistent with this observation. Our results suggest that carbon produced in the mire stays in the mire, allowing methane production to be greater in the mire bound lakes and streams than in the larger adjacent glacial lake.

  4. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (<3.5 cm diameter at breast height) were estimated during 2009-2010 and compared with historical documentation from 1976 to 1977. Similarly, all tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  5. Flourish or flush: effects of simulated extreme rainfall events on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden).

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Keuper, Frida; Aerts, Rien; Beyens, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events are recognised as important drivers of ecosystem responses to climate change and can considerably affect high-latitude ombrotrophic bogs. Therefore, understanding the relationships between increased rainfall and the biotic components of these ecosystems is necessary for an estimation of climate change impacts. We studied overall effects of increased magnitude, intensity and frequency of rainfall on assemblages of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a field climate manipulation experiment located in a relatively dry subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden). The effects of the treatment were estimated using abundance, species diversity and structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that increased rainfall reduced the mean abundance and species richness of living testate amoebae. Besides, the treatment affected species structure of both living and empty shell assemblages, reducing proportions of hydrophilous species. The effects are counterintuitive as increased precipitation-related substrate moisture was expected to have opposite effects on testate amoeba assemblages in relatively dry biotopes. Therefore, we conclude that other rainfall-related factors such as increased infiltration rates and frequency of environmental disturbances can also affect testate amoeba assemblages in Sphagnum and that hydrophilous species are particularly sensitive to variation in these environmental variables.

  6. Explaining mental health inequalities in Northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amroussia, Nada; Gustafsson, Per E.; Mosquera, Paola A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There has been a substantial increase of income inequalities in Sweden over the last 20 years, which also could be reflected in health inequalities, including mental health inequalities. Despite the growing body of literature focusing on health inequalities in Sweden, income-related inequalities in mental health have received little attention. Particularly scarce are research from Northern Sweden and examinations of the social determinants of health inequalities. Objectives: The present study seeks to provide evidence regarding inequalities in mental health in Northern Sweden. The specific aims were to (1) quantify the income-related inequality in mental health in Northern Sweden, and (2) determine the contribution of social determinants to the inequality. Methods: The study population comprised 25,646 participants of the 2014 Health on Equal Terms survey in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, aged 16 to 84 years old. Income-related inequalities in mental health were quantified by the concentration index and further decomposed by applying Wagstaff-type decomposition analysis. Results: The overall concentration index of mental health in Northern Sweden was −0.15 (95% CI: −0.17 to −0.13), indicating income inequalities in mental health disfavoring the less affluent population. The decomposition analysis results revealed that socio-economic conditions, including employment status (31%), income (22.6%), and cash margin (14%), made the largest contribution to the pro-rich inequalities in mental health. The second-largest contribution came from demographic factors, mainly age (11.3%) and gender (6%). Psychosocial factors were of smaller importance, with perceived discrimination (8%) and emotional support (3.4%) making moderate contributions to the health inequalities. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates substantial income-related mental health inequalities in Northern Sweden, and provides insights into their underpinnings. These

  7. Using MOOCs at Learning Centers in Northern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Anders; Händel, Åsa; Ödling, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of globally accessible Massive Open Online Courses, MOOCs, for addressing the needs of learners at community learning centers in Northern Sweden. The Scandinavian "study circle" concept is used to facilitate the studying of MOOCs, thereby forming "blended" or "glonacal" courses. Although…

  8. Teenager injury panorama in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L; Eriksson, A; Björnstig, U

    2001-08-01

    To study non-fatal unintentional injuries among teenagers and to suggest preventive measures. The emergency care unit of the University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. All injured teenagers (N = 1044) attending the emergency care unit during 1991 were asked to answer a questionnaire focusing on when, where and how the injury occurred. All available medical records were examined. Data were coded according to the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committees Classification for Accident Monitoring, NOMESCO, and to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS. 1,043 teenagers were treated with sports and transportation related injuries as the most common ones. Most injuries were minor (AIS 1), transportation related injuries had the highest proportion of non-minor injuries (AIS > or = 2), 139 teenagers were admitted for in-patient care. Most injuries occurred during leisure/school time. Sports and transportation related injuries were most frequent. Body weight and length differs among teenagers, we suggest that teenagers should exercise and play together, not only by age, but also to some extent, to height and weight. Curfew laws, a compulsory bicycle helmet law are other injury reducing measures suggested.

  9. Past Activity of Non-sorted Circles Fields in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher, M.; Klaminder, J.

    2011-12-01

    Non-sorted circles (NSCs), also known as frost boils, are common geomorphological features created by cryogenic processes in subarctic and arctic soils [Washburn, 1979]. Near-surface permafrost is thought to be a prerequisite for the activity of NSCs [Walker et al., 2008], where an active NSC maintains a sparsely vegetated circle-like zone in the centre due to frost heave and up-freezing of silt. Little is known about the historical activity of NSCs in northern Scandinavia. Here we summarize some results of our ongoing research where we have assessed historical changes in NSC activity in the Abisko area, northern Sweden. In short, we have estimated how the distribution of NSCs along an altitude gradient has changed from 1959 to 2008 by using digitized aerial photos. Unsupervised classification with two classes (bare mineral soil and shrub vegetation) was performed on NSC fields to achieve estimations on how the aerial coverage of up-frozen mineral soil has changed over the last decades. Here, over growth of previous bare mineral soil surfaces by shrubs was interpreted as decreased NSC activity, considering that vascular plants are unable to colonize active NSCs due to significant heave and disruption of plant roots [Jonasson, 1986]. In addition to observations from aerial photos, we have conducted vertical sampling of NSC soil stratigraphies and 14C-dated buried organic soil layers to constrain the historical activity of the NSC in time. Preliminary analyses of the aerial photos indicate a general overgrowth of bare mineral surfaces within the NSCs since 1959. Of 137 studied sites 92 sites (corresponding to 67%) show an net overgrowth of previous bare mineral soil surface within the circles. On average, about 29 % of the bare mineral soil within the NSC fields is estimated to have been colonized by shrub vegetation. Clearly, our findings indicate that permafrost-controlled soil frost activities of the studied NSCs have mainly decreased during the last five decades

  10. Stable isotopes from Torneträsk, northern Sweden provide a millennial length reconstruction of summer sunshine and its relationship to Arctic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, R.; Loader, N.; Grudd, H.; Young, G.; McCarroll, D.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from the first 1,100 years of a long stable carbon isotope chronology currently in development from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in the Torneträsk region of northern Sweden. The isotope record currently comprises a total of 74 trees with a mean annual replication of >12, thereby enabling it to be directly compared with other tree-ring based palæoclimate reconstructions from this region. The resulting carbon isotope series is calibrated against instrumental data from the closest meteorological station at Abisko (AD1913-2008) to provide a record of June-August sunshine for northern Fennoscandia. This parameter is closely linked to the direct control of assimilation rate; Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and the indirect measures; mean July-August temperature and percent cloud cover. The coupled response of summer sunshine and temperature in this region permits a multi-parameter comparison with a local reconstruction of past temperature variability based upon tree growth proxies to explore the stability of this coupling through time. Several periods are identified where the temperature (X-ray density) and sunshine (stable carbon isotope ratio) records diverge. The most significant and sustained of these occur between c. AD1200-1380 and c. AD1550-1780, providing evidence for a cool, sunny two-phase "Little Ice Age". Whilst summer sunshine reconstructed for the 20th century is statistically different from the mean of the last 1,100 (P<0.01) years, conditions during the early Mediæval period are similar to those experienced in northern Fennoscandia during the 20th century (P>0.01), and as such it is the 17th-18th, and to a lesser extent, the 13th Centuries rather than the early Mediæval period that appear anomalous when viewed within the context of the last 1,100 years.

  11. Stable carbon isotopes from Torneträsk, northern Sweden provide a millennial length reconstruction of summer sunshine and its relationship to Arctic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loader, N. J.; Young, G. H. F.; Grudd, H.; McCarroll, D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results from the first 1100 years of a long stable carbon isotope chronology currently in development from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in the Torneträsk region of northern Sweden. The isotope record currently comprises a total of 74 trees with a mean annual replication of >12, thereby enabling it to be compared directly with other tree-ring based palæoclimate reconstructions from this region. In developing the reconstruction, several key topics in isotope dendroclimatology (chronology construction, replication, CO2 adjustment and age trends) were addressed. The resulting carbon isotope series is calibrated against instrumental data from the closest meteorological station at Abisko (AD1913-2008) to provide a record of June-August sunshine for northern Fennoscandia. This parameter is closely linked to the direct control of assimilation rate; Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and the indirect measures; mean July-August temperature and percent cloud cover. The coupled response of summer sunshine and temperature in this region permits a multi-parameter comparison with a local reconstruction of past temperature variability based upon tree growth proxies to explore the stability of this coupling through time. Several periods are identified where the temperature (X-ray density) and sunshine (stable carbon isotope ratio) records diverge. The most significant and sustained of these occur between c AD1200-1380 and c AD1550-1780, providing evidence for a cool, sunny, two-phase "Little Ice Age". Whilst summer sunshine reconstructed for the 20th century is significantly different from the mean of the last 1100 years (P < 0.01), conditions during the early mediæval period are similar to those experienced in northern Fennoscandia during the 20th century (P > 0.01), so it is the 17th-18th, and to a lesser extent, the 13th centuries rather than the early mediæval period that appear anomalous when viewed within the context of the

  12. Palaeobasement-highs in the Caledonides of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnström, E. F.; Corfu, F.

    2003-04-01

    During the Caledonian collision between Laurentia and Baltica in Silurian times, slices of bedrock were thrust onto the Baltic craton. The Caledonian tectonic stratigraphy consists of four principal units (Lower, Middle, Upper and Uppermost Allochthon). The Middle Allochthon is a tectonostratigraphic level inferred to represent the rifted Neoproterozoic margin of Baltica and is heterogeneously composed of telescoped fault-controlled sedimentary basins and basement plinths. The Akkajaure-Sarek-Kvikkjokk area in northern Sweden is located within the Caledonian belt and is composed of three principal thrust-sheet complexes: the Lower Allochthon, the Middle Allochthon and finally the Seve Nappe Complex. The Middle Allochthon in both these areas are dominated by plutonic rocks in the Akkajaure Nappe Complex to the north and the disrupted Sarek-Kvikkjokk Magmatic Complex (SaKMaC) to the south. In order to test whether it is possible to preliminary restore the position of the palaeo-basement highs, a U-Pb geochronology study of zircons was undertaken to constrain the timing of magmatic activity in the different parts of the area. To maximise the chance of getting the original crystallisation age of the rocks we have done ID-TIMS analyses on abraded zircons. We have concentrated our efforts to the study of rocks of granitic and syenitic compositions, but in combining the isotopic results with field observations we also aim towards an interpretation of the magmatic evolution, especially from the Sarek area, where good outcrops of non-deformed rocks makes field observations much easier. The resulting ages from the mainly granitic Akkajaure Nappe Complex yield one group of ages between 1800 +/- 2 Ma and 1779 +/- 7 Ma, whereas ACMG-suite in the area intruded between 1776 +/- 3 Ma and 1761 +/- 9 Ma. The lithologies of the Sarek- Kvikkjokk area are comparable to the ACMG-suite in the Lofoten-Vesterålen area, northern Norway, but they tend to be somewhat younger. The main phases

  13. Life Satisfaction among Outbound Students in Northern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per A.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from one's home country to a university abroad can be demanding. This study is a follow-up study exploring life satisfaction among outbound students. Outbound students at Umeå University, Sweden, were surveyed before and after experiencing studying abroad. Thus, the students' life satisfaction could be compared after an…

  14. Forest regeneration at high latitudes: experience from northern Sweden.

    Treesearch

    Mayo Murray

    1981-01-01

    The problem of obtaining adequate and economical forest regeneration is of major concern among the managers of high-latitude forest lands. In 1979 forest researchers and managers from Scandinavia and North America held the first of three workshops to address this topic by sharing experiences and research from each county. The first workshop was held in Umei, Sweden in...

  15. Burnout, working conditions and gender - results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sick-leave because of mental and behavioural disorders has increased considerably in Sweden since the late nineties, and especially in women. The aim of this study was to assess the level of burnout in the general working population in northern Sweden and analyse it's relation to working conditions and gender. Methods In this cross-sectional study the survey from the MONICA-study (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) in northern Sweden 2004 was used. A burnout instrument, the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), was incorporated in the original survey which was sent to a random sample of 2500 individuals with a response rate of 76%. After including only actively working people, aged 25-64 years, our study population consisted of 1000 participants (497 women and 503 men). ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used. Results The prevalence of a high level of burnout (SMBQ >4.0) was 13%. Women had a higher level of burnout than men with the most pronounced difference in the age group 35-44 years. In both sexes the level of burnout decreased with age. Demand and control at work, and job insecurity were related to burnout. In women the level of education, socioeconomic position, work object, and working varying hours were of importance. Interaction effects were found between sex and work object, and sex and working hours. In a multiple regression analysis almost half of the gender difference could be explained by work related and life situational factors. Conclusions Working life conditions contributed to the level of burnout in this actively working sample from the general population in northern Sweden. Especially in women, socioeconomic position was associated with burnout. The high level of burnout in women compared to men was partly explained by more unfavourable working conditions and life situational factors. Efforts to level out gender differences in burnout should probably focus on improving both working

  16. Incidence of tonsillar cancer in northern Sweden: Impact of human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Christos; Laurell, Göran; Lindquist, David; Öfverman, Charlotte; Stefansson, Kristina; Nylander, Karin; Olofsson, Katarina

    2015-12-01

    The incidence rate of tonsillar cancer is increasing worldwide. The current study identifies a parallel increase in the incidence of tonsillar cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV) and p16 expression among a population from northern Sweden, a sparsely populated area, confirming the strong association between p16 and HPV infection in tonsillar tissue. Data from the Swedish Cancer Registry was assessed to identify cases of tonsillar cancer in the northern territorial area of Sweden. HPV DNA was extracted from paraffin embedded diagnostic biopsies and detected by polymerase chain reaction using general primers Gp5+/6+ and CpI/IIG. Expression of p16 was identified by immunochemistry. Patients were grouped into urban or rural residence categories. A total of 214 cases were identified, comprising 155 (72.4%) men and 59 (27.6%) women, and 65 of these patients, who presented between 2000 and 2012, were analyzed. The overall median age for the analyzed patients was 58 years; 48 (74%) were males (median age, 57.5 years) and 17 (26%) were females (median age, 65 years). Of the 65 specimens, 59 (91%) were positive for HPV, and 62 (95%) expressed p16. The incidence of tonsillar cancer in the cohort demonstrated a 2-fold increase between 1990 and 2013; specifically, a 2.7-fold increase was observed in men whilst the female group exhibited only a small increase. These findings demonstrate a strong association between p16 expression and HPV infection in tonsillar malignancies. The incidence of HPV-positive tonsillar cancer has increased in recent years, even in sparsely populated regions, as demonstrated in northern Sweden.

  17. Physicians' perspectives on clinical pharmacy services in Northern Sweden: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vinterflod, Charlotta; Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle

    2018-01-24

    In many countries, clinical pharmacists are part of health care teams that work to optimize drug therapy and ensure patient safety. However, in Sweden, clinical pharmacy services (CPSs) in hospital settings have not been widely implemented and regional differences exist in the uptake of these services. Physicians' attitudes toward CPSs and collaborating with clinical pharmacists may facilitate or hinder the implementation and expansion of the CPSs and the role of the clinical pharmacist in hospital wards. The aim of this study was to explore physicians' perceptions regarding CPSs performed at hospital wards in Northern Sweden. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine physicians who had previously worked with clinical pharmacists between November 2014 and January 2015. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using a constant comparison method. Different themes emerged regarding physicians' views of clinical pharmacy; two main interlinked themes were service factors and pharmacist factors. The service was valued and described in a positive way by all physicians. It was seen as an opportunity for them to learn more about pharmacological treatment and also an opportunity to discuss patient medication treatment in detail. Physicians considered that CPSs could improve patient outcomes and they valued continuity and the ability to build a trusting relationship with the pharmacists over time. However, there was a lack of awareness of the CPSs. All physicians knew that one of the pharmacist's roles is to conduct medication reviews, but most of them were only able to describe a few elements of what this service encompasses. Pharmacists were described as "drug experts" and their recommendations were perceived as clinically relevant. Physicians wanted CPSs to continue and to be implemented in other wards. All physicians were positive regarding CPSs and were satisfied with the collaboration with the clinical

  18. Health care on equal terms? Assessing horizontal equity in health care use in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Mosquera, Paola A; Ng, Nawi; Gustafsson, Per E

    2017-08-01

    The Swedish health care system has successively moved toward increased market-orientation, which has raised concerns as to whether Sweden still offers health on equal terms. To explore this issue, this study aimed (i) to assess if the principles of horizontal equity (equal access for equal need regardless of socio-economic factors) are met in Northern Sweden 2006-14; and (ii) to explore the contribution of different factors to the inequalities in access along the same period. Data came from cross sectional surveys known in 2006, 2010 and 2014 targeting 16-84-year-old residents in the four northern-most counties in Sweden. The horizontal inequity index was calculated based on variables representing (i) the individual socioeconomic status, (ii) the health care needs, (iii) non-need factors as well as (iv) health care utilization: general practitioner (GP), specialist doctors, hospitalization. Decomposition analysis of the concentration index for need-standardized health care utilization was applied. Adjusting for needs, there was a higher use of GP services by rich people during the two last surveys, a roughly equal use of specialists, and hospitalization concentrated among the poor but with a clear time trend toward equality. The pro-rich inequalities in GP use were to a large part explained by the income gap. While health care utilization can be considered equitable regarding specialist and hospital use, the increasing pro-rich trend in the use of GP is a concern. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons and a constant monitoring of socioeconomic differences in health care access is recommended. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupation and male lung cancer: a case-control study in northern Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Damber, L A; Larsson, L G

    1987-01-01

    Using a case-control study comprising about 600 men with lung cancer in northern Sweden the potential risk of different occupations and groups of occupations was studied. Longitudinal data concerning occupation, employment, and smoking habits were obtained by questionnaires. Some occupational groups (underground miners, copper smelter workers, electricians, and plumbers) exposed to previously known lung carcinogenic agents such as radon daughters, arsenic, and asbestos, had considerably increased odds ratios, which persisted after adjustment for smoking. A slightly raised odds ratio was observed in a group of blue collar workers potentially exposed to lung carcinogenic agents; this rise in the group as a whole mainly disappeared after adjustment for smoking. Farmers and foresters had strikingly low odds ratios, which could only partly be explained by their more moderate smoking habits. The population aetiological fraction attributable to occupation was estimated as 9%. PMID:3620367

  20. Teenage suicides in northern Sweden: an interview study of investigating police officers

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, P.; Johansson, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To disclose recurrent, dynamic, and static factors in teenage suicide involving the suicidee, his/her family, and the community; and to investigate the feasibility of using police as informants for suicide studies. Subjects—All deaths categorised as suicide 1993 through 1995 among teenagers in Northern Sweden (n=15). Method—Semiqualitative interviews with police officers, and, when applicable, general practitioners. Police reports, necropsy protocols, medical records, and conscription data were also analysed. Results—Most suicides occurred in rural and depopulated areas. In contrast to males, females often had a history of overt psychiatric problems with suicide attempts. At least two thirds of the suicides were planned. Conclusion—Cultural and sociopolitical aspects are important in teenage suicide as well as gender differences. Police officers can provide essential information. Identifying teenagers at risk remains difficult, however, due to low baseline rates. PMID:10875667

  1. Doctors' and nurses' perceptions of a ward-based pharmacist in rural northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjölander, Maria; Gustafsson, Maria; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-08-01

    Background This project is part of the prospective quasi experimental proof-of-concept investigation of clinical pharmacist intervention study to reduce drug-related problems among people admitted to a ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Objective To explore doctors' and nurses' perceptions and expectations of having a ward-based pharmacist providing clinical pharmacy services. Setting Medical ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Method Eighteen face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of doctors and nurses working on the ward where the clinical pharmacy service was due to be implemented. Semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Main outcome measure Perceptions and expectations of nurses and doctors. Results Doctors and nurses had limited experience of working with pharmacists. Most had a vague idea of what pharmacists can contribute within a ward setting. Participants, mainly nurses, suggested inventory and drug distribution roles, but few were aware of the pharmacists' skills and clinical competence. Different views were expressed on whether the new clinical pharmacy service would have an impact on workload. However, most participants took a positive view of having a ward-based pharmacist. Conclusion This study provided an opportunity to explore doctors' and nurses' expectations of the role of clinical pharmacists before a clinical pharmacy service was implemented. To successfully implement a clinical pharmacy service, roles, clinical competence and responsibilities should be clearly described. Furthermore, it is important to focus on collaborative working relationships between doctors, nurses and pharmacists.

  2. A temporal study of permafrost thaw for a subarctic peatland in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John; Persson, Andreas; Giljum, Marco; Crill, Patrick; Roulet, Nigel; Eklundh, Lars; Pilesjö, Petter

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands or mires contain about one third of the global terrestrial carbon pool and are located on between 3-6% of the global land area. In boreal and sub-arctic regions peatland cover about 3.5 million km2 and are underlain with continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and isolated patches of permafrost. In these areas the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools are stable and decomposition is suspended only as long as the soil is frozen or in an anaerobic state. Climate warming is projected to be greater in the high latitudes where most northern peatlands are found. Observed mean annual air temperatures in northern Sweden have increased by 2-3oC since the 1950s. This is causing permafrost thaw and increasing the vulnerability of peatland C, especially in discontinuous and sporadic permafrost area. A growing number of studies have examined the impact of climate-induced thaw and the potential vulnerability of carbon stored in frozen peatlands. Thawing permafrost leads to changes in the form and function of northern peatlands. This is characterised by the transition of dry palsa mires to wetter peatland pits, depressions and pools. These new hydrological regimes also lead to increased production of methane through subsequent decomposition of plant material. Increases in temperature therefore leads to changes in permafrost distribution, receding palsa areas, geomorphology (thermokarst terrain), hydrology (thus affecting plant community structure, productivity, increased wetter vegetation communities) and C efflux. An increasing number of studies examining the impact of climate change on peatlands in these regions and measurement of CO2 and CH4 fluxes occurs at several discrete peatland sites across the sub-Arctic. However, regional estimations of these fluxes are limited. Geospatial technologies may be used to aid the understanding of the patterns and processes that are occurring in these transition mires over space and time. Several satellite and airborne images have been

  3. Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: Recognition, genesis, and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an accurate means to date intrusions and intrusion-related ore deposits using the model age or isochron approach. But, molybdenite has a new niche in the greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphic environment. Re-Os ages for metamorphic molybdenite may be used to construct regional metamorphic histories. Age significance and accuracy are established by analyzing multiple molybdenite separates extracted from single, petrographically-characterized molybdenite occurrences. In this study, twelve geologically distinct molybdenite-bearing samples from two small Mo districts in northern Sweden trace a 150 m.y. Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian metamorphic history from ˜1900 to 1750 Ma. These data reveal a little-known, widespread and protracted, Late Svecofennian anatexis in northern Sweden. The Kåtaberget Mo-(Cu, F) deposit is located in the Moskosel granite batholith north of the economically-renown Skellefte district. Four different molybdenite samples from outcrop at Kåtaberget indicate an intrusion age of 1895 ± 6 Ma with the formation of later pegmatite-aplite at 1875 ± 6 Ma. The Allebuoda (Björntjärn) and Munka Mo-(W) deposits in the Rappen district are represented by three outcrop and five drill core samples of molybdenite-bearing aplite-pegmatite-granite. These two deposits were previously described as intrusion-related Climax-type Mo mineralization. Re-Os ages for molybdenites from these deposits range from 1865 to 1750 Ma and, significantly, Re concentrations are markedly low, extending to the sub-ppm level. Age agreement within the deposits is conspicuously lacking, whereas, with one exception, age agreement within any single sample (geologic occurrence), as established by analysis of additional molybdenite separates, is very good. These data, together with fundamental geologic observations discussed in this paper, suggest that Mo-(W) mineralization in northern Sweden is not intrusion-related, but the local product of

  4. Veiki-moraine-like landforms in Nereidum Montes on Mars: Insights from analogues in northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Andreas; Reiss, Dennis; Hauber, Ernst; Johnson, Mark D.; Olvmo, Mats; Hiesinger, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Mars is a cold hyper-arid planet where liquid water is extremely rare [1]. The observable water budget is instead found in a number of frozen reservoirs such as the polar caps, near surface ground ice and as glacier ice. Previously, numerous studies reported on glacier landforms such as viscous flow features and lobate debris aprons where water-ice is believed to be present under insulating debris cover [2]. This notion was confirmed by SHARAD measurements [3]. However, very little is known about glacial landforms in which water is an important factor. Most studies have focused on moraine-like ridges that are associated to gully systems [4], glacial landforms at the equatorial volcanic province [5] and possible drop-moraines from CO2 glaciers [6]. Here we report on an unusual lobate assemblage of irregular ring-shaped landforms within a mountain complex in Nereidum Montes, Mars. These landforms are well-preserved and may suggest recent ablation of a debris-covered glacier. These martian ring-shaped landforms show a striking morphological resemblance to the Veiki moraine in northern Sweden. Veiki moraines are believed to have formed at the lobate margins of a stagnant ice-sheet during the first Weichselian glaciation [7]. As it sharply ends to the east it may represent the maximum extent of this former ice sheet. The Veiki moraine is characterized by ridged plateaus that are more or less circular and surrounded by a rim ridge. The newly acquired national LiDAR data over Sweden enable us studying these landforms in unprecedented detail. They also enable us exploring geomorphological similarities between Earth and Mars in large spatial contexts. This study aims to increase our understanding of glacial landforms on Mars by comparison to terrestrial analogues. Questions addressed are: (1) How morphological similar are the Martian landforms to the Veiki moraine of Sweden? (2) How does the ring-shaped landforms relate to other possible glacial landforms within the

  5. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Adolfsson, Annelie Nordin; Lind, Nina; Modig, Lars; Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia. Objectives We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden. Methods Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed using a land-use regression model with a spatial resolution of 50 m × 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) were used as markers for long-term exposure to air pollution. Results Out of 1,806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the group with the highest exposure were more likely than those in the group with the lowest exposure to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.998, 2.05 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer’s disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated with the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A subanalysis that excluded a younger sample that had been retested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than were present in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). Conclusions If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Citation Oudin A, Forsberg B, Nordin Adolfsson A, Lind N, Modig L, Nordin M, Nordin S, Adolfsson R, Nilsson LG. 2016. Traffic

  6. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  7. Soil Methane Sink Capacity Response to a Long-Term Wildfire Chronosequence in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Niall P; Gregg, Ruth; Oakley, Simon; Stott, Andy; Rahman, Md Tanvir; Murrell, J Colin; Wardle, David A; Bardgett, Richard D; Ostle, Nick J

    2015-01-01

    Boreal forests occupy nearly one fifth of the terrestrial land surface and are recognised as globally important regulators of carbon (C) cycling and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration processes in these forests include assimilation of CO2 into biomass and subsequently into soil organic matter, and soil microbial oxidation of methane (CH4). In this study we explored how ecosystem retrogression, which drives vegetation change, regulates the important process of soil CH4 oxidation in boreal forests. We measured soil CH4 oxidation processes on a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. Across these islands the build-up of soil organic matter was observed to increase with time since fire disturbance, with a significant correlation between greater humus depth and increased net soil CH4 oxidation rates. We suggest that this increase in net CH4 oxidation rates, in the absence of disturbance, results as deeper humus stores accumulate and provide niches for methanotrophs to thrive. By using this gradient we have discovered important regulatory controls on the stability of soil CH4 oxidation processes that could not have not been explored through shorter-term experiments. Our findings indicate that in the absence of human interventions such as fire suppression, and with increased wildfire frequency, the globally important boreal CH4 sink could be diminished.

  8. Soil Methane Sink Capacity Response to a Long-Term Wildfire Chronosequence in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Niall P.; Gregg, Ruth; Oakley, Simon; Stott, Andy; Rahman, Md. Tanvir; Murrell, J. Colin; Wardle, David A.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Ostle, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Boreal forests occupy nearly one fifth of the terrestrial land surface and are recognised as globally important regulators of carbon (C) cycling and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration processes in these forests include assimilation of CO2 into biomass and subsequently into soil organic matter, and soil microbial oxidation of methane (CH4). In this study we explored how ecosystem retrogression, which drives vegetation change, regulates the important process of soil CH4 oxidation in boreal forests. We measured soil CH4 oxidation processes on a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. Across these islands the build-up of soil organic matter was observed to increase with time since fire disturbance, with a significant correlation between greater humus depth and increased net soil CH4 oxidation rates. We suggest that this increase in net CH4 oxidation rates, in the absence of disturbance, results as deeper humus stores accumulate and provide niches for methanotrophs to thrive. By using this gradient we have discovered important regulatory controls on the stability of soil CH4 oxidation processes that could not have not been explored through shorter-term experiments. Our findings indicate that in the absence of human interventions such as fire suppression, and with increased wildfire frequency, the globally important boreal CH4 sink could be diminished. PMID:26372346

  9. Neoplastic disease in a medicolegal autopsy material. A retrospective study in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gezelius, C; Eriksson, A

    1988-01-01

    Only a small fraction of sudden unexpected deaths are caused by neoplastic disease and thus subject ot medicolegal autopsy. The medicolegal autopsy forms an opportunity to study not only medically diagnosed and treated neoplasms, but also the natural evolution of untreated disease. In a series of 7,020 consecutive medicolegal autopsies in northern Sweden, we found 171 cases with malignant and/or intracranial neoplasms. In 41 cases, sudden death was caused by previously unknown tumors. The most common mechanisms of death in this group were disseminated cancer, intracranial tumors, pulmonary thromboembolism, hemoptysis, and aspiration of blood, and the most common locations were the bronchi and the lung. In some of these cases, the mechanism was sometimes dramatic, raising a question of violent death or intoxication. In 30 cases, sudden unexpected death was caused by previously known tumors, and also in this group disseminated cancer was the most common cause of death, and the most common locations were the bronchi and the lung. In 22 cases, tumors were found suicidal cases; in 14 of these, the tumor was considered to be a major causative factor to the suicide, while in eight cases the tumor was considered to be an incidental finding. The expected number of cancers in the 1,060 suicides investigated in this series was 27, according to the official cancer prevalence data. Thus, a possible over-representation of suicides among persons with cancer seems doubtful and needs further exploration.

  10. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  11. Awareness of sunburn in childhood, use of sunbeds and change of moles in Denmark, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hajdarevic, Senada; Hvidberg, Line; Lin, Yulan; Donnelly, Conan; Gavin, Anna; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Runesdotter, Sara; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is increasing rapidly in Northern Europe. To reduce incidence and mortality through earlier diagnosis, public awareness of MM is important. Thus, we aim to examine awareness of risk factors and a symptom of MM, and how awareness varies by country and socio-demographic factors in Denmark, Northern Ireland (NI), Norway and Sweden. Population-based telephone interviews using the 'Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer' measure were conducted in 2011 among 8355 adults ≥50 years as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 2. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In these four countries, lowest awareness was found for 'sunburn in childhood' (63%), whereas awareness was high for 'use of sunbeds' (91%) and 'mole change' (97%). Lack of awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 1.38 (1.28-1.48)] but less prevalent among respondents from Northern Ireland (NI) [PR = 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and Sweden [PR = 0.86 (0.79-0.93)] compared with respondents from Denmark. Lack of awareness of 'use of sunbeds' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 2.99 (2.39-3.74)], Sweden [PR = 1.57 (1.22-2.00)], and NI [PR = 1.65 (1.30-2.10)] compared with respondents form Denmark. Being a man, age ≥70, living alone, and having lower education, were each independently associated with lack of MM-awareness. The results indicate relatively low awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' as a risk factor for MM, and important disparities in MM-awareness across countries and socio-demographic groups. Improved and more directed initiatives to enhance public MM-awareness, particularly about 'sunburn in childhood', are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, John H-O; Golovljova, Irina; Vene, Sirkka; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2014-03-11

    In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958-2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the 'uninfected areas' surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory techniques used to detect the virus that may be

  13. Effective thiafentanil immobilization and physiological responses of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniela Sb; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Ericsson, Göran

    2018-03-31

    To evaluate clinical and physiological responses in moose to thiafentanil administration for immobilization. Cross-sectional clinical study. Eleven (six males and five females) free-ranging adult moose (Alces alces). Each moose was darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg thiafentanil during March 2014 in northern Sweden. Physiological evaluation included vital signs and blood gases. Arterial blood was collected after induction and again after 10 minutes of intranasal oxygen administration and analyzed immediately with an i-STAT analyzer. A total of 10 mg naltrexone per milligram of thiafentanil was administered to all animals for reversal. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. All moose were sufficiently immobilized with a single dart injection. Induction occurred within 3 minutes in 10 of 11 moose. One individual became recumbent while crossing a river and naltrexone was immediately administered. Animals maintained sternal recumbency with their head raised and vital signs were stable. Nine of 10 moose were hypoxemic before oxygen administration, with seven becoming markedly hypoxemic [partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO 2 ) between 40 and 59 mmHg (5.3-7.9 kPa)]. The PaO 2 increased significantly between samples, but six moose remained hypoxemic despite therapy. Hypercapnia was seen in all moose, with eight having marked hypercapnia [partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) > 60 mmHg (>8.0 kPa)]. All moose were acidemic, with nine showing marked acidemia (pH < 7.20). The pH increased significantly with time and lactate decreased. Recoveries were rapid and uneventful, and all moose were living 6 months after capture. Thiafentanil provided rapid and sufficient immobilization of moose and its effects were rapidly reversed with naltrexone. As with other opioids, moose showed hypoxemia and varying degrees of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Arterial oxygenation of moose improved following intranasal oxygen, but hypoxemia was not fully

  14. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  15. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    PubMed Central

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts. PMID:25003551

  16. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Winkvist, Anna; Hörnell, Agneta; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2009-02-19

    The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992-2005. Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (+/- 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (+/- 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters, our results on dietary intake may not be

  17. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Winkvist, Anna; Hörnell, Agneta; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2009-01-01

    Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters

  18. Reactive barrier system for nitrate removal from mine effluents in northern Sweden: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory column experiments have been conducted to determine nitrate removal rates from mine effluents by denitrification, with the purpose of providing initial data for the construction of a pilot scale reactive barrier system at the Malmberget iron mine, Sweden. Experiments were conducted at several different flow rates at 5C, 10C and room temperature; annual mean temperatures at the Malmberget site lie close to 0C. Columns were filled with an organic substrate consisting of sawdust mixed with sewage sludge, the source of denitrifying bacteria, supported by oven-dried clay pellets. Apparent denitrification rates, calculated from inflow and outflow nitrate concentrations and column hydraulic residence time, ranged from 5 to 13 mg N/L/d, with the lowest rates corresponding to the 5C experiments. These rates are, however, limited to a certain degree by the low flow rate and the supply of electrons acceptors (i.e. nitrate) to denitrifying bacteria. Results from the column experiment have been used to construct a barrier system in Malmberget, Sweden. Trial runs with the pilot-scale barrier will be conducted during 2010, with the purpose of determining the performance of the barrier as mean air temperatures increase from below to above 0C and saturated flow commences in the barrier. The barrier system is constructed as a rectangular container with steel sheet walls (9m length in flow direction, 1.5m deep), and the flow rate will be adjusted to a hydraulic residence time of 1 day. The pilot-scale barrier system currently lies above ground, but a permanent barrier system would be installed below the ground surface so that the system can be maintained at positive temperatures throughout the year.

  19. Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Rathi; Arnetz, Judy; Nilsson, Maria; Jamil, Hikmet; Norström, Fredrik; Maziak, Wasim; Wiklund, Ywonne; Arnetz, Bengt

    2015-09-15

    Determinants of waterpipe use in adolescents are believed to differ from those for other tobacco products, but there is a lack of studies of possible social, cultural, or psychological aspects of waterpipe use in this population. This study applied a socioecological model to explore waterpipe use, and its relationship to other tobacco use in Swedish adolescents. A total of 106 adolescents who attended an urban high-school in northern Sweden responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence rates for waterpipe use were examined in relation to socio-demographics, peer pressure, sensation seeking behavior, harm perception, environmental factors, and depression. Thirty-three percent reported ever having smoked waterpipe (ever use), with 30% having done so during the last 30 days (current use). Among waterpipe ever users, 60% had ever smoked cigarettes in comparison to 32% of non-waterpipe smokers (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.9). The odds of having ever smoked waterpipe were three times higher among male high school seniors as well as students with lower grades. Waterpipe ever users had three times higher odds of having higher levels of sensation-seeking (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and scored high on the depression scales (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8) than non-users. The odds of waterpipe ever use were four times higher for those who perceived waterpipe products to have pleasant smell compared to cigarettes (95% confidence interval 1.7-9.8). Waterpipe ever users were twice as likely to have seen waterpipe use on television compared to non-users (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.7). The odds of having friends who smoked regularly was eight times higher for waterpipe ever users than non-users (95% confidence interval 2.1-31.2). The current study reports a high use of waterpipe in a select group of students in northern Sweden. The study adds the importance of looking at socioecological determinants of use, including peer pressure and exposure to media marketing

  20. Travel and vaccination patterns: a report from a travel medicine clinic in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Angelin, Martin; Evengård, Birgitta; Palmgren, Helena

    2011-09-01

    The Travel Medicine Clinic in Umeå is one of Sweden's largest public providers of vaccination and counselling prior to international travel. During the study period it was the only travel medicine clinic in Umeå. This study describes the demography of the visitors to the clinic and travel destinations and durations, as well as vaccinations administered. This was a retrospective study for the period January 2005 to April 2008 based on pre-travel consultation questionnaires and on vaccine expenditure data. A 10% sample of 16,735 first visits prior to international travel was consecutively selected according to the chronology of the visits. Data on 1698 travellers were included in the study. Thailand was the most common destination among visitors, accounting for one third of all destinations. Medical problems affecting pre-travel health planning were rare. Four out of 5 visitors (79%) received only 1 vaccination, mainly for hepatitis A. Travellers to Thailand more often sought travel health advice compared to travellers to Turkey, despite the fact that the 2 destinations were almost equally distributed among travellers from Umeå. We found differences between men and women in money spent on vaccines and in particular in vaccination against Japanese encephalitis. To assess the optimal vaccination level at a travel medicine clinic is difficult. Decisions are affected by general recommendations and the risk perception of the travel medicine practitioner, as well as the risk perception of the traveller. The sex difference found in this study might be due to gender differences in risk perception and should be further investigated.

