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Sample records for abisko northern sweden

  1. A Survey of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Three Sub-arctic Lakes near Abisko, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, J.; Stilson, K.; Varner, R. K.; Crill, P. M.; Wik, M.; Crawford, M.

    2014-12-01

    We surveyed the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in three sub-arctic lakes (Mellan Harrsjön, Inre Harrsjön, and Villasjön) located near Abisko in northern Sweden. Samples were collected using an extended rake, after which they were photographed and the plants identified. We also collected environmental data including temperature, dissolved oxygen, and secchi depth. Percent cover of SAV was taken twice using a 0.5 m. quadrat in shallow areas to track the changes in vegetation growth over time. In addition, we tested surface sediment samples for grain size and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur composition. The percent cover of SAV in Mellan Harrsjön varied from 36%-49% and in Inre Harrsjön it averaged 19%. Across all three lakes, the average percent clay, silt, and sand was 3.8%, 50.1%, 46%, respectively. Because little research similar to this has been conducted in the area in such a comprehensive manner, these results are important to establish a baseline. Furthermore, these data will help establish how the SAV and environmental data may contribute to methane production and emission in these sub-arctic lakes.

  2. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (<3.5 cm diameter at breast height) were estimated during 2009-2010 and compared with historical documentation from 1976 to 1977. Similarly, all tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory. PMID:21954730

  3. Foliar Expression of Parent Lithologic Composition in the Sub-Arctic: Examples from Heath Ecosystems of Abisko, Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, E. W.; Tomczyk, N.; Remiszewski, K.; Bryce, J. G.; Frey, S. D.; Prado, M. F.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Climatic evolution and its effect on ecosystem stability through macronutrient acquisition is of particular interest in the fringe ecosystems of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic, regions predicted to face the most extreme temperature increases in Earth's changing climate. Accordingly enhanced understanding of climate change impacts on nutrient mobilization in recently glaciated terrains will factor importantly into accurate predictive models for future ecosystem health. Lithologic variation can lead to differences in geomorphic processes and thus influence landscape evolution [1]. Heath ecosystems in the region are developed on thin soils which place them close to parent material bedrock. Given the abundance of thin soils mantling bedrock, we assessed how bedrock geochemical content links with foliar composition of key macronutrients. We focused our studies on four sites near Abisko, Sweden (68°21'N 19°02'E) in metamorphosed sedimentary bedrock. In our sites the average annual air temperature has crossed the 0o threshold and has been linked to many cryospheric and ecological impacts [2]. Sites were chosen at the same elevation (700 m absl) and shared similar vegetation coverage. Three dominant species across our sampling sites include Betula nana, Empetrum nigrum, and Salix lapponum. E. Nigrum had consistent concentrations of foliar magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) across the bedrock compositional gradients. B. nana and S. lapponum had consistently higher foliar Mg and P concentrations than E. nigrum across the gradients. Across a soil calcium (Ca) gradient, dominant species had a weak correlation between soil Ca and foliar Ca contents, R2 = 0.106. Soil Mg and P gradients were similarly poorly correlated with foliar abundances, R2 = -0.0228, and R2= -0.034 respectively. Expansion of our work into other lithologies will contribute towards improved predictive biogeochemical models of macronutrient acquisition and ecological evolution across changing Arctic ecosystems.

  4. Examining the Role of Aquatic Vegetation in Methane Production: Examples From a Shallow High Latitude Lake in Abisko, Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horruitiner, C. D.; Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Johnson, J. E.; Wik, M.; Lundgren, D. J.; Sinclair, S. N.; Nicastro, A. J. D.; Crawford, M.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude lakes and ponds are a large source of atmospheric methane. Emissions from lakes are thought to be controlled primarily by temperature and secondarily by the availability of labile organic carbon. Aquatic plants provide insitu carbon sources to lake bottoms and therefore can potentially impact rates of methane production. We studied vegetation and lake sediment characteristics across shallow depths in Inre Harrsjön, a lake located within the Stordalen Mire in the discontinuous permafrost zone in subarctic Sweden. Vegetation surveys using a submerged quadrat with camera were performed in transects across IH to characterize bottom vegetation. Carbon and nitrogen elemental analysis was performed on vegetation samples from both the lake and surrounding mire ecosystem. Sediment cores representing each vegetation type were analyzed for CH4, δ13CH4, and elemental CHNS. In all cores but one, total organic carbon (TOC) is greatest near the surface and decreases downcore. Methane concentrations correlated with TOC indicating insitu methane production. C:N ratios in sediment cores are more reflective of aquatic than terrestrial mire vegetation indicating that organic carbon in the lake sediments is dominated by aquatic sources. δ13CH4 is relatively constant downcore, which indicates little to no methane oxidation. The methane produced in sediments is consistently within the range of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis via CO2 reduction. We suggest the role of aquatic vegetation in the production of methane in high latitude shallow lakes may be important and will likely have a positive feedback in a warming climate with longer ice-free seasons.

  5. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandahl, I.; Wikström, A.

    2005-06-01

    The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar) Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master's program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  6. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  7. Stable Isotope Analysis of Reindeer Diet in Northern Sweden and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Hobbie, E. A.; Steele, K.; Lucas, R. W.; Varner, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    Shrub expansion in the Scandinavian Arctic has been recorded through ground observations and remote sensing techniques; however its effect on local mammalian ecology has yet to be fully understood. Warming in these subarctic ecosystems has been correlated with this increase in vascular plant production, which in turn has been correlated with a decline in lichen biomass. Our study examined δ13C and δ15N values in reindeer tissue to determine whether such biomass changes in northern Norway and Sweden have been substantial enough to affect the summer forage composition of reindeer. Hair and antler samples dating from 1909 to present day were collected from members of the Sámi community, museums, grazing areas near Abisko National Park, and Norwegian slaughterhouses. δ13C and δ15N values of hair and antler samples were compared to previously reported δ13C and δ15N values of potential reindeer forage species. This allowed for the prediction of the proportion of lichen versus graminoids, forbs, fungi and shrubs each reindeer consumed the summer before the sample was collected. Recent reindeer samples would be expected have lower δ13C and δ15N values, as compared to older specimens, if observed biomass changes had led to a decrease in reindeer summer lichen consumption in exchange for an increase in vascular plant consumption. After correcting δ13C data for the ongoing depletion of δ13C in the atmosphere due to combustion of fossil fuels (the Suess effect), no significant change of δ13C values in relation to age of sample was found. There was also no correlation between the age of the reindeer sample and δ15N values. These results indicate that summer diet composition of reindeer in northern Sweden and Norway has not notably changed since the early 1900s, regardless of potential vegetation changes. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which reindeer will be able to selectively feed rather than change diet composition, where vascular plants

  8. Using MOOCs at Learning Centers in Northern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Anders; Händel, Åsa; Ödling, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of globally accessible Massive Open Online Courses, MOOCs, for addressing the needs of learners at community learning centers in Northern Sweden. The Scandinavian "study circle" concept is used to facilitate the studying of MOOCs, thereby forming "blended" or "glonacal" courses. Although…

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Evander, Magnus; Putkuri, Niina; Eliasson, Mats; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Vapalahti, Olli; Ahlm, Clas

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45–54 years for men and 55–64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus. PMID:26928830

  10. Past Activity of Non-sorted Circles Fields in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher, M.; Klaminder, J.

    2011-12-01

    Non-sorted circles (NSCs), also known as frost boils, are common geomorphological features created by cryogenic processes in subarctic and arctic soils [Washburn, 1979]. Near-surface permafrost is thought to be a prerequisite for the activity of NSCs [Walker et al., 2008], where an active NSC maintains a sparsely vegetated circle-like zone in the centre due to frost heave and up-freezing of silt. Little is known about the historical activity of NSCs in northern Scandinavia. Here we summarize some results of our ongoing research where we have assessed historical changes in NSC activity in the Abisko area, northern Sweden. In short, we have estimated how the distribution of NSCs along an altitude gradient has changed from 1959 to 2008 by using digitized aerial photos. Unsupervised classification with two classes (bare mineral soil and shrub vegetation) was performed on NSC fields to achieve estimations on how the aerial coverage of up-frozen mineral soil has changed over the last decades. Here, over growth of previous bare mineral soil surfaces by shrubs was interpreted as decreased NSC activity, considering that vascular plants are unable to colonize active NSCs due to significant heave and disruption of plant roots [Jonasson, 1986]. In addition to observations from aerial photos, we have conducted vertical sampling of NSC soil stratigraphies and 14C-dated buried organic soil layers to constrain the historical activity of the NSC in time. Preliminary analyses of the aerial photos indicate a general overgrowth of bare mineral surfaces within the NSCs since 1959. Of 137 studied sites 92 sites (corresponding to 67%) show an net overgrowth of previous bare mineral soil surface within the circles. On average, about 29 % of the bare mineral soil within the NSC fields is estimated to have been colonized by shrub vegetation. Clearly, our findings indicate that permafrost-controlled soil frost activities of the studied NSCs have mainly decreased during the last five decades

  11. Arctic-alpine blockfields in northern Sweden: Quaternary not Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, B. W.; Stroeven, A. P.; Fabel, D.; Fredin, O.; Derron, M.-H.; Bintanja, R.; Caffee, M. W.