  1. Sense of meaning in life among the oldest old people living in a rural area in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jonsén, Elisabeth; Norberg, Astrid; Lundman, Berit

    2015-09-01

    Having meaning in life is important for all people, and according to Erikson's developmental theory, this is especially true for older adults. However, there are few studies about meaning in life focusing on the oldest old. The aim of our study was to illuminate the sense of meaning in life in the oldest old living in northern Sweden. The study has a qualitative explorative and interpretative design. We interviewed three men and seven women between 85 and 95 years old and analysed the interviews using qualitative content analysis. Our findings revealed the following four themes: 'Creating space for living', 'Living in connection with others and nature', 'Seeing oneself as a link between generations' and 'Having trust in God'. The sense of meaning in life in the oldest old was linked to regarding oneself as having a mission to carry out and to finding beauty, joy and happiness in life. The sense of meaning involved transferring to coming generations what earlier generations had left and having a deeply rooted faith in being taken care of from birth to the afterlife. When caring for the oldest old, it is important to take their experiences of sense of meaning in life into consideration and to focus on ways to maintain important sources of meaning in life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alina L; Fahlman, Åsa; Ericsson, Göran; Haga, Henning Andreas; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-12-31

    Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Fifteen adult moose aged 3-15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15-23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen.

  3. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  4. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  5. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  6. Explaining linkages (and lack of) between riparian vegetation biodiversity and geomorphic complexity in restored streams of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, Lina; Maher Hasselquist, Eliza; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-05-01

    Ecological theory suggests that species richness and habitat heterogeneity are positively correlated; therefore stream restoration often relies on increasing geomorphic complexity to promote biodiversity. However, past studies have failed to demonstrate a link between post-restoration biodiversity and geomorphic complexity. These studies have usually relied on only one metric for quantifying complexity, rather than a holistic metric for complexity that represents several aspects of the channel morphology, and have based their observations in catchments with widespread land-use impacts. We use a geomorphic complexity gradient based on five geomorphic aspects (longitudinal, cross-sectional, planform, sediment texture, and instream wood) to determine whether streams with higher levels of complexity also have greater riparian vegetation biodiversity. We also compare biodiversity values with the potential complexity of reaches based on the large-scale controls of valley and channel gradient and the presence of large glacial legacy sediment (boulders). We focus on tributary channels in boreal forests of northern Sweden, where stream modification associated with log-floating from the 1850s to the 1960s created highly simplified channels. Driven by concerns for fish, restoration began in the 1970s by returning large cobbles and boulders into the main channel from the channel edge, and evolved into 'demonstration restoration,' placing very large boulders and trees into the channel, reopening side channels, and constructing fish spawning areas. We evaluate 22 reaches along tributaries of the Vindel River in northern Sweden with four restoration statuses: channelized, restored, demonstration restored, and unimpacted. Detailed morphologic, sediment, and instream wood data allow calculation of 29 metrics of geomorphic complexity, from which a complexity gradient was identified using multivariate statistics. The percent cover of riparian vegetation was identified in 0.5 x 0.5 m

  7. Self-rated quality of life among the young unemployed and the young in work in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Barbro; Hemlin, Sven

    2008-01-01

    This study analysed self-assessed quality of life (QoL), using a QoL questionnaire (Hörnquist's QLcs) covering life spheres, somatic health, mental well-being, cognitive ability, social and family life, activity, financial situation, meaning in life and a global score "entire life", for young people aged 18-24 in a population-based cross-sectional study in northern Sweden. Of these, 651 were unemployed and 2802 were in work (employed, students and in military service). Results showed that the young unemployed exhibited poorer QoL than the young in work and the greatest difference was found regarding their financial situation. Young men rated somatic health and mental well-being higher than young women. However, QoL in other essential domains was rated higher by young women in work. Close friends and money reserve were important for all participants, no matter whether they were employed or not. The risk of being young and unemployed was greater if the person had a worse financial situation, shorter education, and fewer leisure activities with other people. Finally, it was concluded that while QoL is poorer when in unemployment - both for the young and those who are older (aged 25-64) - psychological well-being, in contrast to several previous studies, is even poorer for young people than for those who are older. This is worrying in a public health perspective and could have implications for unemployment policies for younger and less well-educated age groups.

  8. Health inequalities between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis of social determinants for mental health.

    PubMed

    Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2018-05-16

    Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden. The Health on Equal Terms survey of 2014 was used, with self-reported employment (unemployed or employed) as exposure and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as mental health outcome. The social determinants of health inequalities were grouped into four dimensions: socioeconomic status, economic resources, social network and trust in institutional systems. The non-linear Oaxaca decomposition analysis was applied, stratified by gender and age groups. Mental health inequality was found in all age groups among women and men (difference in GHQ varying between 0.12 and 0.20). The decomposition analysis showed that the social determinants included in the model accounted for 43-51% of the inequalities among youths, 42-98% of the inequalities among adults and 60-65% among middle-aged. The main contributing factors were shown to vary between age groups: cash margin (among youths and middle-aged men), financial strain (among adults and middle-aged women), income (among men in adulthood), along with trust in others (all age groups), practical support (young women) and social support (middle-aged men); stressing how the social determinants of health inequalities vary across the life course. The health gap between employed and unemployed was explained by the difference in access to economic and social resources, and to a smaller extent in the trust in the institutional systems. Findings from

  9. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender - a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Maria; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt; Ohman, Ann; Bergström, Erik; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2012-11-16

    Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16-18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order to prevent negative strain and stress

  10. Preliminary results from fault-slip analysis of the Pärvie neotectonic postglacial fault zone, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Ann; Viola, Giulio; Rantakokko, Nina; Jonsson, Erik; Ask, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Our study aims at constraining the paleostress field evolution of neotectonic postglacial faulting in northern Sweden. Postglacial faulting is a special type of intraplate faulting triggered by the retreat of continental glaciers and by the induced changes of the local stress field. We investigated the longest known post-glacial fault (PGF) in Scandinavia, the Pärvie PGF. It is 155 km long and consists of a series of 3-10 m high fault scarps developed in several rock types such as mafic and felsic meta-volcanic rocks, and in the north, Archean granites and gneisses. Most of the scarps trend north-northeast and dip steeply to the west. A smaller sibling fault to the east (the Lansjärv PGF) displaces postglacial sediments. It is interpreted as resulting from a great earthquake (M≤8.2) at the end or just after the last glaciation (~10 ky B.P.). Microseismic activity is still present along the Pärvie fault zone. Unfortunately, the stress history of the Pärvie PGF before the last glaciation is poorly known. To reconstruct its stress history, we have performed fault-slip analysis. Fault slip data have been collected from two profiles across the Pärvie PGF in the Corruvagge valley and in Kamasjaure in the north, and Stora Sjöfallet in the southern part of the fault zone. Cross-cutting relationships, fracture mineralization and structural features of the brittle overprint of the rocks have been used to suggest a conceptual model of the brittle history of the fault. Ca. 40 kinematically constrained fault planes were used in the inversion study in addition to ca. 1060 fractures. Preliminary results indicate that the oldest generation of fractures are coated by pink plagioclase and clinoamphibole. The key mineral epidote is prominent along cataclastic structures. Rarly multiple kinematic indicators are identified along the same fracture, indicating polyphase reactivation. Epidote coating is found along fractures from all the computed stress-fields, indicating that

  11. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with nutrition, travelling and clothing habits in an immigrant population in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Granlund, L; Ramnemark, A; Andersson, C; Lindkvist, M; Fhärm, E; Norberg, M

    2016-03-01

    To study prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in immigrants from Africa and the Middle East living in Umeå, Sweden. Cross-sectional population based. Umeå, Sweden (63° N). Immigrants aged 25-65 years from nine countries in Africa or the Middle East (n=1306) were invited. A total of 111 men and 106 women (16.5%) completed the study. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured with HPLC. Anthropometry, medical, socioeconomic and lifestyle data were registered. Vitamin D status was insufficient or deficient in 73% of the participants. Specifically, 12% had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D3<25 nmol/l), and only 3.7% had optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D3 75-125 nmol/l). Mean 25(OH)D3 level was 41.0 nmol/l (± 16.6) with no difference between sexes. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were lower (P=0.030) and vitamin D deficiency was twice as common in immigrants from Africa compared with those from the Middle East. In the multiple regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with low fatty fish intake (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.61-11.55), not travelling abroad (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.18-11.96) and wearing long-sleeved clothes in summer (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.09-9.12). The majority of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East who live in northern Sweden have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Our results are consistent with sun exposure and a diet with high intake of fatty fish being most important in avoiding vitamin D deficiency.

  12. 'Science is really needed--that's all I know': informed consent and the non-verbal practices of collecting blood for genetic research in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2003-12-01

    In Vasterbotten County in northern Sweden a start-up biotech company has recently gained all commercial rights to one of the worlds largest population based research biobanks. The biobank and the company have publicly emphasized that all donors have given their informed consent to participate, but within the academy it has become debated whether people have been adequately informed. Based on anthropological fieldwork it is shown that many people do not read the information provided. The data do not, however, suggest that donors themselves perceive a lack of information. This article endeavours to make meaningful the apparent lack of interest among donors in the information they are offered. It is argued that the donation of blood should be analysed in its social and historical context rather than as a response to rational assessment of information of research purposes. It implies a conceptualisation of agency more aware of the intersubjective nature of moral negotiation than usually implied in studies of informed consent.

  13. Assignment of the gene locus for severe congenital neutropenia to chromosome 1q22 in the original Kostmann family from Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Melin, M; Entesarian, M; Carlsson, G; Garwicz, D; Klein, C; Fadeel, B; Nordenskjöld, M; Palmblad, J; Henter, J I; Dahl, N

    2007-02-16

    Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) or Kostmann syndrome is characterised by reduced neutrophil counts and subsequent recurrent bacterial infections. The disease was originally described in a large consanguineous pedigree from Northern Sweden. A genome-wide autozygosity scan was initiated on samples from four individuals in the original pedigree using high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays in order to map the disease locus. Thirty candidate regions were identified and the ascertainment of samples from two additional patients confirmed a single haplotype with significant association to the disorder (p<0.01) on chromosome 1q22. One affected individual from the original Kostmann pedigree was confirmed as a phenocopy. The minimal haplotype shared by affected individuals spans a candidate region of 1.2 Mb, containing several potential candidate genes.

  14. Diabetes empowerment and needs for self-management support among people with type 2 diabetes in a rural inland community in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Ulf; Hajdarevic, Senada; Abramsson, MaiGreth; Stenvall, Jessica; Hörnsten, Åsa

    2015-09-01

    Self-management among people with T2D includes being responsible for attaining a blood sugar level within the normal range, eating healthy food, exercising and following prescriptions for medication, something that may need support. In rural areas, access to health care may be limited, and support from family members becomes important. The aim of this study was to describe perceptions and associations of diabetes empowerment, self-management ability and needs of self-management support among people with T2D in a northern rural community of Sweden. People with T2D (n = 159) living a rural municipality in northern Sweden answered the SWE-DES-23 questionnaire and additional questions concerning self-management and needs for self-management support. A higher diabetes empowerment was associated with longer diabetes duration and support from healthcare professionals and relatives. Women rated a need for self-management support significantly higher than men did. Nonretired persons rated a significantly higher need for self-management support and a lower perception of support from healthcare professionals compared to retired persons. Cohabitant persons had a significantly higher perception of support from relatives and also estimated a higher need for relatives' involvement in clinical visits compared to persons living alone. Both the newly diagnosed and also those people with a diabetes duration of 10-15 years rated a higher need for group support. Higher self-awareness and readiness to change were apparent among people with short and long diabetes duration. Furthermore, self-management ability, support from healthcare professionals and from relatives and lastly diabetes duration was associated with diabetes empowerment. Not only people newly diagnosed with T2D should be offered patient-centred group support, strengthening patient empowerment. For future, family-focused care and education and training in person-centred care among diabetes specialist nurses is recommended

  15. The Importance of Bank Vole Density and Rainy Winters in Predicting Nephropathia Epidemica Incidence in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hjertqvist, Marika; Magnusson, Magnus; Löfvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are rodent-borne viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. In Europe, there are more than 10,000 yearly cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (PUUV). The common and widely distributed bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the host of PUUV. In this study, we aim to explain and predict NE incidence in boreal Sweden using bank vole densities. We tested whether the number of rainy days in winter contributed to variation in NE incidence. We forecast NE incidence in July 2013–June 2014 using projected autumn vole density, and then considering two climatic scenarios: 1) rain-free winter and 2) winter with many rainy days. Autumn vole density was a strong explanatory variable of NE incidence in boreal Sweden in 1990–2012 (R2 = 79%, p<0.001). Adding the number of rainy winter days improved the model (R2 = 84%, p<0.05). We report for the first time that risk of NE is higher in winters with many rainy days. Rain on snow and ground icing may block vole access to subnivean space. Seeking refuge from adverse conditions and shelter from predators, voles may infest buildings, increasing infection risk. In a rainy winter scenario, we predicted 812 NE cases in boreal Sweden, triple the number of cases predicted in a rain-free winter in 2013/2014. Our model enables identification of high risk years when preparedness in the public health sector is crucial, as a rainy winter would accentuate risk. PMID:25391132

  16. Challenges and strategies for sustaining youth-friendly health services - a qualitative study from the perspective of professionals at youth clinics in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Thomée, Suzanne; Malm, Desiré; Christianson, Monica; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Wiklund, Maria; Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2016-12-21

    Youth-friendly health-care services - those that are accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective for different youth subpopulations - are beneficial for youth health, but not easy to implement and sustain. Sweden is among the few countries where youth-friendly health-care services have been integrated within the public health system and sustained for a long time. This study explores the challenges and strategies in providing sustainable youth-friendly health-care services, from the perspective of professionals working in youth clinics in northern Sweden. Eleven semi-structured interviews with various health-care professionals working in youth clinics in northern Sweden were conducted. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic analysis in relation to the World Health Organization domains of youth friendliness. Four themes emerged from the analysis of the data: 1) 'Meeting youths on their own terms - the key to ensuring a holistic and youth-centred care' was related to the acceptability and appropriateness of the services; 2) 'Organizational challenges and strategies in keeping professionals' expertise on youth updated' referred to the domain of effectiveness; 3) 'Youth clinics are accessible for those who know and can reach them' was related to the domains of accessibility and equity, and 4) 'The challenge of combining strong directions and flexibility in diverse local realities' focused on the struggle to sustain the youth clinics organization and their goals within the broader health system. Professionals working in youth clinics are perceived as motivated, interested and knowledgeable about youth, and the clinics ensure confidentiality and a youth-centred and holistic approach. Challenges remain, especially in terms of ensuring equitable access to different youth subpopulations, improving monitoring routines and ensuring training and competence for all professionals, independently of the location and characteristics of

  17. Equitable health services for the young? A decomposition of income-related inequalities in young adults' utilization of health care in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Paola A; Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel; Gustafsson, Per E

    2017-01-18

    Despite the goal of the Swedish health system to offer health care according to the principle of horizontal equity, little is known about the equality in access to health care use among young people. To explore this issue, the present study aimed i) to assess horizontal inequity in health care utilization among young people in Northern Sweden; and ii) to explore the contribution of different factors to explain the observed inequalities. Participants (N = 3016 youths aged 16-25 years) came from the "Health on Equal terms" survey conducted in 2014 in the four northernmost counties in Sweden. Concentration indices (C) and horizontal inequity indices (HI) were calculated to measure inequalities in the utilization of two health care services (general practitioners (GP) and youth clinics). The HI was calculated based on health care utilization and variables representing socioeconomic status (household income), health care needs factors and non-need factors affecting health care use. A decomposition analysis was carried out to explain the income-related inequalities. Results showed a significant positive income-related inequality for youth clinic utilization in women (C = 0.166) and total sample (C = 0.097), indicating that services were concentrated among the better-off. In contrast, general practitioner visits showed inequality pointing toward a higher utilization among less affluent individuals; significant in women (C = -0.079), men (C = -0.101) and pooled sample (C = -0.097). After taking health care needs into consideration, the utilization of youth clinics remained significantly pro-rich in women (HI = 0.121) and total sample (HI = 0.099); and consistently pro-poor for the GP visits in the pooled sample (HI = -0.058). The decomposition analyses suggest that socioeconomic inequalities explain a considerable portion of the pro-rich utilization of youth clinics services among young women. The corresponding analyses for GP visits showed that

  18. Health care access for rural youth on equal terms? A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Carson, Dean; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Wiklund, Maria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2018-01-11

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population. The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care. The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

  19. Increasing physical activity, but persisting social gaps among middle-aged people: trends in Northern Sweden from 1990 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nawi; Söderman, Kerstin; Norberg, Margareta; Öhman, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is identified as one important protective factor for chronic diseases. Physical activity surveillance is important in assessing healthy population behaviour over time. Many countries lack population trends on physical activity. To present trends in physical activity levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden and to evaluate physical activity among women and men with various educational levels. Population-based cross-sectional and panel data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) during 1990-2007 were used. All individuals in Västerbotten County who turned 40, 50, or 60 years old were invited to their local primary health care for a health screening. Physical activity during commuting, recreational activities, physical exercise, and socio-demographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were categorised as sedentary, moderate physically active, or physically active. The prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 16 to 24.2% among men and from 12.6 to 30.4% among women. Increases are observed in all educational groups, but gaps between educational groups widened recently. The level of sedentary behaviour was stable over the time period studied. The 10-year follow-up data show that the prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 15.8 to 21.4% among men and 12.7 to 23.3% among women. However, 10.2% of men and 3.8% of women remained sedentary. Despite the promising evidence of increasing physical activity levels among the population in Västerbotten County, challenges remain for how to reduce the stable levels of sedentary behaviours in some subgroups. Persisting social gaps in physical activity levels should be addressed further. An exploration of people's views on engaging in physical activity and barriers to doing so will allow better formulation of targeted interventions within this population. Global Health Action 2011. © 2011 N. Ng et al.

  20. Comparative estimations of 137Cs distribution in a boreal forest in northern Sweden using a traditional sampling approach and a portable NaI detector.

    PubMed

    Plamboeck, A H; Nylén, T; Agren, G

    2006-01-01

    Field-portable detectors have been frequently used in routine monitoring and hazard assessment studies. However, there have been few thorough attempts to evaluate their potential as an alternative to the traditional procedure of collecting samples and analysing them in the laboratory. Thus, in this study the two approaches were compared in terms of their utility for monitoring (137)Cs activity in the Nyänget catchment in northern Sweden. The objectives were: (i) to determine the (137)Cs activity in soils associated with three types of vegetation, (ii) to map the geographical distribution of (137)Cs using the portable NaI detector connected to a GPS system (GDM-40), (iii) to identify (137)Cs anomalies in the catchment, and (iv) to compare the measurements obtained with the NaI detector and traditional sampling followed by laboratory analysis. Our results demonstrate that the GDM-40 has very good potential for making (137)Cs inventories and for detecting (137)Cs anomalies within large areas. The GDM-40 measurements identified differences between different hydrological areas that were not determined with the soil sampling method. The GDM-40 method is much faster than a traditional soil sampling method. However, soil sampling cannot be totally excluded because it is needed to calibrate the GDM-40. The agreement between the (137)Cs activity values obtained by the two approaches was 20% which is good in the field where so many factors vary.

  1. The confidence in health care and social services in northern Sweden--a comparison between reindeer-herding Sami and the non-Sami majority population.

    PubMed

    Daerga, Laila; Sjölander, Per; Jacobsson, Lars; Edin-Liljegren, Anette

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the confidence in primary health care, psychiatry and social services among the reindeer-herding Sami and the non-Sami population of northern Sweden. A semi-randomized, cross-sectional study design comprising 325 reindeer-herding Sami (171 men, 154 women) and a control population of 1,437 non-Sami (684 men, 753 women). A questionnaire on the confidence in primary health care, psychiatry, social services, and work colleagues was distributed to members of reindeer-herding families through the Sami communities and to the control population through the post. The relative risk for poor confidence was analyzed by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age and level of education. The confidence in primary health care and psychiatry was significantly lower among the reindeer-herding Sami compared with the control group. No differences were found between men and women in the reindeer-herding Sami population. In both the reindeer-herding Sami and the control population, younger people (≤ 48 years) reported significantly lower confidence in primary health care than older individuals (>48 years). A conceivable reason for the poor confidence in health care organizations reported by the reindeer-herding Sami is that they experience health care staff as poorly informed about reindeer husbandry and Sami culture, resulting in unsuitable or unrealistic treatment suggestions. The findings suggest that the poor confidence constitutes a significant obstacle of the reindeer-herding Sami to fully benefit from public health care services.

  2. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  3. Neutrophil elastase and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor mutation analyses and leukemia evolution in severe congenital neutropenia patients belonging to the original Kostmann family in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Göran; Aprikyan, Andrew A G; Ericson, Kim Göransdotter; Stein, Steve; Makaryan, Vahagn; Dale, David C; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Fadeel, Bengt; Palmblad, Jan; Hentera, Jan-Inge

    2006-05-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) or Kostmann syndrome was originally reported to be an autosomal recessive disease of neutrophil production causing recurrent, life-threatening infections. Mutations in the neutrophil elastase gene (ELA-2) have previously been identified in patients with sporadic or autosomal dominant SCN. We studied 14 individuals (four patients with SCN and ten close relatives) belonging to the original Kostmann family in northern Sweden for mutations in the ELA-2 and the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor genes. One patient belonging to the original Kostmann family harbored a novel heterozygous ELA-2 mutation (g.2310T-->A;Leu92His) that was not inherited from her parents. The mutation was identified in DNA isolated from both whole blood and skin fibroblasts, suggesting a sporadic de novo mutation. As a young adult this patient sequentially acquired two mutations in the gene for the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) and therefore recently received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant, due to the risk of evolution to leukemia. Moreover, another patient developed acute leukemia and was treated with transplantation. No pathogenic ELA-2 or G-CSFR gene mutations were found in this patient or the other two patients, nor in any healthy relative. Our data are the first to document leukemia evolution and G-CSFR gene mutations in the original Kostmann kindred. In addition, our findings indicate that ELA-2 mutations are not the primary cause of SCN in the Swedish Kostmann family.

  4. Using Local Event Tomography to Image Changes in the Rock Mass in the Kiirunavaara Iron Ore Mine, Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, B.; Berglund, K.; Tryggvason, A.; Dineva, S.; Jonsson, L.

    2017-12-01

    Although induced seismic events in a mining environment are a potential hazard, they can be used to gain information about the rock mass in the mine which otherwise would be very difficult to obtain. In this study we use approximately 1.2 million mining induced seismic events in the Kiirunavaara iron ore mine in northernmost Sweden to image the rock mass using local event travel-time tomography. The Kiirunavaara mine is the largest underground iron ore mine in the world. The ore body is a magnetite sheet of 4 km length, with an average thickness of 80 m, which dips approximately 55° to the east. The events are of various origins such as shear slip on fractures, non-shear events and blasts, with magnitudes of up to 2.5. We use manually picked P- and S-wave arrival times from the routine processing in the tomography and we require that both phases are present at at least five geophones. For the tomography we use the 3D local earthquake tomography code PStomo_eq (Tryggvason et al., 2002), which we adjusted to the mining scale. The tomographic images show clearly defined regions of high and low velocities. Prominent low S-velocity zones are associated with mapped clay zones. Regions of ore where mining is ongoing and the near-ore tunnel infrastructure in the foot-wall also show generally low P- and S-velocities. The ore at depths below the current mining levels is imaged both as a low S-velocity zone but even more pronounced as a high Vp/Vs ratio zone. The tomography shows higher P- and S-velocities in the foot-wall away from the areas of mine infrastructure. We relocate all 1.2 million events in the new 3D velocity model. The relocation significantly enhances the clarity of the event distribution in space and we can much more easily identify seismically active structures, such as e.g. the deformation of the ore passes. The large number of events makes it possible to do detailed studies of the temporal evolution of stability in the mine. We present preliminary results

  5. Incidence and seasonality of falls amongst old people receiving home help services in a municipality in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vikman, Irene; Nordlund, Anders; Näslund, Annika; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Falls among old people is a well-documented phenomenon; however, falls among people living in the community and receiving home help services have been under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, including possible seasonal variation, circumstances and injuries related to falls among community living home help receivers, and to investigate whether fall incidence is associated with the type and amount of home help services received. Prospective cohort study. All 614 persons aged 65 and over who were living in a particular northern Swedish community and receiving municipality home help were included. Data on age, sex and home help service use were collected from home help service records, and falls were reported by staff on report forms specifically designed for the study. Results. A total number of 264 falls were recorded among 122 participants. The overall fall incidence was 626 per 1,000 PY, and incidence rate ratios were significantly correlated to the total amount of services used (p<0.001), as well as to the degree of help for I-ADL needs (p<0.001), P-ADL needs (p<0.001) and escort service (p=0.007). The proportion of falls reported as resulting in injury was 33%. The monthly fall incidence was significantly associated to daylight photoperiod, however it was not associated to temperature. Fall incidence among home help receivers aged 65 and over seems correlated to the amount of services they receive. This is probably explained by the fact that impairments connected to ADL limitations and home help needs also are connected to an increased risk of falls. This implies that fall prevention should be considered when planning home help care for old people with ADL limitations. Further research on the connection between daylight photoperiod and fall incidence in populations at different latitudes is needed.

  6. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  7. What does age-comparative self-rated health measure? A cross-sectional study from the Northern Sweden MONICA Project.

    PubMed

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Hamberg, Katarina; Forssén, Annika

    2016-05-01

    Self-rated health comprehensively accounts for many health domains. Using self-ratings and a knowledge of associations with health domains might help personnel in the health care sector to understand reports of ill health. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between age-comparative self-rated health and disease, risk factors, emotions and psychosocial factors in a general population. We based our study on population-based cross-sectional surveys performed in 1999, 2004 and 2009 in northern Sweden. Participants were 25-74 years of age and 5314 of the 7500 people invited completed the survey. Comparative self-rated health was measured on a three-grade ordinal scale by the question 'How would you assess your general health condition compared to persons of your own age?' with the alternatives 'better', 'worse' or 'similar'. The independent variables were sex, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, self-reported myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, physical activity, smoking, risk of unemployment, satisfaction with economic situation, anxiety and depressive emotions, education and Karasek scale of working conditions. Odds ratios using ordinal regression were calculated. Age, sex, stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, economic satisfaction, anxiety and depressive emotions were associated with comparative self-rated health. The risk of unemployment, a tense work situation and educational level were also associated with comparative self-rated health, although they were considerably weaker when adjusted for the the other variables. Anxiety, depressive emotions, low economic satisfaction and a tense work situation were common in the population. Emotions and economic satisfaction were associated with comparative self-rated health as well as some medical variables. Utilization of the knowledge of these associations in health care should be further investigated. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public

  8. Physiotherapeutic interventions and physical activity for children in Northern Sweden with cerebral palsy: a register study from equity and gender perspectives.

    PubMed

    Degerstedt, Frida; Wiklund, Maria; Enberg, Birgit

    Young people with disabilities, especially physical disabilities, report worse health than others. This may be because of the disability, lower levels of physical activity, and discrimination. For children with cerebral palsy, access to physiotherapy and physical activity is a crucial prerequisite for good health and function. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding potential gender bias and inequity in habilitation services. To map how physiotherapeutic interventions (PTI), physical leisure activity, and physical education are allocated for children with cerebral palsy regarding sex, age, level of gross motor function, and county council affiliation. This was done from a gender and equity perspective. A register study using data from the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program (CPUP). Data included 313 children ≤18 years with cerebral palsy from the five northern counties in Sweden during 2013. Motor impairment of the children was classified according to the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). In three county councils, boys received more physiotherapy interventions and received them more frequently than girls did. Differences between county councils were seen for frequency and reasons for physiotherapy interventions (p < 0.001). The physiotherapist was involved more often with children who had lower motor function and with children who had low physical leisure activity. Children with lower motor function level participated in physical leisure activity less often than children with less motor impairment (p < 0.001). Boys participated more frequently in physical education than did girls (p = 0.028). Gender and county council affiliation affect the distribution of physiotherapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy, and there are associations between gender and physical activity. Thus, the intervention is not always determined by the needs of the child or the degree of impairment. A gender-bias is indicated

  9. Physiotherapeutic interventions and physical activity for children in Northern Sweden with cerebral palsy: a register study from equity and gender perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Degerstedt, Frida; Wiklund, Maria; Enberg, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Young people with disabilities, especially physical disabilities, report worse health than others. This may be because of the disability, lower levels of physical activity, and discrimination. For children with cerebral palsy, access to physiotherapy and physical activity is a crucial prerequisite for good health and function. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding potential gender bias and inequity in habilitation services. Objectives: To map how physiotherapeutic interventions (PTI), physical leisure activity, and physical education are allocated for children with cerebral palsy regarding sex, age, level of gross motor function, and county council affiliation. This was done from a gender and equity perspective. Methods: A register study using data from the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program (CPUP). Data included 313 children ≤18 years with cerebral palsy from the five northern counties in Sweden during 2013. Motor impairment of the children was classified according to the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Results: In three county councils, boys received more physiotherapy interventions and received them more frequently than girls did. Differences between county councils were seen for frequency and reasons for physiotherapy interventions (p < 0.001). The physiotherapist was involved more often with children who had lower motor function and with children who had low physical leisure activity. Children with lower motor function level participated in physical leisure activity less often than children with less motor impairment (p < 0.001). Boys participated more frequently in physical education than did girls (p = 0.028). Conclusion: Gender and county council affiliation affect the distribution of physiotherapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy, and there are associations between gender and physical activity. Thus, the intervention is not always determined by the needs of the child

  10. Acoustic Monitoring of Ebullitive Flux from a Mire Ecosystem in Subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, S. A.; Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; McCalley, C. K.; Amante, J.

    2012-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent green house gas with wetlands being the largest natural source to the atmosphere. Studies in the Stordalen Mire, a dynamic peatland complex 11km east of the Abisko Scientific Research Station (ANS) in northern Sweden, that focused on CH4 transport to the atmosphere from peatlands have shown increased emissions over the past decades. Ebullitive flux (bubbling) is a potentially significant pathway of CH4 from mire/lake ecosystems. Ebullitive fluxes were successfully monitored acoustically in peat and lakes in 2011. This work expands those measurements with installation of sensors in ponds and permafrost thaw margins in 2012. Eighteen acoustic sensors were installed in peat (6), pond (6), and lake (6) sites at Stordalen Mire. Recorders collected acoustic data continuously from each sensor and gas samples were collected from the traps at least once per week beginning 7 July. The CH4 concentration in the gas was measured using gas chromatography and selected samples were also analyzed for 13C-CH4 using a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL). The acoustic data were evaluated using a MATLAB program for determine the timing and volume of each ebullition event. The CH4 ebullitive flux from the peat was greater in July 2011 than during the same period in 2012. In comparison, the ponds and thaw margins released CH4 at a faster rate in 2012 than was observed in the peat and lake sensors in 2011. Inter-annual differences in ebullitive rates suggest that weather scale differences between years may control CH4 ebullitive flux. 13C-CH4 measured in the pore waters of pond sediment suggests that not all ponds are dominated by the same production processes. However, 13C-CH4 measured in bubbles and sediments are not different, implying little or no oxidation of CH4 during transport to the water surface. Our data suggests that changes in atmospheric pressure and water table height correlated with the ebullitive release in all three sub-ecosystems.

  11. Policy and Practice in Deaf Education: Views and Experiences of Teachers, and of Young People Who Are Deaf in Northern Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that the outcomes of education for most school leavers who are deaf in Northern Ireland are weak literacy skills and below average reading ages, a study was undertaken to investigate this situation. The views and experiences of teachers of children who are deaf, and of young people who are deaf in Northern Ireland, where oral and…

  12. Embodying pervasive discrimination: a decomposition of sexual orientation inequalities in health in a population-based cross-sectional study in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Per E; Linander, Ida; Mosquera, Paola A

    2017-01-21

    Studies from Sweden and abroad have established health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual people. Few studies have examined the underpinnings of such sexual orientation inequalities in health. To expand this literature, the present study aimed to employ decomposition analysis to explain health inequalities between people with heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation in Sweden, a country with an international reputation for heeding the human rights of non-heterosexual people. Participants (N = 23,446) came from a population-based cross-sectional survey in the four northernmost counties in Sweden in 2014. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires, covering sexual orientation, mental and general physical health, social conditions and unmet health care needs, and sociodemographic data was retrieved from total population registers. Sexual orientation inequalities in health were decomposed by Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis. Results showed noticeable mental and general health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation groups. Health inequalities were partly explained (total explained fraction 64-74%) by inequalities in degrading treatment (24-26% of the explained fraction), but to a considerable degree also by material conditions (38-45%) and unmet care needs (25-43%). Psychosocial experiences may be insufficient to explain and understand health inequalities by sexual orientation in a reputedly 'gay-friendly' setting. Less overt forms of structural discrimination may need to be considered to capture the pervasive material discrimination that seems to underpin the embodiment of sexual minority inequalities. This ought to be taken into consideration in research, policy-making and monitoring aiming to work towards equity in health across sexual orientations.

  13. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Tanvir M; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas

    2012-01-24

    Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.

  14. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans. PMID:22269339

  15. Towards improved characterization of northern wetlands (or other landscapes) by remote sensing - a rapid approach to collect ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gålfalk, Magnus; Karlson, Martin; Crill, Patrick; Bastviken, David

    2017-04-01

    The calibration and validation of remote sensing land cover products is highly dependent on accurate ground truth data, which are costly and practically challenging to collect. This study evaluates a novel and efficient alternative to field surveys and UAV imaging commonly applied for this task. The method consists of i) a light weight, water proof, remote controlled RGB-camera mounted on an extendable monopod used for acquiring wide-field images of the ground from a height of 4.5 meters, and ii) a script for semi-automatic image classification. In the post-processing, the wide-field images are corrected for optical distortion and geometrically rectified so that the spatial resolution is the same over the surface area used for classification. The script distinguishes land surface components by color, brightness and spatial variability. The method was evaluated in wetland areas located around Abisko, northern Sweden. Proportional estimates of the six main surface components in the wetlands (wet and dry Sphagnum, shrub, grass, water, rock) were derived for 200 images, equivalent to 10 × 10 m field plots. These photo plots were then used as calibration data for a regional scale satellite based classification which separates the six wetland surface components using a Sentinel-1 time series. The method presented in this study is accurate, rapid, robust and cost efficient in comparison to field surveys (time consuming) and drone mapping (which require low wind speeds and no rain, suffer from battery limited flight times, have potential GPS/compass errors far north, and in some areas are prohibited by law).

  16. Can physicians be replaced with gynecological teaching women to train medical students in their first pelvic examination? A pilot study from Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grankvist, Olov; Olofsson, Anders D; Isaksson, Rose-Marie

    2014-07-01

    The main objective was to gain a deeper understanding of how medical students perceive and experience learning from gynecological teaching women (GTW) instead of physicians in their first pelvic examination. A second aim was to describe how the women experience their roles as GTW. Data were collected from individual interviews with 24 medical students from a medical school in Sweden and with 5 GTW. Discourse analysis was performed to acquire a deeper understanding of the informants' experiences and to understand social interactions. Five themes revealed in the medical students' experiences: "Hoping that anxiety will be replaced with security," "Meeting as equals creates a sense of calm," "Succeeding creates a sense of security for the future," "Wanting but not having the opportunity to learn more," and "Feeling relieved and grateful." One theme revealed in the GTW experiences: "Hoping to relate in a trustworthy way." To replace physicians with GTW may facilitate the learning process and may also help medical students improve their communicative skills. Using GTW will hopefully further improve students' basic medical examination techniques and physician-patient relationships. Since GTW seems to increase self-confidence and skills of medical students performing their first pelvic examination we recommend that the use of GTW is considered in the training of medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Meddling with middle modalities: a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between intersectional gender and economic middle groups in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Per E.; Sebastián, Miguel San; Mosquera, Paola A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. Objective This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression. Design Participants (N=25,585) came from the cross-sectional ‘Health on Equal Terms’ survey covering 16- to 84-year-olds in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. Six intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and tertiles (low vs. medium vs. high) of disposable income. Mental health was measured through the General Health Questionnaire-12. Explanatory variables covered areas of material conditions, job relations, violence, domestic burden, and healthcare contacts. Analysis of variance (Aim 1) and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis (Aim 2) were used. Results Significant mental health inequalities were found between dominant (high-income women and middle-income men) and subordinate (middle-income women and low-income men) middle groups. The health inequalities between adjacent middle groups were mostly explained by violence (mid-income women vs. men comparison); material conditions (mid- vs. low-income men comparison); and material needs, job relations, and unmet medical needs (high- vs. mid-income women comparison). Conclusions The study suggests complex processes whereby dominant middle groups in the intersectional space of economic affluence and gender can leverage strategic resources to gain

  18. Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Sevde, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher δ13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage δ13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and δN15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the δN15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

  19. Are neighbourhood inequalities in adult health explained by socio-economic and psychosocial determinants in adolescence and the subsequent life course in northern Sweden? A decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Frida; Sebastian, Miguel San; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-06-07

    This study explains neighbourhood deprivation inequalities in adult health for a northern Swedish cohort by examining the contribution of socio-economic and psychosocial determinants from adolescence (age 16), young adulthood (age 21) and midlife (age 42) to the disparity. Self-reported information from 873 participants was drawn from questionnaires, with complementary neighbourhood register data. The concentration index was used to estimate the inequality while decomposition analyses were run to attribute the disparity to its underlying determinants. The results suggest that socio-economic and psychosocial factors in midlife explain a substantial part, but also that the inequality can originate from conditions in adolescence and young adulthood. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the age of CO2 Released From Mountain Birch Forest and Heath in Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, I. P.; Garnett, M. H.; Hopkins, D. W.; Sommerkorn, M.; Wookey, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    Nuclear weapons testing released a large amount of 14C into the atmosphere during the mid 20th Century. This radiocarbon pulse provides a tracer that can be used to determine the age of C released from plants and soils. Such information is critical for predicting how terrestrial C storage will respond to global change. If respired CO2 is mainly modern, then respiration and photosynthesis are tightly coupled. In contrast, if older C is being mineralized then there is more potential for climate change to induce C loss. We carried out one of the first studies to measure seasonal variations in the 14C content of CO2 released from arctic ecosystems. Using molecular sieves, we trapped CO2 respired from a mountain birch forest and heath near Abisko, northern Sweden and measured 14C contents by accelerator mass spectrometry. CO2 was collected from both vegetated plots (control) and clipped and trenched plots (CT) on three occasions during the 2007 growing season. In addition, we used a new passive sampling technique to collect CO2 from the CT plots during winter 2007-2008. Assuming that the respired C was derived from post bomb sources (justifiable as the majority of each soil profile was enriched with bomb C), we estimated the age of the CO2 and how it changed during the year in response to changes in plant activity and key environmental drivers. On the heath, the mean age of the CO2 respired from the control plots increased from 4 to 6 years old during the growing season. The CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 5 years old in early June to 11 years old by July, but then declined to 8 years old in September. The C released during winter was also 8 years old. In the Birch forest, the mean age of CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 4 years old in late May to 8-9 years old during July and September. However, during winter, the CO2 released was >10 years old. In the control plots, the age of respired CO2 increased from being 1 year old in late May to 6

  1. Language Planning in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molde, Bertil

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses language planning in Sweden. The Swedish Academy has as its goal to develop the purity, strength and nobility of the Swedish language by means of dictionaries, grammars, and the codification of vocabulary. Sweden also has a National Language Committee, one of a network of such committees existing in the Scandinavian…

  2. Exploring spatial heterogeneity and resilience in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, A.; Roulet, N. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northern peatlands cover only 3% of the worlds land area while storing approximately 30% of the world's soil carbon making them important players in the global and regional carbon (C) cycle (Gorham 1991). Current peatland research attempts to predict changes in peatland biogeochemistry given climate change scenarios. However, the focus is primarily on linear responses to changes rather than on self regulation properties that are present in complex systems. Studying peatlands as complex adaptive systems (CAS) is important to fully understand peatland resilience and therefore to better predict response to disturbances. Peatlands possess properties of CAS such as spatial heterogeneity (SH), localized flows, self-organizing structures and non-linearity (Belyea and Baird 2006). The broad hypothesis of our proposed research is that SH in peatlands is positively connected with ecosystem resilience. To address our broad hypothesis we propose to 1) characterize SH in peatlands (using two visible indices of microtopography [MT] and vegetation structure [VEG]), 2) quantify the auto-correlation between visible SH and biogeochemical parameters and 3) investigate short term resilience using the response of biogeochemical parameters to environmental changes. The selection of biogeochemical parameters is based on prevalent theories on the persistence of MT in peatlands and parameters are related to peat accumulation (function of decomposition and net primary production; NPP), hydrology and nutrients (Swanson and Grigal 1988, Belyea and Clymo 2001, Eppinga et al. 2009). Field measurements will be conducted in the Stordalen mire in Abisko, Sweden. This site provides a steep environmental gradient with the presence of 3 peatland types- palsa, bog and fen. Each of these peatland types have varying degrees of spatial heterogeneity, exogenous controls (related to hydrology and permafrost), and therefore hypothesized varying degrees of resilience. Measurements will include nutrients, NPP

  3. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  4. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  5. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  6. A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

  7. Growing Old in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglind, Hans

    This document contains the bases of lectures delivered in Florida by a visiting Stockholm University sociology professor. The first chapter, "Growing Old in Sweden," includes information on the income, standard of living, and quality of services available to the elderly in that country. That information is presented within the changing…

  8. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…

  9. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The forms of adult education in Sweden discussed in this review include the courses provided by the Labour Market Board, the folk high schools, the national and local educational schemes, the Commission for TV and Radio in Education (TRU), and the training courses arranged by the employee organizations. Brief mention is also made of the courses…

  10. Formative Assessment as a Tool to Benefit the Student/Mentor Relationship in the Northern Ecosystem Research for Undergraduates (NERU) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froburg, E.; Varner, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Partners in the Northern Ecosystem Research for Undergraduates (NERU) project, funded by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, have developed a multi-instrument formative assessment approach aimed at maintaining a responsive relationship between undergraduate participants and their research mentors. All evaluation is conducted independent of the NERU scientific/mentor team, by the Joan and James Leitzel Center for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education. The 10-week summer research experience has 3 components. 1) REU fellows spend the first 3-weeks at the University of New Hampshire, where they acquire background knowledge of Earth System Science and biogeochemistry; 2) students spend the following 4-weeks at the Abisko Scientific Research Station in research co-mentored by UNH-based and ANS-based scientists; and 3) fellows return to UNH to complete any additional analytical work, synthesize their results, and prepare their projects for presentation. There are three primary tools that are used formatively, and the results are integrated over multiple time periods. Application and Pre-program Survey: Although these two instruments are primarily components of participant recruitment and the summative program metrics, they also provide a baseline understanding of student preparation and perspectives. Mentor Pairing Survey: This component was added prior to the fourth year of the program, in response to specific trends in participant feedback. The survey is completed by both participants and mentors, and is designed to match research goals, skills, and personalities. Focus Groups: Two focus group sessions are held during the summer research experience—one midway through the 3rd week, just prior to departure for Sweden, and a second session just prior to completion of the 10-week summer program. These focus groups provide immediate feedback on, and opportunity for response to, student concerns in a range of areas. Participants are also

  11. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  12. Sweden health system review.

    PubMed

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  13. [Primary care in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first European Union countries that saw the opportunity in the free movement of professionals. First offers for jobs were managed in 2000. Since then, a large number of professionals have taken the opportunity of a decent job and have moved from Spain to Sweden. The Swedish health care model belongs to the group of national health systems. The right to health care is linked to legal citizenship. Health is financed through regional taxes, but there is a compulsory co-payment regardless of the financial situation of the patient. The provision of health care is decentralised at a regional level, and there is a mixture of private and public medical centres. Primary care is similar to that in Spain. Health professionals work as a team with a division of tasks. Like in Spain, waiting lists and coordination between primary and specialised care are a great problem. Patients may register with any public or private primary care centre and hospital provider within their region. Access to diagnostic tests and specialists are restricted to those selected by specialists. Doctors are salaried and their job and salary depend on their experience, professional abilities and regional needs. Medicine is curative. General practitioners are the gateway to the system, but they do not act as gatekeeper. Hospitals offer a number of training post, and the access is through an interview. Continuing medical education is encouraged and financed by the health centre in order to increase its revenues. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe Mental Retardation in Children in a Northern Swedish County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Gustavson, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    Presented are results of a study of the incidence, prevalence, gestational age, birth weight, associated central nervous system disorders, and etiological and pathogenetic aspects of 161 severely mentally retarded children in Northern Sweden. (CL)

  15. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  16. Medical education in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  17. Group practice in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, N E

    1986-06-01

    The Swedish design of group practice (Praktikertjänst) is described. After 25 years there is now a model which suits most dentists in Sweden. Almost 50 per cent of the private practitioners belong to the corporation. It is owned by practitioners and operates as a conventional free enterprise business. The practitioner owners of the company are at the same time employed in it. The corporation consists of 1900 dentists, 675 physicians and their assistants. The basic aim is to give the dentist more time for the provision of dental care. Thus the corporation helps the dentist with most of the financial and administrative work arising in the practice. The central office also gives a variety of services, eg continuing professional education; financial help for research; advice and discounts on purchases; private loans; and vacation rentals. Furthermore, the corporation provides a pension fund, an insurance department and a publishing house for scientific medical and dental literature. Compared with practitioners working outside the Praktikertjänst its employees have great advantages.

  18. Contemporary relevance of Rokliden, Sweden's first forest hydrology field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grip, Harald

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades of the 19th century a great worry arose about forest landscape paludification in Northern Sweden. This was the original impetus for forest hydrological research in Sweden and the Swedish Institute of Experimental Forestry established the first field research site in 1905 at Rokliden, close to Piteå in North Sweden. It comprised 8.64 ha located 2 km down a 3 km long gently sloping (ca 4%), north facing Norway spruce covered till slope, interspersed with small mires. By 1931 it was concluded that paludification was not spreading across Northern Sweden at an appreciable rate. Within the Rokliden research site 22 groundwater wells were installed and levels measured weekly until 1926. A map with 0.5 m equidistance, 10 vegetation classes, and soil profiles was established. A limited forest harvest was done in 1908, but significant effects on groundwater levels were not found. Groundwater flow velocity was estimated by tracing added sodium chloride. Hydraulic conductivity was measured on undisturbed soil cores, while mechanical and chemical analyses were done on other samples. Groundwater was collected and analyzed for dissolved compounds including oxygen. Hydrology was found important for soil types and vegetation development. The necessary profile drainage for podzol soil development was identified as vein drainage at the bedrock surface. The low lateral hydraulic gradient in the gentle slopes and the low hydraulic conductivity in the deeper till soil made lateral flow much smaller than required. The vein drainage was a perfect solution to the problem and great effort was put into showing the existence and importance of veins. Modern measurements in the re-established groundwater observation network and re-analysis of old data confirmed the plausibility of these original conclusions. Partial catchment area could explain rates of both groundwater level rise and recession. Revisiting this field study reveals that many issues in contemporary

  19. Family Planning in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet explores attitudes in Sweden toward sexuality and childbirth from a historical perspective. After describing the strict social control over abortion and contraception in place 100 years ago, and the gradual easing of those controls in response to the low birth rate, the paper goes on to discuss the 1974 Abortion Act, which…

  20. Child Care in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet outlines Sweden's policies of government-supported child care and parental insurance provisions. Swedish families receive: (1) free maternity and child health care; (2) child allowances for each child of 9,000 krona per year through age 16; (3) up to 450 days of paid parental leave for the birth of a child, with 360 days paid at 90…

  1. First report of dollar spot disease, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, of Agrostis stolonifera in Sweden

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most grass species grown as turf, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden...

  2. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. Methods The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. Results We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15–94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. Conclusions In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment. PMID:25973769

  3. Foreign Language Learning in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpet, Brian R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a visit made to Sweden to ascertain why Swedish citizens speak such excellent English. Motivation was a key factor. Describes observations of the methods of teaching English as a second language in Swedish schools. Makes recommendations for foreign language teaching in Great Britain based on these observations. (SED)

  4. English Language Teaching Profile: Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Sweden discusses the role of English within Swedish society and within the Swedish educational system. The status of English as the principal foreign language since 1945 for use in business, the media and tourism is pointed out. The system of English instruction in the…

  5. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  6. Nuclear Energy Encore in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishlock, David

    1991-01-01

    This article traces Sweden's decision to indefinitely delay their previous plan to phase out nuclear power generators which had been scheduled for 1995. Discussed as major factors in this delay are the excellent safety record of current reactors and the unacceptable economic, as well as environmental, consequences of switching to other power…

  7. Education in Sweden. Bulletin, 1952, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1952-01-01

    In November 1948 the United States Office of Education received an invitation through the Embassy of Sweden, Washington, D.C., from the Sweden-America Foundation in Stockholm for Dr. Alina M. Lindegren, Specialist in European Education to visit Sweden for three weeks in January, February or March 1949 as a guest of the Foundation. The idea behind…

  8. Ecosystem-Vegetation Dynamics in sub-arctic Stordalen Mire, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnani, M. P.; Varner, R. K.; Steele, K.; Frey, S. D.; Crill, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Increased global temperatures have contributed to the thaw of permafrost and a subsequent atmospheric release of stored methane (CH4) from sub-arctic ecosystems. Palsas, small frost uplifted mounds that support specialized dry-tolerant vegetation species, degrade when permafrost thaws, allowing other species such a Sphagnum and Eriophorum to encroach on the microhabitats and outcompete other species, altering the carbon feedback into the thin arctic soil. Other climate change-related events including increased precipitation, seasonal temperature abnormalities and changes in humidity and nutrient availability may alter vegetation dynamics in terms of diversity and abundance in sub-arctic regions. During July 2012, measurements of vegetation composition and species abundance estimates were made in Stordalen Mire (68° 21' N, 19° 03' E), Abisko Sweden, two hundred kilometers north of the Arctic Circle. The mire is an area of discontinuous permafrost populated by micro-ecosystems that vary in vegetation species and abundance depending on growth conditions. All ecosystems provide beneficial services to support a range of life forms including rodents, birds, insects and reindeer. Five representative ecosystems of the mire were chosen to conduct studies on vegetation diversity and percent cover-based abundance: palsa, Eriophorum-dominated fen, Sphagnum-dominated peatland, lakeshore edge and lakeside heath. In each ecosystem vegetation species were recorded in six transects with quadrats along with a corresponding percent cover estimation and scale number based on the Braun-Blanquet percent cover method. To determine nutrient dynamics between ecosystems, soil peat samples were also taken at random from all ecosystem transects. These were analyzed for carbon and inorganic nitrogen as well as ammonium and nitrate. In the vegetation data analysis, the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index showed that the lakeside heath ecosystem was the most diverse and even in species distribution

  9. An epidemiologic study of Lyme disease in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berglund, J; Eitrem, R; Ornstein, K; Lindberg, A; Ringér, A; Elmrud, H; Carlsson, M; Runehagen, A; Svanborg, C; Norrby, R

    1995-11-16

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne infection in some temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. However, for most areas of endemic disease reliable epidemiologic data are sparse. Over a one-year period, we conducted a prospective, population-based survey of cases of Lyme disease in southern Sweden. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the presence of erythema migrans at least 5 cm in diameter or characteristic clinical manifestations such as arthritis, neuroborreliosis, and carditis. We identified 1471 patients with Lyme disease, for an overall annual incidence of 69 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence varied markedly according to geographic region, and there were several areas where disease was widely prevalent. The incidence varied according to age, with the highest rates among people 5 to 9 and 60 to 74 years of age, but not according to sex. The most frequent clinical manifestation was erythema migrans (seen in 77 percent of all cases), followed by neuroborreliosis (16 percent) and arthritis (7 percent). Carditis was rare. A preceding tick bite was reported by 79 percent of the patients. Bites in the head and neck region were more common among children than among adults and were associated with an increased risk of neuroborreliosis. Lyme disease is very common in southern Sweden, with a relatively high frequency of neurologic complications and arthritis. With the exception of the low incidence of carditis, the pattern of disease we found in Sweden was similar to that reported in the United States.

  10. Species Composition at the Sub-Meter Level in Discontinuous Permafrost in Subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Palace, M. W.; Layne, M.; Varner, R. K.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing rapid warming. Wetlands underlain by permafrost are particularly vulnerable to warming which results in changes in vegetative cover. Specific species have been associated with greenhouse gas emissions therefore knowledge of species compositional shift allows for the systematic change and quantification of emissions and changes in such emissions. Species composition varies on the sub-meter scale based on topography and other microsite environmental parameters. This complexity and the need to scale vegetation to the landscape level proves vital in our estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and dynamics. Stordalen Mire (68°21'N, 18°49'E) in Abisko and is located at the edge of discontinuous permafrost zone. This provides a unique opportunity to analyze multiple vegetation communities in a close proximity. To do this, we randomly selected 25 1x1 meter plots that were representative of five major cover types: Semi-wet, wet, hummock, tall graminoid, and tall shrub. We used a quadrat with 64 sub plots and measured areal percent cover for 24 species. We collected ground based remote sensing (RS) at each plot to determine species composition using an ADC-lite (near infrared, red, green) and GoPro (red, blue, green). We normalized each image based on a Teflon white chip placed in each image. Textural analysis was conducted on each image for entropy, angular second momentum, and lacunarity. A logistic regression was developed to examine vegetation cover types and remote sensing parameters. We used a multiple linear regression using forwards stepwise variable selection. We found statistical difference in species composition and diversity indices between vegetation cover types. In addition, we were able to build regression model to significantly estimate vegetation cover type as well as percent cover for specific key vegetative species. This ground-based remote sensing allows for quick quantification of vegetation

  11. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Inclusive Education in Sweden? A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goransson, Kerstin; Nilholm, Claes; Karlsson, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the…

  13. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted duringmore » two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.« less

  14. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Abraham-Nordling, Mirna; Byström, Kristina; Törring, Ove; Lantz, Mikael; Berg, Gertrud; Calissendorff, Jan; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Jansson, Svante; Jörneskog, Gun; Karlsson, F Anders; Nyström, Ernst; Ohrling, Hans; Orn, Thomas; Hallengren, Bengt; Wallin, Göran

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of hyperthyroidism has been reported in various countries to be 23-93/100,000 inhabitants per year. This extended study has evaluated the incidence for ~40% of the Swedish population of 9 million inhabitants. Sweden is considered to be iodine sufficient country. All patients including children, who were newly diagnosed with overt hyperthyroidism in the years 2003-2005, were prospectively registered in a multicenter study. The inclusion criteria are as follows: clinical symptoms and/or signs of hyperthyroidism with plasma TSH concentration below 0.2 mIE/l and increased plasma levels of free/total triiodothyronine and/or free/total thyroxine. Patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis were not included. The diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) and solitary toxic adenoma (STA), smoking, initial treatment, occurrence of thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs, and demographic data were registered. A total of 2916 patients were diagnosed with de novo hyperthyroidism showing the total incidence of 27.6/100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence of GD was 21.0/100,000 and toxic nodular goiter (TNG=STA+TMNG) occurred in 692 patients, corresponding to an annual incidence of 6.5/100,000. The incidence was higher in women compared with men (4.2:1). Seventy-five percent of the patients were diagnosed with GD, in whom thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs occurred during diagnosis in every fifth patient. Geographical differences were observed. The incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden is in a lower range compared with international reports. Seventy-five percent of patients with hyperthyroidism had GD and 20% of them had thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs during diagnosis. The observed geographical differences require further studies.

  15. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

    PubMed Central

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  16. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  17. Northern Studies at Northern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Review: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Arts and Social Sciences of the North, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Describes college programs and research projects focused on the Arctic, northern studies, or northern concerns at Athabasca University (Alberta), the University of British Columbia, the University of Alaska Anchorage, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Scott Polar Institute at the University of Cambridge (England), and Kent State University…

  18. First evidence of established populations of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Värv, Kairi; Fröjdman, Isabella; Jääskeläinen, Anu; Rundgren, Kaj; Versteirt, Veerle; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Medlock, Jolyon M; Golovljova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    The tick species Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus are of exceptional medical importance in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the Palaearctic region. In Russia and Finland the range of I. persulcatus has recently increased. In Finland the first records of I. persulcatus are from 2004. The apparent expansion of its range in Finland prompted us to investigate if I. persulcatus also occurs in Sweden. Dog owners and hunters in the coastal areas of northern Sweden provided information about localities where ticks could be present. In May-August 2015 we used the cloth-dragging method in 36 localities potentially harbouring ticks in the Bothnian Bay area, province Norrbotten (NB) of northern Sweden. Further to the south in the provinces Västerbotten (VB) and Uppland (UP) eight localities were similarly investigated. Ixodes persulcatus was detected in 9 of 36 field localities in the Bothnian Bay area. Nymphs, adult males and adult females (n = 46 ticks) of I. persulcatus were present mainly in Alnus incana - Sorbus aucuparia - Picea abies - Pinus sylvestris vegetation communities on islands in the Bothnian Bay. Some of these I. persulcatus populations seem to be the most northerly populations so far recorded of this species. Dog owners asserted that their dogs became tick-infested on these islands for the first time 7-8 years ago. Moose (Alces alces), hares (Lepus timidus), domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and ground-feeding birds are the most likely carriers dispersing I. persulcatus in this area. All ticks (n = 124) from the more southern provinces of VB and UP were identified as I. ricinus. The geographical range of the taiga tick has recently expanded into northern Sweden. Increased information about prophylactic, anti-tick measures should be directed to people living in or visiting the coastal areas and islands of the Baltic Bay.

  19. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  20. Prevalence of older people with intellectual disability in Sweden: a spatial epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, N; Sandberg, M; Ahlström, G

    2015-12-01

    The expected increase in longevity of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) in many countries of the world is a direct result of medical and social advances, which have also extended the longevity of the general population. It is important to assess the need for social services for people with ID across different administrative levels to ensure sufficient resources are allocated to where they are most needed. This study estimates the annual prevalence of older people with ID from 2004 to 2012 and in different counties and municipalities in Sweden, by sex and age group; identifies proxy indicators related to the care of older people with ID in different counties in 2012 in Sweden and analyses the spatial distribution and clustering of municipalities with a high prevalence of older people with ID. Individuals with ID were identified through the national register based on the Swedish Act concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (the LSS act) and the national death register. This study focuses on older individuals aged 55+ during the period of 2004-2012. The estimated prevalence was calculated at the county and municipality level and plotted on a municipality-level map. Moran's I statistics was used to identify any spatial clustering of municipalities with a large number of individuals with ID. The prevalence of ID among older individuals aged 55+ in Sweden increased from 2004 to 2012. The prevalence was consistently higher among men, and the gender gap increased slightly in recent years. Age-specific prevalence estimates showed ID to be higher in younger age groups, and the gender gap decreased in older age groups. The prevalence was higher in northern counties in Sweden (over 500 individuals per 100 000 population aged 55+). Higher prevalence areas were clustered in northern municipalities, whereas municipalities with high prevalence of older individuals with ID in the middle and southern regions of Sweden demonstrated

  1. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Four reindeer walk past the BARREL payload on the launch pad at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/University of Houston/Samar Mathur NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A member of the BARREL team prepares a payload for launch from Esrange Space Center on Aug. 29, 2016. Throughout August 2016, the BARREL team was at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carried instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/Dartmouth/Alexa Halford NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The fourth BARREL balloon of this campaign sits on the launch pad shortly before it launched on Aug. 21, 2016. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/University of Houston/Michael Greer NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The third BARREL balloon floats towards the stratosphere on Aug. 21, 2016. This payload flew for nearly 30 hours, measuring X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/University of Houston/Michael Greer NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  5. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A BARREL payload sits on the launch pad at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/University of Houston/Edgar Bering NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A BARREL team member recovers the second payload after it landed. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/Montana State University/Arlo Johnson NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Prior to launch, the BARREL team works on the payload from the launch pad at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/Dartmouth/Robyn Millan NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The BARREL team prepares to launch their third payload from Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, on Aug. 21, 2016. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/University of Houston/Michael Greer NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A BARREL team member watches as one of their payloads launches from Esrange Space Center on Aug. 29, 2016. Throughout August 2016, the BARREL team was at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carried instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/Dartmouth/Alexa Halford NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A BARREL balloon inflates on the launch pad at Esrange Space Center on Aug. 29, 2016. Throughout August 2016, the BARREL team was at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carried instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/Dartmouth/Alexa Halford NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The first BARREL balloon is inflated just before its launch on Aug. 13, 2016, from Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/University of Houston/Edgar Bering NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The BARREL team inflates the balloon to launch their fifth scientific payload from Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, on Aug. 24, 2016. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/University of Houston/Michael Greer NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A BARREL payload sits on the launch pad at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Image credit: NASA/Dartmouth/Robyn Millan NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. NASA's BARREL Mission in Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The faint green glow of aurora can be seen above the clouds at Esrange Space Center in this photo from Aug. 23, 2016. Auroras are created by energetic electrons, which rain down from Earth’s magnetic bubble and interact with particles in the upper atmosphere to create glowing lights that stretch across the sky. The BARREL team is at Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden, launching a series of six scientific payloads on miniature scientific balloons. The NASA-funded BARREL – which stands for Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses – primarily measures X-rays in Earth’s atmosphere near the North and South Poles. These X-rays are produced by electrons raining down into the atmosphere from two giant swaths of radiation that surround Earth, called the Van Allen belts. Learning about the radiation near Earth helps us to better protect our satellites. Several of the BARREL balloons also carry instruments built by undergraduate students to measure the total electron content of Earth’s ionosphere, as well as the low-frequency electromagnetic waves that help to scatter electrons into Earth’s atmosphere. Though about 90 feet in diameter, the BARREL balloons are much smaller than standard football stadium-sized scientific balloons. This is the fourth campaign for the BARREL mission. BARREL is led by Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The undergraduate student instrument team is led by the University of Houston and funded by the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project out of NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility. For more information on NASA’s scientific balloon program, visit: www.nasa.gov/scientificballoons. Credit: NASA/University of Houston/Michael Greer NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling

  15. Depression and anxiety in the reindeer-herding Sami population of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Niclas; Sjölander, Per; Liljegren, Annette Edin; Jacobsson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate symptoms and predicting factors of depression and anxiety among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. A total of 319 reindeer-herding Sami (168 men, 151 women) were compared with urban and rural reference populations comprising 1,393 persons (662 men, 731 women). A cross-sectional questionnaire study on mental health, which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analysed with regard to population, gender, age group, education and work-related stress. The Sami population disclosed higher mean values for both depression and anxiety than the reference groups, with Sami men reporting the highest rates. Work-related stress was associated with anxiety and depression in the Sami group. By comparing Sami men and women with reference groups of men and women living in urban and rural areas in northern Sweden, this study identified that reindeer-herding Sami men require special attention with regard to mental health problems.

  16. Nordic Balance: Sweden, a Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A strategic appraisal of the Swedish Armed Forces is set against the background of other elements of national power. Although Sweden is a small country, the analysis leads to the conclusion that the strength of the Swedish Armed Forces contributes significantly to the military balance of the Scandinavian region. Situated between the major power blocs represented by NATO and the Warsaw Pact countries, Sweden pursues an alliance-free foreign policy which also enhances regional military/ political stability , termed ’Nordic Balance’. (Modified author abstract)

  17. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia   ... view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  18. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  19. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  20. Diversification of Tertiary Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandgren, Lennart

    Following a brief description of primary and secondary education in Sweden, the aims and contents of the reform of higher education implemented in July 1977 are summarized. Basic higher studies (undergraduate courses), organized partly as education programs and partly as single course, are described, including admission requirements and the…

  1. Sweden: Nato’s Silent Partner?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    heat- seeking missiles which must be fired from the rear- quadrant in order to be effective. Once the Soviet is locked in combat, he is drawn to an...significant changes of position could affect the current equilibrin1m in Europa (sic) A substantial weakening of Sweden’s defense in relation to the

  2. Public Dialogue on Science in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyring, Annagreta

    1988-01-01

    Explains how Sweden has proceeded to popularize science. Addresses topics dealing with policy, the energy debate, booklets with large circulation, computers and society, contacts between schools and research, building up small science centers, mass media, literary quality, children's responsibility, and some of the challenges. (RT)

  3. Language Choice among Iranians in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namei, Shidrokh

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the language choice among Iranians in Sweden, both inside and outside the home domain. The data are collected from 188 participants through structured interviews and questionnaires. The results show that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the home domain between parents and children. However, some Swedish is…

  4. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  5. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  6. Bilingual Education for Deaf Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartholm, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In 1981, Swedish Sign Language gained recognition by the Swedish Parliament as the language of deaf people, a decision that made Sweden the first country in the world to give a sign language the status of a language. Swedish was designated as a second language for deaf people, and the need for bilingualism among them was officially asserted. This…

  7. Class Size and Student Evaluations in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of class size on student evaluations of the quality of an introductory mathematics course at Lund University in Sweden. In contrast to much other studies, we find a large negative, and statistically significant, effect of class size on the quality of the course. This result appears to be quite robust, as almost all…

  8. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  9. Northern Pintail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Robert G.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Guyn, Karla L.; Haukos, David A.; Austin, Jane E.; Miller, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout fall and winter.Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often far from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season.Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in

  10. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States wasmore » the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish

  11. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Occupational risks for colon cancer in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Chow, W H; Malker, H S; Hsing, A W; McLaughlin, J K; Weiner, J A; Stone, B J; Ericsson, J L; Blot, W J

    1994-06-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links census information (1960) with cancer incidence data (1961 to 1979), we conducted a systematic, population-based assessment of colon cancer incidence among cohorts defined by industry and occupation for all employed persons in Sweden. Small but statistically significant excesses of colon cancer were observed among white-collar occupations, including administrators, professionals, and clerical and sales workers, whereas a reduction in incidence was found among workers in agricultural and related jobs, such as farmers, fishermen, and hunters. Analysis by subsite within the colon revealed little difference in results. The observed risk patterns are consistent with previous reports on colon cancer risk and occupational physical activity levels, ie, elevated risk among sedentary white-collar workers and reduced risk among agricultural workers. Few craftsman and production processing jobs were linked to colon cancer, although statistically significant excesses were observed among shoe and leather workers, metal smiths, and foundry workers in the metal manufacturing industry. The findings indicate that occupation in general is likely to play a relatively small role in colon cancer etiology, with perhaps its major contribution an indirect one via physical activity.

  13. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Linnéa; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-05-14

    To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Population-based prospective cohort study. Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11-12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14-15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. At the age of 14-15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Liver and gallbladder cancer in immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Brandt, Andreas; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan

    2010-03-01

    The changes of cancer incidence upon immigration can be used as an estimator of environmental influence on cancer risk. We studied site-specific liver and biliary cancers in first-generation immigrants to Sweden with an aim to search for aetiological clues and to find evidence for indigenous incidence rates. We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) in immigrants compared to native Swedes. A total of 1428 cancers were identified in immigrants whose median ages (years) at immigration were 27 for men and 26 for women and whose median diagnostic ages were 64 and 66, respectively. The highest SIRs of 6.7 for primary liver cancer were observed for men from East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Increased SIRs were recorded for male immigrants from previous Yugoslavia (1.78), Southern Europe (2.91), Turkey (2.15) and Asian Arab countries (2.89). For gallbladder cancer, only women from the Indian subcontinent (3.84) and Chile (2.34) had increased risk while some Northern European immigrants showed decreased risks. Primary liver cancer was increased in immigrants from endemic regions of hepatitis B virus infection but also from large regions lacking cancer incidence data, North Africa, Asian Arab countries, Turkey and previous Yugoslavia; these are probably intermediary risk regions for this infection. The consideration of these regions as risk areas would justify active diagnostic and vaccination programs. The increase in gallbladder cancer in Chileans and Indians suggests that some persistent damage was inflicted before emigration, characterisation of which will be a challenge for aetiological studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifelong Learning in Policy and Practice: The Case of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Ann-Kristin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the changes in lifelong learning policy that have taken place since the 1990s in Sweden. Policy documents regarding lifelong learning in Sweden have appeared since 1994. The first of these documents contains general recommendations with regard to lifelong learning, in both a lifelong and a lifewide perspective, concerning…

  16. Education, Society and Politics in Sweden. Monograph No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, R. J.

    Interrelationships among the educational, social, and political systems of Sweden are examined, with particular emphasis on the recent trend toward internationalization. Sweden is described in general terms as a highly industrialized, technologically-advanced nation with a high standard of living, far-reaching welfare policies, and high levels of…

  17. Children's School Achievement and Parental Work: An Analysis for Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg-Schonfeldt, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Data from Statistics Sweden on 70 000 students entering upper secondary school in 1994 are used along with socioeconomic characteristics from the 1990 census to explore the relationship between market work by parents in Sweden and their children's educational achievement, measured as the Grade Point Average. The results show that there is a…

  18. Adjustment Failures in an Immigrant Population: Finns in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarela, Jan; Finnas, Fjalar

    2007-01-01

    Using data sets from both Sweden and Finland, which have been linked at the individual level, we analyse whether Finnish immigrants who lived in Sweden in 1990 were employed, non-employed, return-migrated, or dead by 2001. The aim is to see how they interrelate with socio-demographic characteristics, and to compare Finnish-speaking and…

  19. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C.

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  20. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  1. The Decline in Maternal Mortality in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy. PMID:15284032

  2. Landscape Epidemiology of Tularemia Outbreaks in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kerstin; Bäck, Erik; Eliasson, Henrik; Berglund, Lennart; Granberg, Malin; Karlsson, Linda; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Summer outbreaks of tularemia that occurred from 1995 through 2005 in 2 locations in Sweden affected 441 persons. We performed an epidemiologic investigation of these outbreaks using a novel strategy, involving high-resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis isolates obtained from 136 patients (using 18 genetic markers developed from 6 F. tularensis genome sequences) and interviews with the patients. Strong spatial associations were found between F. tularensis subpopulations and the places of disease transmission; infection by some subpopulations occurred within areas as small as 2 km2, indicating unidentified environmental point sources of tularemia. In both locations, disease clusters were associated with recreational areas beside water, and genetic subpopulations were present throughout the tularemia season and persisted over years. High-resolution genotyping in combination with patients’ statements about geographic places of disease transmission provided valuable indications of likely sources of infection and the causal genotypes during these tularemia outbreaks. PMID:19961673

  3. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  4. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operatormore » and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.« less

  5. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  6. The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Widgren, Katarina; Giesecke, Johan; Lindquist, Lars; Tegnell, Anders

    2016-11-10

    Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking. We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system's website. From each data source, records regarding chickenpox were identified and extracted, either using relevant diagnosis codes (ICD-10) or key words. A descriptive analysis with regards to number of cases and incidence, severity, and seasonality, was carried out covering the time period 2007 to 2013. There were on average 333 patients hospitalised annually due to chickenpox, yielding a hospitalisation rate of 3.56/100,000 person-years. We found a slight male predominance in hospitalised cases. The highest hospitalisation rate was seen in 1 year-olds, whereas the peak in primary care consultations was in 2 year-olds. Nearly a quarter of children had parents who reported absence from work to care for them when sick with chickenpox. The average yearly death rate from chickenpox was 0.034/100,000 person-years. The duration of hospital stay increased with age. The seasonality in number of searches on the health care website corresponded well with hospitalisations and primary care consultations with peaks in spring. This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox vaccination in Sweden.

  7. Psychological distress among Kurdish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Taloyan, Marina; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan; Koctürk, Tahire O; Johansson, Leena Maria

    2008-03-01

    To analyse whether there is an association between sex and poor self-reported health (SRH) and psychological distress in Kurdish immigrants. This cross-sectional study is based on a sample consisting of immigrants, aged 27- 60 years, with self-reported Kurdish ethnicity (n=111, men; n=86, women) in Sweden originating from Iran and Turkey. It is based on data collected in 1996 from the first Swedish National Survey on the living conditions of immigrant groups conducted by Statistics Sweden. The prevalences of reporting poor health, sleeping difficulties, general fatigue and anxiety were estimated by sex. The association between sex and SRH and psychological distress was analysed by an unconditional logistic regression model estimating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. The final model was adjusted for age, marital status, education, housing and employment. Immigrant-specific migration-related variables were used to explore possible reasons for the sex differences. Kurdish men and women had a high prevalence of poor SRH and psychological distress. Age-adjusted odds ratios for anxiety were higher in Kurdish women. Sex differences in anxiety remained even when marital status, education, housing and employment were taken into account. Kurdish men and women report a high prevalence of poor SRH and indicators of psychological distress. Women had a higher risk for anxiety than men. Negative experiences of pre-migration as well as post-migration experiences, such as economic difficulties, preoccupation with the political situation in the home country, perceived discrimination, and feelings of poor control over one's life, were associated with the outcomes.

  8. Mercury in fur of Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Southern Sweden and Comparison to Ecotoxicological Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Åkerblom, Staffan; de Jong, Johnny

    2017-11-01

    To characterise mercury (Hg) exposure in Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii, Kuhl 1817) in southern Sweden, 17 specimens were captured in 2013 and back fur samples were taken for analysis to determine Hg concentrations. The fur Hg levels determined [1.15 ± 0.27 (mean ± standard deviation, n = 17) µg Hg g -1 fresh weight (fw)] represent a baseline for comparison in future assessments of Hg exposure in bat populations in northern Europe. Mercury concentrations were close to those reported in fur from other bat species, but were lower than proposed toxicological thresholds in bats (> 30 µg Hg g -1  fw) and mice (5 µg Hg g -1  fw). This is the first study to examine Hg exposure in bats in Scandinavia.

  9. Northern forests, Chapter 7

    Treesearch

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  10. Sweden: Educational and Employment Opportunities for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western European Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Youth unemployment in Sweden and its repercussions on upper secondary education are analyzed. To allow theoretical education in the upper secondary school to be available to everyone is to educate for unemployment and ignore the problems. (RM)

  11. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas

    2003-03-20

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  12. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies. PMID:23996012

  13. Exploring occupational balance in adults in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between occupational balance (measured by the occupational balance questionnaire [OBQ]) and self-rated health and life satisfaction. A secondary aim was to explore differences in occupational balance among adults in Sweden. The 153 participants (63% women), recruited using convenience sampling, answered a questionnaire comprising demographic questions, the OBQ, one item about self-rated health, and one about life satisfaction. The OBQ was analysed for correlation with subjective health and life satisfaction. The OBQ and its individual items were also analysed for correlations with age and for differences between men and women and participants living with children younger than 18 years versus not. The OBQ was significantly positively correlated to self-rated health and life satisfaction, supporting the relationship between occupational balance and health. No significant correlation between age and the total OBQ was identified but some differences in occupational balance, related to whether the participant was living with or without children at home, were revealed. The results should be interpreted with caution due to the nature of the sample and data but they can serve as a point of departure for further studies and hypotheses regarding occupational balance in different populations.