    2014-02-01

    Slowly-eroding, blockfield-mantled, non-glacial surface remnants may serve as markers against which to determine Quaternary glacial erosion volumes in high latitude mountain settings. To investigate this potential utility of these surfaces, chemical weathering, erosion rates, and origins of mountain blockfields are investigated in northern Sweden. This is done, firstly, by assessing the intensity of regolith chemical weathering along altitudinal transects descending from three blockfield-mantled summits. Clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages determined through X-ray diffraction, and the presence of chemically weathered grains visible on scanning electron microscopy, in fine matrix samples collected from pits excavated along the transects are each used for this purpose. Secondly, erosion rates and total surface histories of two of the summits are inferred from concentrations of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz at the blockfield surface. An interpretative model is adopted that includes temporal variations in nuclide production rates through surface burial by glacial ice and glacial isostasy-induced elevation changes of the blockfield surfaces. Together, our data indicate that these blockfields are not derived from remnants of intensely weathered Neogene weathering profiles, as is commonly considered. Evidence for this interpretation includes minor chemical weathering in each of the three examined blockfields, despite some differences according to slope position. In addition, average erosion rates of ∼16.2 mm ka-1 and ∼6.7 mm ka-1, calculated for two blockfield-mantled summits, are low but of sufficient magnitude to remove present blockfield mantles, of up to a few meters in thickness, within a late-Quaternary timeframe. Hence, blockfield mantles appear to be replenished by regolith formation through, primarily physical, weathering processes that have operated during the Quaternary. Erosion rates remain low enough, however, for

  12. Reference values for spirometry – report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Odén, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Hedman, Linnéa; Kainu, Annette; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal lung function is commonly identified by comparing observed spirometric values to corresponding reference values. It is recommended that such reference values for spirometry are evaluated and updated frequently. The aim of this study was to estimate new reference values for Swedish adults by fitting a multivariable regression model to a healthy non-smoking general population sample from northern Sweden. Further aims were to evaluate the external validity of the obtained reference values on a contemporary sample from south-western Sweden, and to compare them to the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference values. Method Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to the spirometric data of n=501 healthy non-smoking adults aged 22–91 years, with age and height as predictors. The models were extended to allow the scatter around the outcome variable to depend on age, and age-dependent spline functions were incorporated into the models to provide a smooth fit over the entire age range. Mean values and lower limits of normal, defined as the lower 5th percentiles, were derived. Result This modelling approach resulted in unbiased estimates of the spirometric outcomes, and the obtained estimates were appropriate not only for the northern Sweden sample but also for the south-western Sweden sample. On average, the GLI reference values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and, in particular, forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) were lower than both the observed values and the new reference values, but higher for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion The evaluation based on the sample of healthy non-smokers from northern Sweden show that the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden reference values are valid. Furthermore, the evaluation based on the south-western Sweden sample indicates a high external validity. The comparison with GLI brought further evidence to the consensus that, when available, appropriate local

  13. Modelling of phosphorus transport during spring flood in northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömqvist, Johan; Hjerdt, Niclas; Arheimer, Berit

    2010-05-01

    Peaks in phosphorus concentrations are observed in connection to the spring flood in some, mainly unregulated, rivers in northern Sweden draining to the Baltic Sea. The elevated concentrations are only seen during a few days prior and following peak discharge in the rivers. This rapid event is often missed by the water quality monitoring programme with a standard monthly sampling frequency. As a consequence, calculated transport of phosphorus, both from interpolation of measurements and from simulations by models calibrated using observed time series may therefore be significantly lower than the actual transport. Possible explanations of this phenomenon were investigated using two numerical water quality models, the HYPE and HBV-NP models. The hypothesis was that the observed peaks in phosphorus concentrations were due to either river bank erosion, flash-out of previously settled phosphorus-laden particles in rivers and/or elevated loading from land in connection to snowmelt in the lowland areas of the catchment. The modelling exercise was supported by high frequency (daily) measurements of phosphorus concentration during the spring flood of 2008 and 2009 in River Kalixälven and in River Umeälven. Results from the study indicate that different processes may be important in the studied catchments. The dynamics of the simulated phosphorus concentrations from the HBV-NP model, used for the Swedish reporting to HELCOM, greatly improved when a model function controlling sedimentation and resuspension processes in watercourses was activated. Regulated rivers in contrast to unregulated ones have relatively high sustained discharge throughout the winter period which hinders the sedimentation of particles. This could explain why mainly unregulated rivers experience elevated phosphorous concentrations during spring flood. Including bank erosion in the HBV-NP simulations increased simulated phosphorus transport to the right magnitude. Observations showed that the phenomenon

  14. Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tingström, Olov; Wesula Lwande, Olivia; Näslund, Jonas; Spyckerelle, Iris; Engdahl, Cecilia; Von Schoenberg, Pontus; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV). Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses. PMID:27159120

  15. Autochamber measurements of Net Ecosystem (CO2) Exchange at a subarctic mire in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthall, M.; Parker-Smith, X.; Lawrence, R. D.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern latitude wetlands (>~50°N) are characterized by cold and wet conditions that result in low decomposition rates for plant litter. This process promotes the sequestration of carbon (C) in the form of organic matter (i.e. peat) and the formation of widespread peatands. Peatlands, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, have accumulated C by removing atmospheric CO2 for approximately the past 10,000 years. Historically, peatlands represent a net C sink; however, increases in the global average temperature could alter peatlands ability to store carbon. With a warming climate and permafrost thaw, the pool of once stable soil organic C available for decomposition is increasing. Like all terrestrial ecosystems, a number of environmental factors (e.g. peat temperature and vegetation) play important roles in governing the fate of C in peatlands. Projected climate change is expected to affect these regulating factors. Subarctic peatlands in zones of discontinuous permafrost are experiencing widespread environmental changes due to climate warming. In this study, we present net ecosystem (CO2) exchange and δ13C-CO2 data from Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden (68°22'N, 19°03'E). Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer connected to automatic chambers placed in the three predominant ecosystems (a dry, elevated Palsa; an intermediate thaw regime dominated by Sphagnum spp. and; a completely thawed, inundated site dominated by Eriophorum angustifolium). Team was mentored by Mr. Ryan Lawrence from The University of New Hampshire.

  16. Inclusion and Deaf Education: The Perceptions and Experiences of Young Deaf People in Northern Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Marie Therese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine what the concept of inclusion means and how it relates to children who are deaf. The paper begins with a background to deaf education, followed by specific reference to how inclusion is perceived in Northern Ireland and in Sweden. It investigates the experiences and opinions of deaf pupils in Schools…

  17. Formation and composition of cemented layers in low-sulphide mine tailings, Laver, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakangas, Lena; Öhlander, Björn

    2006-08-01

    Cemented layers (hardpans) are common in carbonate or sulphide-rich mine tailings and where pyrrhotite is the predominating Fe-sulphide. Laver, northern Sweden, is an abandoned Cu-mine where the tailings have low pyrrhotite content, almost no pyrite and no carbonates. Two cemented layers at different locations in the Laver tailings impoundment were investigated, with the aim to determine their effects on metal mobility. The cementing agents were mainly jarosite and Fe-oxyhydroxides in the layer formed where the tailings have a barren surface, whereas only Fe-oxyhydroxides were identified below grass-covered tailings surface. Arsenic was enriched in both layers which also exhibit high concentrations of Mo, V, Hg and Pb compared to unoxidised tailings. Sequential extraction indicates that these metals and As were mainly retained with crystalline Fe-oxides, and therefore potentially will be remobilised if the oxic conditions become more reducing, for instance as a result of remediation of the tailings impoundment.

  18. Radioactive disequilibria in mineralised fracture samples from two uranium occurrences in northern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smellie, John A.T.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mineralised fractures from two uranium occurrences in northern Sweden were examined mineralogically and isotopically to establish the presence or absence of radioactive equilibrium that may indicate recent rock-water interaction processes based on the natural mobility of uranium (i.e.; during the last 0.5 Ma). The results show evidence of radioactive disequilibrium in six of the nine samples investigated. Disequilibria are attributable to solution to solid 234U recoil gain (weakly mineralised zones adjacent to the main mineralisation) and solid to solution 234U recoil loss (moderate to highly mineralised zones). The absence of significant 238U loss in the samples emphasises the reducing conditions at the sampled depths. ?? 1984.

  19. Occupation and male lung cancer: a case-control study in northern Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Damber, L A; Larsson, L G

    1987-01-01

    Using a case-control study comprising about 600 men with lung cancer in northern Sweden the potential risk of different occupations and groups of occupations was studied. Longitudinal data concerning occupation, employment, and smoking habits were obtained by questionnaires. Some occupational groups (underground miners, copper smelter workers, electricians, and plumbers) exposed to previously known lung carcinogenic agents such as radon daughters, arsenic, and asbestos, had considerably increased odds ratios, which persisted after adjustment for smoking. A slightly raised odds ratio was observed in a group of blue collar workers potentially exposed to lung carcinogenic agents; this rise in the group as a whole mainly disappeared after adjustment for smoking. Farmers and foresters had strikingly low odds ratios, which could only partly be explained by their more moderate smoking habits. The population aetiological fraction attributable to occupation was estimated as 9%. PMID:3620367

  20. Predicting grey-sided vole occurrence in northern Sweden at multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Magnus; Bergsten, Arvid; Ecke, Frauke; Bodin, Orjan; Bodin, Lennart; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2013-11-01

    Forestry is continually changing the habitats for many forest-dwelling species around the world. The grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) has declined since the 1970s in forests of northern Sweden. Previous studies suggested that this might partly be caused by reduced focal forest patch size due to clear-cutting. Proximity and access to old pine forest and that microhabitats often contains stones have also been suggested previously but never been evaluated at multiple spatial scales. In a field study in 2010-2011 in northern Sweden, we investigated whether occurrence of grey-sided voles would be higher in (1) large focal patches of >60 years old forest, (2) in patches with high connectivity to surrounding patches, and (3) in patches in proximity to stone fields. We trapped animals in forest patches in two study areas (Västerbotten and Norrbotten). At each trap station, we surveyed structural microhabitat characteristics. Landscape-scale features were investigated using satellite-based forest data combined with geological maps. Unexpectedly, the vole was almost completely absent in Norrbotten. The trap sites in Norrbotten had a considerably lower amount of stone holes compared with sites with voles in Västerbotten. We suggest this might help to explain the absence in Norrbotten. In Västerbotten, the distance from forest patches with voles to stone fields was significantly shorter than from patches without voles. In addition, connectivity to surrounding patches and size of the focal forest patches was indeed related to the occurrence of grey-sided voles, with connectivity being the overall best predictor. Our results support previous findings on the importance of large forest patches, but also highlight the importance of connectivity for occurrence of grey-sided voles. The results further suggest that proximity to stone fields increase habitat quality of the forests for the vole and that the presence of stone fields enhances the voles' ability to move between nearby