  14. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  15. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  16. Volcanic ash and daily mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic volcano eruption of May 2011.

    PubMed

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-12-10

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24-31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study effects

  17. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities and body mass index in Västerbotten County, Sweden: a longitudinal study of life course influences over two decades.

    PubMed

    Padyab, Mojgan; Norberg, Margareta

    2014-05-07

    Life course socioeconomic inequalities in heart disease, stroke and all-cause mortality are well studied in Sweden. However, few studies have sought to explain the mechanism for such associations mainly due to lack of longitudinal data with multiple measures of socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course. Given the population health concern about how socioeconomic inequality is related to poorer health, we aim to tackle obesity as one of the prime suspects that could explain the association between SES inequality and cardiovascular disease and consequently premature death. The aim of this study is to test which life course model best describes the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity among 60 year old inhabitants of Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. A birth cohort consisting of 3340 individuals born between 1930 and 1932 was studied. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 60 and information on socioeconomic status at three stages of life (ages 40, 50, and 60 years) was collected. Independent samples t-test was used to compare BMI between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and one-way ANOVA was used to compare BMI among eight SES trajectories. We applied a structured modeling approach to examine three different hypothesized life course SES models (accumulation, critical period, and social mobility) in relation to BMI. We found sex differences in the way that late adulthood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with BMI among inhabitants of Northern Sweden. Our study suggests that social adversity in all stages of late adulthood is a particularly important indicator for addressing the social gradients in BMI among women in Northern Sweden and that unhealthy behaviors in terms of smoking and physical inactivity are insufficient to explain the relationships between social and lifestyle inequalities and BMI. In order for local authorities to develop informed preventive efforts, we suggest further research to identify modifiable risk

  19. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  20. Smoking, healthcare cost, and loss of productivity in Sweden 2001.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Kristian; Lindgren, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Objectives were (a) to estimate healthcare cost and productivity losses due to smoking in Sweden 2001 and (b) to compare the results with studies for Sweden 1980, Canada 1991, Germany 1996, and the USA 1998. Published estimates on relative risks and Swedish smoking patterns were used to calculate attributable risks for smokers and former smokers. These were applied to cost estimates for smoking-related diseases based on data from public Swedish registers. The estimated total cost for Sweden 2001 was US 804 million dollars; COPD and cancer of the lung accounted for 43%. Healthcare cost accounted for 26% of the total cost. The estimated costs per smoker were US 3,200 dollars in the USA 1998; 1,600 in Canada 1991; 1,100 in Germany 1996; 600 in Sweden 2001; and 300 in Sweden 1980 (all in 2001 US dollar prices). To reduce the prevalence of smoking is an issue worthwhile pursuing in its own right. In order to reduce the cost of smoking, however, policy-makers should also explore and influence the factors that determine the cost per smoker. Sweden seems to have been more successful than comparable countries in pursuing both these objectives.

  1. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT < 60 min after emergency room arrival. Penetrating trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance programmes must be emphasized to ensure future competence and quality of trauma care at low trauma volume hospitals. PMID:25124882

  2. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    PubMed

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  4. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  5. What are northern hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The term "northern hardwoods" was used in the early 1900's to separate the hardwoods of the northern region from those growing in the South. With continued usage in the North the term now represents all dense hardwood species both in the Lake States and Northeast. Unfortunately, this has complicated describing and applying silvicultural practices for...

  6. The geomorphic impact of glaciers as indicated by tors in North Sweden (Aurivaara, 68° N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Marie-Françoise

    2004-02-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out on 15 tor-like features located on the Aurivaara plateau (North Sweden, 68° N) provide new insights in the greatly debated age of these landforms. Erratics and till trapped deep in the tor joints support a pre-Weichselian age for tor formation. Moreover, the occurrence of various weathering stages in allochtonous material, the joint width up to 1.5 m (requiring long-term weathering), and the frequent association of tors with pediment-like forms, suggest pre-Quaternary tor formation. The juxtaposition of fresh erratics and in situ old weathering features (mushroom rocks, concentrically weathered well-rounded corestones, and grus) indicates a predominantly cold-based regime for the Scandinavian ice sheet, with erratics carried by the overlying moving ice being repeatedly deposited on tor summits during deglaciation phases. The relationships between tors and ice action indicated for the Aurivaara plateau result in the proposal of a morphodynamical succession of five tor subtypes ranging from the preservation of well-rounded corestones still embedded in grus (suggesting negligible glacial erosion) to the almost complete removal of tor features by ice scouring. A comparison with tors in similar geological and topographical contexts from the unglaciated Dartmoor area allows a tentative evaluation of an average overall glacial erosion of 0-10 m on the northern Sweden plateaus, in sharp contrast with the 190 m overdeepening of the nearby Torneträsk basin. Thus, this case study of Swedish tors provides additional support to the recent interpretations of relict landscapes in previously glaciated areas and is in accordance with the classical «model» of glacial selective erosion established in the Nordic and Arctic mountains.

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Hyperhidrosis in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Boman, Jens; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating which can be primary or secondary. Data about the prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis are scarce for northern Europe. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis focusing on its primary form and describe the quality of life impairments for the affected individuals. Five thousand random individuals aged 18-60 years in Sweden were investigated. The individuals' addresses were obtained from Statens personadressregister, SPAR, which includes all persons who are registered as resident in Sweden. A validated questionnaire regarding hyperhidrosis including the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and 36-item Short Form (SF-36) health survey was sent to each individual. The participants were asked to return the coded questionnaire within 1 week. A total of 1,353 individuals (564 male, 747 female and 42 with unspecified gender) with a mean age of 43.1 ± 11.2 years responded. The prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis was 5.5%, and severe primary hyperhidrosis (HDSS 3-4 points) occurred in 1.4%. Secondary hyperhidrosis was observed in 14.8% of the participants. Our SF-36 results showed that secondary hyperhidrosis causes a significant (p < 0.001) impairment of both mental and physical abilities while primary hyperhidrosis impairs primarily the mental health (p < 0.001). Hyperhidrosis affects individuals in adolescence as a focal form while occurring as a generalised form with increasing age. Further, the prevalence of primary hyperhidrosis described in our study is comparable to other studies from the western hemisphere. While secondary, generalised hyperhidrosis impairs both physical and mental aspects of life, primary hyperhidrosis, with the exception of severe cases, mainly affects the mental health. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Public awareness of palliative care in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Westerlund, Caroline; Benkel, Inger; Fürst, Carl Johan; Molander, Ulla; Rasmussen, Birgit H.; Sauter, Sylvia; Lindqvist, Olav

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of palliative care (PC) in a general Swedish population. Design: We developed an e-survey based on a similar study conducted in Northern Ireland, consisting of 10 questions. Closed questions were primarily analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open questions were subject to inductive qualitative analysis. Subjects: The study utilized a population sample of 7684 persons aged 18–66, of which 2020 responded, stratified by gender, age and region. Results: Most participants reported ‘no’ (n = 827, 41%) or ‘some’ (n = 863, 43%) awareness of PC. Being female or older were associated with higher levels of awareness, as was a university-level education, working in a healthcare setting and having a friend or family member receiving PC. Most common sources of knowledge were the media, close friends and relatives receiving PC, as well as working in a healthcare setting. Aims of PC were most frequently identified as ‘care before death’, ‘pain relief’, ‘dignity’ and a ‘peaceful death’. The preferred place of care and death was one’s own home. The main barriers to raising awareness about PC were fear, shame and taboo, along with perceived lack of information and/or personal relevance. The term ‘palliative care’ was said to be unfamiliar by many. A number of strategies to enhance awareness and access to PC were suggested, largely reflecting the previously identified barriers. Conclusions: This survey found limited awareness of palliative care in an adult sample of the Swedish general public ≤ 66 years, and points to a more widespread disempowerment surrounding end-of-life issues. PMID:29301481

  9. Public awareness of palliative care in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Caroline; Tishelman, Carol; Benkel, Inger; Fürst, Carl Johan; Molander, Ulla; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Sauter, Sylvia; Lindqvist, Olav

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of palliative care (PC) in a general Swedish population. We developed an e-survey based on a similar study conducted in Northern Ireland, consisting of 10 questions. Closed questions were primarily analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open questions were subject to inductive qualitative analysis. The study utilized a population sample of 7684 persons aged 18-66, of which 2020 responded, stratified by gender, age and region. Most participants reported 'no' ( n = 827, 41%) or 'some' ( n = 863, 43%) awareness of PC. Being female or older were associated with higher levels of awareness, as was a university-level education, working in a healthcare setting and having a friend or family member receiving PC. Most common sources of knowledge were the media, close friends and relatives receiving PC, as well as working in a healthcare setting. Aims of PC were most frequently identified as 'care before death', 'pain relief', 'dignity' and a 'peaceful death'. The preferred place of care and death was one's own home. The main barriers to raising awareness about PC were fear, shame and taboo, along with perceived lack of information and/or personal relevance. The term 'palliative care' was said to be unfamiliar by many. A number of strategies to enhance awareness and access to PC were suggested, largely reflecting the previously identified barriers. This survey found limited awareness of palliative care in an adult sample of the Swedish general public ≤ 66 years, and points to a more widespread disempowerment surrounding end-of-life issues.

  10. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  11. The Physical and Psychological Environment of Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronvall, Karin

    1984-01-01

    This article describes aspects of the environment for children in Sweden and discusses some of the measures taken or planned for improvement. The significance of the residential environment is explored, and the nature of the child care system in a country where over 80 percent of women with small children work outside the home is described. Also…

  12. Local School Governance in Sweden: Boards, Parents, and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Mikael; Johansson, Olof; Nihlfors, Elisabet; Skott, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Sweden has recently seen three major political attempts to empower parents through national regulations--the transferal of authority from the state to district school boards, the heavy promotion of independent schools, and the introduction of local school boards at municipality schools. This article provides an overview of these developments by…

  13. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  14. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  15. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  16. At the Bridging Point: Tutoring Newly Arrived Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, tutoring in the mother tongue is a special support measure primarily intended for newly arrived students to facilitate their transition into the Swedish school system. Tutoring is premised on the collaboration between the class teacher, responsible for subject-related expertise, and the tutor, who contributes with knowledge of the…

  17. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  18. Patterns of Health Care and Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengstram, Anders

    The organization and functioning of Sweden's government controlled public health and health personnel educational systems are detailed in the report. The functions of the organizations involved in health care delivery are described. The delivery of health care is carried out at the county level. Regional hospitals provide more specialized…

  19. Day Care for Children in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leira, Arnlaug

    Based on information gathered in 1986, this report describes day care in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The focus of the report is on structural aspects of day care, including provision, management and finances, and questions concerning supply, demand, and distribution. Part I provides an introduction to the report and discusses the Scandinavian…

  20. Competency standards for newly graduated prosthetist/orthotists in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn; Ramstrand, Simon

    2018-05-01

    There are currently no national competency standards upon which to develop educational objectives for prosthetist/orthotists in Sweden. While standards have been developed in other countries, they cannot be applied without confirming their relevance in a Swedish context. To describe and obtain consensus on core competencies required for newly graduated prosthetist/orthotists in Sweden. Modified Delphi process. A modified Delphi technique was carried out. Focus groups were initially used to identify core competency domains. Two consecutive questionnaires, containing a list of potential competency items, were sent to a group of stakeholders with ties to the prosthetic and orthotic profession. Stakeholders were requested to rate their level of agreement with each competency item and provide written comments. Finally, two focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the draft competency standards. Forty-four competency items, listed under five key domains of practice, were identified as essential for newly graduated prosthetist/orthotists in Sweden. Many similarities exist in core competency descriptions for prosthetist/orthotists in Sweden when compared to other countries. Regional differences do however exist, and it is important to confirm the relevance of core competency items at a national level before they are applied. Clinical relevance Competency standards developed in this study can be used to guide development of learning objectives within an undergraduate prosthetic and orthotic program, provide a framework for workforce development, assist professional organizations in understanding the needs of their members, and prepare for international accreditation.

  1. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  2. Language Planning in Nepal, Taiwan and Sweden. Multilingual Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.

    This edited volume covers the language situation in Nepal, Taiwan, and Sweden, explaining the linguistic diversity, the place of minorities and their languages, the historical and political contexts, and the current language situation, including language-in-education planning, the role of the media, the role of religion, and the roles of…

  3. The Higher Education Profession in Sweden: Structure, Flexibility, and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jan-Erik; Stenlund, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The future of the academic profession in Sweden will depend on the public commitment to developing equality, job security, and flexibility in a traditionally stratified profession at a time of relative financial inflexibility. A number of directions are now possible, determined by the relationship formed between policy and economy. (MSE)

  4. Culture in the Swedish Preschool. Current Sweden No. 324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerud, Peter

    Serious discussion of the status of children's culture in Sweden began 15 to 20 years ago. Today, it is increasingly realized that children need and have a right to personal artistic experiences. A report presented in the spring of 1983 by the National Council for Cultural Affairs on interaction between preschools and local cultural life prompted…

  5. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  6. National-Scale Professional Development in Sweden: Theory, Policy, Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesen, J.; Helenius, O.; Johansson, B.

    2015-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016 all teachers of mathematics, in primary through to upper secondary and adult education, in Sweden are to be given the opportunity of receiving state-coordinated professional development (PD), generally involving around one meeting per week for a year. We examine the ways in which this programme and its content are research-based…

  7. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  8. Familial Mediterranean Fever -- an increasingly important childhood disease in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wekell, P; Friman, V; Balci-Peynircioglu, B; Yilmaz, E; Fasth, A; Berg, S

    2013-02-01

    To characterize Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in western Sweden, focusing on genotype, clinical picture, prevalence and age of onset as well as time to diagnosis. Patients with autoinflammatory diseases are continuously registered at the five main hospitals in Western Sweden. Case records of patients with FMF were analysed retrospectively. Population data on immigration was retrieved from Statistics Sweden. Until 2008, 37 patients with FMF were identified. The prevalence among inhabitants of Turkish, Lebanese, Syrian and Iranian origin was 173, 124, 86 and 17/100 000, respectively. Median age at first symptoms was 4 years (range 3 month-37 years) and at diagnosis 10 years (range 2-44 years). Median time from first symptoms to diagnosis was 4 years (range <1 year-34 years). Among 32 patients screened for twelve common mutations, 75% were homozygotes or compound heterozygotes, 16% were heterozygotes and in 9% no mutation was found. In our cohort the frequencies of symptoms were fever 100%, peritonitis 92%, pleuritis 22% and arthritis 11%. The majority of patients with FMF present during childhood. The prevalence among immigrants in western Sweden is in the same range as in their country of origin. Time to diagnosis needs to be shortened by means of increased awareness of the disease. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. The mites associated with Ips typographus in Sweden

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Hubertus H. Eidmann; Jan R. Regnander

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four species of mites were found associated with Ips typographus (Linnaeus) collected from pherommone traps in Sweden, bringing to 38 the total recorded for this scolytid. Because three of the species are parasites, it may be possible to use them in biological control of I. typographus. Couplets from an earlier key to these...

  10. Exploring Assistance in Sweden and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Dennis; Davey, Adam; Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Sundstrom, Gerdt; Berg, Stig; Smyer, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Few international comparisons of health services are performed using microlevel data. Using such data, this paper compares the need for and receipt of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) in comparable samples in the United States and Sweden, a country with a universal system of community-based services. Design and Methods:…

  11. Dental health status in two groups of refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Bornstein, R; Martinsson, T

    1988-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine dental health status in two separate groups of Chilean and Polish refugees in Sweden. In Scandinavia, Sweden has the largest number of immigrants--1 million out of a population of 8.3 million. Since 1975, most immigrants have been refugees and their families. During 1978-82 Sweden granted residency to 20,000 refugees, the two largest groups being Chileans and Poles. In 1981-83 a sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees in the county of Stockholm were selected for this study. The investigation consisted of a questionnaire followed by clinical examination, including roentgenograms. The average age was 34.0 years in the Chilean group and 34.8 years in the Polish group. The Chileans had been in Sweden for 17.3 months on an average and the Poles for 16.0 months. The Chileans had an average of 10.0 carious surfaces, D(s), and the Poles 11.3. Gingivitis was recorded in 87% of the total number of sites examined in the Chilean group. The corresponding figure in the Polish group was 79%. Of the Chileans 36.5% and of the Poles 32.5% had periodontal pockets measuring more than 5 mm. The results indicate that, when compared with Swedish individuals of a corresponding age, the refugee groups have a high prevalence of caries and periodontal disease.

  12. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  13. Constructing Learning Spaces? Videoconferencing at Local Learning Centres in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logdlund, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    This article explores videoconferencing in the context of local learning centres in Sweden. The practice is described as a "learning space" in which adult learners construct socio-spatial relations. The study goes beyond a sociological apprehension of actors and opposes the idea of the material as neutral, passive and conformed by…

  14. Johanna and Tommy: Two Preschoolers in Sweden with Brittle Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millde, Kristina; Brodin, Jane

    Information is presented for caregivers of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and their families. Approximately five children with brittle bones are born in Sweden annually. Two main types of brittle bone disease have been identified: congenita and tarda. Typical symptoms include numerous and unexpected fractures, bluish…

  15. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  16. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  17. Between Empowerment and Powerlessness: Separated Minors in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Kristina; Fioretos, Ingrid; Norstrom, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration experiences of thirteen separated minors who arrived in Sweden between 1943 and 2008. Using the framework of "dislocation" and the "liberated self," this chapter shows that the experiences of separated minors are shaped in the intersection between contexts and conditions of transnational…

  18. 76 FR 29194 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and Sweden would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... orders on purified CMC from Mexico and Sweden would be likely to lead to the continuation or recurrence... purified CMC from Mexico and Sweden would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  19. Training of Older Workers in Sweden. Training Discussion Paper No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglind, Hans

    About 28 percent of the population of Sweden is aged 55 or over. This figure will grow to about 37 percent in the year 2025. Sweden leads the industrialized countries in terms of employment of older workers, with about 65 percent of persons aged 55-64 employed. This is a result of the current general high employment rate in Sweden; however, older…

  20. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the...

  1. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the...

  2. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the...

  3. Oral health in groups of refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years the impact of ever-increasing numbers of refugees on the resources of the host countries has become a global concern. Health personnel face unanticipated demands complicated by different cultural, ethnic and religious factors and an unfamiliar disease panorama. Sweden today has around 1 million immigrants, 15% of the population. The aim of this thesis was to describe oral status with respect to caries and periodontal conditions, to analyse the need for dental treatment, to evaluate the effect of a preventive dental health programme, to study attitudes and knowledge of preventive dentistry and to describe and analyse utilization of dental services by different groups of adult refugees in Sweden. Three different methods were used: a descriptive clinical survey of a random sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees, an experimental survey of a random sample of 159 Chilean refugees and a register survey, using national health statistics, consisting of a random sample of 2,489 refugees arriving in Sweden 1975-1985. The Chilean and Polish refugees had markedly poorer oral status than corresponding Swedish population groups. No association could be found between oral health or estimated treatment need and the length of time in Sweden. The simplified preventive program in the form of group discussion had a lasting effect on improved periodontal conditions and also improved knowledge of dental health care in the group of Chilean refugees. The register survey showed a generally low utilization of dental services but a high dental consumption among adult refugees in Sweden. The total treatment time for a course of treatment showed no marked decrease with subsequent courses of treatment. Immigration may have a profound effect on oral health care needs in a given population by introducing undetermined accumulated needs for oral care, and by stimulating changes in attitudes to and preferences in oral health and care.

  4. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the diurnal precipitation cycle over Sweden and the linkage to large-scale circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, A.; Jeong, J.-H.; Chen, D.

    2009-04-01

    Sweden. This might be due to a steeply decreasing energy input from the solar insolation in the northern parts causing less convection activity but still enough insolation to cause an afternoon peak in southern Sweden. In both seasons, spring and autumn, north of 60 degrees the pattern is mixed showing early-morning, morning and afternoon peaks. The winter pattern is characterized by afternoon peaks along the eastcoast and central South Sweden and morning peaks over the most of the other parts of the country. However, the amplitude of the diurnal cycle is much weaker compared to that in summer or autumn. In order to examine the large scale circulation which might modulate the diurnal cycle, the Lamb weather types are computed based on sea level pressure fields from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 2 dataset with daily and 6-hourly resolution, respectively. The Lamb types based on 6-hourly SLP underline the high temporal variability of atmospheric conditions over the research area. Throughout all seasons, on about 45% of the days two or more circulation classes are different. In 6.3% (JJA) to 8.4% (DJF) of the days can observe 4 different Lamb classes. Using Lamb types with 6-hourly resolution leads to a somewhat finer classification. On average, for about one third of the days with precipitation the daily Lamb type and the appropriate 6-hourly one are different. The most frequent large-scale circulation classes coupled to precipitation events are of cyclonic or directional type. The atmospheric circulation patterns do not follow a diurnal cycle, whereas the local observed precipitation does. Knowledge about the timing of the rainfall is important in order to assign the right underlying circulation patterns to precipitation events.

  5. Climate warming and land-use changes drive broad-scale floristic changes in Southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Torbjörn; Herbertsson, Lina; Olsson, Pål Axel; Fröberg, Lars; Olsson, Kjell-Arne; Svensson, Åke; Olsson, Ola

    2018-06-01

    Land-use changes, pollution and climate warming during the 20th century have caused changes in biodiversity across the world. However, in many cases, the environmental drivers are poorly understood. To identify and rank the drivers currently causing broad-scale floristic changes in N Europe, we analysed data from two vascular plant surveys of 200 randomly selected 2.5 × 2.5 km grid-squares in Scania, southernmost Sweden, conducted 1989-2006 and 2008-2015, respectively, and related the change in frequency (performance) of the species to a wide range of species-specific plant traits. We chose traits representing all plausible drivers of recent floristic changes: climatic change (northern distribution limit, flowering time), land-use change (light requirement, response to grazing/mowing, response to soil disturbance), drainage (water requirement), acidification (pH optimum), nitrogen deposition and eutrophication (N requirement, N fixation ability, carnivory, parasitism, mycorrhizal associations), pollinator decline (mode of reproduction) and changes in CO 2 levels (photosynthetic pathway). Our results suggest that climate warming and changes in land-use were the main drivers of changes in the flora during the last decades. Climate warming appeared as the most influential driver, with northern distribution limit explaining 30%-60% of the variance in the GLMM models. However, the relative importance of the drivers differed among habitat types, with grassland species being affected the most by cessation of grazing/mowing and species of ruderal habitats by on-going concentration of both agriculture and human population to the most productive soils. For wetland species, only pH optimum was significantly related to species performance, possibly an effect of the increasing humification of acidic water bodies. An observed relative decline of mycorrhizal species may possibly be explained by decreasing nitrogen deposition resulting in less competition for phosphorus. We

  6. Late-Holocene Climate Change and Human Impact; Palaeoecological Evidence From Peat Deposits in Sweden and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, M.; van Geel, B.

    2006-12-01

    With the aim of investigating the effects of climate change and human impact on vegetation and carbon accumulation, we took peat cores of ca. 1 meter depth from four raised bogs situated on a North-South transect, at intervals of c. 500 km, Umeå in Sweden to Angermünde in northern Germany. A number of analyses were conducted (plant macrofossils, pollen/non-pollen microfossils, colorimetric humification, carbon/nitrogen ratios, bulk densities, loss on ignition), and 14C wiggle-match dating was applied to obtain a fine-resolution chronology. The cores from the northern and southern site encompass ca. 1000 years of vegetation history, showing evidence for the end of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the twentieth century warming. The middle Swedish and German sites are high resolution records of the last 400 years. The end of the MWP and the cooling at the start of the LIA are reflected by a decline in thermophilous tree species. Changes in the macrofossil composition may also represent changes in climate. Shifts in Sphagnum composition, the dominant peat former, reflect changes in precipitation. Evidence for wet conditions and increased carbon accumulation is found during the Little Ice Age. Human activities affected the peat bog and the surrounding vegetation. Sweden suffered many wars during the 16^{th} and 17^{th} century, which caused a decline in population density. Diseases such as the plague and famines caused by crop failures fastened the population decrease. As a consequence, agricultural land was abandoned, resulting in reforestation by Betula. Later, in the modern part of the records, land-use change and planting of trees comprised the major regional vegetation changes. In the southern site, human activities (drainage to facilitate peat cutting) affected the raised bog itself. A part of the peat archive was lost owing to secondary decomposition which resulted in very low carbon accumulation.

  7. Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  8. Veganism as status passage: the process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel L; Rönnlund, Ulla; Johansson, Gunnar; Dahlgren, Lars

    2003-08-01

    In a town in northern Sweden, 3.3% of the 15-year-old adolescents were vegans in 1996. This study describes the process of becoming a vegan among adolescents and interprets the informants' descriptions by constructing categories, which later on were related to relevant theories. Group interviews were conducted with three vegans and in-depth interviews were performed with three other vegan adolescents. The methodology was grounded theory and the adolescents' perceptions were analyzed in the framework of symbolic interactionism. Three types of vegans were identified: the Conformed Vegan, the Organized Vegan, and the Individualistic Vegan. The decision to become a vegan was reported to be influenced by perceived internal reasons such as ethics, health, distaste for meat, and preference for vegetarian food. In addition, friends, family, school, media, and music influenced the decision to become a vegan. The perceived consequences of becoming a vegan were positive as well as negative and differed between the three types of vegans. Veganism as a new type of status passage with specific characteristics was illustrated. No modifications or new properties were discovered that add to the theory of status passage which indicates that the general model is applicable also in a vegan context.

  9. Reception and dissemination of American amateur telescope making in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnfelt, Johan

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the appropriation of the American Amateur Telescope Making (ATM) movement in Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s. A key player was the Swedish Astronomical Society, which in 1943, and inspired by the American example, launched a campaign to raise interest in ATM and disseminate the necessary knowledge amongst potential amateur astronomers. The campaign was successful and in just a few years it quadrupled the number of amateurs with access to telescopes. Swedish amateurs kept on building telescopes through the 1950s, but the activities then stalled with the introduction of cheap mass-market telescopes. The appropriation of ATM in Sweden is an important example of how technical innovations have shaped the course of amateur astronomy.

  10. Defence Transformation with Frictions - The Case of Sweden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    RTO-MP-SAS-081 4 - 3 Sweden had during the Cold War competence to develop and produce systems as e.g.: • AA artillery and missiles • Anti- armour ...systems • Howitzers • Armoured vehicles • Surface vessels • Submarines • Minesweepers • Mines • Costal artillery • Aircraft • Air-to-surface...with anti- armour e.g.) and an institute for electronics (radar mainly). A department for studies and planning was decided in 1958. In 2001 the National

  11. Sweden After the Cold War: Implications for US Regional Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    transient threats to common interests rather than formal alliance structures." [Ref. 3:p. 9] Such was the case in the recent Gulf War. But as Colonel...European Union, Sweden will participate fully in the common security and foreign policy which was laid down in the Maastricht Treaty... A "policy of...34defense policy": The EC is developing in the direction for a European Union, with a common security and foreign policy, and possibly a common

  12. Female labour force participation, fertility and public policy in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, M; Stafford, F P

    1992-01-01

    2nd only to Ireland in total fertility, Sweden has the highest total fertility (TFR) and female labor force participation rates (FLFPR) among European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 1988 TFR and FLFPR were 1.96 and 80.1%, respectively. This paper considers the role of public policy in creating this unique trend, with particular focus on family leave policy. In 1974, Sweden became the 1st country to allow leave to both parents following childbirth. By 1990, leave duration had grown from an initial 6-month period to 15 months. In addition, subsidized day care, flexible working hours, and economic support to families with children is provided in the context of a family-supportive tax structure. While generous, benefits are related to work and income history. Labor income is replaced at 90% of gross earnings, while the unemployed receive only minimal taxable flat payments. Benefits overall are paid from general taxes. Given that benefits reflect job history and income, and income level tends to rise fastest in the initial stages of employment, women in Sweden postpone childbirth in order to realize wage increases and greater job standing over the short- to medium-terms. In sum, Sweden's policies stimulate both fertility and women's paid work by reducing the costs of having children while requiring parents to be employed to receive full benefits. This paper further reviews the development of parental leave and related policies and compares Swedish fertility, female labor force participation, and parental leave benefits to those of countries in the European Community.

  13. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norin, Lars; Devasthale, Abhay; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-09-01

    For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  14. Time and Frequency Activities at SP in Sweden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    in Sweden and is traceable to UTC via BIPM and time transfer using the GPS and TWSTFT techniques. This paper describes the generation and...is interfaced using IP networking. Long-haul measurement time transfer instrumentation at SP consists of: • a TimeTech Satre TWSTFT ground...time transfer equipment. The clock room contains also sensible measurement equipment such as a femtosecond phase comparator, the TWSTFT modem, the

  15. The impact of health economic evaluations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Historical view and future demand for knee arthroplasty in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rolfson, Ola; W-Dahl, Annette; Garellick, Göran; Sundberg, Martin; Kärrholm, Johan; Robertsson, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The incidence of knee osteoarthritis will most likely increase. We analyzed historical trends in the incidence of knee arthroplasty in Sweden between 1975 and 2013, in order to be able to provide projections of future demand. Patients and methods We obtained information on all knee arthroplasties in Sweden in the period 1975–2013 from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register, and used public domain data from Statistics Sweden on the evolution of and forecasts for the Swedish population. We forecast the incidence, presuming the existence of a maximum incidence. Results We found that the incidence of knee arthroplasty will continue to increase until a projected upper incidence level of about 469 total knee replacements per 105 Swedish residents aged 40 years and older is reached around the year 2130. In 2020, the estimated incidence of total knee arthroplasties per 105 Swedish residents aged 40 years and older will be 334 (95% prediction interval (PI): 281–374) and in 2030 it will be 382 (PI: 308–441). Using officially forecast population growth data, around 17,500 operations would be expected to be performed in 2020 and around 21,700 would be expected to be performed in 2030. Interpretation Today’s levels of knee arthroplasty are well below the expected maximum incidence, and we expect a continued annual increase in the total number of knee arthroplasties performed. PMID:25806653

  17. The postglacial recolonization of Northern Europe by Rana arvalis as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Knopp, T; Merilä, J

    2009-02-01

    The postglacial history of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) in Northern Europe was investigated with the aid of eight variable microsatellite loci and a 661 bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A division between eastern and western mitochondrial lineages was discovered, supporting two recolonization routes to Fennoscandia since the last glacial maximum. This result was corroborated by the microsatellite data, which revealed a contact zone between the two lineages in Northern Sweden. These findings add to the increasing evidence that an intraspecific genetic biodiversity founded on the existence of eastern and western clades is a common element in Fennoscandian fauna and flora.

  18. Cohort Profile: the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden and Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0.

    PubMed

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Wigertz, Annette; Sandin, Fredrik; Garmo, Hans; Hellström, Karin; Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders; Lambe, Mats; Adolfsson, Jan; Varenhorst, Eberhard; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Stattin, Pär

    2013-08-01

    In 1987, the first Regional Prostate Cancer Register was set up in the South-East health-care region of Sweden. Other health-care regions joined and since 1998 virtually all prostate cancer (PCa) cases are registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden to provide data for quality assurance, bench marking and clinical research. NPCR includes data on tumour stage, Gleason score, serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and primary treatment. In 2008, the NPCR was linked to a number of other population-based registers by use of the personal identity number. This database named Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) has now been extended with more cases, longer follow-up and a selection of two control series of men free of PCa at the time of sampling, as well as information on brothers of men diagnosed with PCa, resulting in PCBaSe 2.0. This extension allows for studies with case-control, cohort or longitudinal case-only design on aetiological factors, pharmaceutical prescriptions and assessment of long-term outcomes. The NPCR covers >96% of all incident PCa cases registered by the Swedish Cancer Register, which has an underreporting of <3.7%. The NPCR is used to assess trends in incidence, treatment and outcome of men with PCa. Since the national registers linked to PCBaSe are complete, studies from PCBaSe 2.0 are truly population based.

  19. Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)

    Treesearch

    John R. Squires; Richard T. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (hereafter referred to as Goshawk) is a large forest raptor, occupying boreal and temperate forests throughout the Holarctic. In North America, it breeds from Alaska to Newfoundland and south (Fig. 1). This partial migrant winters throughout its breeding range including occasionally the Great Plains and southeastern states; some...

  20. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  1. Housing tenure and early retirement for health reasons in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Terry; Fransson, Urban

    2006-01-01

    To assess the association between housing tenure and early retirement for health reasons in Sweden with a view to psychosocial vs. material values of home ownership. The data come from linked registers that cover all people resident in Sweden during 1990-2000. The study population consists of 449,233 people aged 40-63 years in 1997. Of these, 19,350 retired early for health reasons in 1998-99. The remaining 429,883 continued their employment without extended sick leave or income decline. None moved during 1990-2000. We calculated the odds of early retirement for four forms of juridical relationship to one's housing (private owner; part owner in a cooperative; private rental; rental from a public housing company), for men and women separately, controlling for age, education, employment income, household disposable income, region, foreign birth, and housing type. Men in cooperative ownership had lower odds of early retirement than those in the three other tenure forms, for which the odds were similar. Among women, public and private renters had similar odds of early retirement, which were higher than those of women in private or cooperative ownership. For both genders, inclusion of housing type in the model after housing tenure explained little additional variance. The odds of early retirement for health reasons varied across different housing tenure forms in Sweden in 1998-99. The pattern of associations differed as a function of gender. Home ownership appears to involve health resources independent of basic socio-physical factors captured with differences in housing type.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis in Sweden: organisation and current issues.

    PubMed

    Bui, T H; Kristoffersson, U

    1997-01-01

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis was introduced in Sweden in the early 1970s and is an integral part of the public health care system. Funding is provided by taxation; the patient only pays a consultation fee. Genetic analyses on a broad range of cytogenetic and molecular disorders are performed at the 6 university-affiliated hospitals and in 1 county hospital. About 6% of all newborns have been cytogenetically screened during pregnancy, and about 90% of the analyses are performed after amniocentesis. The main indication is chromosome analysis because of advanced maternal age.

  3. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  4. Uranium in the Upper Cambrian black shale of Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1955-01-01

    The Peltura zone of the Upper Cambrian black shales of Sweden contains about 0.02 percent uranium. Maximum amounts are present in rocks deposited in an embayment in the sea and in rocks in or closely adjacent to that part of the vertical sequence that contains maximum amounts of distillable oil, total organic matter, pyrite, and a black highly uraniferous kerogen called "kolm". Available data suggest that the precipitation of uranium is favored by a low redox potential and that the uranium in the shale matrix may be in fine-grained kolm.

  5. High pressure synthesis of diamond in Sweden in 1953

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, Erik G.

    1994-07-01

    In February 1953, forty years ago, the first synthetic diamonds were made in Sweden. This was then the culmination of more than ten years' work. In 1942, ASEA started with experiments of converting graphite into diamonds under high pressures and high temperatures. The difficulties were bigger than anyone could have imagined and grew in course of time. The author describes the equipment used and the experiments which resulted in the first diamonds, and also the development up to the commercial production ten years later.

  6. Collecting standards: teaching botanical skills in Sweden, 1850-1950.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    Standards of botanical practice in Sweden between 1850 and 1950 were set, not only in schools and universities, but also in naturalist societies and botanical exchange clubs, and were articulated in handbooks and manuals produced for schoolboys. These standards were maintained among volunteer naturalists in the environmental movement in the 1970s, long after the decline and disappearance of collecting from the curriculum. School science provides a link between the laboratory, the classroom, and the norms and practices of everyday life: between the various insides" and "outsides" of educational and research settings.

  7. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services.

  9. Economic Effects of Introducing Alternative Salmonella Control Strategies in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ −5 to −105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035–57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5–55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3–49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4–8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4–7 million. PMID:24831797

  10. Science in Transit: Enlightenment Research Policy and Astronomy in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmalm, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Swedish participation in the international efforts to measure the transits of Venus in the 1760s was impressive considering the size and the relative youth of the mathematical and astronomical community in the country. In this paper it is argued that the relative success of the Swedish contribution may be seen as the result of an early-modern form of research policy. This policy was promoted by the progressive so-called Hat Party that came into power in the late 1730s, an event that coincided with the creation of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, soon to emerge as an organizational hub of astronomical research in Sweden and to some extent also on the European level. The close connection between the scientific and political elites in Enlightenment Sweden made possible the creation and international integration of a Swedish research community, not least in astronomy under the leadership of the Academy's perpetual secretary and astronomer Pehr Wargentin. The fact that these elites shared a common fate is also illustrated by their simultaneous decline from around 1770.

  11. [Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden].

    PubMed

    Dezileaux, Barbara; Martinez, Florie

    2016-06-01

    Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Project compares quantitatively outpatient drug prescriptions in France, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained from national databases; the unit of measurement was defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants. The five most prescribed drug classes were compared in each country in 2009, then benzodiazepines and antibiotics from 2006 to 2012. A literature review was focused on the context of prescriptions for each country. In 2009, the five most prescribed drug classes in the four countries represented seven classes in total. France was not the biggest prescriber of drugs, but from 2006 to 2012 benzodiazepines and antibiotics were prescribed much more in France than in the other countries. The evolution of prescriptions was different for each country, and very stable in France. In 2009, France was not the biggest drugs consumer of all classes, but was characterized by high prescriptions in some classes. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of hypothermia in a prehospital setting, southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kornfält, Jonas; Johansson, Anders

    2010-04-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia mainly affects victims of outdoor accidents. However, hypothermia can also occur in non-traumatized indoor patients. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of hypothermia obtained at the scene of the rescue in patients classified as priority 1 cases during two three-month periods in southern Sweden. This prospective, clinical cohort study was performed in a prehospital setting, southern Sweden. Ninety-four patients were included during two three-month periods. According to where the patients were found they were split into two groups, outdoor or indoor and then separated into three categories; general medicine-, trauma- and intoxicated patients. The environment temperature was measured on arrival according to the location where the rescue occurred and core temperatures (tympanic membrane) of patients were measured in connection with the monitoring in the ambulance before departure and at the time of arrival to the emergency room at the hospital. This study demonstrated that the only group that shows body core temperature below 36 degrees C, was the outdoor intoxication-group during the winter-period (35.7+/-1.3 degrees C). We conclude that intoxicated patients are at higher risk for hypothermia than minor trauma patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of life among Turkish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Nuran; Thorburn, Daniel; Demirhan, Haydar; Bilgel, Nazan

    2007-10-01

    To assess quality of life among Turkish immigrants in Sweden by using the WHOQOL-100 scale and to evaluate the domains' contribution to explain the variance in the quality of life of the immigrants. Our hypothesis was QOL among Turkish immigrants in Sweden are better than Turkish people who are living in their home country. This study was performed in the districts of Stockholm where Turkish immigrants have mostly settled. With the help and guidance of the Turkish Association, a sample of 520 participants was selected. We collected the demographic data by printed questionnaires, and to measure the quality of life, we used the WHOQOL-100 scale Turkish version. For analysis, we used the SPSS V.13.0 and R package programs, variance analyses, and Bayesian regression. The quality of life among the sample of Turkish immigrants was found to be moderate, but higher than the sample of the Turkish population. The quality of life of male immigrants was found to be higher than for females. Swedish-born Turks had better quality of life perceptions. Turkish immigrants' quality of life perceptions were better than those of the Turkish sample. The best scores were received from the third generation. The first generation and female immigrants need attention in order to receive higher quality of life perceptions.

  14. Grand Advantage: Family Wealth and Grandchildren's Educational Achievement in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hällsten, Martin; Pfeffer, Fabian T

    2017-04-01

    We study the role of family wealth for children's educational achievement using novel and unique Swedish register data. In particular, we focus on the relationship between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's educational achievement. Doing so allows us to reliably establish the independent role of wealth in contributing to long-term inequalities in opportunity. We use regression models with rich controls to account for observed socioeconomic characteristics of families, cousin fixed effects to net out potentially unobserved grandparental effects, and marginal structural models to account for endogenous selection. We find substantial associations between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's grade point averages (GPA) in the 9th grade that are only partly mediated by the socioeconomic characteristics and wealth of parents. Our findings indicate that family wealth inequality - even in a comparatively egalitarian context like Sweden - has profound consequences for the distribution of opportunity across multiple generations. We posit that our estimates of the long-term consequences of wealth inequality may be conservative for nations other than Sweden, like the United States, where family wealth - in addition to its insurance and normative functions - allows the direct purchase of educational quality and access.

  15. Recurrent acute mastoiditis - a retrospective national study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Groth, Anita; Enoksson, Frida; Stalfors, Joacim; Stenfeldt, Karin; Hultcrantz, Malou; Hermansson, Ann

    2012-12-01

    Recurrences were seen in 5% of all patients with acute mastoiditis (AM). Mastoidectomy had been performed in the majority of the patients with recurrences at their first episode of AM. Compared with the group with a single episode of AM, the recurrent group exhibited more subperiosteal and ear canal abscesses, although they were not more severely ill. It appears from this study that previous mastoidectomy itself could predispose patients to recurrent AM (rAM), perhaps due to easier access to the mastoid cavity and/or due to a reduction in mucosal lining. To retrospectively study the incidence and characteristics of rAM in Sweden. Data from patients with rAM were reviewed and compared with data from patients with a single episode of AM during 1993-2007 in 33 ear, nose and throat departments in Sweden. Of 798 cases fulfilling the criteria for AM, 36 patients (5%) had experienced one or more recurrences, of which 4 patients (11%) had concurrent cholesteatoma. More than 50% of the patients had their first episode of AM before the age of 2 years. There was a highly significant difference between the two groups concerning the frequency of mastoidectomies and subperiosteal/retroauricular abscesses. However, other clinical characteristics, including severe complications, did not differ significantly. The majority of recurrences were treated conservatively with myringotomy and intravenous antibiotics, and also with aspiration/incision if a subperiosteal/retroauricular abscess was present.

  16. Electronically transmitted prescriptions not picked up at pharmacies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ax, Fredrik; Ekedahl, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Electronically transmitted prescriptions (ETPs) became common after 1995 in Sweden; however, it is accompanied by a substantial increase in the number of prescriptions not picked up at pharmacies. To investigate the "no pick-up" rates of ETPs at pharmacies across type of drug and patient age and gender and the reasons patients' report for no pick-up. A cross-sectional study examining no pick-up of ETPs transmitted during 3 months in 2002, and a mail survey of patients to determine the reasons for failure to pick-up in the county of Sörmland, Sweden, with a population of 261,000, and 21 pharmacies. Chi-square tests were used for calculations of frequency differences among groups. The overall no pick-up rate of ETPs was 2.5%; men had consistently higher rates than women. The highest rates were seen for adolescents and young adults. Rates were higher than average for antibiotics. About 60% of the answers indicated that prescriptions not picked up were duplicate prescriptions or not needed. "Unintentional nonadherence" was reported by one-fifth of patients. No pick-up rate in general was low (2.5%), but there were differences across patient age and gender, the rates being higher among adolescents and young adults. Duplicate prescriptions may explain a significant share of the abandoned prescriptions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Misclassified maternal deaths among East African immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elebro, Karin; Rööst, Mattias; Moussa, Kontie; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2007-11-01

    Western countries have reported an increased risk of maternal mortality among African immigrants. This study aimed to identify cases of maternal mortality among immigrants from the Horn of Africa living in Sweden using snowball sampling, and verify whether they had been classified as maternal deaths in the Cause of Death Registry. Three "locators" contacted immigrants from Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia to identify possible cases of maternal mortality. Suspected deaths were scrutinised through verbal autopsy and medical records. Confirmed instances, linked by country of birth, were compared with Registry statistics. We identified seven possible maternal deaths of which four were confirmed in medical records, yet only one case had been classified as such in the Cause of Death Registry. At least two cases, a significant number, seemed to be misclassified. The challenges of both cultural and medical competence for European midwives and obstetricians caring for non-European immigrant mothers should be given more attention, and the chain of information regarding maternal deaths should be strengthened. We propose a practice similar to the British confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. In Sweden, snowball sampling was valuable for contacting immigrant communities for research on maternal mortality; by strengthening statistical validity, it can contribute to better maternal health policy in a multi-ethnic society.

  18. The Narrative of Special Education in Sweden: History and Trends in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjörne, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Access to public education that provides equal opportunities for all is a democratic right for every person living in Sweden. In addition, every child should as far as possible be included in the mainstream school. An official story that is taken for granted in Sweden is that an extremely low proportion of children are in need of special support,…

  19. The Formation and Dissolution of Second Unions: Marriage and Cohabitation in Sweden and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Ann Klimas

    1987-01-01

    Using recent survey data from Sweden and Norway and life table techniques, examined rate at which women formed second unions and type of union they chose (marriage or cohabitation) as well as how this process has changed over time. The results showed that nonmarital cohabitation was preferred type of second union in both Sweden and Norway.…

  20. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  1. Blood Versus Land: The Comparative Foundations for Citizenship and Voting Rights in Germany and Sweden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    the political process. This thesis will examine how two major immigrant destination states within the European Union extend voting rights to...PAGES 77 14. SUBJECT TERMS Germany, Sweden, European Union , Voting rights, Franchise, Citizenship, Immigration, Immigrant, Migration, Nationalism 16...within the European Union extend voting rights to immigrants from outside the EU. These will be Germany and Sweden. The thesis concludes that the

  2. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  3. Bridging the Divide: Examining Professional Unity and the Extended Teacher Union Role in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Sweden has experienced increasing educational inequity levels within its highly decentralized school system. With a reduced capacity to bargain collectively, the two Swedish teacher trade unions, the Swedish Teachers' Union (Lärarförbundet) and the National Union of Teachers in Sweden (Lärarnas Riksförbund), have sought to extend their role in…

  4. Ageing and Learning Experiences: The Perspective of a Polish Senior Immigrant in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawinski, Malgorzata Malec

    2017-01-01

    The general aim of this paper is to present some insights into Polish senior immigrants in Sweden. In particular, it seeks to identify and illustrate the important contribution of previous generations of Polish senior immigrants in building on the diverse culture, traditions and values of the Polish community (Polonia) in Sweden. The paper…

  5. Wealth "Dynamics" in the 1980s and 1990s: Sweden and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevmarken, N. Anders; Lupton, Joseph P.; Stafford, Frank P.

    2003-01-01

    Given differences in public saving programs between Sweden and the United States, an examination of household private wealth accumulation in these two countries can be enlightening. In this paper we examine wealth inequality and mobility in Sweden and the United States over the past decade. We show that wealth inequality has been significantly…

  6. European Linguistic Diversity--For Whom? The Cases of Finland and Sweden. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainio, Jarmo

    Linguistic diversity in the Nordic countries has several dimensions. One main division is between what the majority group thinks it is about versus what the minority group thinks it is about. This paper examines the situation in Finland and Sweden, noting implications for linguistic diversity. Finland and Sweden contain five main varieties of…

  7. The Matching of Educational and Occupational Structures in Finland and Sweden. Final Report. CEDEFOP Dossier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari

    This report studies the matching of educational and occupational structures in Sweden and Finland by using classifications that include all educational and occupational groups. By using comprehensive databases available in Finland and Sweden, it aims to develop the methodological and theoretical perspectives of the research on education and…

  8. Students' Perceptions of Assessment: A Comparative Analysis between Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Diana; Niklasson, Laila; Flores, Maria Assunção

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating students' perceptions about assessment, especially the ways in which it is put into practice. Data were collected through questionnaires in different programmes in Portugal and Sweden. In total, 173 students from Portugal and 72 from Sweden participated in the study. Findings showed that students had similar ideas…

  9. Saturn, Approaching Northern Summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Since NASA's Cassini spacecraft arrived at Saturn in mid-2004, the planet's appearance has changed greatly. The shifting angle of sunlight as the seasons march forward has illuminated the giant hexagon-shaped jet stream around the north polar region, and the subtle bluish hues seen earlier in the mission have continued to fade. Earlier views obtained in 2004 and 2009 (see PIA06077 and PIA11667) demonstrate how drastically the illumination has changed. This view shows Saturn's northern hemisphere in 2016, as that part of the planet nears its northern hemisphere summer solstice in May 2017. Saturn's year is nearly 30 Earth years long, and during its long time there, Cassini has observed winter and spring in the north, and summer and fall in the south. The spacecraft will complete its mission just after northern summer solstice, having observed long-term changes in the planet's winds, temperatures, clouds and chemistry. Cassini scanned across the planet and its rings on April 25, 2016, capturing three sets of red, green and blue images to cover this entire scene showing the planet and the main rings. The images were obtained using Cassini's wide-angle camera at a distance of approximately 1.9 million miles (3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at an elevation of about 30 degrees above the ring plane. The view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from a sun-Saturn-spacecraft angle, or phase angle, of 55 degrees. Image scale on Saturn is about 111 miles (178 kilometers) per pixel. The exposures used to make this mosaic were obtained just prior to the beginning of a 44-hour movie sequence. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21046

  10. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  11. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Lo Tommy; Björk, H Thony

    2006-06-01

    To describe the organization and delivery of community pharmacy and medical care, as well as pharmaceutical care practice and research, in Sweden. The Swedish retail pharmacy system of 800 community pharmacies and nearly 80 hospital pharmacies is unique in that it is organized into one single, government-owned chain, known as Apoteket AB. The pharmacy staff consists of pharmacists, prescriptionists, and pharmacy technicians. Some activities related to pharmaceutical care have been directed toward specific patient groups during annual theme campaigns. In the past few years, there has been a growing emphasis on the identification, resolution, and documentation of drug-related problems (DRPs) in Swedish pharmacy practice. A classification system for documenting DRPs and pharmacy interventions was developed in 1995 and incorporated into the software of all community pharmacies in 2001. A national DRP database (SWE-DRP) was established in 2004 to collect and analyze DRPs and interventions on a nationwide basis. Recently, a new counseling technique composed of key questions to facilitate the detection of DRPs has been tested successfully. Patient medication profiles are kept in 160 pharmacies, and a new national register of drugs dispensed to patients became available in 2006. Most pharmaceutical care studies in Sweden have focused on DRPs and resulting pharmacy interventions. Swedish community pharmacy DRP work is in the international forefront but there is a potential for further developing cognitive services, given the beneficial organization of the country's pharmacies into one single pharmacy chain. The introduction of patient medication profiles has been both late and slow and has only had a marginal effect on pharmaceutical care practice so far. The universities do not appear to have any desire to influence the practice of pharmacy and could potentially take on a more active role in preparing pharmacy students for patient-oriented services. Current threats to

  12. Quantification of alcohol-related mortality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, H; Eriksson, A; Broström, G; Ahlm, K

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to estimate total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden. For natural deaths, a meta-analysis carried out in Australia was updated to the end of March 1998, and pooled estimates of the relative risks were calculated for different diseases based on data from scientific studies that have been published in the international literature. The proportion of current alcohol drinkers from recent Swedish surveys, and the pooled relative risk estimates were used to estimate disease-specific alcohol-attributable fractions. Natural deaths 'caused' or 'prevented' by alcohol were estimated for the period 1992-1996. For unnatural deaths, all cases from 1992 through 1996 in Sweden were analysed (n = 23 132). Alcohol was regarded to attribute to the death: if the deceased was a 'known alcoholic'; if the underlying or contributing cause of death was alcohol-related; if the deceased had an alcohol-related in-patient diagnosis during a 3-year period prior to death; if the case tested positive for blood alcohol. Person years of life lost/gained (<70 years) due to alcohol were also assessed. The assumptions underlying the attributable risk methods used to analyse alcohol-related mortality due to natural causes need to be borne in mind when interpreting the results on natural deaths. Moreover, the preventive effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease and stroke is still controversial. The findings of alcohol-related mortality due to unnatural causes were much more reliable. About 3.5% of deaths were attributed to alcohol; alcohol involvement was more than twice as common in deaths of males (4.8%) than in those of females (2.0%). About one-quarter of the deaths in those aged below 50 years were attributed to alcohol. In those (

  13. How improved access to healthcare was successfully spread across Sweden.

    PubMed

    Strindhall, Margareta; Henriks, Göran

    2007-01-01

    Swedish healthcare has an internationally high standard, but is often criticized from a patient perspective owing to access problems to primary and specialist care. The waiting time to get in touch or get an appointment with a doctor, nurse, or physiotherapist is often too long. Access problems also create stress for employees when there are too few appointments to offer. In addition, too much time gets spent on the administration of long waiting lists, which adds no value to patients. Jönköping County Council was not satisfied with this situation and decided to make an attempt to improve access in the whole system. To describe how access was improved in Jönköping County council and how the concept was spread nationally. A conceptual model for improved access and reduced queues in Jönköping County called Bra Mottagning (BM) ("Good Clinic" in Swedish) was developed in 1999. It was built on logistic principles and collaborative learning. The program consisted of 4 learning sessions over a period of 8 to 9 months. The process of learning, team development, leadership, and spread of a change concept for improved access in Sweden has evolved through repeated improvement cycles, from small tests to larger pilots and finally to a standardized concept. Since 1999, 2 new BM collaboratives have been started every year. The first 11 teams from the county council of Jönköping, which participated in BM1 to BM3, reduced their median waiting time from 90 to 7 days in 8 months, an improvement of 93% (83 days). The results have been sustainable over the last 7 years. In the county council as a system, advanced access was achieved in 40% of the 179 units in 2006. Since the national spread started, 2200 employees in 316 professional teams from 16 county councils in Sweden have participated in BM collaboratives. Of these, 80% improved access for their patients and 32% reached advanced access in 8 months. The described development and spread of a concept for improved access in

  14. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  15. Northern Summer on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft sees bright methane clouds drifting in the summer skies of Saturn's moon Titan, along with dark hydrocarbon lakes and seas clustered around the north pole. Compared to earlier in Cassini's mission, most of the surface in the moon's northern high latitudes is now illuminated by the sun. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on June 9, 2017, using a spectral filter that preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 938 nanometers. Cassini obtained the view at a distance of about 315,000 miles (507,000 kilometers) from Titan. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21615

  16. Jupiter's Northern Lights

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-06

    This is a reconstructed view of Jupiter's northern lights through the filters of Juno's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVS) instrument on Dec. 11, 2016, as the Juno spacecraft approached Jupiter, passed over its poles, and plunged towards the equator. Such measurements present a real challenge for the spacecraft's science instruments: Juno flies over Jupiter's poles at 30 miles (50 kilometers) per second -- more than 100,000 miles per hour -- speeding past auroral forms in a matter of seconds. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21938

  17. Emerging genotype (GGIIb) of norovirus in drinking water, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nygård, Karin; Torvén, Maria; Ancker, Camilla; Knauth, Siv Britt; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; Giesecke, Johan; Andersson, Yvonne; Svensson, Lennart

    2003-12-01

    From May through June 2001, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that affected at least 200 persons occurred in a combined activity camp and conference center in Stockholm County. The source of illness was contaminated drinking water obtained from private wells. The outbreak appears to have started with sewage pipeline problems near the kitchen, which caused overflow of the sewage system and contaminated the environment. While no pathogenic bacteria were found in water or stools specimens, norovirus was detected in 8 of 11 stool specimens and 2 of 3 water samples by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequencing of amplicons from two patients and two water samples identified an emerging genotype designated GGIIb, which was circulating throughout several European countries during 2000 and 2001. This investigation documents the first waterborne outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in Sweden, where nucleotide sequencing showed a direct link between contaminated water and illness.

  18. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sorbring, Emma; Gurdal, Sevtap

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 77 Swedish families. RESULTS: Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in Sweden fathers are more likely to attribute failures in caregiving situations both to themselves and to children than are mothers and that there is moderate concordance between fathers and mothers within the same family in progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes.

  19. Nursing Students’ Views on Promoting Successful Breastfeeding in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-01-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students’ perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding’s benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education. PMID:25169002

  20. The Humanistic Medicine program at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlzén, Rolf; Stolt, Carl-Magnus

    2003-10-01

    In 1998, the Humanistic Medicine program was established at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. A fundamental element of the program is to promote medical humanities within clinical practice. The program's design focuses on three interconnected areas of study, the history of medicine, philosophy of medical science and practice, and aspects of the clinical encounter. The program offers undergraduate and postgraduate studies. The program's humanities content is bolstered in the medical curriculum by The Doctor School, a line of teaching medical students follow through their first four semesters. From this parallel series of lectures and seminars, students are exposed to further humanities and medical training. Students also have the option to select from humanities courses for their 17 eligible weeks of electives. It is hoped that the Karolinska Institute will continue to develop the humanities content of its curriculum, intertwining scientific exploration and humanistic understanding.

  1. Traditional folk beliefs on epilepsy in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tuft, Mia; Nakken, Karl O; Kverndokk, Kyrre

    2017-06-01

    In Norway and Sweden, epilepsy has for many centuries been considered a strange and mysterious disease. The explanations of its causes have been many and imaginative. One being that epilepsy was caused by the hidden people inhabiting the woods and the mountains. To avoid the disease, these hidden people should not be annoyed. One commonly used treatment principle was to try to place the disease back to the ground, or passing the diseased through a hole or an opening in the nature. Fresh blood from criminals was also considered to have strong antiepileptic properties. In the Scandinavian countries, some of these folk beliefs have been very tenacious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathological withdrawl of refugee children seeking asylum in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2006 there was an 'epidemic' of complete withdrawal from daily life among numerous children in refugee families seeking asylum in Sweden. It became embedded in many distinct controversies, including the politics of immigration, and acrimonious disagreements between pediatricians dealing with individual families, and government-employed sociologists commissioned to report on what was going on. Most of the cases resolved themselves when an amnesty was agreed in 2006, although there remain many doubts about the statistics. After describing this phenomenon, the paper proposes a (non-exclusive) model called Imitation & Internalisation. Most of the children may have begun by imitating others who had fallen ill, but soon internalized it to the extent that it became an integral part of their psychophysical and social constitution. The model can be applied to phenomena as diverse as hypnotism, the placebo effect, and catching faith by association with believers (Pascal's wager). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflecting the World Report on Disability: a report from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant

    2014-01-01

    There is a range of statistics in Sweden regarding people with functional limitations available from different authorities presenting diverging information. Although healthcare and social welfare legislations aim for equal access and treatment, surveys about unmet needs show that opportunities for rehabilitation are unequal among diagnoses and around the country and insufficient in the long-term. There is also a law granting certain supports and services to those people who are considered to be in need of having someone to speak for them. Disability-related services are tax financed with a symbolic fee. Rehabilitation is performed by not only physical and rehabilitation medicine specialists. Rehabilitation research is mainly within healthcare science but also in social science. Disability services need better coordination, and an agency has recently been founded with this responsibility. More politicians should engage in disability-related issues, and more people with disability should get into politics.

  4. Comparing Homicide-Suicides in the United States and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Regoeczi, Wendy C; Granath, Sven; Issa, Rania; Gilson, Thomas; Sturup, Joakim

    2016-11-01

    Research on homicides followed by suicides has largely relied on very localized samples and relatively short time spans of data. As a result, little is known about the extent to which patterns within cases of homicide-suicides are geographically specific. The current study seeks to help fill this gap by comparing twenty years of homicide-suicide data for Sweden and a large U.S. county. Although some of the underlying patterns in the two countries are similar (e.g., decreasing rates), a number of important differences emerge, particularly with respect to incidence, weapons used, perpetrator age, and relationship of the perpetrator to the victim. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Understanding intraplate earthquakes in Sweden: the where and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Björn; Tryggvason, Ari; Chan, NeXun; Högdahl, Karin; Buhcheva, Darina; Bödvarsson, Reynir

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) underwent a rapid expansion and modernization between the years 2000 - 2010. The number of stations increased from 6 to 65, all broadband or semi-broadband with higher than standard sensitivity and all transmitting data in real-time. This has lead to a significant increase in the number of detected earthquakes, with the magnitude of completeness being approximately ML 0.5 within the network. During the last 15 years some 7,300 earthquakes have been detected and located, which can be compared to the approximately 1,800 earthquakes in the Swedish catalog from 1375 to 1999. We have used the recent earthquake catalog and various antropogenic sources (e.g. mine blasts, quarry blasts and infrastructure construction blast) to derive low resolution 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for entire Sweden. Including the blasts provides a more even geographical distribution of sources as well as good constraints on the locations. The resolution of the derived velocity models is in the 20 km range in the well resolved areas. A fairly robust feature observed in the Vp/Vs ratio of the derived models is a difference between the Paleoproterozoic rocks belonging to the TIB (Transscanidinavian Igneous Belt) and the Svecofennian rocks east and north of this region (a Vp/Vs ratio about 1.72 prevail in the former compared to a value below 1.70 in the latter) at depths down to 15 km. All earthquakes occurring since 2000 have been relocated in the 3D velocity model. The results show very clear differences in how earthquakes occur in different parts of Sweden. In the north, north of approximately 64 degrees latitude, most earthquakes occur on or in the vicinity of the Holocene postglacial faults. From 64N to approximately 60N earthquake activity is concentrated along the northeast coast line, with some relation to the offset in the bedrock from the onshore area to the offshore Bay of Bothnia. In southern Sweden earthquake activity is more widely

  6. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  7. Expansive Northern Volcanic Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    Mercury northern region is dominated by expansive smooth plains, created by huge amounts of volcanic material flooding across Mercury surface in the past, as seen by NASA MESSENGER spacecraft. The volcanic lava flows buried craters, leaving only traces of their rims visible. Such craters are called ghost craters, and there are many visible in this image, including a large one near the center. Wrinkle ridges cross this scene and small troughs are visible regionally within ghost craters, formed as a result of the lava cooling. The northern plains are often described as smooth since their surface has fewer impact craters and thus has been less battered by such events. This indicates that these volcanic plains are younger than Mercury's rougher surfaces. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 60.31° N Center Longitude: 36.87° E Scale: The large ghost crater at the center of the image is approximately 103 kilometers (64 miles) in diameter http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19415

  8. Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ljung, Rickard; Peterson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Johan; Heimerson, Inger; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences, measured by socioeconomic position, to assess the burden of disease using DALYs. We found that in Sweden one-third of the burden of the diseases we studied is unequally distributed. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of disease that take both mortality and morbidity into account can help policy-makers understand the magnitude of inequalities in health for different disease groups. PMID:15744401

  9. Sibling risk of anxiety disorders based on hospitalizations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    This study used nationwide hospital records to examine sibling risk of any type of anxiety disorder in Sweden over a 40-year period. This study, carried out between 1 January 1968 and 31 December 2007, of the entire population of Sweden, linked information on family relationships from the nationwide Multi-Generation Register with information from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register on first diagnosis of anxiety disorder. A total of 42,602 persons hospitalized for anxiety disorders and 2093 affected siblings were identified. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated by comparing risk in siblings of persons hospitalized for anxiety disorders with risk in persons whose siblings had no hospital diagnosis of anxiety disorders. The sibling risk was 2.26, which was independent of sex and age differences between siblings. The SIR was highest in siblings <20 years of age (2.83). Analysis of risk by subtype showed that having a sibling diagnosed with any anxiety disorder resulted in increased risks of a number of disorders; the highest increased risk was of social phobia (SIR 3.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.68-7.69). Risk of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was raised in female but not male siblings. Heritable effects likely play an important role in the cause of anxiety disorders, but the extent of their role remains to be established. Important contributions could be made by studies of gene-environment interactions that have sufficient sample sizes to produce reliable results. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  11. Societal costs of fetal alcohol syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Lisa; Magnusson, Lennart; Hovstadius, Bo

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the annual societal cost of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in Sweden, focusing on the secondary disabilities thought feasible to limit via early interventions. Prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis of FAS in Sweden for 2014. Direct costs (societal support, special education, psychiatric disorders and alcohol/drug abuse) and indirect costs (reduced working capacity and informal caring), were included. The calculations were based on published Swedish studies, including a register-based follow-up study of adults with FAS, reports and databases, and experts. The annual total societal cost of FAS was estimated at €76,000 per child (0-17 years) and €110,000 per adult (18-74 years), corresponding to €1.6 billion per year in the Swedish population using a prevalence of FAS of 0.2 %. The annual additional cost of FAS (difference between the FAS group and a comparison group) was estimated at €1.4 billion using a prevalence of 0.2 %. The major cost driver was the cost of societal support. The cost burden of FAS on the society is extensive, but likely to be underestimated. A reduction in the societal costs of FAS, both preventive and targeted interventions to children with FAS, should be prioritized. That is, the cost of early interventions such as placement in family homes or other forms of housing, and special education, represent unavoidable costs. However, these types of interventions are highly relevant to improve the individual's quality of life and future prospects, and also, within a long-term perspective, to limit the societal costs and personal suffering.

  12. Nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma risk among immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-12-15

    Environmental exposures, particularly infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and tobacco, are known risk factors for oral cancer. Studies in migrants may provide valuable insight into the environmental and genetic etiology of cancer. We wanted to define nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma among immigrants in Sweden. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database (FCD) was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas among the first-generation immigrants compared to the native Swedes. The FCD included 1969 and 691 cases of nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma in the male and female Swedes and 178 and 65 cases in immigrants, respectively. The median age at diagnosis (years) was 63 among Swedes and 55 among immigrants. The risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was significantly higher in male (SIR = 35.6) and female (24.6) Southeast Asians, male (12.4) and female (34.7) North Africans, male (4.9) and female (10.9) Asian Arabs and some other male Asians immigrants (6.2 to 6.7). Among immigrants from European countries, only the men from former Yugoslavian showed an elevated risk (2.7). Hypopharyngeal carcinoma risk was only increased among the male immigrants from the Indian Subcontinent (5.4). Early life infection with EBV in countries of origin and probably a minor contribution by tobacco smoking may be the main environmental exposures influencing nasopharyngeal carcinoma risks among immigrants to Sweden. The high rates of hypopharyngeal carcinoma among Indian immigrants may point to a continued using of smokeless tobacco. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  13. Suicide among young people aged 10-29 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hultén, A; Wasserman, D

    1992-06-01

    This study analyses the incidence of suicide among children and young people aged between 10 and 29 in Sweden, during the period 1974-1986. The study comprises 4,624 individuals whose deaths were the outcome of verified, E950-E959 (n = 3,511) and undetermined, E980-E989 (n = 1,113) suicides. Regression analysis of different age groups separately and all age groups combined shows that the frequency of suicide among children and young people in Sweden did not increase in this period. Nonetheless, mortality figures are high, especially for boys and young men aged 15-29. The maximum suicide-mortality rate (43.2 per 10,000) is noted for young men aged 25-29 in 1984. The male-female ratio with respect to deaths from suicide is 2.5 for the entire group, the smallest difference being in the 15-19 age group (1.7) and the largest in the 25-29 age group (2.8). Methods of committing suicide vary between the sexes and the various age groups. Boys and young men use violent methods more often, and this situation has remained stable throughout the 13-year period. Girls use non-violent methods to a greater extent, but young women aged 18-29 use violent and non-violent methods to almost the same extent. During the 13-year period studied, a change took place in the girls' and young women's choice of methods towards more violent methods in the 1980s compared with the 1970s. Regardless of sex, there are significantly (p less than 0.001) fewer married and more divorced people among those committing suicide compared with corresponding age groups in the overall population.

  14. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  15. Epidural analgesia during labor among immigrant women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekéus, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Hjern, Anders

    2010-01-01

    To investigate differences in the use of epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor between native Swedish and immigrant women and whether such possible differences could be explained by other maternal factors or birthweight. Population-based register study. Nationwide study in Sweden. A total of 455,274 primiparous women, who gave birth to a singleton infant at 37-41 completed gestational weeks during 1992-2005. Of the 72,086 (16%) immigrants, data on 31,148 women from the eight most common countries of origin were analyzed to test our hypotheses. Register study with perinatal data from the Medical Birth Register and socio-demographic variables from national income and population registers. Use of EDA during vaginal delivery. Compared with native Swedish women, EDA was more often used by women from Chile, odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.57); Iran, OR 1.38 (1.26-1.53); Poland, OR 1.22 (1.08-1.37) and Finland, OR 1.10 (1.03-1.17) after adjustments for perinatal and socio-demographic confounders, while EDA was less often used among women from Somalia, OR 0.57 (0.46-0.70); Iraq, OR 0.71 (0.64-0.78); Turkey, OR 0.77(0.69-0.86) and Yugoslavia, OR 0.85 (0.79-0.91). Having a native Swedish partner increased the use of EDA in immigrant women. EDA use during labor varies more by maternal country of origin than by socio-economic factors. This suggests that expectations of care from the country of origin continue to influence the use of EDA after immigration to Sweden.

  16. Prostate cancer incidence and survival in immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Ankerst, Donna P; Sundquist, Jan; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    The large international variation in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC) is well known but the underlying reasons are not understood. We want to compare PC incidence and survival among immigrants to Sweden in order to explain the international differences. Cancer data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for PC in first-degree immigrants by country of birth. The immigrants were classified into four groups by SIR and area of origin. Survival in PC was assessed by hazard ratio (HR) in the four groups. In some analyses, clinical stage of PC was assessed by the tumor, node, and metastasis classification. The SIR was 0.47 (95% confidence interval 0.43-0.51) for immigrants with the lowest risk, constituting men from Turkey, Middle East, Asia, and Chile. The HR was 0.60 (0.45-0.81) for these men and it was 0.49 if they had stayed 20+ years in Sweden. The SIR in screening detected PC, T1c, was 0.55. Among these men, screening detected PC constituted 34.5% of all PC, compared to 29.0% among Swedes (p = 0.10). The results showed that the non-European immigrants, of mainly Middle East, Asian, and Chilean origin, with the lowest risk of PC, also had the most favorable survival in PC. As the available clinical features of PC at diagnosis or the distribution of known risk factors could not explain the differences, a likely biological mechanism through a favorable androgenic hormonal host environment is suggested as an explanation of the observed effects.

  17. Cancer risks in first-generation immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Czene, Kamila

    2002-05-10

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Discontinued dental attendance among elderly people in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Grönbeck-Linden, Ingela; Hägglin, Catharina; Petersson, Anita; Linander, Per O.; Gahnberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to study the loss of dental attendance and a possible age trend among patients aged ≥65 years in Sweden. Regular dental check-ups are considered to be an important factor in maintaining oral health. Approximately 80% of the adult population in Sweden are enrolled in a regular check-up system; however, dental practitioners often find that older patients attend fewer check-ups. Old people may naturally lose contact with dental services as they move to special housing or die. In this systematic study, these factors were investigated and used as exclusion criteria. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for all patients (n = 4759) aged 65 or older from the electronic journal system in 3 large public dental clinics in 3 communities. Their dental records for the years 2004–2009 were studied longitudinally by 1 person at each clinic; 1111 patients were excluded (patients died during study period, wanted emergency care only, obtained special dental care allowance, moved from the community or moved to special housing, or left the clinic for another caregiver). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM). Results: Of the 3648 patients (1690 men and 1958 women) included in the study, 13% lost contact with their dental service over the course of the study (10% of those were aged 65–79 and 21% ≥80). The decrease in regular dental contact had a statistically significant association with increasing age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable number of older people living independently or with moderate supportive care in their own homes lost contact with dental service despite enrolment in a recall system. PMID:27382538

  19. Cobalt-chromium alloys in fixed prosthodontics in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kassapidou, Maria; Franke Stenport, Victoria; Hjalmarsson, Lars; Johansson, Carina B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to compile the usage of Co-Cr alloys in fixed prosthodontics (FP) among dental laboratories in Sweden. Methods: From March to October 2015, questionnaires were sent to 542 registered dental laboratories in Sweden. The questionnaires were divided in two parts, one for fixed dental-supported prosthodontics (FDP) and one for fixed implant-supported prosthodontics (FIP). Reminders were sent three times. Results: In total of 542 dental laboratories, 55% answered the questionnaires. Most dental laboratories use Co-Cr in FP, 134 (74%) in FDP and 89(66%) in FIP. The laboratories used Co-Cr alloys of various compositions in the prostheses, 35 for FDP and 30 for FIP. The most commonly used Co-Cr alloys for tooth-supported FDPs were (a) Wirobond® 280, (b) Cara SLM and (c) Wirobond® C. For implant-supported frameworks the frequently used alloys were: (a) Cara SLM, (b) Cara Milled and (c) Wirobond® 280. Except for the difference in composition of these alloys, they were also manufactured with various techniques. In tooth-supported prostheses the dominating technique was the cast technique while newer techniques as laser-sintering and milling were more commonly reported for implant-supported constructions. A fourth technique; the ‘pre-state’ milling was reported in FDP. Conclusion: More than 30 different Co-Cr alloys were reported as being used in FP. Thus, there is a need for studies exploring the mechanical and physical behavior and the biological response to the most commonly used Co-Cr alloys. PMID:29242813

  20. Case mix adjusted variation in cesarean section rate in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mesterton, Johan; Ladfors, Lars; Ekenberg Abreu, Anna; Lindgren, Peter; Saltvedt, Sissel; Weichselbraun, Marianne; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis

    2017-05-01

    Cesarean section (CS) rate is a well-established indicator of performance in maternity care and is also related to resource use. Case mix adjustment of CS rates when performing comparisons between hospitals is important. The objective of this study was to estimate case mix adjusted variation in CS rate between hospitals in Sweden. In total, 139 756 deliveries in 2011 and 2012 were identified in administrative systems in seven regions covering 67% of all deliveries in Sweden. Data were linked to the Medical birth register and population data. Twenty-three different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used for adjustment. Analyses were performed for the entire study population as well as for two subgroups. Logistic regression was used to analyze differences between hospitals. The overall CS rate was 16.9% (hospital minimum-maximum 12.1-22.6%). Significant variations in CS rate between hospitals were observed after case mix adjustment: hospital odds ratios for CS varied from 0.62 (95% CI 0.53-0.73) to 1.45 (95% CI 1.37-1.52). In nulliparous, cephalic, full-term, singletons the overall CS rate was 14.3% (hospital minimum-maximum: 9.0-19.0%), whereas it was 4.7% for multiparous, cephalic, full-term, singletons with no previous CS (hospital minimum-maximum: 3.2-6.7%). In both subgroups significant variations were observed in case mix adjusted CS rates. Significant differences in CS rate between Swedish hospitals were found after adjusting for differences in case mix. This indicates a potential for fewer interventions and lower resource use in Swedish childbirth care. Best practice sharing and continuous monitoring are important tools for improving childbirth care. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. The effect of harvest intensity on long-term calcium dynamics in soil and soil solution at three coniferous sites in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterberg, Therese; Olsson, Bengt; Löfgren, Stefan; von Brömssen, Claudia; Brandtberg, Per-Olov

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy from forests is a mean to reduce fossil fuel related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The potential to replace fossil fuel with logging residues is large in countries with extensive forest resources such as Sweden where the supply of bioenergy to district heating plants has quintupled since the 1990's, now accounting for 46% of the total energy supply. However, the loss of nutrients and other elements in biomass is higher following harvest for bioenergy purposes (whole-tree harvest, WTH) compared with traditional clear-cutting (conventional harvest, CH). Calcium (Ca2+) is an important base cation, which buffer soils and surface water against acidification. The loss of Ca2+ and other base cations via harvest for bioenergy could therefore result in soil acidification and there is a growing concern in Sweden that the depletion in base cation pools would also lead to surface water acidification associated with lower base cation concentrations in runoff (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Furthermore, WTH may also prevent or delay a recovery from acidification in areas such as the southwestern parts of Sweden, where the pools of exchangeable cations have been substantially depleted as a result of historically high sulfate (SO42-) deposition. In this paper, long-term treatment differences in soil exchangeable Ca2+ pools (down to 20 cm) and soil solution Ca2+ concentrations at 50 cm soil depth were examined at three coniferous sites in Sweden following CH and WTH in 1974-76. The results showed that soil water concentrations of Ca2+were -17 μeq l-1 (or 40%) lower in WTH plots compared with CH plots, 27-30 years after harvest. The main treatment differences had largely disappeared 32 to 35 years after harvest although site specific treatment differences (ΔWTH-CH: -24 μeq l-1) were still measurable at the well-buffered site in northern Sweden. These results are in agreement with soil data showing that previously found treatment differences in Ca2

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of COPD among never-smokers in two areas of Sweden - Occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes is an important risk factor.