  1. Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: Recognition, genesis, and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite is an accurate means to date intrusions and intrusion-related ore deposits using the model age or isochron approach. But, molybdenite has a new niche in the greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphic environment. Re-Os ages for metamorphic molybdenite may be used to construct regional metamorphic histories. Age significance and accuracy are established by analyzing multiple molybdenite separates extracted from single, petrographically-characterized molybdenite occurrences. In this study, twelve geologically distinct molybdenite-bearing samples from two small Mo districts in northern Sweden trace a 150 m.y. Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian metamorphic history from ˜1900 to 1750 Ma. These data reveal a little-known, widespread and protracted, Late Svecofennian anatexis in northern Sweden. The Kåtaberget Mo-(Cu, F) deposit is located in the Moskosel granite batholith north of the economically-renown Skellefte district. Four different molybdenite samples from outcrop at Kåtaberget indicate an intrusion age of 1895 ± 6 Ma with the formation of later pegmatite-aplite at 1875 ± 6 Ma. The Allebuoda (Björntjärn) and Munka Mo-(W) deposits in the Rappen district are represented by three outcrop and five drill core samples of molybdenite-bearing aplite-pegmatite-granite. These two deposits were previously described as intrusion-related Climax-type Mo mineralization. Re-Os ages for molybdenites from these deposits range from 1865 to 1750 Ma and, significantly, Re concentrations are markedly low, extending to the sub-ppm level. Age agreement within the deposits is conspicuously lacking, whereas, with one exception, age agreement within any single sample (geologic occurrence), as established by analysis of additional molybdenite separates, is very good. These data, together with fundamental geologic observations discussed in this paper, suggest that Mo-(W) mineralization in northern Sweden is not intrusion-related, but the local product of

  2. Veiki-moraine-like landforms in Nereidum Montes on Mars: Insights from analogues in northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Andreas; Reiss, Dennis; Hauber, Ernst; Johnson, Mark D.; Olvmo, Mats; Hiesinger, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Mars is a cold hyper-arid planet where liquid water is extremely rare [1]. The observable water budget is instead found in a number of frozen reservoirs such as the polar caps, near surface ground ice and as glacier ice. Previously, numerous studies reported on glacier landforms such as viscous flow features and lobate debris aprons where water-ice is believed to be present under insulating debris cover [2]. This notion was confirmed by SHARAD measurements [3]. However, very little is known about glacial landforms in which water is an important factor. Most studies have focused on moraine-like ridges that are associated to gully systems [4], glacial landforms at the equatorial volcanic province [5] and possible drop-moraines from CO2 glaciers [6]. Here we report on an unusual lobate assemblage of irregular ring-shaped landforms within a mountain complex in Nereidum Montes, Mars. These landforms are well-preserved and may suggest recent ablation of a debris-covered glacier. These martian ring-shaped landforms show a striking morphological resemblance to the Veiki moraine in northern Sweden. Veiki moraines are believed to have formed at the lobate margins of a stagnant ice-sheet during the first Weichselian glaciation [7]. As it sharply ends to the east it may represent the maximum extent of this former ice sheet. The Veiki moraine is characterized by ridged plateaus that are more or less circular and surrounded by a rim ridge. The newly acquired national LiDAR data over Sweden enable us studying these landforms in unprecedented detail. They also enable us exploring geomorphological similarities between Earth and Mars in large spatial contexts. This study aims to increase our understanding of glacial landforms on Mars by comparison to terrestrial analogues. Questions addressed are: (1) How morphological similar are the Martian landforms to the Veiki moraine of Sweden? (2) How does the ring-shaped landforms relate to other possible glacial landforms within the

  3. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Adolfsson, Annelie Nordin; Lind, Nina; Modig, Lars; Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia. Objectives We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden. Methods Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed using a land-use regression model with a spatial resolution of 50 m × 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) were used as markers for long-term exposure to air pollution. Results Out of 1,806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the group with the highest exposure were more likely than those in the group with the lowest exposure to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.998, 2.05 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer’s disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated with the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A subanalysis that excluded a younger sample that had been retested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than were present in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). Conclusions If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Citation Oudin A, Forsberg B, Nordin Adolfsson A, Lind N, Modig L, Nordin M, Nordin S, Adolfsson R, Nilsson LG. 2016. Traffic

  4. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, T.; Häggström, I.; Sandahl, I.; Lundberg, V.

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  5. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  6. Soil Methane Sink Capacity Response to a Long-Term Wildfire Chronosequence in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Niall P.; Gregg, Ruth; Oakley, Simon; Stott, Andy; Rahman, Md. Tanvir; Murrell, J. Colin; Wardle, David A.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Ostle, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Boreal forests occupy nearly one fifth of the terrestrial land surface and are recognised as globally important regulators of carbon (C) cycling and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration processes in these forests include assimilation of CO2 into biomass and subsequently into soil organic matter, and soil microbial oxidation of methane (CH4). In this study we explored how ecosystem retrogression, which drives vegetation change, regulates the important process of soil CH4 oxidation in boreal forests. We measured soil CH4 oxidation processes on a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. Across these islands the build-up of soil organic matter was observed to increase with time since fire disturbance, with a significant correlation between greater humus depth and increased net soil CH4 oxidation rates. We suggest that this increase in net CH4 oxidation rates, in the absence of disturbance, results as deeper humus stores accumulate and provide niches for methanotrophs to thrive. By using this gradient we have discovered important regulatory controls on the stability of soil CH4 oxidation processes that could not have not been explored through shorter-term experiments. Our findings indicate that in the absence of human interventions such as fire suppression, and with increased wildfire frequency, the globally important boreal CH4 sink could be diminished. PMID:26372346

  7. Effects of economic change on male morbidity in neighbouring industrial and rural municipalities in northern Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Diderichsen, F; Janlert, U

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the health effects of economic changes in a rural and industrial community. DESIGN--This was a historical cohort study with retrospective information on exposure and information on health outcome from a mailed questionnaire (response rate 82.5%). SETTING--An industrial and a rural community in northern Sweden. PARTICIPANTS--Participants included all men born in a rural community and a random sample of men born in a neighbouring industrial community 1915-1924 and alive in 1984 (N = 1989). MAIN RESULTS--Morbidity was higher in the cohort born in the rural municipality in which more profound changes in the socioeconomic structure had occurred. Even when taking such factors as childhood deprivation, migration, socioeconomic status, early retirement, unemployment, and single living into consideration, most of the differences in morbidity in the two municipalities still remained. However, the changes in employment conditions alone do not appear to explain the differences in morbidity that were found. CONCLUSION--The higher morbidity in the rural community indicates a health effect of the profound economic changes in that community but this difference cannot be explained by crude indicators of exposure to migration, unemployment, and other indicators of economic change. PMID:1494076

  8. Infant mortality of Sami and settlers in Northern Sweden: the era of colonization 1750–1900

    PubMed Central

    Sköld, Peter; Axelsson, Per; Karlsson, Lena; Smith, Len

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with infant mortality (IMR) that is one of the most important aspects of indigenous vulnerability. Background The Sami are one of very few indigenous peoples with an experience of a positive mortality transition. Objective Using unique mortality data from the period 1750–1900 Sami and the colonizers in northern Sweden are compared in order to reveal an eventual infant mortality transition. Findings The results show ethnic differences with the Sami having higher IMR, although the differences decrease over time. There were also geographical and cultural differences within the Sami, with significantly lower IMR among the South Sami. Generally, parity has high explanatory value, where an increased risk is noted for children born as number five or higher among siblings. Conclusion There is a striking trend of decreasing IMR among the Sami after 1860, which, however, was not the result of professional health care. Other indigenous peoples of the Arctic still have higher mortality rates, and IMR below 100 was achieved only after 1950 in most countries. The decrease in Sami infant mortality was certainly an important factor in their unique health transition, but the most significant change occurred after 1900. PMID:22043216

  9. Biomarker investigations in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from industrialised areas in northern Sweden in 2003.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Tomas; Hansen, Wenche; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Balk, Lennart; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Since the new millennium, a notion has developed in certain parts of society that environmental pollutants and their associated effects are under control. The primary objective of this investigation, performed in 2003, was to test whether this was actually the case in an industrialised region in the County of Västernorrland in northern Sweden with well-documented environmental pollution from past and present activities. This was performed by measuring a moderate battery of simple biomarkers in adult female perch at several stations. The point sources included sewage-treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, as well as other industries. The biomarkers included growth, somatic indices, gonad maturation status, gonad pigmentation, fin erosion, skin ulcers, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver. The results showed that the environmental pollutants and their associated effects were not under control. In fact, the health of the perch was impaired at all of the polluted stations. Many responses were unspecific with respect to underlying cause, whereas some effects on EROD activity and gonad maturation status were attributed to historical creosote pollution and current kraft pulp mill effluents, respectively. The data presented may also be used as reference values for future investigations of health effects in perch. PMID:24297393

  10. Soil Methane Sink Capacity Response to a Long-Term Wildfire Chronosequence in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Niall P; Gregg, Ruth; Oakley, Simon; Stott, Andy; Rahman, Md Tanvir; Murrell, J Colin; Wardle, David A; Bardgett, Richard D; Ostle, Nick J

    2015-01-01

    Boreal forests occupy nearly one fifth of the terrestrial land surface and are recognised as globally important regulators of carbon (C) cycling and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration processes in these forests include assimilation of CO2 into biomass and subsequently into soil organic matter, and soil microbial oxidation of methane (CH4). In this study we explored how ecosystem retrogression, which drives vegetation change, regulates the important process of soil CH4 oxidation in boreal forests. We measured soil CH4 oxidation processes on a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. Across these islands the build-up of soil organic matter was observed to increase with time since fire disturbance, with a significant correlation between greater humus depth and increased net soil CH4 oxidation rates. We suggest that this increase in net CH4 oxidation rates, in the absence of disturbance, results as deeper humus stores accumulate and provide niches for methanotrophs to thrive. By using this gradient we have discovered important regulatory controls on the stability of soil CH4 oxidation processes that could not have not been explored through shorter-term experiments. Our findings indicate that in the absence of human interventions such as fire suppression, and with increased wildfire frequency, the globally important boreal CH4 sink could be diminished. PMID:26372346

  11. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, A.M.M. Sturve, J.; Foerlin, L.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2007-11-15

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  12. Fluid inclusions, stable isotopes and gold deposition at Björkdal, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, C.; Billström, K.; Gustavsson, K.; Fallick, A. E.