    PubMed

    Hagstad, Stig; Backman, Helena; Bjerg, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Ye, Xiong; Hedman, Linnea; Lindberg, Anne; Torén, Kjell; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva; Lundbäck, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Although active tobacco smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, COPD is not uncommon also among never-smokers. Different study locations along with different spirometric definitions of COPD have historically yielded different prevalence estimates of the disease. To study current prevalence and risk factors of COPD among never-smokers in two areas of Sweden. Data collected in 2008-2012 within the West Sweden Asthma Study and Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies was pooled. The study population consisted of 1839 subjects who participated in spirometry and interviews. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator a) FEV(1)/(F)VC < 0.7, b) FEV(1)/FVC < 0.7 and c) FEV(1)/FVC < lower limit of normal. Of the 1839 subjects, 967 (52.6%) were never-smokers. Among the never-smoking subjects, the prevalence of COPD according to definitions a-c was 7.7%, 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of GOLD grade ≥2 was 2.0%, 1.4% and 1.3%. No significant difference in prevalence between the two study areas was observed. In never-smokers, occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes (GDF) was significantly associated with both COPD (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.33), and GOLD ≥2 (OR 4.51, 1.72-11.9) according to definition a), after adjusting for age, educational level and exposure to passive smoking at work. Depending on definition, prevalence of COPD among never-smokers was 3.0-7.7%, whereas GOLD ≥2 was present in 1.3-2.0%. Occupational exposure to GDF remained independently and significantly associated with COPD regardless of spirometric definition of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health care systems in Sweden and China: Legal and formal organisational aspects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sharing knowledge and experience internationally can provide valuable information, and comparative research can make an important contribution to knowledge about health care and cost-effective use of resources. Descriptions of the organisation of health care in different countries can be found, but no studies have specifically compared the legal and formal organisational systems in Sweden and China. Aim To describe and compare health care in Sweden and China with regard to legislation, organisation, and finance. Methods Literature reviews were carried out in Sweden and China to identify literature published from 1985 to 2008 using the same keywords. References in recent studies were scrutinized, national legislation and regulations and government reports were searched, and textbooks were searched manually. Results The health care systems in Sweden and China show dissimilarities in legislation, organisation, and finance. In Sweden there is one national law concerning health care while in China the law includes the "Hygienic Common Law" and the "Fundamental Health Law" which is under development. There is a tendency towards market-orientated solutions in both countries. Sweden has a well-developed primary health care system while the primary health care system in China is still under development and relies predominantly on hospital-based care concentrated in cities. Conclusion Despite dissimilarities in health care systems, Sweden and China have similar basic assumptions, i.e. to combine managerial-organisational efficiency with the humanitarian-egalitarian goals of health care, and both strive to provide better care for all. PMID:20569468

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations in stream water delta34S-dissolved organic matter in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Giesler, Reiner; Björkvald, Louise; Laudon, Hoalmar; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

    2009-01-15

    The discharge of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) by streams is an important cross-system linkage that strongly influences downstream aquatic ecosystems. Isotopic tracers are important tools that can help to unravel the source of DOM from different terrestrial compartments in the landscape. Here we demonstrate the spatial and seasonal variation of delta34S of DOM in 10 boreal streams to test if the tracer could provide new insights into the origin of DOM. We found large spatial and seasonal variations in stream water delta34S-DOM values ranging from -5.2 per thousand to +9.6 per thousand with an average of +4.0 +/- 0.6 (N = 62; average and 95% confidence interval). Large seasonal variations were found in stream water delta34S-DOM values: for example, a shift of more than 10 per thousand during the spring snowmelt in a wetland-dominated stream. Spatial differences were also observed during the winter base flow with higher delta34S-DOM values in the fourth-order Krycklan stream at the outlet of the 68 km2 catchment compared to the small (< 1 km2) headwater streams. Our data clearly show that the delta34S-DOM values have the potential to be used as a tracer to identify and generate new insights about terrestrial DOM sources in the boreal landscape.

  5. Replication and extension of genome-wide association study results for obesity in 4923 adults from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Renström, Frida; Payne, Felicity; Nordström, Anna; Brito, Ema C.; Rolandsson, Olov; Hallmans, Göran; Barroso, Ines; Nordström, Peter; Franks, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple risk loci for common obesity (FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, SH2B1, KCTD15, MTCH2, NEGR1 and PCSK1). Here we extend those studies by examining associations with adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Swedish adults. The nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 3885 non-diabetic and 1038 diabetic individuals with available measures of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Adipose mass and distribution were objectively assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a sub-group of non-diabetics (n = 2206). In models with adipose mass traits, BMI or obesity as outcomes, the most strongly associated SNP was FTO rs1121980 (P < 0.001). Five other SNPs (SH2B1 rs7498665, MTCH2 rs4752856, MC4R rs17782313, NEGR1 rs2815752 and GNPDA2 rs10938397) were significantly associated with obesity. To summarize the overall genetic burden, a weighted risk score comprising a subset of SNPs was constructed; those in the top quintile of the score were heavier (+2.6 kg) and had more total (+2.4 kg), gynoid (+191 g) and abdominal (+136 g) adipose tissue than those in the lowest quintile (all P < 0.001). The genetic burden score significantly increased diabetes risk, with those in the highest quintile (n = 193/594 cases/controls) being at 1.55-fold (95% CI 1.21–1.99; P < 0.0001) greater risk of type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quintile (n = 130/655 cases/controls). In summary, we have statistically replicated six of the previously associated obese-risk loci and our results suggest that the weight-inducing effects of these variants are explained largely by increased adipose accumulation. PMID:19164386

  6. Adverse events during air and ground neonatal transport: 13 years' experience from a neonatal transport team in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Johannes; Olsson, Linn; Svensson, Amelie; Håkansson, Stellan

    2015-07-01

    To study the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) associated with neonatal transport, and to categorize, classify and assess the risk estimation of these events. Written comments in 1082 transport records during the period 1999-2011 were reviewed. Comments related to events that infringed on patient and staff safety were included as AEs, and categorized and further classified as complaint, imminent risk of incident/negative event, actual incident or actual negative event. AEs were also grouped into emergency or planned transports, and risk estimation was calculated according to a risk assessment tool and defined as low, intermediate, high or extreme risk. AEs (N = 883) were divided into five categories: logistics (n = 337), organization (n = 177), equipment (n = 165), vehicle (n = 129) and medical/nursing care (n = 75). Eighty-five percent of AEs were classified as incidents or negative events. The majority of AEs were estimated to be of low or intermediate risk in both planned and emergency transports. AEs estimated to be of high or extreme risk were significantly more frequent in emergency transports (OR = 10.1; 95% CI: 5.0-20.9; p < 0.001). AEs are common in both planned and emergency neonatal transport, often related to imperfect transport logistics or equipment failure. AEs of high or extreme risk were more frequent in emergency transports.

  7. Islet autoantibodies present in association with Ljungan virus infection in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Warvsten, Anna; Björnfors, Martin; Arvidsson, Michael; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Jönsson, Ida; Olsson, Gert E; Ahlm, Clas; Larsson, Helena Elding; Lernmark, Åke; Nilsson, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    Bank voles are known reservoirs for Puumala hantavirus and probably also for Ljungan virus (LV), a suggested candidate parechovirus in type 1 diabetes etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether wild bank voles had been exposed to LV and if exposure associated to autoantibodies against insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GADA), or islet autoantigen-2 (IA-2A). Serum samples from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) captured in early summer or early winter of 1997 and 1998, respectively, were analyzed in radio binding assays for antibodies against Ljungan virus (LVA) and Puumala virus (PUUVA) as well as for IAA, GADA, and IA-2A. LVA was found in 25% (189/752), IAA in 2.5% (18/723), GADA in 2.6% (15/615), and IA-2A in 2.5% (11/461) of available bank vole samples. LVA correlated with both IAA (P = 0.007) and GADA (P < 0.001), but not with IA-2A (P = 0.999). There were no correlations with PUUVA, detected in 17% of the bank voles. Compared to LVA negative bank voles, LVA positive animals had higher levels of both IAA (P = 0.002) and GADA (P < 0.001), but not of IA-2A (P = 0.205). Levels of LVA as well as IAA and GADA were higher in samples from bank voles captured in early summer. In conclusion, LVA was detected in bank voles and correlated with both IAA and GADA but not with IA-2A. These observations suggest that exposure to LV may be associated with islet autoimmunity. It remains to be determined if islet autoantibody positive bank voles may develop diabetes in the wild. J. Med. Virol. 89:24-31, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Saturn Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-05

    This false color picture of Saturn’s northern hemisphere was assembled from ultraviolet, violet and green images obtained Aug. 19 by Voyager 2 from a range of 7.1 million kilometers (4.4 million miles). The several weather patterns evident include three spots flowing westward at about 15 meters-per-second (33 mph). Although the cloud system associated with the western-most spot is part of this flow, the spot itself moves eastward at about 30 meters-per-second (65 mph). Their joint flow shows the anti-cyclonic rotation of the spot, which is about 3,000 km. (1,900 mi.) in diameter. The ribbon- like feature to the north marks a high-speed jet where wind speeds approach 150 meters-per-second (330 mph). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01365

  9. Northern California Fires

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-31

    The October fires in Northern California were some of the most destructive in the state's history. The burned area on the right side of the image is the ATLAS fire, that burned east of Napa; the fire consumed 51,000 acres and destroyed almost 500 structures. The burned area on the left is part of the Nuns fire that burned between Sonoma and Napa; it consumed 110,000 acres, and destroyed almost 7,000 structures. The images were acquired September 7, 2016 and October 28, 2017, cover an area of 34.5 by 39 kilometers, and are located near 38.3 degrees north, 122.3 degrees east. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22019

  10. Saving the Baltic Sea, the inland waters of its drainage basin, or both? spatial perspectives on reducing P-loads in eastern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ingela; Jarsjö, Jerker; Petersson, Mona

    2014-11-01

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Net Fertility during the Fertility Decline: A Comparative Analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J. David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Most previous work on the historical fertility transition has been macro-oriented, using aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels, while much less has been done using micro data, and specifically looking at behavioural differentials among social groups. In this paper we study at the impact of socioeconomic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European Countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the USA). We use micro-level census data in 1900, containing information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain also after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711

  12. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  13. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  14. Outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotta; Andersson, Caroline; Ursing, Dag; Strevens, Helena; Landin-Olsson, Mona

    2015-10-01

    The number of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy is increasing around the world and in our region in the south Sweden 1.2% of all pregnant women received the GDM diagnosis in the 90s and now it is about 2.2%. The aim of this study was to compare women with GDM 1995-99 against women with GDM 2012-13 regarding eventual differences in demographics and pregnancy outcome. In our region in Sweden, all pregnant women are tested for GDM with a 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test and the 2-h cut off value for GDM is ≥10.0mmol/l in capillary plasma glucose. 1995-99 there were 131 women with GDM and their medical journals were compared against the 210 women with GDM during 2012-13. The same screening and diagnostic method was uses during the whole time period. In the 2012-13 GDM pregnancies there were more non-Scandinavian women, more women with insulin treatment during pregnancy and a higher frequency of cesarean deliveries compared to 1995. First weight of the women during GDM pregnancy 2012-13 was significantly higher than the weight of women with GDM 1995-99, 71kg (43-138; n=201) and 65kg (43-133; n=125) (p=0.008) respectively. However, there was no significant difference in weight of the mother at delivery. Birth weight of the child in GDM pregnancies 1995-99 was 3722.4g±578.2 (n=109; p=0.009), and in GDM pregnancies 2012-13 3555.6g±465.8 (n=162). Even though women with GDM 2012-13 weigh more when they start the pregnancy there is no difference in weight at delivery compared to women with GDM 1995-99. This is also reflected on the newborn, that 2012-13 had significantly lower birth weight but with the same gestational length as 1995-1999. We believe that this is due to a more active and intense treatment of women with GDM during pregnancy together with higher frequency of cesarean delivery. Prevention of large infants is crucial to avoid complications during delivery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Pharmaceutical management through environmental product labeling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wennmalm, Ake; Gunnarsson, Bo

    2009-07-01

    There is an increased awareness that medicinal products for human use may cause negative effects in the environment. In Sweden a voluntary environmental classification system for drugs has been established in collaboration between producers, authorities and the public health care, and used for five years. The idea is to enhance the market demand for medicines with less environmental impact, which in turn will stimulate the producers to design future medicines to be more environmentally friendly. The system is open to the public and based on assessment of the active ingredient in the medicinal product into several classes of risk and hazard, respectively. It is closely related to the EMEA guidelines. Risk is expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of the active ingredient (AI) and its predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The hazard is expressed in terms of the AI's persistence, potential to bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity. Drug data for the classification are delivered by the respective producers. Hitherto more than 300 AI, representing more than 50% of the Swedish volume of drug use, have been classified. Data for risk assessment were missing in 47% of AI. Among drugs with data 7% had a PEC/PNEC ratio >1, and another 7% had a ratio between 0.1 and 1. The AIs with highest ratio (>10) were two estrogens. Data for hazard assessment were lacking in 16% of the AI. Among drugs with environmental data 92% were not ready biodegradable, 23% had potential to bioaccumulation, and 61% were toxic to aquatic organisms at a concentration below 1 mg/l. These data are utilized by regional pharmaceutical expert groups when selecting substances to be recommended in public health care in Sweden. They may also be used by prescribing doctors who want to identify the environmentally most favourable substance among several with equivalent medical effect. We conclude that environmental data on human medicinal products are often missing, or

  16. What's counted as a reindeer herder? Gender and the adaptive capacity of Sami reindeer herding communities in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Astri; Reed, Maureen G; Lidestav, Gun

    2016-12-01

    Researchers of adaptive capacity and sustainable livelihoods have frequently used social, cultural, human, economic and institutional capitals to better understand how rural and resource-dependent communities address environmental, social and economic stresses. Yet few studies have considered how men and women contribute differently to these capitals to support community resilience overall. Our research sought to understand the differential contributions of Sami men and women to the adaptive capacity of reindeer husbandry and reindeer herding communities in northern Sweden. Our focus revealed a gendered division of labour in reindeer herding as an economic enterprise as well as gendered contributions to a broader conceptualization of reindeer husbandry as a family and community-based practice, and as a livelihood and cultural tradition. Based on our results, we recommend that community resilience be enhanced by generating more opportunities for men to achieve higher levels of human and economic capital (particularly outside of herding activities) and encouraging women to contribute more directly to institutional capital by participating in the formation and implementation of legislation, policies and plans.

  17. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  18. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1084-1087 (Review)] Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective Date: January 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  19. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigations Nos. 731-TA-1084-1087 (Review)] Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on purified...

  20. Increased incidence of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden, January 2012-February 2013.

    PubMed

    Darenberg, J; Henriques-Normark, B; Lepp, T; Tegmark-Wisell, K; Tegnell, A; Widgren, K

    2013-04-04

    The incidence of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden was 6.1 per 100,000 population in 2012, the highest since the disease became notifiable in 2004. Furthermore, January and February 2013 marked a dramatic increase of cases notified, partly explainable by an increase of emm1/T1 isolates, a type previously shown to cause severe invasive disease more often than other types. Healthcare providers in Sweden and health authorities in neighbouring countries have been informed about this increase.

  1. Quality of life among Iranian refugees resettled in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg; Eisemann, Martin

    2004-04-01

    The relationships between quality of life, psychopathological manifestations and coping related variables (coping resources, social support, sense of coherence) were examined among individuals who have perceived several severe traumata. One hundred Iranian refugees resettled in Sweden have been investigated by the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI), and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI), the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the WHOQoL-100 questionnaire in a cross-sectional study. Individuals, traumatized by combat experiences as a soldier during the war, with low BDI scores showed on average the significantly highest overall quality of life, the best physical health, the highest scores according to the sense of coherence most pronounced for "Meaningfulness," and the best availability of social integration compared to participants who did not had these experiences in combats and those with the experience but scored high in the BDI. Quality of life, coping resources, and social support were found closely related to psychopathological manifestations. Motivational orientations (highly developed Meaningfulness-SOC) and various coping competencies probably enable some traumatized individuals to resist against several traumata and to live in a good quality of life without psychopathological disturbances.

  2. Short-range solar radiation forecasts over Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landelius, Tomas; Lindskog, Magnus; Körnich, Heiner; Andersson, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    In this article the performance for short-range solar radiation forecasts by the global deterministic and ensemble models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is compared with an ensemble of the regional mesoscale model HARMONIE-AROME used by the national meteorological services in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Note however that only the control members and the ensemble means are included in the comparison. The models resolution differs considerably with 18 km for the ECMWF ensemble, 9 km for the ECMWF deterministic model, and 2.5 km for the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble. The models share the same radiation code. It turns out that they all underestimate systematically the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for clear-sky conditions. Except for this shortcoming, the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble model shows the best agreement with the distribution of observed Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and DNI values. During mid-day the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble mean performs best. The control member of the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble also scores better than the global deterministic ECMWF model. This is an interesting result since mesoscale models have so far not shown good results when compared to the ECMWF models. Three days with clear, mixed and cloudy skies are used to illustrate the possible added value of a probabilistic forecast. It is shown that in these cases the mesoscale ensemble could provide decision support to a grid operator in terms of forecasts of both the amount of solar power and its probabilities.

  3. Timing and duration of autumn leaf development in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    The growing season is changing in both ends and autumn phases seem to be responding in more diverse ways than spring events. Indeed, we know little about autumn leaf phenological strategies and how they are correlated with fitness components or ecosystem properties, and how they vary between species and over bioclimatic gradients. In this study more than 10 000 students were involved in observing autumn leaf development at 378 sites all over Sweden (55-68°N). They followed an image based observation protocol classifying autumn leaf development into five levels, from summer green (level 0) to 100% autumn leaf colored (level 4) canopy. In total, they submitted almost 12 000 observations between August 9 and November 15. 75% of the observations were made on the common species of Populus tremula, Betula pendula/pubescens and Sorbus aucuparia. The expected (negative) correlation between latitude and start of leaf senescence (level 2) was found in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. The duration of the leaf senescence period, defined as the period between 1/3 (level 2) and 100% (level 4) of the canopy autumn leaf colored, was negatively correlated with latitude in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. There was also a strong (negative) correlation of the start (level 2) and the duration of the leaf senescence in the early senescing Sorbus and Betula, while this effect was weaker in the late senescing Populus.

  4. Dendrometer studies in urban and rural environments in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Eva; Holzkämper, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    With this study we investigate growth performances of Pinus sylvestris growing under the influence of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Stockholm, Sweden, and trees growing in the rural surrounding of the city. The aims of this investigation are to see whether and how much the growth performances differ, and which climatic parameters control the tree growth at the respective locations. Stockholm holds one of the world's longest observational climate records, reaching back to AD 1756. Since climate data are collected at a location which today is well within the Urban Heat Island, it is relevant to quantify the correlation differences between climate and tree growth data from trees which actually grow under the same climate conditions and trees growing under natural, rural climate conditions. Applied methods include Remote Sensing and GIS for identification and characterization of the Urban Heat Island, monitoring of tree growth at 30 min-resolution with point dendrometers (Ecomatik) and monitoring of local climate directly at the tree sites. First results indicate emphasized growth differences between the urban and the rural sites, with distinctively higher daily diameter change amplitudes at the urban sites compared to the rural sites, which can be explained by differences in relative humidity and temperature ranges between the sites. We will present and discuss results from 1 year of measurements, focusing on correlation analysis between climate and tree growth data from urban and rural sites, as well as practical issues with dendrometer measurements.

  5. Organisational factors and occupational balance in working parents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Borgh, Madeleine; Eek, Frida; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2018-05-01

    Parents with small children constitute a vulnerable group as they have an increased risk of sick leave due to stress-related disorders compared to adults without children. It has been shown that mothers and fathers to small children together spend more time in paid work than any other group, which could create negative stress and an experience of low occupational balance. The aim of this study was to examine associations between organisational factors and occupational balance among parents with small children in Sweden. Data were collected by a survey including questions about occupational balance, organisational factors and age, sex, employment rate, work position, monthly household income, number of children at home, separation/divorce last five years and overtime. The total number of parents included in this study was 718 (490 mothers and 228 fathers). Logistic regression models were applied to examine the odds ratios for occupational balance in relation to organisational factors. Parents who experienced positive attitudes towards parenthood and parental leave among colleagues and managers were more likely to experience high occupational balance than parents who experienced negative or neutral attitudes. Having a clear structure for handover when absent from work was also strongly associated with high occupational balance. The result of the present study indicates that some organisational factors could be important for the occupational balance of parents with small children.

  6. The epidemiology of anophthalmia and microphthalmia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Källén, Bengt; Tornqvist, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Infants with a clinical diagnosis of anophthalmia or microphthalmia were identified from four health registers in Sweden, covering different parts of the period 1965-2001. During the observation period, the rate of anophthalmia decreased from the early 1970s from 0.4 to 0.2 per 10,000 births. The registered rate of microphthalmia increased markedly during the observation period to reach a maximum in 1987 of about 1.5 per 10,000. About 10% of the 432 identified children had a chromosome anomaly. There was no geographical variation in prevalence and infants born in urban or rural districts had, if anything, a lower risk than infants born in cities (0.93 and 1.13 per 10,000, respectively). Non-eye malformations were more common at anophthalmia (63%) than at microphthalmia (30%). Sex ratio was normal and no statistically significant variation between sub-groups (anophthalmia, microphthalmia, isolated, associated with non-eye malformations) could be demonstrated. There was a marked risk increase with maternal age but no certain parity effect, no effect of maternal education, but a possible association with subfertility. Maternal smoking in early pregnancy seemed to increase the risk for anophthalmia or microphthalmia in the absence of a coloboma.

  7. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports.

    PubMed

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  8. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  9. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  10. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  11. Cost Analysis of a Digital Health Care Model in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Björn

    2017-09-22

    Digital technologies in health care are expected to increase in scope and to affect ever more parts of the health care system. It is important to enhance the knowledge of whether new digital methods and innovations provide value for money compared with traditional models of care. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether a digital health care model for primary care is a less costly alternative compared with traditional in-office primary care in Sweden. Cost data for the two care models were collected and analyzed to obtain a measure in local currency per care contact. The comparison showed that the total economic cost of a digital consultation is 1960 Swedish krona (SEK) (SEK100 = US$11.29; February 2017) compared with SEK3348 for a traditional consultation at a health care clinic. Cost differences arose on both the provider side and on the user side. The digital health care model may be a less costly alternative to the traditional health care model. Depending on the rate of digital substitution, gross economic cost savings of between SEK1 billion and SEK10 billion per year could be realized if more digital consultations were made. Further studies are needed to validate the findings, assess the types of care most suitable for digital care, and also to obtain various quality-adjusted outcome measures.

  12. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539

  13. Everyday places, heterosexist spaces and risk in contemporary Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Katarina Giritli; Öhman, Susanna; Olofsson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Subjective feelings of risk are a central feature of everyday life, and evidence shows that people who do not conform to contemporary normative notions are often more exposed to everyday risks than others. Despite this, normative notions are rarely acknowledged as risk objects. By drawing on the theory of 'doing' and 'undoing' risk, which combines intersectional and risk theory, this study contributes new perspectives on the everyday risks in contemporary society that face people who many would label as being 'at risk' - lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. The study consists of five focus group interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people of different ages in Sweden. Findings pinpoint risks and how these are done and un-done in different spheres of interviewees' lives: the emotional risks prevailing in their private lives; the risk of discrimination at work and in relations with other institutions; and the risk of violence and harassment in public places. These risks are all related to the heteronormative order in which the mere fact of being lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender is perceived as a risk.

  14. Mobile health apps in Sweden: what do physicians recommend?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiping; Koch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Currently over 50,000 mobile health apps are available worldwide. In general, they are considered as innovations potentially delivering benefits to patients. Physicians are considered as potential channels to disseminate these innovations to patients. However, physicians' behavior in this regard has not been studied. To capture physicians' attitudes towards recommending health apps to patients and to describe factors influencing physicians' behavior, taking the specifics of an early adopter country, Sweden, into account. Diffusion of Innovation theory, the Health App Maturity Model and the Six Hurdles Model were used to construct a web-based survey that was answered by 44 Swedish physicians. Survey results were followed up with 2 individual interviews. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis and recursive abstraction for qualitative data analysis. Only a small group of physicians currently recommend mobile health apps to their patients. However, most physicians have a positive attitude and perceive improvement of patients' self-management ability as main benefit of health apps. Main perceived weaknesses include the lack of evidence-based content and lack of multi-language support. Regulation of health apps under the Medical Device Directive is asked for to assure quality and patient safety. Innovators and early adopters play an important role in the diffusion of mobile health apps. Interpersonal communication is seen as the most effective way for physicians gaining information and also motivates them to recommend mobile health apps to their patients. Physicians' knowledge about certified websites to ensure quality is however low.

  15. Snow in northern Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    As autumn colors moved across much of the lower forty-eight states in mid-October 2015, winter weather had already arrived in Alaska. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of the icy scene on October 16 as it passed over the region. Point Barrow, the northern-most location in the United States sits between the Chukchi Sea (west) and the Beaufort Sea on the east. The rugged peaks of the Brooks Range can be seen along the southern section of the image. North of the Brooks Range the land is almost entirely covered with snow; to the south the tan and browns visible between snow marks uncovered land. Sea ice lies over the waters near the coasts of much of Alaska’s North Slope, especially east of Point Barrow. White cloud banks are notable in the northeast and southeast sections of the image. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. [The history of polio in Sweden - from infantile paralysis to polio vaccine].

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Although other epidemics declined due to improved hygiene and sanitation, legislation, and vaccination, polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became and annual feature in the Swedish epidemiological pattern. Due to the vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This article deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and gives a brief description of: the demographical influence of polio, how did the medical authorities investigate and try to combat it, and the different comprehensions of how polio affected its victims.A study of polio incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused major epidemics in 1911-1913 and 1953. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age, and at the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 20-39. Due to its enigmatic appearance, polio was not considered as an epidemic infectious disease during the 19th century. Sweden's early epidemics enabled Swedish medical science to act and together with American research institutes it acquired a leading role in international medical research on the disease. In the 1955 Jonas Salk produced the first successful vaccine against polio but also Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.

  17. 3D Tomographic SAR Imaging in Densely Vegetated Mountainous Rural Areas in China and Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, L.; Muller, J. P., , Prof

    2017-12-01

    3D SAR Tomography (TomoSAR) and 4D SAR Differential Tomography (Diff-TomoSAR) exploit multi-baseline SAR data stacks to create an important new innovation of SAR Interferometry, to unscramble complex scenes with multiple scatterers mapped into the same SAR cell. In addition to this 3-D shape reconstruction and deformation solution in complex urban/infrastructure areas, and recent cryospheric ice investigations, emerging tomographic remote sensing applications include forest applications, e.g. tree height and biomass estimation, sub-canopy topographic mapping, and even search, rescue and surveillance. However, these scenes are characterized by temporal decorrelation of scatterers, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion and an open issue regarding possible height blurring and accuracy losses for TomoSAR applications particularly in densely vegetated mountainous rural areas. Thus, it is important to develop solutions for temporal decorrelation, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion.We report here on 3D imaging (especially in vertical layers) over densely vegetated mountainous rural areas using 3-D SAR imaging (SAR tomography) derived from data stacks of X-band COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight and L band ALOS-1 PALSAR data stacks over Dujiangyan Dam, Sichuan, China and L and P band airborne SAR data (BioSAR 2008 - ESA) in the Krycklan river catchment, Northern Sweden. The new TanDEM-X 12m DEM is used to assist co - registration of all the data stacks over China first. Then, atmospheric correction is being assessed using weather model data such as ERA-I, MERRA, MERRA-2, WRF; linear phase-topography correction and MODIS spectrometer correction will be compared and ionospheric correction methods are discussed to remove tropospheric and ionospheric delay. Then the new TomoSAR method with the TanDEM-X 12m DEM is described to obtain the number of scatterers inside each pixel, the scattering amplitude and phase of each scatterer and finally extract

  18. Estimating cull in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W.M. Zillgitt; S.R. Gevorkiantz

    1946-01-01

    Cull in northern hardwood stands is often very heavy and is difficult to estimate. To help clarify this situation and aid the average cruiser to become more accurate in his estimates, the study reported here should prove very helpful.

  19. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  20. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Immigrants and the Mass Media in Sweden. Interviews with Yugoslav, Greek and Turkish Families in the South of Sweden. No. 9-76/77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowander, Birgitta

    This study builds on the findings of a prior study of the information needs of immigrant families in Sweden to explore the manner in which immigrants come in contact with and use the various channels of information available to them in their new surroundings, especially those channels carrying messages in the major migrant languages. Intended to…

  4. Cost effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hensen, Marja; Heeg, Bart; Löthgren, Mickael; van Hout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In Sweden, risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is generally used in a population of schizophrenia patients who are at a high risk of being non-compliant. However, RLAI might also be suitable for use in the general schizophrenia population. To analyse the clinical and economic effects of RLAI in the Swedish treatment practice using a discrete-event simulation (DES) model. Treatment outcomes and direct costs were analysed for both the high-risk non-compliant patient population and the general schizophrenia population. An existing DES model was adapted to simulate the treatment of schizophrenia in Sweden. Model inputs were based on literature research and supplemented with expert opinion. In the high-risk non-compliant schizophrenia population, RLAI was compared with haloperidol LAI. The analysis was built upon differences in symptom reduction, time between relapses, compliance and adverse effect profile between the two drugs. Main outcomes were the predicted incremental (discounted) costs (€) and effects (QALYs). In the general schizophrenia population, RLAI was compared with oral olanzapine. This analysis was built upon differences in compliance and adverse effects between the drugs. Multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were carried out to assess the sensitivity of the results of the two analyses. In the high-risk non-compliant patient population, RLAI was predicted to generate 0.103 QALYs per patient over 3 years while realizing cost savings of €5013 (year 2007 values) compared with haloperidol LAI. The main driver of the cost effectiveness of RLAI was the difference in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) reduction between the two drugs, followed by the difference in adverse effects. The PSA showed that, in this setting, RLAI had a probability of 100% of being cost effective at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of €43,300 per QALY gained, compared with haloperidol LAI. The probability that RLAI combines additional

  5. The role of temperature and temperature-induced drought on forest productivity in the Northern Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Pérez, Guiomar; Vico, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the climate system and the global carbon cycle and is of considerable socioeconomic importance for Northern countries. For example, Sweden has pursued more intensive forest harvesting as a way of fulfilling the requirements of the EU renewable energy directive. Due to ecological and economical role of forests, it is imperative to better understand the physical and biological processes leading to potential changes in productivity. There is no consensus regarding the net effect of raising temperatures on vegetation productivity in this area. There exist the idea that in response to warmer temperatures, forests located in cold regions may benefit from longer growing seasons and, consequently, become more productive. However, radial growth and wood density measurements suggest that in recent decades, there has been a "divergence" between warming and tree growth, with localized shifts to a negative relationship between temperature and growth. This unexpected adverse response of forests in northern areas under warming is consistent with the fact that they are becoming more vulnerable to warm-related disturbances including temperature-induced drought stress. Here we focus on satellite NDVI record as an indicator of greenness vegetation across the Northern Countries for the period 2000 to present and explore corresponding relationships with high-resolution gridded climate data from E-OBS. By focusing on the whole Sweden, we were able to assess whether the role played by each climatic driver (precipitation, temperature and a dryness index) differed in different locations. In particular, a Partial Least Square (PLS) regression analysis was conducted to investigate the model component structure among the potential drivers explaining the annual variations of the mean NDVI observed during the growing season. We observed how forests respond differently to climatic drivers and their extremes when the increasing temperature occurs together with

  6. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Knowledge of reproduction in teenagers and young adults in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sydsjö, Gunilla; Selling, Katarina Ekholm; Nyström, Karin; Oscarsson, Cecilia; Kjellberg, Svante

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the knowledge of reproductive physiology and anatomy among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and to evaluate the education obtained on these issues. Two hundred and nine study specific questionnaires were distributed, of which 206 were answered by students in primary school, upper secondary school and at first year of university. A total knowledge score based on 21 out of the 35 questions in the questionnaire was calculated. As only 44 of the 206 respondents answered all the questions a revised score was also calculated, in which partial dropouts were interpreted as wrong answers. The mean of the total knowledge score was 28.7 out of 54 among the 44 respondents answering all questions, and the revised knowledge score was 24.0. The level of knowledge tended to be higher in older age groups, among women, as well as among respondents who had visited a Youth clinic. The time of ovulation was known by 21.4% of men compared to 63.4% of women. Almost 50% of the students knew one mechanism whereby oral contraceptives act to protect against pregnancy. Of the respondents, 77.2% knew of Chlamydia trachomatis but the knowledge of other STIs, like condyloma, was poorer (16.5%). Reasons for infertility were relatively well known among the respondents. Of the respondents, 57.5% stated that they had not received enough information on reproductive issues. The students have not achieved sufficient knowledge concerning sexual and reproductive matters that they, according to the national curriculum, should have attained by the end of the 9th grade. An improvement of the quality of the education, adapted to the students' age and pre-existing knowledge, and a review of the contents of the education is therefore needed.

  8. Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Edelvik, Anna; Rydenhag, Bertil; Olsson, Ingrid; Flink, Roland; Kumlien, Eva; Källén, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prospective, population-based long-term outcomes concerning seizures and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment after resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden. Methods: Ten- and 5-year follow-ups were performed in 2005 to 2007 for 278/327 patients after resective epilepsy surgery from 1995 to 1997 and 2000 to 2002, respectively. All patients had been prospectively followed in the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Ninety-three patients, who were presurgically evaluated but not operated, served as controls. Results: In the long term (mean 7.6 years), 62% of operated adults and 50% of operated children were seizure-free, compared to 14% of nonoperated adults (p < 0.001) and 38% of nonoperated children (not significant). Forty-one percent of operated adults and 44% of operated children had sustained seizure freedom since surgery, compared to none of the controls (p < 0.0005). Multivariate analysis identified ≥30 seizures/month at baseline and long epilepsy duration as negative predictors and positive MRI to be a positive predictor of long-term seizure-free outcome. Ten years after surgery, 86% of seizure-free children and 43% of seizure-free adults had stopped AEDs in the surgery groups compared to none of the controls (p < 0.0005). Conclusions: This population-based, prospective study shows good long-term seizure outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery. The majority of the patients who are seizure-free after 5 and 10 years have sustained seizure freedom since surgery. Many patients who gain seizure freedom can successfully discontinue AEDs, more often children than adults. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that more patients are seizure-free and have stopped AED treatment in the long term after resective epilepsy surgery than nonoperated epilepsy patients. PMID:23966252

  9. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  10. Utility loss and indirect costs after stroke in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Peter; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Jönsson, Bengt

    2008-04-01

    Currently little data exist on the development of quality of life over time in patients suffering from stroke, in particular using instruments that can be adapted in economic studies. The purpose of the study was to assess the utility loss and indirect costs following a stroke in Sweden. A cross-sectional mail survey. In collaboration with the National Stroke registry (RIKS-STROKE), a questionnaire consisting of the EuroQol-5D and questions regarding the present working status and the status prior to the stroke was mailed to patients below 76 years of age at six participating centres. The questionnaire was mailed to 393 patients in total, divided into groups with 3, 6, 9 or 12 months having passed since the stroke. The EuroQol-5D scores were converted to utility scores using the UK social tariff. Indirect costs were valued according to the average salary+employer contributions. A total of 275 questionnaires (70%) were returned. Utility scores were similar over time: 0.65, 0.75, 0.63, and 0.67 at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Regression analyses revealed a tendency for lower utility scores among women, but no significant differences overall. Among patients in the working ages, a stroke caused 18.5 work weeks lost, corresponding to an indirect cost of 120,000 Swedish Kronor (SEK) (13,200euro, 95% confidence interval 82,541-160,050 SEK, 9080-17 605euro). Stroke causes a significant reduction in utility and causes high indirect costs. A substantial improvement was not noted over time, which is important to consider in economic models.

  11. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  12. Stomach cancer and occupation in Sweden: 1971–89

    PubMed Central

    Aragones, N; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between gastric cancer and occupation among men and women gainfully employed in 1970 in Sweden for the period 1971–89 and, more specifically, to evaluate whether any excess of incidence of gastric cancer had also occurred among the subcohort of people reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. Methods: In both sexes and cohorts, relative risks adjusted for age, period of diagnosis, and geographical risk area were computed for occupational codes specified at one, two, or three level (occupational sector, occupational group, and occupation, respectively). Relative risks were calculated with all other occupations as reference and then, to take socioeconomic status into account, solely other occupations within the same occupational sector were used. Results: Among men, occupations with increased risk included miners and quarrymen, construction and metal processing workers, supporting the possible causative role of dusty environments in stomach cancer. In men, the results also provide support for increased risks among electrical and mechanical engineers, fishermen, petrol station workers, motor vehicle drivers, butchers and meat preparers, dockers, freight handlers, launderers and dry cleaners. Furthermore, it is worth noting interesting results for women, whose occupational risks have been studied less. Excess risks were found for practical nurses, cashiers, bank employees, engineering and electronic industry workers, food industry, housekeeping and cleaning workers. Due to the many occupations studied, several significant associations may be expected by chance. Conclusions: The study is explorative but provides support for the relations suggested previously between occupational exposure to dusty environments and stomach cancer, together with some new high risk occupations which should be further studied. PMID:11983848

  13. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Gösta; Eriksson, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A) noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19) per 5 dB(A) noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

  14. Consumers of eldercare in Sweden: the semblance of choice.

    PubMed

    Meinow, Bettina; Parker, Marti G; Thorslund, Mats

    2011-11-01

    In Sweden and other countries, the benefits of user choice and market forces are often voiced in relation to the provision of medical care and social services. Policy makers increasingly view people as customers and consumers of care services. Among very old people-the most frequent care users-how many have the capacity necessary to find information and make decisions concerning providers of medical and social services? Using a nationally representative sample of Swedes aged 77+ (SWEOLD) in 2002 this study describes the prevalence of cognitive, physical and sensory resources associated with the capacity to make and carry out informed choices concerning medical and social care providers. Results showed that one third of a nationally representative sample of persons aged 77+ scored low on a cognitive test or they were so cognitively impaired that they could not be interviewed directly. Another 22% scored poorly on a test of the ability to find and process information. A further 32% had adequate cognition but had limitations in sensory function or mental vitality or were unable to go outside on their own. A total of 10% did not report any of the measured problems. In general, care utilisation increases with age. As health problems increase, physical and cognitive abilities decline. Results suggest that those elderly people who are most dependent on care services and who could benefit most from a "good choice", are also those who have the highest prevalence of cognitive and physical limitations associated with the capacity to act as a rational consumer of care services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Historical cases of anthrax in Sweden 1916-1961.

    PubMed

    Elvander, M; Persson, B; Sternberg Lewerin, S

    2017-06-01

    As in most European countries, anthrax was common in Swedish livestock during the centuries leading up to the mid-twentieth century. After 1957, the disease was regarded as practically extinct. However, in the past 7 years, three outbreaks have caused public alarm because of the risk of environmental contamination. Properly buried carcasses should present little risk of spore contamination, and instructions were in place to ensure this since the 1890s. However, as has been demonstrated in recent outbreaks, carcasses were not always adequately buried and viable spores may remain in some sites. This study was prompted by the lack of historical information to assess the geographical risk of old anthrax spores. The aim was to obtain sufficient information to map old anthrax outbreaks, to study clusters and variation between years. Historical data were retrieved from Official National and Regional Veterinary Archives. In the years 1916 to 1961, anthrax was reported from more than 3000 farms and all 24 counties in Sweden were affected. Most cases were single animals, but there were also some larger outbreaks mainly involving cattle. Anthrax in horses was mostly reported before the mid-twentieth century, and the same was seen for pigs and wildlife. A ban in 1957, on the import of bone meal for animal feed led to a drastic reduction of outbreaks. The majority of cases were reported during the summer months in animals on pasture. Historical records proved useful for the investigation of current outbreaks. If handled properly, old carcasses pose no substantial risk, but if not, they may present a risk to grazing animals in some areas. Historical information is useful for all planning of work that involves digging or relocation of soil masses. Anthrax can be regarded as one of the diseases where history is a key to present knowledge. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Pornography and sexual experiences among high school students in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated the differences between high school boys and girls in: (1) the use of pornography, (2) sexual experiences, (3) experience of sexual abuse, and (4) perceptions of sexuality and pornography. It also examined the possible predictors of experiencing sexual activities, such as sex, sociodemographic factors (high school program, household, and ethnic background), pornography consumption, experience of sexual abuse, perception of sexuality, and perception of pornography. A population-based classroom survey of 16-year-old boys (n = 477) and girls (n = 400) from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys (96%, n = 453) and 54% of the girls (n = 213) had watched pornography. Regardless of sex, pornography consumers had a positive perception of pornography. There were no differences between pornography-consuming boys and girls regarding fantasies, and they had attempted sexual acts inspired by pornography. A higher proportion of girls (15%) than boys (6%) had experienced sexual abuse. Predictors for being sexually experienced (oral sex, intercourse, and anal sex) included: being a girl, attending a vocational high school program, living with separated parents, having experience of sexual abuse, stating that boys and girls are equally interested in sex, and having a positive perception of pornography (Adj. R = 0.166). Boys had more experience of and a more positive perception of pornography, but there were only a few differences between boys and girls in the pornography-consumer group. Girls were more sexually experienced than boys. A positive perception of pornography predicted being sexually experienced.

  17. Variation in subjective oral health indicators of 65-year-olds in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekbäck, Gunnar; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Klock, Kristin; Ordell, Sven; Unell, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the conceptual framework of Gilbert and co-workers, this study assesses satisfaction with oral health as reported by 65-year-olds in Sweden and Norway, the relationship of socio-demographic factors, clinical and subjective oral health indicators with satisfaction of oral health, and the consistency of those relationships across countries. In 2007, standardized questionnaires were mailed to all the residents in two counties in Sweden and three in Norway who were born in 1942. Response rates were 73.1% (n=6078) in Sweden and 56.0% (n=4062) in Norway. Totals of 76.8% of the Swedish and 76.5% of the Norwegian participants reported satisfaction with oral health. Corresponding figures for toothache were 48.1% (Sweden) versus 51.5% (Norway), and for temporomandibular joint symptoms, 10.9% (Sweden) versus 15.1% (Norway). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that subjects who perceived they had bad health, smoked daily, had missing teeth, experienced toothache, had problems with chewing, bad breath, and oral impacts were less likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to be satisfied with their oral health status. The corresponding odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 0.08 (problems chewing) to 0.2 (oral impact). No statistically significant two-way interactions occurred and the model explained 46% of the variance in satisfaction with oral health across the two countries (45% in Sweden and 47% in Norway). The oral condition of 65-year-olds in Norway and Sweden produced impacts in oral symptoms, functional limitations, and problems with daily activities that varied to some extent. Satisfaction with oral health varied by socio-demographic factors and subjective oral health indicators. A full understanding of the oral health and treatment needs of 65-year-olds cannot be captured by clinical measures alone.

  18. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  19. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  20. Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, E; Tälleklint, L; Polfeldt, T

    2000-01-01

    We examined whether a reported northward expansion of the geographic distribution limit of the disease-transmitting tick Ixodes ricinus and an increased tick density between the early 1980s and mid-1990s in Sweden was related to climatic changes. The annual number of days with minimum temperatures above vital bioclimatic thresholds for the tick's life-cycle dynamics were related to tick density in both the early 1980s and the mid-1990s in 20 districts in central and northern Sweden. The winters were markedly milder in all of the study areas in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s. Our results indicate that the reported northern shift in the distribution limit of ticks is related to fewer days during the winter seasons with low minimum temperatures, i.e., below -12 degrees C. At high latitudes, low winter temperatures had the clearest impact on tick distribution. Further south, a combination of mild winters (fewer days with minimum temperatures below -7 degrees C) and extended spring and autumn seasons (more days with minimum temperatures from 5 to 8 degrees C) was related to increases in tick density. We conclude that the relatively mild climate of the 1990s in Sweden is probably one of the primary reasons for the observed increase of density and geographic range of I. ricinus ticks. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10656851

  1. Antibacterial Drugs Prescribed for Dogs and Cats in Sweden and Norway 1990–1998

    PubMed Central

    Odensvik, K; Grave, K; Greko, C

    2001-01-01

    The usage of veterinary antibacterial drugs in dogs and cats in Sweden and Norway for the period 1990–1998 was investigated by use of drug wholesalers' statistics. Additionally, usage of human antibacterial drugs in these species in Sweden was investigated by use of prescription data for the period 1996–1998. On average, more than 50% of the prescribed veterinary antibacterials in Sweden were beta-lactam antibiotics. In Norway, about 75% of the preparations prescribed for dogs and cats contained sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Furthermore, the prescription data from Sweden showed a reduced usage of human antibacterials prescribed for dogs and cats since the beginning of the 1980s. Approximately 20% of the prescribed packages for dogs in the years 1996–1998 were human approved drugs. The corresponding figure for cats was 13%. The differences between the countries in the choice of antibacterial drugs can be explained by differences in the availability of approved preparations during the study period. The consumption of veterinary antibacterials in dogs and cats in Sweden during the period was in the range of 3% to 8% of the total use of veterinary antibacterials. The corresponding figures in Norway were in the range of 3% to 7%. It is of vital importance to study usage patterns of antibacterial drugs in dogs and cats in surveillance and control of bacterial resistance, but also in discussions of therapeutic appropriateness. Therefore, further research is needed in this area. PMID:11455899

  2. Patterns of between-farm contacts via professionals in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Emelie; Nöremark, Maria; Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg

    2014-11-04

    Infectious diseases of livestock have negative consequences for animal production as well as animal health and welfare and can be transmitted between farms via direct (live animal movements) as well as indirect (via physical vectors such as, people, transport vehicles and fomites) contacts. The objective of the study was to examine the travel patterns of professionals visiting Swedish farms (veterinarians, milk tanker drivers, artificial inseminators, maintenance technicians and livestock hauliers). This was done by obtaining records of the farms visited by a sample of professionals in the above categories in one week in January, one week in April, one week in July and one week in October in the Swedish counties Västerbotten, Södermanland, Västergötland and Skåne. There were twelve participating organisations, and data was provided for one to three individuals/vehicles/veterinary practices per professional category and per geographic region (except for dairy service technicians and livestock hauliers who did not provide data from all regions). There was a trend towards larger areas covered and smaller number of farms visited per week in the north, but exceptions occurred and there were regional variations. Generally, the greatest areas were travelled by milk tankers and livestock hauliers, and the profession travelling over the smallest areas tended to be the veterinarians. Milk tankers visited most farms per week, one milk tanker could visit between 23 and 90 farms per week and travel over areas between 717 km² and 23,512 km² per week. Valuable insight into the travel patterns of Swedish professionals has emerged although the implications of the study largely concern highly infectious diseases. Movement of live animals pose the greatest risk for the spread of infectious animal diseases; however indirect contacts are important for many diseases. The results of this study indicate that in Sweden a highly contagious disease might spread over a large area in

  3. Geometry and Hydraulics of Englacial Conduits, Storglaciaren, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A. G.; Schlichting, R.; Frodin, S.; Jacobel, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    Englacial conduits are the primary structure responsible for transporting surface water to the base of a glacier, where it supplies the subglacial hydraulic system and, in turn, affects glacier movement. Despite the well-known theoretical descriptions of englacial conduits, little direct evidence exists about their geometry and hydraulics. In July 2001, we initiated a field effort on Storglaciären, Sweden, to intersect englacial conduits by drilling into the glacier using a hot water drill. A companion project (Jacobel et al., this session) attempted to detect the englacial conduits using ground-penetrating radar. In a typical borehole, the water level remained at the surface while drilling through the impermeable ice. Once a connection was made, the water level dropped roughly 10 m and remained low despite continued water pumping. A small video camera was lowered, with attachments, to measure the geometry of the opening, and water flow speed. The water level in the hole provided a piezometric measure of the pressure. We drilled 22 holes at 3 separate locations and 17 (77%) connected englacially, the remaining 5 reached the bed without englacial connection, of which 2 drained at the bed. The geometry of the connections was highly irregular in cross-section with 1-2 cm openings, reminiscent of crevasse-like features rather than circular cross-sections as anticipated from the theoretical literature. Flow behavior was observed by tracking particle motion. The flow was complicated, in part by the inferred tangential intersection between the borehole and structure, and by the observed surging behavior. Flow speeds were low, on the order of 1 cm sec-1. Water level records from 3 different holes over several days exhibited highly correlated variations and large diurnal excursions. In contrast, records from holes drilled to the bed showed little variation. Based on these measurements, our conceptual picture of the englacial system is that of a sluggish flow system

  4. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  5. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Northern peatlands span only 3 million square kilometers, about 3% of the terrestrial area of the globe, yet they represent a significant terrestrial sink for carbon dioxide. They are also important emitters of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas. Despite their substantial role in the global carbon cycle, peatlands are not typically incorporated into global climate models. The AGU Monograph Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands, edited by Andrew J. Baird, Lisa R. Belyea, Xavier Comas, A. S. Reeve, and Lee D. Slater, looks at the disproportionate role peatlands play in the global carbon budget. In this interview, Eos talks with Andy Baird, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

  6. Phenological Variation in Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Facilitates Near Future Establishment at Northern Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Romain; Lemke, Andreas; Štefanić, Edita; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Rašić, Sanda; Andersson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) constitutes a great threat to public health and agriculture in large areas of the globe. Climate change, characterized by higher temperatures and prolonged vegetation periods, could increase the risk of establishment in northern Europe in the future. However, as the species is a short-day plant that requires long nights to induce bloom formation, it might still fail to produce mature seeds before the onset of winter in areas at northern latitudes characterized by short summer nights. To survey the genetic variation in flowering time and study the effect of latitudinal origin on this trait, a reciprocal common garden experiment, including eleven populations of A. artemisiifolia from Europe and North America, was conducted. The experiment was conducted both outside the range limit of the species, in Sweden and within its invaded range, in Croatia. Our main hypothesis was that the photoperiodic-thermal requirements of A. artemisiifolia constitute a barrier for reproduction at northern latitudes and, thus, halts the northern range shift despite expected climate change. Results revealed the presence of a north-south gradient in flowering time at both garden sites, indicating that certain European populations are pre-adapted to photoperiodic and thermal conditions at latitudes up to, at least, 60° N. This was confirmed by phenological recordings performed in a region close to the northern range limit, the north of Germany. Thus, we conclude that there exists a high risk for establishment and spread of A. artemisiifolia in FennoScandinavia in the near future. The range shift might occur independently of climate change, but would be accelerated by it.

  7. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  8. Social services in Sweden: an overview of policy issues, devolution, and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Holosko, Michael J; Holosko, Deborah Ann; Spencer, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of three related to social welfare policy in Sweden. It presents an overview of social services in Sweden highlighting its history, financing, and the various welfare programs offered in one of the more unique liberal democracies in the world. Sweden has had a long-standing historic commitment to the social welfare of its citizens. Its social services are aimed primarily in two areas: care of individuals and families and care of the elderly and disabled persons. The article then presents a generalized discussion of the global devolution revolution and how this impacts policies, best practices, and service delivery. It concludes with the solution to the worldwide devolution revolution-collaboration-and offers some of the stories behind the story of collaboration in various countries and communities of the world.

  9. Characterization of human invasive isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden 1986-2007.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vishal Singh; Lopez-Valladares, Gloria; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise; Peiris, Inoka; Helmersson, Seved; Unemo, Magnus; Andersson, Birgitta; Arneborn, Malin; Bannerman, Elizabeth; Barbuddhe, Sukdevo; Bille, Jacques; Hajdu, Lajos; Jacquet, Christine; Johansson, Christina; Löfdahl, Margareta; Möllerberg, Gunnel; Ringberg, Håkan; Rocourt, Jocelyne; Tjernberg, Ingela; Ursing, Jan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Tham, Wilhelm

    2008-12-01

    Since 1986, 68% of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases of invasive listeriosis in Sweden are available for retrospective studies. The aim of the present study was to characterize 601 human invasive isolates of L. monocytogenes in Sweden from 1986 to 2007 by using serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Since 1996, serovar 4b was permanently reduced to the second or third most common serovar in human cases in Sweden. During the latter period, 2000-2007, only 13% belonged to serovar 4b and 71% to 1/2a. The dendrogram, based on pulsovars, reveals two clusters with different serovars. Cluster 1 exhibits serovars 4b and 1/2b, whereas cluster 2 consists of serovar 1/2a. Serovar 1/2a seems to be more heterogeneous than serovar 4b.

  10. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.

  11. Relationships between vegetation dynamics and hydroclimatic drivers in the northern high-latitude uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.; Spence, C.

    2015-12-01

    IPCC projections show that climate warming will be particularly high in northern high-latitude regions, which has profound ecohydrological implications: a small rise of temperature may result in lower water availability in summer due to less rainfall and more evapotranspiration, increase flooding risks by accelerating melting rates in spring, and more rain rather than snow in winter, etc. These impacts will affect vegetation communities by altering timing of the spring "green-up" and fall "senescence". Change in vegetation water use will feedback to atmospheric and hydrological cycles. Here, we report results from the PLATO "Plant-water interlinkages in northern uplands - mediation of climate change?" project where we investigate water uptake by plants and consequent water availability in northern regions along a cross-regional climate gradient to understand future responses to change in high-latitude uplands. Six sites in Sweden (Krycklan), Canada (Wolf Creek; Baker Creek; Dorset), Scotland (Girnock) and the USA (Dry Creek) span moisture and energy gradients found at high-latitudes. We are presenting preliminary results of vegetation phenology changes from 2000 to 2014 by analysing remote sensing vegetation indices. The relationship between vegetation phenology and climatic drivers (temperature and precipitation) is also investigated.

  12. Trends in socioeconomic disparities in oral health in Brazil and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Fritzell, Johan

    2011-06-01

    To describe the dynamics of trends in socioeconomic disparities in oral health in Brazil and Sweden among adults, to assess whether trends follow expected patterns according to the inverse equity hypothesis. In Sweden, we obtained nationally representative data for the years 1968, 1974, 1981, 1991 and 2000, and in Brazil, for 16 state capitals in 1986 and in 2002. Trends in the prevalence of 'edentulism' and of 'teeth in good conditions' were described in two groups aged 35-44 with lower and higher economic standards, respectively. There was an annual decline in disparities in 'edentulism' of 0.4 percentage points (pp) (95% CI = 0.2-0.7) in Brazil and 0.7pp (95% CI = 0.5-0.9) in Sweden, as a result of improvements in both income groups. Concerning 'teeth in good conditions', in Brazil, there was improvement only in the higher income group and absolute disparities have increased (0.5pp annually), while in Sweden, there was a nonsignificant decrease (0.3pp annually) with improvements in both groups. Since 1991 in Sweden and in 2002 in Brazil, our measures of socioeconomic disparities in 'edentulism' were not statistically significant. Trends did not differ by sex or dental visit. Despite improvements in both income groups and a decrease in disparities in 'edentulism', the poorer group in Brazil has seen no improvement in 'teeth in good conditions' and disparities have increased. It appears that Brazil and Sweden reflect different stages of trend for 'teeth in good conditions' and the same stages for 'edentulism', represented by the inverse equity hypothesis. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  14. Vesta Partly Shadowed Northern Regions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-01

    This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft shows a part of asteroid Vesta surface reasonably far north into the northern hemisphere which appears washed out because it has been stretched to make features visible that would otherwise be too dark to see.

  15. Strip cutting in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Interest in clearcutting young northern hardwood stands in strips is running high, especially now that mechanical fellers and skidders have been developed to harvest these stands. Strip cutting has several advantages-no overstory to worry about when treating the site, no overstory to remove later, and the economic advantage of cutting the strip only once.

  16. The outlook for northern forests

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Francisco X. Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    The forests of the Northern United States have been remarkably resilient to nearly four centuries of immigration and settlement with associated anthropogenic disturbances caused by farming, logging, burning, urbanization, trade, and many other factors. Although resilient, forests conditions have been significantly impacted by humans as is illustrated by the extent of...

  17. Pace slows in northern Rockies

    SciTech Connect

    Stremel, K.

    1984-03-01

    This paper deals with recent natural gas development and production in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Because of restricted gas markets, the pace has slowed construction of gas processing and gathering facilities. The gas and oil companies which are planning or building new projects are discussed.

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus argenteus misidentified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerging in western Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tång Hallbäck, Erika; Karami, Nahid; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Cardew, Sofia; Ohlén, Maria; Engström Jakobsson, Hedvig; Svensson Stadler, Liselott

    2018-05-17

    Two strains included in a whole-genome sequencing project for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were identified as non-Staphylococcus aureus when the sequences were analysed using the bioinformatics software ALEX (www.1928diagnostics.com, Gothenburg, Sweden). Sequencing of the sodA gene of these strains identified them as Staphylococcus argenteus. The collection of MRSA in western Sweden was checked for additional strains of this species. A total of 18 strains of S. argenteus isolated between 2011 and December 2017 were identified.

  19. Spatial clustering of mental disorders and associated characteristics of the neighbourhood context in Malmö, Sweden, in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Basile; Leyland, Alastair H; Sabel, Clive E; Chauvin, Pierre; Råstam, Lennart; Kristersson, Håkan; Merlo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Study objective Previous research provides preliminary evidence of spatial variations of mental disorders and associations between neighbourhood social context and mental health. This study expands past literature by (1) using spatial techniques, rather than multilevel models, to compare the spatial distributions of two groups of mental disorders (that is, disorders due to psychoactive substance use, and neurotic, stress related, and somatoform disorders); and (2) investigating the independent impact of contextual deprivation and neighbourhood social disorganisation on mental health, while assessing both the magnitude and the spatial scale of these effects. Design Using different spatial techniques, the study investigated mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use, and neurotic disorders. Participants All 89 285 persons aged 40–69 years residing in Malmö, Sweden, in 2001, geolocated to their place of residence. Main results The spatial scan statistic identified a large cluster of increased prevalence in a similar location for the two mental disorders in the northern part of Malmö. However, hierarchical geostatistical models showed that the two groups of disorders exhibited a different spatial distribution, in terms of both magnitude and spatial scale. Mental disorders due to substance consumption showed larger neighbourhood variations, and varied in space on a larger scale, than neurotic disorders. After adjustment for individual factors, the risk of substance related disorders increased with neighbourhood deprivation and neighbourhood social disorganisation. The risk of neurotic disorders only increased with contextual deprivation. Measuring contextual factors across continuous space, it was found that these associations operated on a local scale. Conclusions Taking space into account in the analyses permitted deeper insight into the contextual determinants of mental disorders. PMID:16614334

  20. Costs explained by function rather than diagnosis--results from the SNAC Nordanstig elderly cohort in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, C; Gustavsson, A; Jönsson, L; Wimo, A

    2013-05-01

    Because the prevalence of many brain disorders rises with age, and brain disorders are costly, the economic burden of brain disorders will increase markedly during the next decades. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the costs to society vary with different levels of functioning and with the presence of a brain disorder. Resource utilization and costs from a societal viewpoint were analyzed versus cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), brain disorder diagnosis and age in a population-based cohort of people aged 65 years and older in Nordanstig in Northern Sweden. Descriptive statistics, non-parametric bootstrapping and a generalized linear model (GLM) were used for the statistical analyses. Most people were zero users of care. Societal costs of dementia were by far the highest, ranging from SEK 262,000 (mild) to SEK 519,000 per year (severe dementia). In univariate analysis, all measures of functioning were significantly related to costs. When controlling for ADL and IADL in the multivariate GLM, cognition did not have a statistically significant effect on total cost. The presence of a brain disorder did not impact total cost when controlling for function. The greatest shift in costs was seen when comparing no dependency in ADL and dependency in one basic ADL function. It is the level of functioning, rather than the presence of a brain disorder diagnosis, which predicts costs. ADLs are better explanatory variables of costs than Mini mental state examination. Most people in a population-based cohort are zero users of care. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths of gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Rääf, Linnea; Osterman-Lind, Eva; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2018-06-01

    As the Scandinavian wolf population is limited in size, it is only rarely subject to systematic studies on its disease biology, especially gastrointestinal parasites. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of gray wolves hunted on a limited license as a part of a wildlife management program. Helminths of 20 wolves were examined post mortem by macroscopy and coprology. Intestinal worms of five species were recovered from 18 wolves (90%): Uncinaria stenocephala (90%), Taenia spp. (45%), Alaria alata (25%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%). Of the taeniid specimens typed by multiplex PCR and sequencing of the cox1 gene, 25% belonged to Taenia hydatigena and 25% to Taenia krabbei. The overall species diversity was low compared to findings from wolves of the northern hemisphere. Fecal eggs of Eucoleus boehmi were detected in 12 wolves (60%). Fecal metastrongylid larvae were found in seven individuals (39%), but PCR analyses specific for Angiostrongylus vasorum were negative. The wolves were in good body condition suggesting that the parasite infestation had no negative impact on the general health of the examined wolves. Although some of the recovered parasite species have zoonotic or veterinary impact, it is not likely that the spare wolf population pose substantial threat to human or veterinary health.

  2. Searching for best practices of youth friendly services - a study protocol using qualitative comparative analysis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Christianson, Monica; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Marchal, Bruno; San Sebastian, Miguel; Wiklund, Maria

    2016-07-29

    Swedish youth clinics constitute one of the most comprehensive and consolidated examples of a nationwide network of health care services for young people. However, studies evaluating their 'youth-friendliness' and the combination of factors that makes them more or less 'youth-friendly' have not been conducted. This protocol will scrutinise the current youth-friendliness of youth clinics in northern Sweden and identify the best combination of conditions needed in order to implement the criteria of youth-friendliness within Swedish youth clinics and elsewhere. In this study, we will use qualitative comparative analysis to analyse the conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to implement Youth Friendly Health Services in 20 selected youth-clinics (cases). In order to conduct Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we will first identify the outcomes and the conditions to be assessed. The overall outcome - youth-friendliness - will be assessed together with specific outcomes for each of the five domains - accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective. This will be done using a questionnaire to be applied to a sample of young people coming to the youth clinics. In terms of conditions, we will first identify what might be the key conditions, to ensure the youth friendliness of health care services, through literature review, interviews with professionals working at youth clinics, and with young people. The combination of conditions and outcomes will form the hypothesis to be further tested later on in the qualitative comparative analysis of the 20 cases. Once information on outcomes and conditions is gathered from each of the 20 clinics, it will be analysed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The added value of this study in relation to the findings is twofold: on the one hand it will allow a thorough assessment of the youth-friendliness of northern Swedish youth clinics. On the other hand, it will extract lessons from one of the most consolidated

  3. Potentials and problems of building detailed dust records using peat archives: An example from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander, Malin E.; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; Bindler, Richard; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Rauch, Sebastien

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust deposition is a process often overlooked in northern mid-latitudes, despite its potential effects on ecosystems. These areas are often peat-rich, providing ample material for the reconstruction of past changes in atmospheric deposition. The highly organic (up to 99% in some cases) matrix of atmospherically fed mires, however, makes studying the actual dust particles (grain size, mineralogy) challenging. Here we explore some of the potentials and problems of using geochemical data from conservative, lithogenic elements (Al, Ga, Rb, Sc, Y, Zr, Th, Ti and REE) to build detailed dust records by using an example from the 8900-yr peat sequence from Store Mosse (the ;Great Bog;), which is the largest mire complex in the boreo-nemoral region of southern Sweden. The four dust events recorded at this site were elementally distinct, suggesting different dominant mineral hosts. The oldest and longest event (6385-5300 cal yr BP) sees a clear signal of clay input but with increasing contributions of mica, feldspar and middle-REE-rich phosphate minerals over time. These clays are likely transported from a long-distance source (<100 km). While dust deposition was reduced during the second event (5300-4370 cal yr BP), this is the most distinct in terms of its source character with [Eu/Eu∗]UCC revealing the input of plagioclase feldspar from a local source, possibly active during this stormier period. The third (2380-2200 cal yr BP) and fourth (1275-1080 cal yr BP) events are much shorter in duration and the presence of clays and heavy minerals is inferred. Elemental mass accumulation rates reflect these changes in mineralogy where the relative importance of the four dust events varies by element. The broad changes in major mineral hosts, grain size, source location and approximated net dust deposition rates observed in the earlier dust events of longer duration agree well with paleoclimatic changes observed in northern Europe. The two most recent dust events are much

  4. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  5. 78 FR 73562 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... (Preliminary)] Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China, Germany, Japan, Korea... Taiwan and LTFV imports of non-oriented electrical steel from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and...

  6. International Perspectives on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparison of Teachers in the United States and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Steven; Frankenberger, William; Hall, Kristina M.; Totten, Sara J.; House, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    States and 116 general education elementary classroom teachers in Sweden were sent surveys assessing how teachers in the United States and Sweden (1) view the use of stimulant medication to treat ADHD behaviors in children, (2) attribute the causes of ADHD behaviors, and (3) rate the acceptability of various interventions used to treat ADHD…

  7. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  8. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  9. Admixture and gene flow from Russia in the recovering Northern European brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F; Danilov, Pjotr I; Hagen, Snorre B

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia.

  10. Admixture and Gene Flow from Russia in the Recovering Northern European Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F.; Danilov, Pjotr I.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia. PMID:24839968

  11. Structural Analysis of the Pärvie Fault in Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeckstroem, A.; Rantakokko, N.; Ask, M. V.

    2011-12-01

    governs the destabilization of a structure, such as the Pärvie fault, rather than the induced stresses from the weight of ice-sheet (Lund, 2005). This is a presentation of the first part of the structural analysis of the brittle structures around the Pärvie fault in order to evaluate its brittle deformation history and to attempt to constrain the paleostress fields causing these deformations. References Kukkonen, I.T., Olesen, O., Ask, M.V.S., and the PFDP Working Group, 2010. Postglacial faults in Fennoscandia: targets for scientific drilling. GFF, 132:71-81. Kukkonen, I.T., Ask, M.V.S., Olesen, O., 2011. Postglacial Fault Drilling in Northern Europe: Workshop in Skokloster, Sweden. Scientific Drilling, 11, doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.11.08.2011. Lagerbäck, R. & Sundh, M., 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. Geological survey of Sweden. Research paper, C 836. 80 p. Lund, B., Schmidt, P., Hieronymus, C., 2009. Stress evolution and fault stability during the Weichselian glacial cycle. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm. TR-09-15. 106 p. Riad, L., 1990. The Pärvie fault, Northern Sweden, Uppsala University. Research report 63. 48 p

  12. Methane Concentrations and Biogeochemistry in Lake Sediments from Stordalen Mire, Sub-Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, M.; DeStasio, J.; Erickson, L.; Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Setera, J.; Prado, M. F.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Lake sediments are an important global carbon sink of both allochthonous and autochthonous inputs. However, lakes are also known to emit carbon in gaseous form, most often as methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2), which are potent greenhouse gases. As northern latitudes warm, it is increasingly important to understand these gases and the sediments that store them. In July of 2013 we took 48 cores at 16 sites throughout three lakes surrounding a mire underlain by degrading permafrost in sub-arctic Sweden. The goal was to characterize the sedimentology and geochemistry of the lake sediments to better understand the production, distribution, and flux of CO2 and CH4 from these lakes. Villasjön is a shallow lake less than 1.5 meters deep, Mellan Harrsjön has a maximum depth of 7 meters and is stream-fed, and Inre Harrsjön has a maximum depth of 5 meters and is connected to Mellan Harrsjön. Published radiocarbon dates suggest that all three lakes formed approximately 3400 years ago. At each sample site, we retrieved 2 to 4 cores from the lake bottom, approximately 40-80 cm in length. The cores were sub-sampled for measurements of bulk TOC, TC, TN, TS, and CaCO3 (by difference) using a CHNS Elemental Analyzer, and grain size using a laser particle size analyzer. Headspace CO2 and CH4 by gas chromatography and infrared gas analysis (IRGA) yielded production rates and CH4 sediment concentrations. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from porewater extractions were analyzed using IRGA and stable carbon isotopes of DIC were analyzed via a Quantum Cascade Laser. The recovered sediments in the cores from all three lakes were composed of three layers: an upper layer of organic rich sediment (30-40 cm thick), a middle transition layer of mixed organic and lithogenic materials (5-10 cm thick), and a deep layer of grey lithogenic clay with less organic carbon (of variable thickness). Preliminary results from the 12 Villasjön sites indicate that CH4 is present and produced from the

  13. Diabetes Prevalence in Sweden at Present and Projections for Year 2050

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Tomas; Ahlbom, Anders; Carlsson, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the future diabetes burden in Scandinavia is limited. Our aim was to project the future burden of diabetes in Sweden by modelling data on incidence, prevalence, mortality, and demographic factors. Method To project the future burden of diabetes we used information on the prevalence of diabetes from the national drug prescription registry (adults ≥20 years), previously published data on relative mortality in people with diabetes, and population demographics and projections from Statistics Sweden. Alternative scenarios were created based on different assumptions regarding the future incidence of diabetes. Results Between 2007 and 2013 the prevalence of diabetes rose from 5.8 to 6.8% in Sweden but incidence remained constant at 4.4 per 1000 (2013). With constant incidence and continued improvement in relative survival, prevalence will increase to 10.4% by year 2050 and the number of afflicted individuals will increase to 940 000. Of this rise, 30% is accounted for by changes in the age structure of the population and 14% by improved relative survival in people with diabetes. A hypothesized 1% annual rise in incidence will result in a prevalence of 12.6% and 1 136 000 cases. Even with decreasing incidence at 1% per year, prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase. Conclusion We can expect diabetes prevalence to rise substantially in Sweden over the next 35 years as a result of demographic changes and improved survival among people with diabetes. A dramatic reduction in incidence is required to prevent this development. PMID:26619340

  14. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their…

  15. Dependence within Families and the Division of Labor: Comparing Sweden and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Marie; Nermo, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This article assesses the relative explanatory value of the resource-bargaining perspective and the doing-gender approach for the division of housework in the United States and Sweden from the mid-1970s to 2000. The data used are the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey. Overall results show that housework…

  16. Family-Friendly Labour Market Policies and Careers in Sweden--and the Lack of Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornqvist, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour…

  17. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated. PMID:15663080

  18. Cumulative risk of bovine mastitis treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Valde, J P; Lawson, L G; Lindberg, A; Agger, J F; Saloniemi, H; Osterås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.

  19. Better Homes and Families: Housing Markets and Young Couple Stability in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauster, Nathanael T.

    2008-01-01

    I model the relationship between aspects of the housing market influenced by housing policy and couple stability for cohabiting couples in Sweden. Using data on 3,851 cohabiting couples obtained from the Swedish Family Survey of 1992, I examine the effects of housing market characteristics on couple outcomes. I focus on three housing variables,…

  20. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden 2013: Data From the National Quality Register for ECT.

    PubMed

    Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2015-12-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15-94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment.

  1. Is It Ever Too Late to Study? The Economic Returns on Late Tertiary Degrees in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallsten, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic returns on tertiary degrees obtained in ages above 30 for individuals with upper-secondary schooling in light of current ideas on lifelong learning. Sweden is a case in point: Swedish tertiary education is open to older students, and labor market legislation supports employees who take a leave to study. The…

  2. Sweden Faces Zero Population Growth. Population Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 2, June, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendell, Murray

    This bulletin examines the causes of the fertility decline in Sweden and the concerns and ambivalence of Swedes about zero population growth (ZPG). The fertility decline is attributed to many causes. In recent years there has been a drop in marriage rates and a sharp increase in non-marital cohabitation. The decline is also related to the…

  3. The Compleat University: Break from Tradition in Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Harry, Ed.; And Others

    Different models of integrated education in the United States, Sweden, and Germany, including open admissions systems, are discussed in 16 conference papers. Titles include the following: "Opportunity and Achievement: An Analysis of Labor Market Experiences among Recent Graduates from the City University of New York" (James Murtha, Barry…

  4. Perspectives of Play in Three Nations: A Comparative Study in Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Rogers, Cosby Steele

    2010-01-01

    This reflective paper discusses findings about differences and similarities in perspectives on play among early childhood educators in Japan, the United States, and Sweden. Analysis of survey data collected from educators in those nations yielded six themes regarding the meanings and uses of play: (1) process of learning, (2) source of…

  5. Speculative Pedagogy: Education, Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Inclusion in Contemporary Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors focus on the consequences of economies and cultures of speculation in the field of education. Education is one of the arenas where the logics of speculation are being played out. It is argued that the major shifts in educational policy over the past decades in Sweden derive from what Ian Baucom aptly called…

  6. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's learning? The…

  7. "Gender Utopias?": U.S. Student Reflections on Studying Abroad in Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmeyer, Kristjane; Teig, Trisha; Bedera, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study abroad experience in Norway and Sweden that was designed to explore gender equality in two of the world's most gender-progressive countries. Course readings explored the work of feminist sociologists and asked students to think critically about gender equality from a cross-cultural perspective. Students met with…

  8. Psst, Have You Ever Cheated? A Study of Academic Dishonesty in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Kari

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that academic dishonesty is a prevalent problem that crosses all disciplines at the university level. But, how prevalent is it in Sweden? Little is published in the literature about lying, cheating, and plagiarism amongst Swedish university students. This paper focuses on the frequency of past specific academically dishonest…

  9. Child Custody Rules in the Context of Swedish Family Law. Social Change in Sweden, No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    In recent years, existing family legislation in Sweden has undergone a review process resulting in extensive revisions. The decisive factor behind these revisions has been change in Swedish society during the 20th century, including urbanization, frequent changes in residence, fewer children per family, the labor force participation of most women…

  10. Independent Living and Attendant Care in Sweden: A Consumer Perspective. Monograph Number Thirty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratzka, Adolf D.

    The monograph presents, from the disabled consumer's perspective, a description and critique of independent living and attendant care services in Sweden. First, a brief description of Swedish welfare policy as it applies to the population as a whole is presented. Next, services available to people with disabilities are described with emphasis on…

  11. Maximizing Autonomy: Reforming Personal Support Laws in Sweden and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Stanley S.