    1994-06-01

    The Björkdal gold deposit is located in the eastern part of the Early Proterozoic Skellefte district in northern Sweden. The ore zone is hosted by a granitoid which intrudes a 1.9 Ga old supracrustal sequence and consists of a network of quartz veins between two shear zones. The ore mineralogy, alteration assemblages, ore fluid characteristics and general setting of the Björkdal deposit reveal many similarities with mesothermal Archean systems. Three types of fluids are represented by fluid inclusions observed in quartz, scheelite and calcite. The first type consists of a CO2-rich fluid which is syngenetic with the formation of the quartz veins. These inclusions occur in quartz and scheelite. Isotopic equilibrium temperatures derived from quartz-scheelite pairs reflect depositional temperatures around 375 °C. Molar volumes of the carbonic fluid inclusions, ranging down to 55 cm3mole, indicate a maximum lithostatic trapping pressure of 1.8 kbar. These fluids were generated at depth in conjunction with early orogenic magma-forming processes. The gold was introduced to the vein system by the carbonic fluid but the gold was deposited after reactions between this fluid and the wall-rock, producing a slightly alkaline, more CH4-rich aqueous type 2 fluid. Fluid inclusions of this chemically modified fluid indicate that the precipitation of the gold, together with pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite, occurred under heterogenous conditions at a temperature of 220 °C and a hydrostatic pressure of 0.5 kbar. The gold deposition occurred from fluids with a δ 18O signature of around +8‰ and δD values close to zero per mil. Any metamorphic influence on the stable isotopic signatures is regarded as minimal. The isotope data suggest rather that a surface-derived fluid component had access to the vein system during this process. At a post-vein forming stage (metamorphic stage ?) a secondary episode of gold mobilization occurred as suggested by the aqueous type 3 inclusions

  13. Environmental monitoring and research in the Abisko area-an overview.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Christer; Sonesson, Mats; Christensen, Torben R; Callaghan, Terry V

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the studies on the environment surrounding the Abisko Scientific Research Station in Swedish Lapland. The long-term monitoring of the Station on processes related to the climate, and to the physical, biotic, and chemical environmental conditions is particularly addressed. Some variables are recorded since more than 100 years. The obtained data in combination with results from short-term studies and manipulation experiments are important to understand past and future conditions of the ecosystems. This has practical applications for the planning of tourism, transports, reindeer herding, and for societal purposes. PMID:22864692

  14. Contrasting Landscape Influences on Sediment Supply and Stream Restoration Priorities in Northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and Coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and landuse affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Landuse impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of instream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Landuse impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting landuse impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional landuse impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  15. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Messner, T; Häggström, I; Sandahl, I; Lundberg, V

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI. PMID:12135204

  16. God and the Trolls: Socialization of Lappish Children in Northern Sweden. Reprints and Miniprints from Department of Educational and Psychological Research. No. 781.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Gudrun

    This report notes that two cultures may view similar childhood behaviors differently, and cites results of studies that compared Swedish and Indian parents' attitudes toward children to support this statement. The report describes a study that examined parental attitudes and behaviors among Lappish families in Northern Sweden, in which data was…

  17. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne; Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed. PMID:26538463

  18. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework. PMID:21132293

  19. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    PubMed Central

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts. PMID:25003551

  20. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Winkvist, Anna; Hörnell, Agneta; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2009-01-01

    Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters

  1. Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Wennberg, Maria . E-mail: miawennberg@skehus19.ac; Lundh, Thomas; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Hallmans, Goeran; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Custodio, Hipolito M.; Skerfving, Staffan

    2006-03-15

    The time trends of exposure to heavy metals are not adequately known. This is a worldwide problem with regard to the basis for preventive actions and evaluation of their effects. This study addresses time trends for the three toxic elements cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). Concentrations in erythrocytes (Ery) were determined in a subsample of the population-based MONICA surveys from 1990, 1994, and 1999 in a total of 600 men and women aged 25-74 years. The study took place in the two northernmost counties in Sweden. To assess the effect of changes in the environment, adjustments were made for life-style factors that are determinants of exposure. Annual decreases of 5-6% were seen for Ery-Pb levels (adjusted for age and changes in alcohol intake) and Ery-Hg levels (adjusted for age and changes in fish intake). Ery-Cd levels (adjusted for age) showed a similar significant decrease in smoking men. It is concluded that for Pb and maybe also Hg the actions against pollution during recent decades have caused a rapid decrease of exposure; for Hg the decreased use of dental amalgam may also have had an influence. For Cd, the decline in Ery-Cd was seen only in smokers, indicating that Cd exposure from tobacco has decreased, while other environmental sources of Cd have not changed significantly. To further improve the health status in Sweden, it is important to decrease the pollution of Cd, and actions against smoking in the community are important.

  2. Veiki-moraine-like landforms in the Nereidum Montes region on Mars: Insights from analogues in northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, A.; Reiss, D.; Hauber, E.; Johnson, M. D.; Olvmo, M.; Hiesinger, H.

    2015-10-01

    Mars is a cold hyper-arid planet where liquid water is extremely rare [1]. Most water is instead locked in a number of frozen reservoirs such as the polar caps, latitude-dependent near surface ground ice and as glacier ice. Previously, numerous studies reported on glacier landforms such as viscous flow features and lobate debris aprons where water-ice is believed to be present under insulating debris cover[2].This notion was confirmed by SHARAD measurements [3].However, very little is known about glacial landforms in which water is an important factor. Most studies have focused on moraine- like ridges that are associated to gully systems in crater environments[4], glacier landforms at the equatorial volcanic province [5]and drop-moraines from CO2 glaciers [6]. Here we report on unusual irregular ring-shaped landforms within a mountain complex in Nereidum Montes, Mars. These landforms are well-preserved and may suggest recent ablation of a debris-covered,cold-based glacier. These martian ring-shaped moraine-like landforms show a striking resemblance to the Veiki moraine in northern Sweden. Veiki moraines are believed to have formed at the lobate margins of a stagnant ice- sheet during the first Weich selian glaciation as it sharply ends to the east [7].The Veiki-moraine is characterized by ridged plateaus that are more or less circular and surrounded by a rim ridge. The newly acquired national LiDAR data over Sweden enable us studying these landforms in unprecedented detail. They also enable us exploring geomorphological similarities between Earth and Mars in large spatial contexts. This study aims to increase our understanding of glacial landforms on Mars by comparison to terrestrial analogues. Questions addressed are: (1) how morphological similar are the Martian landforms to the Veiki moraine of Sweden? (2) How does the moraine-like landform relate to other, well-preserved, glacial landforms within the mountain complex? (3) Do the moraine-like land forms indicate

  3. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  4. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela

    2010-02-15

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings. PMID:19939438

  5. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  6. Bicycle injury events among older adults in Northern Sweden: a 10-year population based study.

    PubMed

    Scheiman, Simeon; Moghaddas, Hossein S; Björnstig, Ulf; Bylund, Per-Olof; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2010-03-01

    Bicycles are a common mode of transportation and injured bicyclists cause a substantial burden on the medical sector. In Sweden, about half of fatally injured bicyclists are 65 years or older. This study analyzes the injury mechanisms, injuries, and consequences among bicyclists 65 years or older and compare with younger bicyclists (< or =64) and older adults as passenger car drivers, to give a basis for an injury preventive discussion for this age group. Umeå University Hospital's primary catchments area had 142,000 inhabitants in 2006. Nearly all injured road users in the well-defined geographic area are treated at this hospital and a 10-year data set (N=456) of injured bicyclists aged 65+ from the hospital's continuous injury registration (1997-2006) was analyzed. The results show that the annual injury incidence was 2.4 and 2.2 per 1000 men and women, respectively, aged 65 or older. For men the incidence rate was constant in the three age groups 65-74, 75-84 and 85+, while it decreased strongly for women. The incidence rate for old adults as passenger car drivers and younger bicyclists was 1.0 and 4.6, respectively. Most frequent injury mechanisms were falls when getting on or off a bicycle (20%) and by potholes or irregularities on the ground, edge of a sidewalk, or similar (13%). Only 6% were hit by cars, trucks, or buses. Half of the injured suffered fractures or dislocations, and 10% suffered concussion or more serious intracranial injuries. Getting on or off the bicycle caused most fractures (especially a high fraction of the hip and femur fractures) and resulted in 27% of all inpatient days in hospital. Three individuals died. One-third of the injured were treated as inpatients for a total of 1413 days (on average 9 days), with 69% of the days being caused by fractures. The cost for out- and inpatient acute treatment was approximately USD 4700 (SEK 33,000) per injured. The results merit an interest for this target group; bicycle injuries among older

  7. Uptake and recycling of lead by boreal forest plants: Quantitative estimates from a site in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2005-05-01

    As a consequence of deposition of atmospheric pollution, the lead concentration in the mor layer (the organic horizon) of remote boreal forest soils in Sweden is raised far above natural levels. How the mor will respond to decreased atmospheric pollution is not well known and is dependent on future deposition rates, downward migration losses and upward fluxes in the soil profile. Plants may contribute to the upward flux of lead by 'pumping' lead back to the mor surface through root uptake and subsequent litter fall. We use lead concentration and stable isotope ( 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) measurements of forest vegetation to quantify plant uptake rates from the soil and direct from the atmosphere at two sites in northern Sweden; an undisturbed mature forest and a disturbed site with Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) growing on a recently exposed mineral soil (C-horizon) containing a minimum of atmospherically derived pollution lead. Analyses of forest mosses from a herbarium collection (spanning the last ˜100 yr) and soil matrix samples suggest that the atmospheric lead deposited on plants and soil has an average 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of 1.15, while lead derived from local soil minerals has an average ratio of ˜1.47. Since the biomass of trees and field layer shrubs has an average 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of ˜1.25, this indicates that 70% ± 10% of the inventory of 1 ± 0.8 mg Pb m -2 stored in plants in the mature forest originates from pollution. Needles, bark and apical stemwood of the pine growing on the disturbed soil, show lower 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios (as low as 1.21) than the roots and basal stemwood (having ratios > 1.36), which indicate that plants are able to incorporate lead directly from the atmosphere (˜50% of the total tree uptake). By partitioning the total uptake of lead into uptake from the atmosphere and different soil layers using an isotopic mixing model, we estimate that ˜0.03 ± 0.01, 0.02 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.01 mg Pb m -2 yr -1 (mean ± SD), is taken up

  8. Radiocarbon dating of palaeosol components in moraines in Lapland, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hormes, Anne; Karlén, Wibjörn; Possnert, Göran

    2004-10-01

    Accurate geochronologies are the key for comparison of palaeoclimate records. In order to clarify problems concerning the geochronology of glacier fluctuations we dated palaeosols in moraines in the Kebnekaise mountain region of Swedish Lapland. These palaeosols already have been dated several years ago using bulk samples of the palaeosols and yielded ages of 6180-5790 and 2750-2100 cal yr BP. In an attempt to evaluate the sources of contamination associated with bulk samples these soils were re-dated by using Coleoptera fragments, Cenococcum geophilum spores, humic acids and woody plant tissues. The new dates reveal that the two palaeosols found within the moraines represent much longer periods of time than was previously assumed. Soil formation periods can be distinguished for periods 7800-7580, 6300-4080, 2450-2000 and 1170-740 cal yr BP. These age groups point to differentiated soil formation processes, resedimentation, bioturbation and/or cryoturbation. The results show that dated terrestrial macrofossils from glacial moraines indicate climate changes that are in accordance with other proxy records in northern and central Scandinavia and in certain times off-phase with glacier fluctuations in southern maritime Norway. This throws light on possible changing interaction of forcing factors during the Holocene.