    1995-01-01

    Forms of guardianship for U.S. individuals with disabilities are reviewed, and Swedish legal and public policy innovations that replace guardianship with personal support services, such as mentors and personal assistants, are considered. The impact of Sweden's reforms on autonomy, independence, and integration is addressed. (Author/SW)

  12. Personal Assistant Service Programs in Germany, Sweden and the USA. Differences and Similarities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Theresia

    This report compares personal assistance services to enable independent living for people with disabilities in Sweden, West Germany, and the United States. The report focuses on kinds of personal assistant services available, laws governing these services, the extent to which these services are met by each country's social security and welfare…

  13. Does Parenthood Strengthen a Traditional Household Division of Labor? Evidence from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dribe, Martin; Stanfors, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parenthood is often considered a major factor behind gender differences in time allocation, especially between paid work and housework. This article investigates the impact of parenthood on men's and women's daily time use in Sweden and how it changed over the 1990s. The analysis is made using time diary data from the Multinational Time Use Survey…

  14. Medical intelligence in Sweden. Vitamin B12: oral compared with parenteral?

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Norberg, B; Hultdin, J; Sandström, H; Westman, G; Lökk, J

    2005-03-01

    Sweden is the only country in which oral high dose vitamin B12 has gained widespread use in the treatment of deficiency states. The aim of the study was to describe prescribing patterns and sales statistics of vitamin B12 tablets and injections in Sweden 1990-2000.Design, setting, and sources: Official statistics of cobalamin prescriptions and sales were used. The use of vitamin B12 increased in Sweden 1990-2000, mainly because of an increase in the use of oral high dose vitamin B12 therapy. The experience, in statistical terms a "total investigation", comprised 1,000,000 patient years for tablets and 750,000 patient years for injections. During 2000, 13% of residents aged 70 and over were treated with vitamin B12, two of three with the tablet preparation. Most patients in Sweden requiring vitamin B12 therapy have transferred from parenteral to oral high dose vitamin B12 since 1964, when the oral preparation was introduced. The findings suggest that many patients in other post-industrial societies may also be suitable for oral vitamin B12 treatment.

  15. How are Immigrant Children in Sweden Faring? Mean Income, Affluence and Poverty Since the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Björn; Österberg, Torun

    2018-01-01

    This article presents new research on income-based child indicators for immigrant children from 17 different national backgrounds and children of parents born in Sweden observed during the 3-year periods 1983-85, 1995-97 and 2008-10. This research examines mean household income, representation at the top of the income distribution and relative poverty differ for immigrant children from the corresponding levels among children with native born parents. Most of the analysis is concentrated on the second generation of immigrant children. It is shown that the relative position of immigrant children deteriorated between 1983-85 and 1995-97 when the labour market situation of immigrant parents weakened more than among native born parents. Changes thereafter were more complex. Children born in Sweden to parents from Denmark, Norway or Germany were as likely as children of native born parents to be observed at the top of the income distribution in contrast to children of parents from countries with middle or low human development. Poverty rates among immigrant children were higher among all categories of immigrant children in 2008-10 than among children of native born parents. These cross origin differences in income-based child indicators can be attributed to the reasons and qualifications parents had when they entered Sweden and the number of years since their immigration. A majority of children living in Sweden that are classified as poor in 2008-10 were immigrant children of various categories.

  16. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted in…

  17. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…

  18. The Impact on Annual Earnings of Adult Upper Secondary Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The public supply of adult education is very different between countries, making it likely that there is scope for efficiency gains. The contribution of this paper is to provide an economic evaluation of the earnings impact of adult education at upper secondary level (AE) in Sweden, where the supply is plausibly larger than in any other country.…

  19. Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants' long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on more than…

  20. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  1. Democratic Purpose and Educational Leadership Policies in Sweden and in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Elizabeth; Törnsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyze the extent to which policy documents that include standards and expectations for the preparation of school principals (i.e., head teachers) influence democratic practices. This comparative research examines educational policies that influence the work of principals both in Sweden and in the U.S., the state of Texas asking:…

  2. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  3. Educational Organization, School Localization and the Process of Urbanization in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrae, Annika

    Traditionally Sweden's educational system has been highly centralized; physical characteristics, administrative factors, and teacher qualifications have been generally standardized as have curriculums, though local implementation has been afforded considerable freedom. In 1971 the upper secondary school (9-12) consolidated three previously…

  4. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  5. Ideas about Occupational Roles and Inclusive Practices among Special Needs Educators and Support Teachers in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Göransson, Kerstin; Lindqvist, Gunilla; Möllås, Gunvie; Almqvist, Lena; Nilholm, Claes

    2017-01-01

    Special needs educators (SNEs) and their counterparts are expected to play a significant role in schools' work towards inclusive practices. Studies do, however, indicate a rather diversified picture regarding the occupational groups assigned to work with special support and their workroles, within and between different countries. In Sweden, one…

  6. To Reach Multicultural Users in Libraries--Some Reflections and Examples from Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Maud

    This paper describes library services to multicultural users in Sweden. The first section addresses library buildings and staff, stressing the importance of a welcoming environment. Library materials and technique are discussed in the second section, including media in other languages and access to the Internet. The third section considers…

  7. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  8. Understanding Challenges of Using ICT in Secondary Schools in Sweden from Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekberg, Siri; Gao, Shang

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges of using ICT in secondary schools in Sweden from teachers' perspectives. Design/methodology/approach: The research followed a qualitative research approach. First, a conceptual framework was developed based on previous research. Then, four teachers, teaching in six different…

  9. Young Children as Language Policy-Makers: Studies of Interaction in Preschools in Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…

  10. OER, Resources for Learning--Experiences from an OER Project in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossiannilsson, Ebba S. I.; Creelman, Alastair M.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to share experience from a Swedish project on the introduction and implementation of Open Educational Resources (OER) in higher education with both national and international perspectives. The project, "OER--resources for learning", was part of the National Library of Sweden Open Access initiative and aimed at exploring, raising…

  11. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  12. Lessons from a Concurrent Evaluation of Eight Antibullying Programs Used in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Erik; Gill, Peter Edward; Johansson, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Sweden has a low prevalence of bullying and Swedish schools are legally obliged to have anti-bullying policies. Many commercial programs are available. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental, concurrent evaluation of 8 programs, chosen from a pool of 21 widely used anti-bullying programs, was planned. Preliminary data, based on 835 stakeholder…

  13. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. E-Books in Academic Libraries: Results of a Survey Carried out in Sweden and Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceviciute, Elena; Wilson, T. D.; Gudinavicius, Arunas; Šuminas, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on a study of e-books issues in academic libraries in two European countries representative of small language markets--Sweden and Lithuania. Method: Questionnaire surveys, using the same instrument, were carried out in Swedish and Lithuanian academic libraries. Analysis: Quantitative analysis was performed using…

  15. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize…

  16. Youth Athletes, Bodies and Gender: Gender Constructions in Textbooks Used in Coaching Education Programmes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on analyses of ideas about girls and boys in sports as they are presented in textbooks used in coaching education programmes in Sweden. Specifically, it explores gender in relation to descriptions of girls' and boys' bodies and bodily development during puberty. Texts construct gender differences. Masculinity is shaped around…

  17. Clinical Physiology: A Successful Academic and Clinical Discipline is Threatened in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Clinical physiologists in Sweden are physicians (the majority with a PhD degree) with thorough training in system physiology and pathophysiology. They investigate patients in a functional approach and are engaged in basic and applied physiology teaching and research. In 1954, clinical physiology was founded as an independent academic and clinical…

  18. Attitudes toward Older People among Nursing Students and Registered Nurses in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderhamn, Olle; Lindencrona, Catharina; Gustavsson, Siw Merit

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 151 undergraduate nursing students and 41 registered nurses in Sweden found that those who were under 25, male, or had limited prior experience caring for older people had less favorable attitudes toward the elderly. First-year students were more negative than third-year students. No differences among nurses in different practice…

  19. Situation Report - Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bulgaria, Greece, Finland, Hungary, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth…

  20. Epilepsy in Sweden: health care costs and loss of productivity--a register-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Kristian; Lundgren, Anders; Berggren, Fredrik; Källén, Kristina

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to estimate health care costs and productivity losses due to epilepsy in Sweden and to compare these estimates to previously published estimates. Register data on health care utilisation, pharmaceutical sales, permanent disability and mortality were used to calculate health care costs and costs that accrue due to productivity losses. By linkage of register information, we were able to distinguish pharmaceuticals prescribed against epilepsy from prescriptions that were prompted by other indications. The estimated total cost of epilepsy in Sweden in 2009 was 441 million, which corresponds to an annual per-patient cost of 8,275. Health care accounted for about 16% of the estimated total cost, and drug costs accounted for about 7% of the total cost. The estimated health care cost corresponded to about 0.2% of the total health care cost in Sweden in 2009. Indirect costs were estimated at 370 million, 84% of which was due to sickness absenteeism. Costs resulting from epilepsy-attributable premature deaths or permanent disability to work accounted for about 1% of the total indirect cost in Sweden in 2009. The per-patient cost of epilepsy is substantial. Thus, even though the prevalence of the illness is relatively small, the aggregated cost that epilepsy incurs on society is significant.

  1. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  2. The Silenced Discourse: Students with Intellectual Disabilities at the Academy of Music in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Marie-Helene Zimmerman; Ericsson, Claes

    2012-01-01

    In this article, based on a larger research project, the ambition is to critically discuss the first collaboration between students with intellectual disabilities and the Academy of Music in Sweden. The article presents an analysis of video observations of lessons in rhythmics, related to an encounter between the students with intellectual…

  3. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Method A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Results Life expectancy was 24–28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (−0.8 years) and Sweden (−1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0–5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3–4.8), and suicide (9.3–35.9). Conclusion People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47–53 years (men) and 50–58 years (women) and die 24–28 years earlier than people in the general population. PMID:25243359

  4. The Impact of Lifelong Learning on Vocational Education and Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats; Abrahamsson, Kenneth

    In Sweden, initial vocational education (IVT) is financed by public money and is designed to provide basic skills and general qualifications to perform certain functions in an occupation. Continuing vocational training (CVT) is provided primarily by public school institutions, private enterprises, and training companies, trade unions, and employer…

  5. "Good Luck and You'll Be Welcome Back": Manual Workers and Study Leave in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    Sweden's law giving all employees the right to study leave was introduced in 1974. This article is a report of qualitative interviews carried out with 19 manual workers from five trade unions in an industrial town. Respondents had attended a wide range of academic, vocational and trade union courses in recent years. Few had experienced any…

  6. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Sweden. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ronnie

    This publication charts and analyzes vocational education and training (VET) funding in Sweden in 1997 with some comparisons back to the late 1980s. Description of the Swedish system for vocational education and training (VET) is complicated, since there is no natural distinction between VET and general education. All initial vocational training…

  7. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  8. School Choice in Sweden: Effects on Student Performance, School Costs, and Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents empirical analyses of the effects of independent schools in Sweden. The most important result is that the impact--both the positive and the negative--is relatively marginal. This said, there are now a number of studies that show that when independent schools are established the pupils in municipal schools perform better.…

  9. Professional Support Staff at Higher Education Institutions in Sweden: Roles and Success Factors for the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryttberg, Malin; Geschwind, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse and discuss the professional support staff at higher education institutions in Sweden in terms of how they view their roles and what the success factors for them are. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with support staff from the fields of business liaison, internationalisation and strategic research…

  10. Gender Inequalities and Higher Music Education: Comparing the UK and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boise, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Whilst the impact of gender inequalities has been studied in relation to music education, especially in the UK, relatively little has been written about their impact on higher music education (HME). This article compares data on HME programs and courses, in the UK and Sweden, from 2010 to 2014. It looks at similarities and differences in the…

  11. Causes of Educational Segregation in Sweden--School Choice or Residential Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang Hansen, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine changes in school segregation across different types of municipalities between 1998 and 2011 in Sweden, and to explore the extent to which these changes are the consequences of school choice. Multilevel models were applied to register data using a counterfactual approach. The results showed that school…

  12. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  13. Continuing Professional Development in Context: Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Culture in Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the continuing professional development (CPD) culture of teachers, and asks how it is influenced by properties of the school system. It reports the results of a questionnaire study with 418 secondary teachers from Sweden and Germany. The results show highly significant differences between Swedish and German teachers'…

  14. Successful School Leadership in Sweden and the US: Contexts of Social Responsibility and Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Betty; Arlestig, Helene; Garza, Encarnacion; Johansson, Olof; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Tornsren, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-cultural study of schools in Sweden and Texas is to examine the cultural contexts of schools in both settings, and the leadership role of principals in creating and sustaining inclusive schools for diverse populations. Design/methodology/approach: The data were drawn from two studies; the first involving school…

  15. Early Childhood Curricula in Sweden from the 1850s to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ann-Christine Vallberg

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the curriculum history of early childhood education in Sweden. The study is based on curriculum theory and gender theory. A broad curricular concept is used. The period analysed ranges from approximately the 1850s to the present day. Examples of key-texts analysed are National curricula, Handbooks, one journal (The…

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  17. A Quest for Legitimacy: On the Professionalization Policies of Sweden's Teachers' Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilja, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on teacher professionalism by analyzing the professional strategies of Sweden's two teachers' unions from an organizational perspective. Drawing on institutional theory, the article argues that the teachers' unions' focus on strategies of professionalization has as much to do with…

  18. Discourse in Adult Education: The Language Education of Adult Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Hannah

    1990-01-01

    A shortcoming of adult education theories is lack of attention to social, historical, and institutional contexts. A case study of language education programs for adult immigrants in Sweden illustrates how assumptions about participant-centered, needs-based education justified and legitimated the use of these programs as a tool for employment…

  19. Resources for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Mainstream Schools in Sweden. A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmström, Ingela; Schönström, Krister

    2017-01-01

    Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However,…

  20. An Analysis of Wood Pellets For Export: A Case Study of Sweden as an Importer

    Treesearch

    P.B. Aruna; Jan G. Laarman; Philip A. Araman; Frederick Cubbage

    1997-01-01

    North America is a major producer of wood pellets, and the principal market for them is domestic residential wood heating. To date, the export market for wood pellets is small. On the other hand , several developments are occurring that may be increasing the foreign demand for biomass fuels. A few North American companies are considering Sweden as a potential export...

  1. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  2. Mass Communication Researchers in Sweden. Swedish Mass Communication Research: Publications in English, French and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.

    This listing of researchers and publications in mass communications research in Sweden is integrated into a single list arranged by the name of the researchers and noting their publications (if any) in the appropriate languages. In addition to publications, information provided for each researcher includes title and academic degree, project,…

  3. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  4. Struggling for Integration: Universalist and Separatist Discourses within El Sistema Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Åsa; Lindgren, Monica; Saether, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the El Sistema programme, which started up in Sweden in 2010 with the objective to deal with segregation problems typical for Swedish urban areas. The purpose of the article is to examine how promoting integration through music and music education is constructed within El Sistema as a way to help children growing up in…

  5. Framework for Optimizing the Evaluation of Data From Contaminated Soil in Sweden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Swedish guidelines for the evaluation of data for the purpose of a risk assessment at contaminated sites are of a qualitative character, as opposed to the USEPA’s Data Quality Objective Process. In Sweden, this can sometimes be a problem because the demands on data quality ar...

  6. The Preparation of School Psychologists and Specialists in Educational Psychology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists have a new and stronger position in Sweden's educational system than earlier. For example, as of July 2011, all Swedish students ages 6 through 18 have guaranteed access to school psychology services. The school psychologists' roles are to be active participants and coworkers in the student health service team, working to…

  7. A Study of Commitment and Relationship Quality in Sweden and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Bernhardt, Eva; Noack, Turid

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries are often cited as examples of countries where cohabitation is largely indistinguishable from marriage. Using survey data from Norway and Sweden (N = 2,923) we analyzed differences between cohabitors and married individuals in relationship seriousness, relationship satisfaction, and dissolution plans. Our analyses reveal…

  8. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  9. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1084-1087 (Review) Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1084-1087(Review). By order of the Commission. Issued: May 9, 2011. James R. Holbein...

  10. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  11. Independence for Swedish Universities and University Colleges. Sweden Is Preparing a Reform of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Stockholm (Sweden).

    This paper briefly describes a higher education reform movement underway in Sweden and offers, respectively, the text and a summary of two policy-forming memoranda. A 1977 legislative decision on all postsecondary education gave the government authority to set education policy, and based the entire university and university college system on…

  12. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  13. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  14. Pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in the Czech Republic and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Davidova, Jana; Praznovcova, Lenka; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2008-01-01

    To describe and compare price regulation and reimbursement in the Czech Republic and Sweden. Legal documents, government reports, statutory information, annual reports and scientific articles were searched using the keywords: pharmaceutical market regulation, drug policy, drug pricing, drug reimbursement and patients' participation in costs concerning both countries. Approaches to regulation and regulatory steps concerning prices were compared between the countries. (i) Institutional responsibilities in pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals; (ii) principles of patients' participation in costs on pharmaceuticals. Substantial differences were found in terms of pricing. In the Czech Republic, the Ministry of Finance sets maximal prices for pharmaceuticals whereas in Sweden there is a process of price regulation combined with reimbursement decisions taken by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Board. Together with a system of state-owned pharmacies, this ensures that drug prices in Sweden are fixed at the same level throughout the country. In the Czech Republic, prices may differ, since only maximal price levels are set. In both countries, decisions about reimbursement are taken at the national or state level whereas insurance funds or county councils are responsible for covering costs. The private share of pharmaceutical expenditures is substantially lower in the Czech Republic, even though there is no maximal level for patient's co-payment, as there is in Sweden. Differences in price setting and some other regulations of the pharmaceutical market were found. Both systems are designed to promote rational use of pharmaceuticals; and are based on social solidarity.

  15. Learning Style Differences between Nursing and Teaching Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Hallin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. Teacher education, as well as nursing education, is currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. At the university where the research was conducted, teaching and nursing programs are two priority educational programs and…

  16. The Expansion of the Education Sector in Sweden During the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsson, Rolf

    1985-01-01

    Three investigations on quantitative changes in higher education in Sweden are described. In Anders Nilsson's dissertation, "Study Financing and Social Recruitment to Higher Education (1920-1976)," attention was focused on changes in college recruitment from 1920 until reforms in 1977; the effect of various college financing conditions…

  17. Inclusion Functioning as Exclusion: New Students Entering the Academy of Music in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pioneer study addressing the first co-action between students with intellectual disabilities and an Academy of Music in Sweden. The aim of the article is to study and discuss subject positions that are constructed in rhythmic lessons related to a gathering where students with intellectual disabilities interact…

  18. Reflections on the Revised National Curriculum for Preschool in Sweden--Interviews with the Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Renblad, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden a Revised National Curriculum for Preschool (Lpfö 98, revised 2010) was implemented on 1 July 2011. The purpose of the revised curriculum was to increase the quality in the Swedish preschool by stressing the scientific basis. The aim was to explore how four heads of preschool reflect on the curriculum and the quality in preschool. This…

  19. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6%) responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5%) responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The study confirms that many GPs

  20. Visual impairment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Canavan, Y. M.; Jackson, A. J.; Stewart, A.

    1997-01-01

    Statistics on the registration of blind and partially-sighted patients in Northern Ireland underestimate the true extent of visual impairment within our community. In comparison to other UK regions, where between 0.53% and 0.59% of the population avail of blind or partial sight registration, only 0.35% of residents in Northern Ireland appear on the respective registers. Most patients on the combined registers are in the older age groups and many also suffer from other disabilities. Regional discrepancies may be attributed to a combination of factors including: patient attitudes to the registration process, medical attitudes to registration and local anomalies in the way in which social services departments both record and present annual registration returns. Better liaison is necessary between the community, hospital and voluntary sector providers to improve identification and support services for the visually impaired in the future. PMID:9414937

  1. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  2. Carrion use by northern goshawks

    Treesearch

    John R. Squires

    1995-01-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) feed on a wide variety of birds and mammals (R. T. Reynolds, et al. 1992, USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-217. Fort Collins, CO U.S.A.), but few accounts describe goshawks feeding on carrion. J.H. Schnell (1958, Condor 60:377-403) stated that, "It seems highly unlikely that the goshawk would forage for carrion under normal...

  3. Comparative analysis of the outcomes of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in England and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Karthikesalingam, A.; Holt, P. J.; Vidal‐Diez, A.; Thompson, M. M.; Wanhainen, A.; Bjorck, M.; Mani, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background There is substantial international variation in mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair; many non‐operative factors influence risk‐adjusted outcomes. This study compared 90‐day and 5‐year mortality for patients undergoing elective AAA repair in England and Sweden. Methods Patients were identified from English Hospital Episode Statistics and the Swedish Vascular Registry between 2003 and 2012. Ninety‐day mortality and 5‐year survival were compared after adjustment for age and sex. Separate within‐country analyses were performed to examine the impact of co‐morbidity, hospital teaching status and hospital annual caseload. Results The study included 36 249 patients who had AAA treatment in England, with a median age of 74 (i.q.r. 69–79) years, of whom 87·2 per cent were men. There were 7806 patients treated for AAA in Sweden, with a median of age 73 (68–78) years, of whom 82·9 per cent were men. Ninety‐day mortality rates were poorer in England than in Sweden (5·0 versus 3·9 per cent respectively; P < 0·001), but were not significantly different after 2007. Five‐year survival was poorer in England (70·5 versus 72·8 per cent; P < 0·001). Use of EVAR was initially lower in England, but surpassed that in Sweden after 2010. In both countries, poor outcome was associated with increased age. In England, institutions with higher operative annual volume had lower mortality rates. Conclusion Mortality for elective AAA repair was initially poorer in England than Sweden, but improved over time alongside greater uptake of EVAR, and now there is no difference. Centres performing a greater proportion of EVAR procedures achieved better results in England. PMID:29468657

  4. Experiences of teenagers and young adults treated for cancer in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Maria; Jarfelt, Marianne; Pergert, Pernilla; Enskär, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 600 teenagers and young adults, TYAs (ages 15-29), are newly diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year and treated in many different units. The knowledge about TYAs is limited and there might be a need for a new approach in the care for this particular age group. The purpose of this study was to identify requirements TYAs in Sweden acknowledge as important to them. 44 participants aged 15-29 who were treated at either pediatric or adult cancer units in Sweden, participated in focus group interviews. They were interviewed in groups based on whether they were treated in pediatric (14-18 years old) or adult units (18-29). The focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results of the study can be summarized into four categories: personal professional interaction, knowledge and participation, age-appropriate environment, and support. Important TYA care needs vary over time due to individual situations. The time line of the cancer experience can be described as a continuum; at diagnosis, during treatment, and in life-after cancer treatment. TYAs treated in Sweden have special needs that are not being satisfied, whether at pediatric or adult units. Areas that need closer attention are: close relatives' participation in the care, information on sex and fertility, age-appropriate social physical environments during treatment, and psychosocial support after treatment. In Sweden, there is a demand for increased knowledge on the special needs for TYAs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in the Incidence of Clavicle Fractures and Surgical Repair in Sweden: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Tuomas T; Launonen, Antti P; Berg, Hans E; Lepola, Vesa; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Mattila, Ville M

    2016-11-02

    Clavicle fractures are common injuries causing substantial morbidity. Recent literature suggests that the incidence of surgically treated clavicle fractures has increased. However, it is unknown whether the increase is caused by more surgeons choosing operative over nonoperative treatment for the injury or an increase in the actual incidence of clavicle fractures. The aim of this study was to assess both the national incidence of clavicle fractures and the rate of surgical treatment of those fractures in Sweden. We assessed the incidence and trends of clavicle fractures and rates of surgery in Sweden. The validated Swedish Hospital Discharge Register offers a unique opportunity to assess both outpatient and inpatient visits and was used to conduct a national register-based study including all adults (≥18 years of age) with a diagnosis of clavicle fracture in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. A total of 44,609 clavicle fractures occurred in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. The incidence of clavicle fractures increased from 35.6 per 100,000 person-years in 2001 to 59.3 per 100,000 person-years in 2012. Interestingly, the highest incidence rates were observed in the oldest age groups. The increase in the rate of surgically treated clavicle fractures (705%) was greater than the increase in the actual fracture incidence (67%). Most (77%) of the surgically treated patients were men. Open reduction and plate fixation was the most common surgical procedure. Overall, the proportion of surgically treated clavicle fractures increased markedly. Although the incidence of clavicle fractures increased in Sweden between 2001 and 2012, the rate of surgical treatment of clavicle fractures increased much more than could be expected solely based on the increase in the fracture incidence. The observed changes in the rates of surgery require additional studies since there is still controversy regarding the indications for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint

  6. Body mass and social class: a comparison of Finland and Sweden in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Rahkonen, O; Lundberg, O; Lahelma, E; Huuhka, M

    1998-01-01

    High physical weight affects public health as well as people's social relations. This study seeks to examine the distribution of physical weight across the social structure in Finland and Sweden in the early 1990s. We compare physical weight, classified by overweight and obesity, 1) between men and women, 2) between different age groups, and 3) between social classes in these two countries. Comparable interview surveys were conducted in Finland 1994 (N = 8,650, response rate 73%) and in Sweden 1991 (N = 5,306, response rate 79%). Physical weight, overweight and obesity of populations are described in terms of body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m2)). The average BMI is higher in Finnish men (25.6) and women (24.6) than in their Swedish counterparts (24.6 and 23.2, respectively). In both countries, the average BMI is higher in men than in women below the age of about 55-64 years. In both countries and in both genders the average BMI is higher, the higher the age. The level of overweight as well as obesity is lower in Sweden than in Finland. Social class differences can be found in both countries. The odds ratio for overweight is higher in Finnish male and female farmers (OR = 1.57 and 1.94, respectively) as compared to upper white collars (OR = 1.0). In Sweden, high odds ratio for overweight can be found among male entrepreneurs (OR = 1.80) and female unskilled manuals (OR = 2.65). Obesity varies by social class in Swedish men and women as well as in Finnish women, but not in Finnish men. The results show that Finnish men and women are more often overweight and obese than their Swedish counterparts, but social class differences in overweight and obesity are larger in Sweden than in Finland.

  7. A survey of specialist paediatric dental services in Sweden: results from 2003, and trends since 1983.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, G; Dahllöf, G; Erlandsson, A-L; Grindefjord, M; Hallström-Stalin, U; Koch, G; Lundin, S-A

    2006-03-01

    The child population in Sweden has changed dramatically during the last 20 years. Changes have also occurred within the Public Dental Service (PDS), regarding the provision of dental care to children and adolescents. All these changes may affect the referral pattern and provision of specialist dental care for children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study was to survey the services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden during 2003. A secondary aim was to compare the results with previous surveys. A Web-based survey was sent to all 34 specialist paediatric dentistry clinics and was answered by all clinics. Data were compared with results from the surveys performed in 1983, 1989, and 1996. The number of paediatric dentists had been relatively constant over the last 20 years, whereas the number of children referred to paediatric dentists had increased by 28% since 1983. It was estimated that 1.3% of all children in Sweden are treated at a specialist paediatric dental clinic in 2003. Dental treatment need in combination with behaviour management problems (BMP) was the main reason for referral and occurred in 37% of all referrals. The proportion of medically compromised children/children with disabilities had increased from 6% in 1983 to 22% in 2003. The number of patients treated using sedation and general anaesthesia had increased since 1983, and particularly since 1996. Despite improvements in dental health among children and adolescents in Sweden during the last 20 years, an increasing number of children are referred for specialist paediatric dental treatment. There is an urgent need to increase the number of specialist paediatric dentists in Sweden in order to ensure the continuation of high quality of dental care for children and adolescents.

  8. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  9. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  10. Remote sensing of Northern mines: supporting operation and environmental monitoring in cold conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomela, Anne; Davids, Corine; Knutsson, Sven; Knutsson, Roger; Rauhala, Anssi; Rossi, Pekka M.; Rouyet, Line

    2017-04-01

    Northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway have mineral-rich deposits. There are several active mines in the area but also closed ones and deposits with plans for future mining. With increasing demand for environmental protection in the sensitive Northern conditions, there is a need for more comprehensive monitoring of the mining environment. In our study, we aim to develop new opportunities to use remote sensing data from satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in improving mining safety and monitoring, for example in the case of mine waste storage facilities. Remote sensing methods have evolved fast, and could in many cases enable precise, reliable, and cost-efficient data collection over large areas. The study has focused on four mining areas in Northern Fennoscandia. Freely available medium-resolution (e.g. Sentinel-1), commercial high-resolution (e.g. TerraSAR-X) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been collected during 2015-2016 to study how satellite remote sensing could be used e.g. for displacement monitoring using SAR Interferometry (InSAR). Furthermore, UAVs have been utilized in similar data collection in a local scale, and also in collection of thermal infrared data for hydrological monitoring of the areas. The development and efficient use of the methods in mining areas requires experts from several fields. In addition, the Northern conditions with four distinct seasons bring their own challenges for the efficient use of remote sensing, and further complicate their integration as standardised monitoring methods for mine environments. Based on the initial results, remote sensing could especially enhance the monitoring of large-scale structures in mine areas such as tailings impoundments.

  11. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA, miningacademy.ca) is a new educational institution located in Flin Flon, Manitoba. It is associated with the University College of the North and is specifically intended to serve the needs of the Northern Manitoban communities with regards to job creation by providing training in a variety of mining, construction, and exploration related areas. NMMA's mission is to provide innovative and responsible solutions for the creation of a knowledgeable, skilled, and sustainable workforce within a vibrant, mineral-rich resource industry. It facilitates strategic training initiatives and research activities in order to strengthen the social, economic, and environmental benefits of a robust mining and resources sector. In terms of education, NMMA offers its own programs, mostly short courses in health and safety, courses organized by the University College of the North (wilderness safety, prospecting, and exploration), and courses organized in association with provincial Industries-Based Safety Programs and Associations (a variety of construction-related trades). However, the programming is not limited to those courses already on the syllabus: the Academy operates on open-doors policy and welcomes people with their unique and diverse needs; it prides itself in its ability to tailor or create specific on-demand courses and deliver them locally in the North. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy also provides access to its world-class facilities for field-based undergraduate courses, as well as graduate students and researchers doing field work. Full sample preparation facilities are offered to students and scientists in all natural and environmental sciences.

  12. Calculating competition in thinned northern hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    Sharon A. Winsauer; James A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Describes four methods of calculating competition to individual trees and compares their effectiveness in explaining the 3-year growth response of northern hardwoods after various mechanized thinning practices.

  13. Analysis of the mechanism of injury in non-fatal vehicle-to-pedestrian and vehicle-to-bicyclist frontal crashes in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Öman, Mikael; Fredriksson, Rikard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Björnstig, Ulf

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare injuries and injury sources in pedestrian and bicyclist non-fatal real-life frontal passengercar crashes, considering in what way pedestrian injury mitigation systems also might be adequate for bicyclists. Data from 203 non-fatal vehicle-to-pedestrian and vehicle-to-bicyclist crashes from 1997 through 2006 in a city in northern Sweden were analysed by use of the hospitals injury data base in addition to interviews with the injured. In vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes (n = 103) head and neck injuries were in general due to hitting the windscreen frame, while in vehicle-to-bicycle crashes (n = 100) head and neck injuries were typically sustained by ground impact. Abdominal, pelvic and thoracic injuries in pedestrians and thoracic injuries in bicyclists were in general caused by impacting the bonnet. In vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes, energy reducing airbags at critical impact points with low yielding ability on the car, as the bonnet and the windscreen frame, might reduce injuries. As vehicle-to-bicyclist crashes occurred mostly in good lighting conditions and visibility and the ground impact causing almost four times as many injuries as an impact to the different regions of the car, crash avoidance systems as well as separating bicyclists from motor traffic, may contribute to mitigate these injuries.

  14. Co-operation, participation and conflicts faced in public health--lessons learned from a long-term prevention programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brännström, I; Emmelin, M; Dahlgren, L; Johansson, M; Wall, S

    1994-09-01

    A comprehensive community-based programme for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes was established in 1985 in a small municipality in northern Sweden. A cross-sectional survey to the general public was performed and semi-structured open-ended interviews were taken of actors at different levels. Notes from official records were also included in the study. The aim was to describe and discuss some factors that promote or constrain community participation in health programmes. The results generally confirmed that the right of definition concerning the health programme mainly remained with the health professionals. Community participation was mainly defined by the actors based on the medical and health planning approach and, thereby, as a means to transform health policy plans into reality by transmitting health knowledge and increasing consciousness among the citizens of the need for changing lifestyles. However, participation as a means of identifying problems and demonstrating power relationships and as elements in promoting local democracy was hardly represented among the actors at all. Overall, the CVD health programme was characterized by consensus between the actors. Despite this, debates and arguments about interpretations, social interests, personal conflicts and ideological constraints were observed. However, a majority of the public wanted the CVD preventive programme to continue.

  15. Governance of water resources in the phase of change: a case study of the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Monica; Balfors, Berit; Mörtberg, Ulla; Petersson, Mona; Quin, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  16. Consistent Top-to-the-foreland Directed Deformation from Floor to Roof in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), Jämtland, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, H.; Ring, U.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Glodny, J.; Grasemann, B.; Stephens, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The recent COSC-1 drilling programme (Lorenz et al., 2015), discovery of microdiamonds (Majka et al., 2014) and discussion of extrusion-wedge tectonics (Grimmer et al., 2015) outline the importance of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) and its key role during the Caledonian orogeny. The kinematic evolution of the SNC is crucial for better understanding the entire mountain belt. Thorough structural mapping of the SNC and adjacent units was conducted in western and northern Jämtland, central Sweden. Complementary microstructural investigations strengthen the field observations and show consistent top-to-the-SE directed movement through all studied tectonic units. Amphibolite-facies deformation can be inferred from fabrics in the SNC, which are overprinted by greenschist-facies structures showing the same kinematics throughout the studied section of the nappe stack. These data indicate persistence of the same foreland-directed kinematics over a wide range of pressure-temperature conditions in space and time. Currently proposed models for exhuming high-grade metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens fail to explain these observations and highlight the need for discussing new tectonic concepts for the Scandinavian Caledonides. References: Grimmer et al., 2015, Geology 43 (4); Lorenz et al., 2015, Scientific Drilling 19; Majka et al. 2014, Geology 42 (12).

  17. Groundwater flow modeling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Follin, Sven; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Näslund, Jens-Ove

    2014-09-01

    The impact of periglacial and glacial climate conditions on groundwater flow in fractured crystalline rock is studied by means of groundwater flow modeling of the Forsmark site, which was recently proposed as a repository site for the disposal of spent high-level nuclear fuel in Sweden. The employed model uses a thermal-hydraulically coupled approach for permafrost modeling and discusses changes in groundwater flow implied by the climate conditions found over northern Europe at different times during the last glacial cycle (Weichselian glaciation). It is concluded that discharge of particles released at repository depth occurs very close to the ice-sheet margin in the absence of permafrost. If permafrost is included, the greater part discharges into taliks in the periglacial area. During a glacial cycle, hydraulic gradients at repository depth reach their maximum values when the ice-sheet margin passes over the site; at this time, also, the interface between fresh and saline waters is distorted the most. The combined effect of advances and retreats during several glaciations has not been studied in the present work; however, the results indicate that hydrochemical conditions at depth in the groundwater flow model are almost restored after a single event of ice-sheet advance and retreat.

  18. Maternal and paternal self-rated health and BMI in relation to lifestyle in early pregnancy: the Salut Programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Eurenius, Eva; Lindkvist, Marie; Sundqvist, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Anneli; Mogren, Ingrid

    2011-11-01

    This study's aim was to increase knowledge about maternal and paternal self-rated health and body mass index in relation to lifestyle during early pregnancy. Study subjects were expectant parents visiting antenatal care (2006-07) as part of the Salut Programme in northern Sweden. During early pregnancy, 468 females and 413 male partners completed questionnaires. The questions addressed sociodemography, self-rated general health, weight and height, satisfaction with weight, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern, and alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Most rated their general health as good, very good, or excellent, although women less often than men (88% and 93%). The sex difference was more prominent when restricting the comparison to self-rated health being very good or excellent--49% of the women compared to 61% of the men. Being overweight or obese was common (53% of the men and 30% of the women). Few participants fulfilled the national recommendations with respect to a health-enhancing lifestyle; this was somewhat more common for women than men. Expectant parents with normal body mass index and vigorous physical activity were more likely to have very good or excellent self-rated health. Most expectant parents perceived their general health as good, although this perception was less for women than men. Being overweight and having a non-health-enhancing lifestyle were more common for men than women. Thus, there is need for more powerful health-promoting interventions for expectant parents.

  19. A suitable country: the relationship between Sweden's interwar population policy and family planning in postindependence India.

    PubMed

    Berg, Annika

    2010-09-01

    This article delineates a strong continuity, particularly in terms of personnel, between interwar domestic population policies and Sweden's postwar participation in international and transnational population-control programs. It argues that Swedish engagement in population control and family planning in the emerging Third World, and particularly in South Asia, was motivated by the conviction that poverty and underdevelopment must be attacked on several fronts simultaneously, with population control being one of the most important. In its first bilateral aid programs Sweden would prioritize the promotion of birth control primarily because it was still too controversial to be promoted multilaterally, not least for religious reasons; and because Swedish experts were regarded as especially liberal, rational, and secularized. Sterilization expertise played no decisive part in this continuity. When first establishing themselves in South Asia, Swedish experts would recommend the rhythm method and other contraceptive methods that depended on self-control.

  20. Senior housing in Sweden: a new concept for aging in place.

    PubMed

    Henning, Cecilia; Ahnby, Ulla; Osterstrom, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Demographic projections of elder care in Sweden necessitate new and creative approaches to accommodate this rapidly growing population. This article describes a unique aging-in-place care and housing policy initiative for the elderly. Using a case example in Eksjo, Sweden, the authors used a future workshop (FW) method to help seniors plan their future housing in the community. The FW is based on a collective democratic process involving full participation, open communication, organizational development, and leadership. The process steps of the three-stage FW method are described. Results indicated that empowerment, collaboration, autonomy, social education, and decision making can be achieved in a community-network-based policy model. This demonstrates the devolution of national policy and how, at the grass roots level, local participation and public accountability can take root. Devolution created an opportunity for creatively addressing local needs.