  9. Explaining linkages (and lack of) between riparian vegetation biodiversity and geomorphic complexity in restored streams of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, Lina; Maher Hasselquist, Eliza; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-05-01

    Ecological theory suggests that species richness and habitat heterogeneity are positively correlated; therefore stream restoration often relies on increasing geomorphic complexity to promote biodiversity. However, past studies have failed to demonstrate a link between post-restoration biodiversity and geomorphic complexity. These studies have usually relied on only one metric for quantifying complexity, rather than a holistic metric for complexity that represents several aspects of the channel morphology, and have based their observations in catchments with widespread land-use impacts. We use a geomorphic complexity gradient based on five geomorphic aspects (longitudinal, cross-sectional, planform, sediment texture, and instream wood) to determine whether streams with higher levels of complexity also have greater riparian vegetation biodiversity. We also compare biodiversity values with the potential complexity of reaches based on the large-scale controls of valley and channel gradient and the presence of large glacial legacy sediment (boulders). We focus on tributary channels in boreal forests of northern Sweden, where stream modification associated with log-floating from the 1850s to the 1960s created highly simplified channels. Driven by concerns for fish, restoration began in the 1970s by returning large cobbles and boulders into the main channel from the channel edge, and evolved into 'demonstration restoration,' placing very large boulders and trees into the channel, reopening side channels, and constructing fish spawning areas. We evaluate 22 reaches along tributaries of the Vindel River in northern Sweden with four restoration statuses: channelized, restored, demonstration restored, and unimpacted. Detailed morphologic, sediment, and instream wood data allow calculation of 29 metrics of geomorphic complexity, from which a complexity gradient was identified using multivariate statistics. The percent cover of riparian vegetation was identified in 0.5 x 0.5 m

  10. 3D modelling of hydrothermal alteration associated with VHMS deposits in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielowski, Riia M.; Jansson, Nils; Persson, Mac Fjellerad; Fagerström, Pia

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents a 3D assessment of metamorphosed and deformed, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, hosting the massive sulphide deposits of the Kristineberg area in the 1.9 Ga Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden, using six calculated alteration parameters: the Ishikawa alteration index, the chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and calculated net mass changes in MgO, SiO2, Na2O and Ba. The results, which are also available as film clips in the Supplementary data, confirm inferences from geological mapping; namely that the sericite- and chlorite-rich alteration zones have complex and cross-cutting geometries and that most of these zones are semi-regional in extent and range continuously from surface to over a kilometre deep. The major known massive sulphide deposits occur proximal to zones characterised by coincidence of high values for the alteration index and chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and large MgO gains, which corresponds to zones rich in magnesian silicates. These zones are interpreted as the original chlorite-rich, proximal parts the alteration systems, and form anomalies extending up to 400 m away from the sulphide lenses. In addition, the stratigraphically highest VHMS are hosted by rocks rich in tremolite, talc, chlorite and dolomite with lesser clinozoisite, which have high chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and low-medium alteration index values, reflecting a greater importance of some chlorite-carbonate alteration at this stratigraphic level. Vectoring towards massive sulphide deposits in this area can be improved by combining the AI and CCPI indexes with calculated mass changes for key mobile elements. Of the ones modelled in this study, MgO and SiO2 appear to be the most useful.

  11. Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Alatalo, Juha M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments. PMID:25774335

  12. Ten-year interannual and seasonal variability of stream carbon export from a boreal peatland in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J.; Larsson, A.; Nilsson, M. B.; Laudon, H.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude peatlands constitute about 3% of the global land cover but store almost a third of the global soil carbon pool. The annual net ecosystem carbon balance at high latitude mires results from the balance between net ecosystem exchange, methane emission and stream discharge export. Understanding stream carbon export dynamics is needed to accurately predict how the carbon balance of peatlands will respond to climatic and environmental change. We use a ten year record (2004-2014) of streamflow and dissolved carbon (DOC, DIC, and CH4) measurements to assess interannual and seasonal variability in stream carbon export for a peatland catchment in northern Sweden. Mean annual total carbon export for the ten year period was 11.4 gC/m2, but individual years ranged between 6.1 and 17.2 gC/m2. DOC was the dominant form of carbon being exported, comprising 68% to 76% of total annual exports, and DIC contributed between 24% and 30%. CH4 made up less than 3% of total export. Stream carbon export and streamflow were highly synchronous. The majority of export (30% to 55% of annual totals) occurred during the spring snowmelt period. Exports during the summer and autumn were highly variable (1% to 45% and 9% to 53% of annual totals, respectively) and depended on the timing and magnitude of rain events. Winter periods were characterized by low streamflow conditions and associated low carbon export (0.6% to 10% of annual totals). These results highlight considerable interannual and seasonal variability of stream carbon export driven primarily by rain and snowmelt runoff events.

  13. The upper crustal 3-D resistivity structure of the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden revealed by magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübert, Juliane; Juanatey, María de los Ángeles García; Malehmir, Alireza; Tryggvason, Ari; Pedersen, Laust B.

    2013-02-01

    A 3-D model of the crustal electrical resistivity was constructed from the inversion of magnetotelluric data in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, the location of one of Sweden's most successful mining activities. Forward modelling of vertical magnetic transfer data supports our model which was derived from the magnetotelluric impedance only. The dominant features in the 3-D model are the strong conductors at various depth levels and resistive bodies of variable thickness occurring in the shallower subsurface. The deepest conductor, previously associated with the Skellefte crustal conductivity anomaly, is imaged in the southern part of the area as a north-dipping feature starting at ˜4 km depth. Several shallow conductors are attributed to graphite in the black shales defining the contact between the metasedimentary rocks and the underlying metavolcanic rocks. Furthermore, an elongated intermediate depth conductor is possibly associated with alteration zones in the metavolcanic rocks that host the ore occurrences. The most prominent crustal resistors occur in the southern and northern part of the area, where their lateral extent on the surface coincides with the late-orogenic Revsund type intrusions. To the east, a resistive feature can be correlated to the early-orogenic Viterliden intrusion. The 3-D model is compared with two previous 2-D inversion models along two perpendicular profiles. The main electrical features are confirmed with the new model and previous uncertainties regarding 3-D effects, caused by off-profile conductors, can be better assessed in 3-D, although the resolution is lower due to a coarser model discretization. The comparison with seismic sections along two north-south profiles reveals structural correspondence between electrical features, zones of different reflectivity and geological units.

  14. Re-processing and interpretation of 2D seismic data from the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Malehmir, Alireza; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh

    2012-05-01

    The Kristineberg mining area in the western part of the Skellefte ore district, northern Sweden, contains the largest massive sulphide deposit in the district. In 2003, two parallel seismic lines, Profiles 1 and 5, each about 25 km long and about 8 km apart were acquired in the Kristineberg area. The initial processing results were successful in imaging the large-scale structures of the area down to 12 km of the crust, but resulted in relatively poor seismic image near the mine. In this paper, we re-processed the seismic data along Profile 1 that crosses the mine. The main objective was to improve the seismic section near the mine for further correlation with new seismic data recently acquired in the area. The crooked-line acquisition geometry, very low fold coverage of less than 17, complex geology and sparse outcrops in the area made the data re-processing and interpretation challenging. Despite these challenges, significant improvement is observed in the seismic data, in terms of event continuity and resolution. Refraction static corrections allowed high frequencies to be retained, which improved the seismic section. The refraction static solution was manually checked and adjusted at every iteration to avoid unstable solutions. 3D visualization of the re-processed data with other seismic profiles recently acquired in the area allowed the seismic reflections to be correlated. The majority of the reflections are interpreted to originate from either fault zones or lithological contacts. A very shallow reflection correlates well with the location of the Kristineberg mineralized horizon.

  15. Impulse radar measurements of snow interception - laboratory tests and field application to a forest stand in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, D.; Magnusson, J.; Granlund, N.

    2009-04-01

    attenuation through a sample of Norway spruce branches loaded with different amount of liquid water and snow. The results were used to establish empirical mixing formulas relating imaginary and real components of the effective dielectric permittivity to the volumetric fraction of liquid and frozen water. The obtained formulas were tested in a field application in northern Sweden, in a homogeneous stand dominated by Norway spruce. The mass of snow stored in the tree canopies were measured in two ways: firstly by measuring the weight of a single tree scaled to a forest stand average and secondly using impulse radar measurements through a small section of the forest. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two small towers, separated horizontally by 15 m. The amount of intercepted snow determined from the radar measurements compared well with the measurements from the single tree weighing lysimeter, especially during cold conditions. Systematic differences were observed in situations with melting snow on the trees, when the estimation of liquid water content was overestimated by the frequency attenuation method. However, this might be due to a combination of uncertainties in the mixing models and inadequate corrections for drift in the measurement system. Overall, the results were promising and showed that impulse radar can be used to study snow interception.

  16. Preliminary results from fault-slip analysis of the Pärvie neotectonic postglacial fault zone, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Ann; Viola, Giulio; Rantakokko, Nina; Jonsson, Erik; Ask, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Our study aims at constraining the paleostress field evolution of neotectonic postglacial faulting in northern Sweden. Postglacial faulting is a special type of intraplate faulting triggered by the retreat of continental glaciers and by the induced changes of the local stress field. We investigated the longest known post-glacial fault (PGF) in Scandinavia, the Pärvie PGF. It is 155 km long and consists of a series of 3-10 m high fault scarps developed in several rock types such as mafic and felsic meta-volcanic rocks, and in the north, Archean granites and gneisses. Most of the scarps trend north-northeast and dip steeply to the west. A smaller sibling fault to the east (the Lansjärv PGF) displaces postglacial sediments. It is interpreted as resulting from a great earthquake (M≤8.2) at the end or just after the last glaciation (~10 ky B.P.). Microseismic activity is still present along the Pärvie fault zone. Unfortunately, the stress history of the Pärvie PGF before the last glaciation is poorly known. To reconstruct its stress history, we have performed fault-slip analysis. Fault slip data have been collected from two profiles across the Pärvie PGF in the Corruvagge valley and in Kamasjaure in the north, and Stora Sjöfallet in the southern part of the fault zone. Cross-cutting relationships, fracture mineralization and structural features of the brittle overprint of the rocks have been used to suggest a conceptual model of the brittle history of the fault. Ca. 40 kinematically constrained fault planes were used in the inversion study in addition to ca. 1060 fractures. Preliminary results indicate that the oldest generation of fractures are coated by pink plagioclase and clinoamphibole. The key mineral epidote is prominent along cataclastic structures. Rarly multiple kinematic indicators are identified along the same fracture, indicating polyphase reactivation. Epidote coating is found along fractures from all the computed stress-fields, indicating that

  17. Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI. Results Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking. Conclusions Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986–1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with

  18. What determines the current presence or absence of permafrost in the Torneträsk region, a sub-arctic landscape in northern Sweden?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Margareta; Christensen, Torben R; Akerman, H Jonas; Callaghan, Terry V

    2006-06-01

    In a warming climate, permafrost is likely to be significantly reduced and eventually disappear from the sub-Arctic region. This will affect people at a range of scales, from locally by slumping of buildings and roads, to globally as melting of permafrost will most likely increase the emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas methane, which will further enhance global warming. In order to predict future changes in permafrost, it is crucial to understand what determines the presence or absence of permafrost under current climate conditions, to assess where permafrost is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and to identify where changes are already occurring. The Torneträsk region of northern sub-Arctic Sweden is one area where changes in permafrost have been recorded and where permafrost could be particularly vulnerable to any future climate changes. This paper therefore reviews the various physical, biological, and anthropogenic parameters that determine the presence or absence of permafrost in the Torneträsk region under current climate conditions, so that we can gain an understanding of its current vulnerability and potential future responses to climate change. A patchy permafrost distribution as found in the Torneträsk region is not random, but a consequence of site-specific factors that control the microclimate and hence the surface and subsurface temperature. It is also a product of past as well as current processes. In sub-Arctic areas such as northern Sweden, it is mainly the physical parameters, e.g., topography, soil type, and climate (in particular snow depth), that determine permafrost distribution. Even though humans have been present in the study area for centuries, their impacts on permafrost distribution can more or less be neglected at the catchment level. Because ongoing climate warming is projected to continue and lead to an increased snow cover, the permafrost in the region will most likely disappear within decades, at least at lower

  19. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    PubMed Central

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3<25 nmol/l (<10 ng/ml); insufficient, D3 25–49.9 nmol/l (10–20 ng/ml); and adequate, D3≥50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Mean (median) level of vitamin D3 was 65.2 (63.6) nmol/l in men and 71.0 (67.7) nmol/l in women. Adequate levels were found in 79.2%, more often in women (82.7%) than in men (75.6%). Only 0.7% of the population were vitamin D3–deficient but 23.1% of men and 17.1% of women had insufficient levels. Levels of vitamin D3 increased with age and insufficient status was most common among those aged 25–34 years, 41.0% in men and 22.3% in women. If subjects using vitamin D-supplementation are excluded, the population level of D3 is 1–2 nmol/l lower than in the general population across sex- and age groups. There were no differences between the northern or the southern parts, between urban or rural living or according to educational attainment. Those subjects born outside of Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  20. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order

  1. Increasing physical activity, but persisting social gaps among middle-aged people: trends in Northern Sweden from 1990 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nawi; Söderman, Kerstin; Norberg, Margareta; Öhman, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is identified as one important protective factor for chronic diseases. Physical activity surveillance is important in assessing healthy population behaviour over time. Many countries lack population trends on physical activity. Objective To present trends in physical activity levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden and to evaluate physical activity among women and men with various educational levels. Methods opulation-based cross-sectional and panel data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) during 1990–2007 were used. All individuals in Västerbotten County who turned 40, 50, or 60 years old were invited to their local primary health care for a health screening. Physical activity during commuting, recreational activities, physical exercise, and socio-demographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were categorised as sedentary, moderate physically active, or physically active. Results The prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 16 to 24.2% among men and from 12.6 to 30.4% among women. Increases are observed in all educational groups, but gaps between educational groups widened recently. The level of sedentary behaviour was stable over the time period studied. The 10-year follow-up data show that the prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 15.8 to 21.4% among men and 12.7 to 23.3% among women. However, 10.2% of men and 3.8% of women remained sedentary. Conclusion Despite the promising evidence of increasing physical activity levels among the population in Västerbotten County, challenges remain for how to reduce the stable levels of sedentary behaviours in some subgroups. Persisting social gaps in physical activity levels should be addressed further. An exploration of people's views on engaging in physical activity and barriers to doing so will allow better formulation of targeted interventions within this population. PMID:21799669

  2. Simulation of six years of carbon fluxes for a sedge-dominated oligotrophic minerogenic peatland in Northern Sweden using the McGill Wetland Model (MWM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianghua; Roulet, Nigel T.; Sagerfors, Jorgen; Nilsson, Mats B.

    2013-06-01

    Northern peatlands store ~30% of the global soil carbon, despite covering only 3% of the land. To understand the carbon balance of these systems and predict their response to changes in climate, robust and reliable models are needed. The McGill Wetland Model (MWM), originally developed to simulate the carbon dynamics of ombrotrophic bogs, was modified to simulate the CO2 biogeochemistry of sedge-dominated oligotrophic minerogenic peatlands, a prominent peatland type in boreal and subarctic landscapes. Three modifications were implemented: (1) a function to describe the impact of soil moisture on the optimal gross primary production, (2) a scheme to partition the peat profile into oxic and anoxic compartments based on the "effective root depth" as a function of daily sedge net primary production, and (3) a function to describe the "fen" moss water dynamics. The modified MWM was evaluated using eddy-covariance net ecosystem production (NEP) from Degero Stormyr in northern Sweden. The root mean square error for daily NEP was ~0.46 g C m-2 d-1, and the index of agreement was 84%. This model adequately captures the magnitude and direction of the CO2 fluxes and simulates the seasonal and inter-annual variability reasonably well (r2 > 0.8). Sensitivity analysis confirms that specifically water table depth (WTD) and moss water content are key biogeochemical hydrology processes for the carbon biogeochemistry of a sedge-dominated oligotrophic minerogenic peatland. An increase of WTD by 15 cm or air temperature by 3°C could decrease NEP by up to 200% and make the peatland become a source of CO2.

  3. The gene for diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma of the type found in northern Sweden is localized to chromosome 12q11-q13

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, L.; Holmgren, G.; Lundstroem, A.

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) consists of a heterogeneous group of skin disorders characterized by hyperkeratosis (thickening of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum), primarily of the palms and soles. Autosomal dominant diffuse PPK has been considered to exist in two types that are clinically similar but microscopically distinguishable: epidermolytic PPK and non-epidermolytic PPK. Recently, though, the existence of a purely hyperkeratotic PPK has been questioned. However, autosomal dominant diffuse non-epidermolytic PPK is a frequent disorder in Northern Sweden with a reported prevalence of 0.3-0.55% among school children. This Swedish variant of PPK does not show any sign of epidermolytic hyprekeratosis but instead the patients exhibit frequent dermatophyte infections, a complication rarely seen in epidermolytic PPK. We have examined two Swedish families with PPK and localized the causative genetic defect to a 14 cM interval on chromosome 12q11-q13, a region known to contain the keratin type II gene cluster as well as the retionic acid receptor {gamma} gene. The PPK variant investigated here is thus both clinically and genetically different from epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma which recently has been shown to result from mutations on chromosome 17q in the gene for the type I keratin 9.

  4. 'Science is really needed--that's all I know': informed consent and the non-verbal practices of collecting blood for genetic research in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2003-12-01

    In Vasterbotten County in northern Sweden a start-up biotech company has recently gained all commercial rights to one of the worlds largest population based research biobanks. The biobank and the company have publicly emphasized that all donors have given their informed consent to participate, but within the academy it has become debated whether people have been adequately informed. Based on anthropological fieldwork it is shown that many people do not read the information provided. The data do not, however, suggest that donors themselves perceive a lack of information. This article endeavours to make meaningful the apparent lack of interest among donors in the information they are offered. It is argued that the donation of blood should be analysed in its social and historical context rather than as a response to rational assessment of information of research purposes. It implies a conceptualisation of agency more aware of the intersubjective nature of moral negotiation than usually implied in studies of informed consent. PMID:15115024

  5. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  6. “It is a challenge to do it the right way”: an interpretive description of caregivers’ experiences in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experiences from nations with population diversity show extensive evidence on the need for cultural and linguistic competence in health care. In Sweden, despite the increasing diversity, only few studies have focused on challenges in cross-cultural care. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of caregivers in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden in order to understand the challenges they face and generate knowledge that could inform clinical practice. Methods We used an interpretive description approach, combining semi-structured interviews with 10 caregivers purposively selected and participant observation of patient-provider interactions in caring encounters. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis approach. Field notes were also used to orient data collection and confirm or challenge the analysis. Results We found complex and intertwined challenges as indicated in the three themes we present including: the sociocultural diversity, the language barrier and the challenges migrants face in navigating through the Swedish health care system. The caregivers described migrants as a heterogeneous group coming from different geographical areas with varied social, cultural and religious affiliations, migration histories and statuses, all of which influenced the health care encounter, whether providing or receiving. Participants also described language as a major barrier to effective provision and use of health services. Meanwhile, they expressed concern over the use of interpreters in the triad communication and over the difficulties encountered by migrants in navigating through the Swedish health care system. Conclusions The study illuminates complex challenges facing health care providers caring for migrant populations and highlights the need for multifaceted approaches to improve the delivery and receipt of care. The policy implications of these challenges are discussed in relation to the

  7. Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Videhult, Frida K.; Öhlund, Inger; Hernell, Olle; West, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    Background High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63–64 °N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n=120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n=113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitamin D intake of 7.5 µg/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p=0.01). Body mass (p<0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p=0.01), total body less head BMC (p=0.02), fat free mass (p<0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p=0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health. PMID

  8. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  9. Experiences of barriers and facilitators to weight-loss in a diet intervention - a qualitative study of women in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of research about the experiences of participating in weight-reducing interventions. The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to weight-loss experienced by participants in a diet intervention for middle-aged to older women in the general population in Northern Sweden. Method In the intervention the women were randomised to eat either a Palaeolithic-type diet or a diet according to Nordic Nutrition recommendations for 24 months. A strategic selection was made of women from the two intervention groups as well as from the drop-outs in relation to social class, civil status and age. Thematic structured interviews were performed with twelve women and analysed with qualitative content analyses. Results The results showed that the women in the dietary intervention experienced two main barriers – struggling with self (related to difficulties in changing food habits, health problems, lack of self-control and insecurity) and struggling with implementing the diet (related to social relations and project-related difficulties) – and two main facilitators– striving for self-determination (related to having clear goals) and receiving support (from family/friends as well as from the project) – for weight-loss. There was a greater emphasis on barriers than on facilitators. Conclusion It is important to also include drop-outs from diet interventions in order to fully understand barriers to weight-loss. A gender-relational approach can bring new insights into understanding experiences of barriers to weight-loss. Trial registration ClinicalTrials gov NCT00692536. PMID:24739099

  10. Greater decreases in cholesterol levels among individuals with high cardiovascular risk than among the general population: the northern Sweden MONICA study 1994 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Marie; Forslund, Ann-Sofi; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Söderberg, Stefan; Wennberg, Maria; Eliasson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Aim Decreasing cholesterol levels in Western populations is the main reason for decreasing mortality due to coronary heart disease. Our aim was to analyze trends in cholesterol levels in the population during a period of 20 years in relation to previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), other cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status. Methods and results A total of 4546 women and 4349 men aged 25–74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8–62.5%). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 6.2 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, CI, 6.1–6.2) in 1994 to 5.5 mmol/L (CI 5.4–5.5) in 2014. The decrease was more pronounced in elderly vs. younger participants (1.0 vs. 0.5 mmol/L). In 2014, participants with previous CVD, diabetes, or hypertension had lower cholesterol levels than the general population, whereas their levels were higher or similar to the general population in 1994. The use of lipid-lowering drugs increased markedly and was used by 14.3% in 2014. Previously described differences in cholesterol levels between participants with obesity and normal weight, and between those with and without university education, diminished, or vanished over time. Conclusion Cholesterol levels decreased by 0.7 mmol/L over 20 years with no sign of abating. The improvement occurred in all age and gender groups but more prominently among those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease. PMID:26941200

  11. Revealing the deeper structure of the end-glacial Pärvie fault system in northern Sweden by seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, O.; Juhlin, C.; Ask, M.; Lund, B.

    2015-02-01

    Fault scarps that extend up to 155 km and have offsets of tens of meters at the surface are present in the northern parts of Finland, Norway and Sweden. These fault scarps are inferred to have formed during earthquakes with magnitudes up to 8 at the time of the last deglaciation. The Pärvie fault system represents the largest earthquake so far documented in northern Scandinavia, both in terms of its length and its calculated magnitude. It is also the longest known glacially induced fault in the world. Present-day microearthquakes occur along the length of the fault scarp on the eastern side of the scarp, in general agreement with an east dipping main fault. In the central section of the fault, where there is a number of subsidiary faults east of the main fault, it has been unclear how the earthquakes relate to the faults mapped at the surface. A seismic profile across the Pärvie Fault system acquired in 2007, with a mechanical hammer as a source, showed a good correlation between the surface mapped faults and moderate to steeply dipping reflectors. The most pronounced reflector could be mapped to about 3 km depth. In an attempt to map the fault system to deeper levels, a new 22 km long 2-D seismic profile which followed the 2007 line was acquired in June 2014. For deeper penetration an explosive source with a maximum charge size of 8.34 kg in 20 m deep shot holes was used. Reflectors can now be traced to deeper levels with the main 65° east dipping fault interpreted as a weakly reflective structure. As in the previous profile, there is a pronounced strongly reflective 60° west dipping structure present to the east of the main fault that can now be mapped to about 8 km depth. Extrapolations of the main and subsidiary faults converge at a depth of about 11.5 km where current earthquake activity is concentrated, suggesting their intersection has created favorable conditions for seismic stress release. Based on the present and previous seismic reflection data

  12. Revealing the deeper structure of the end-glacial Pärvie fault system in northern Sweden by seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, O.; Juhlin, C.; Ask, M.; Lund, B.

    2015-06-01

    A new seismic reflection survey for imaging deeper levels of the end-glacial Pärvie fault system in northern Sweden was acquired in June 2014. The Pärvie fault system hosts the largest fault scarp so far documented in northern Scandinavia, both in terms of its length and calculated magnitude of the earthquake that generated it. Present-day microearthquakes occur along the length of the fault scarp on the eastern side of the scarp, in general agreement with an east-dipping main fault. In the central section of the fault system, where there is a number of subsidiary faults east of the main Pärvie scarp, it has been unclear how the earthquakes relate to the structures mapped at the surface. A seismic profile across the Pärvie fault system acquired in 2007, with a mechanical hammer as a source, showed a good correlation between the surface mapped faults and moderate to steeply dipping reflections. The most pronounced reflectors could be mapped to about 3 km depth. In the new seismic survey, for deeper penetration an explosive source with a maximum charge size of 8.34 kg in 20 m deep shot holes was used. Reflectors can now be traced to deeper levels with the main 65° east-dipping fault interpreted as a weakly reflective structure. As in the previous profile, there is a strongly reflective 60° west-dipping structure present to the east of the main fault that can now be mapped to about 8 km depth. Extrapolations of the main and subsidiary faults converge at a depth of about 11.5 km, where current earthquake activity is concentrated, suggesting their intersection has created favorable conditions for seismic stress release. Based on the present and previous seismic reflection data, we propose potential locations for future boreholes for scientific drilling into the fault system. These boreholes will provide a better understanding of the reflective nature of the fault structures and stress fields along the faults at depth.

  13. Environment and phenology: CO2 net ecosystem exchange and CO2 flux partitioning at an acid and oligotrophic mire system in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gažovič, Michal; Peichl, Matthias; Vermeij, Ilse; Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats. B.

    2015-04-01

    Static chamber and environmental measurements in combination with vegetation indices (i.e. vascular green area (VGA) and the greenness chromatic color index (gcc) derived from digital camera images) were used to investigate effects of environment and phenology on the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and CO2 flux partitioning at the Degerö Stormyr site in northern Sweden (64°11' 23.565" N, 19°33' 55.291 E) during two environmentally different years. Our measurement design included a control plot, a moss plot (where vascular plants were removed by clipping) and four heterotrophic respiration (RH) collars (where all green moss and vascular plant biomass were removed) to partition between soil heterotrophic and plant autotrophic (moss and vascular plants) respiration (RA), as well as between moss and vascular plant gross primary production (GPP). Environmental conditions, especially the shallow snow cover, peat soil frost and cold spring in 2014 caused delayed onset of spring green up, reduced soil respiration flux and reduced GPP of vascular plants. Soil temperature measured in 26 cm depth started to rise from spring temperatures of ~ 0.6 °C in 2013 and 0.15 °C in 2014 about 20 days earlier in 2013 compared to 2014. With earlier onset of the growing season and higher soil temperatures in 2013, heterotrophic soil respiration was higher in year 2013 than in year 2014. In 2013, RH dominated the total ecosystem respiration in all months but June and August. On contrary, autotrophic respiration dominated ecosystem respiration in all months of 2014. In both years, vascular plants and mosses were more or less equally contributing to autotrophic respiration. We measured higher GPP in year 2013 compared to year 2014. Also VGA and gcc were higher in spring and throughout the rest of 2013 compared to 2014. The onset of VGA was delayed by ~ 10 days in 2014. In general, total GPP was dominated by GPP of vascular plants in both years, although moss GPP had substantial

  14. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  15. Test of simultaneous synthetic DNA tracer injections for the estimation of the englacial and subglacial drainage system structure of Storglaciären, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Leung, S.; Lyon, S. W.; Sharma, A. N.; Walter, M. T.; Williamson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Storglaciären glacier, located in the sub-arctic Tarfala catchment, in northern Sweden is one of the world's longest continuously monitored glaciers which provides a unique research platform for the long-term assessment of glacier and ice sheet processes. For example, small mountain glacier hydrological knowledge of the subglacial water distribution at the ice-bed interface has been applied to ice sheets to predict basal sliding processes. Basal sliding promoted by hydraulic jacking is an important glacial-velocity control that is dependent on the subglacial flow pathways' morphology. Thus, understanding subglacial water distribution and drainage system structure and morphology is crucial for modeling ice masses' flow. In order to estimate subglacial drainage system structure and morphology dye tracing experiments are widely employed. Tracer experiments provide quantitative parameters for any input location including tracer transit velocity, dispersivity, recovery and storage. However, spatial data coverage is limited by the finite number of tracers available for simultaneous tracing. In the presented study we test the use of synthetic DNA tracers for the assessment of the englacial and subglacial drainage system structure of Storglaciären. The synthetic DNA tracer is composed of polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres into which short strands of synthetic DNA and paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are incorporated (Sharma et al., 2012, Environmental Science & Technology). Because the DNA sequences can be randomly combined the synthetic DNA tracer provides an enormous number of unique tracers (approximately 1.61 x 1060). Thus, these synthetic tracers have the advantage that multiple (>10) experiments can be conducted simultaneously, allowing a greater information gain within a shorter measurement period. Quantities of a certain DNA strand can be detected using biotechnology tools such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). During the 2013

  16. Acoustic Monitoring of Ebullitive Flux from a Mire Ecosystem in Subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, S. A.; Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; McCalley, C. K.; Amante, J.

    2012-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent green house gas with wetlands being the largest natural source to the atmosphere. Studies in the Stordalen Mire, a dynamic peatland complex 11km east of the Abisko Scientific Research Station (ANS) in northern Sweden, that focused on CH4 transport to the atmosphere from peatlands have shown increased emissions over the past decades. Ebullitive flux (bubbling) is a potentially significant pathway of CH4 from mire/lake ecosystems. Ebullitive fluxes were successfully monitored acoustically in peat and lakes in 2011. This work expands those measurements with installation of sensors in ponds and permafrost thaw margins in 2012. Eighteen acoustic sensors were installed in peat (6), pond (6), and lake (6) sites at Stordalen Mire. Recorders collected acoustic data continuously from each sensor and gas samples were collected from the traps at least once per week beginning 7 July. The CH4 concentration in the gas was measured using gas chromatography and selected samples were also analyzed for 13C-CH4 using a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL). The acoustic data were evaluated using a MATLAB program for determine the timing and volume of each ebullition event. The CH4 ebullitive flux from the peat was greater in July 2011 than during the same period in 2012. In comparison, the ponds and thaw margins released CH4 at a faster rate in 2012 than was observed in the peat and lake sensors in 2011. Inter-annual differences in ebullitive rates suggest that weather scale differences between years may control CH4 ebullitive flux. 13C-CH4 measured in the pore waters of pond sediment suggests that not all ponds are dominated by the same production processes. However, 13C-CH4 measured in bubbles and sediments are not different, implying little or no oxidation of CH4 during transport to the water surface. Our data suggests that changes in atmospheric pressure and water table height correlated with the ebullitive release in all three sub-ecosystems.

  17. Policy and Practice in Deaf Education: Views and Experiences of Teachers, and of Young People Who Are Deaf in Northern Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that the outcomes of education for most school leavers who are deaf in Northern Ireland are weak literacy skills and below average reading ages, a study was undertaken to investigate this situation. The views and experiences of teachers of children who are deaf, and of young people who are deaf in Northern Ireland, where oral and…

  18. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans. PMID:22269339

  19. Radiocesium in muscle tissue of reindeer and pike from northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl accident. A retrospective study on tissue samples from the Swedish Environmental Specimen Bank.

    PubMed

    Forberg, S; Odsjö, T; Olsson, M

    1992-04-30

    After the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, considerable deposition of radionuclides occurred regionally in eastern, central and northwestern Sweden. Locally, the fallout of radiocesium exceeded the remainder from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests by several magnitudes. Since the end of the 1960s samples of organs from various plant and animal species, annually collected at different localities, have been preserved in the Swedish Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). In this work samples from the ESB have been used for retrospective studies of radioactive pollution. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in muscle tissues from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, and pike, Esox lucius, preserved in the ESB, were measured. The samples were collected annually; the reindeer at three localities in northern Sweden and the pike at one of them. In material collected prior to the Chernobyl accident, the levels of Cs-137 were 57-180 Bq/kg in reindeer and 14-24 Bq/kg in pike, fresh weight basis. These levels relate to earlier nuclear bomb tests. A significant decrease was found in pike during the pre-Chernobyl period (1971-86). In post-Chernobyl samples the burden of Cs-137 varied from amounts equal to the former levels in the northernmost locality and up to 80 times higher for the maximum values in the southernmost locality. The highest value recorded was 18,425 Bq/kg in reindeer. The geographic variations in reindeer from Chernobyl fallout were in accordance with the pattern of deposition estimated by aircraft surveys performed in May 1986. The ratio between 'new' and 'old' radiocesium burdens in pike, caught in 1987, approached the corresponding ratio for reindeer grazing in the precipitation area of the lake; 33 and 19, respectively. PMID:1604304

  20. Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Sevde, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher δ13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage δ13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and δN15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the δN15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

  1. 3D constraints on a possible deep > 2.5 km massive sulphide mineralization from 2D crooked-line seismic reflection data in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bellefleur, Gilles; Juhlin, Christopher; Tryggvason, Ari

    2009-12-01

    2D crooked-line seismic reflection surveys in crystalline environments are often considered challenging in their processing and interpretation. These challenges are more evident when complex diffraction signals that can originate from out-of-the-plane and a variety of geological features are present. A seismic profile in the Kristineberg mining area in northern Sweden shows an impressive diffraction package, covering an area larger than 25 km 2 in the subsurface at depths greater than 2.5 km. We present here a series of scenarios in which each can, to some extent, explain the nature of this extraordinarily large package of diffractions. Cross-dip analysis, diffraction imaging and modeling, as well as 3D processing of the crooked-line data provided constraints on the interpretation of the diffraction package. Overall, the results indicate that the diffraction package can be associated with at least four main short south-dipping diffractors in a depth range of 2.5-4.5 km. Candidate scenarios for the origin of the diffraction package are: (1) a series of massive sulphide deposits, (2) a series of mafic-ultramafic intrusions, (3) a major shear-zone and (4) multiple contact lithologies. We have also investigated the possible contribution of mode-converted scattered energy in the diffraction package using a modified converted-wave 3D prestack depth migration algorithm with the results indicating that a majority of the diffractions are P-wave diffractions. The 3D prestack migration of the data provided improved images of a series of steeply north-dipping mafic-ultramafic sill intrusions to a depth of about 4 km, where the diffractions appear to focus after the migration. The results and associated interpretations presented in this paper have improved our understanding of this conspicuous package of diffractions and may lead to re-evaluation of the 3D geological model of the Kristineberg mining area.

  2. 160 Ma of magmatic/hydrothermal and metamorphic activity in the Gällivare area: Re-Os dating of molybdenite and U-Pb dating of titanite from the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanhainen, Christina; Billström, Kjell; Martinsson, Olof; Stein, Holly; Nordin, Roger

    2005-12-01

    Host rocks to the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit in northern Sweden are strongly altered and deformed Early Proterozoic mica(-amphibole) schists and gneisses. The deposit is characterised by numerous mineralisation styles, vein and alteration types. Four samples were selected for Re-Os molybdenite dating and 12 samples for U-Pb titanite dating in order to elucidate the magmatic/hydrothermal and metamorphic history following primary ore deposition in the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit. Samples represent dyke, vein and alteration assemblages from the ore zone, hanging wall and footwall to the deposit. Re-Os dating of molybdenite from deformed barite and quartz veins yielded ages of 1,876±10 Ma and 1,848±8 Ma, respectively. A deformed pegmatite dyke yielded a Re-Os age of 1,848±6 Ma, and an undeformed pegmatite dyke an age of 1,728±7 Ma. U-Pb dating of titanite from a diversity of alteration mineral associations defines a range in ages between 1,750 and 1,805 Ma with a peak at ca. 1,780 Ma. The ages obtained, together with previous data, bracket a 160-Ma (1,890-1,730 Ma) time span encompassing several generations of magmatism, prograde to peak metamorphism, and post-peak cooling; events resulting in the redistribution and addition of metals to the deposit. This multi-stage evolution of the Aitik ore body suggests that the deposit was affected by several thermal events that ultimately produced a complex ore body. The Re-Os and U-Pb ages correlate well with published regional Re-Os and U-Pb age clusters, which have been tied to major magmatic, hydrothermal, and metamorphic events. Primary ore deposition at ca. 1,890 Ma in connection with intrusion of Haparanda granitoids was followed by at least four subsequent episodes of metamorphism and magmatism. Early metamorphism at 1,888-1,872 Ma overlapping with Haparanda (1,890-1,880 Ma) and Perthite-monzonite (1,880-1,870 Ma) magmatism clearly affected the Aitik area, as well as late metamorphism and Lina magmatism at 1,810-1,774 Ma and

  3. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  4. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  5. Recycling overview in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

  6. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  7. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  8. A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

  9. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  10. Exploring spatial heterogeneity and resilience in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, A.; Roulet, N. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northern peatlands cover only 3% of the worlds land area while storing approximately 30% of the world's soil carbon making them important players in the global and regional carbon (C) cycle (Gorham 1991). Current peatland research attempts to predict changes in peatland biogeochemistry given climate change scenarios. However, the focus is primarily on linear responses to changes rather than on self regulation properties that are present in complex systems. Studying peatlands as complex adaptive systems (CAS) is important to fully understand peatland resilience and therefore to better predict response to disturbances. Peatlands possess properties of CAS such as spatial heterogeneity (SH), localized flows, self-organizing structures and non-linearity (Belyea and Baird 2006). The broad hypothesis of our proposed research is that SH in peatlands is positively connected with ecosystem resilience. To address our broad hypothesis we propose to 1) characterize SH in peatlands (using two visible indices of microtopography [MT] and vegetation structure [VEG]), 2) quantify the auto-correlation between visible SH and biogeochemical parameters and 3) investigate short term resilience using the response of biogeochemical parameters to environmental changes. The selection of biogeochemical parameters is based on prevalent theories on the persistence of MT in peatlands and parameters are related to peat accumulation (function of decomposition and net primary production; NPP), hydrology and nutrients (Swanson and Grigal 1988, Belyea and Clymo 2001, Eppinga et al. 2009). Field measurements will be conducted in the Stordalen mire in Abisko, Sweden. This site provides a steep environmental gradient with the presence of 3 peatland types- palsa, bog and fen. Each of these peatland types have varying degrees of spatial heterogeneity, exogenous controls (related to hydrology and permafrost), and therefore hypothesized varying degrees of resilience. Measurements will include nutrients, NPP

  11. Pharmaceutical expenditure in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, F; Hjortsberg, C; Rehnberg, C

    1999-05-01

    Recently, the responsibility for prescribed pharmaceuticals in Sweden was transferred from national level to the regional health authorities (county councils). The purpose was that a closer integration and balance between pharmaceuticals and other factors of production in health care should produce better opportunities for a cost-effective use of the total health care resources. The purpose of this paper is to present a deeper analysis of pharmaceuticals as a production factor in Sweden, mainly during the 1990s, and to discuss the future development and future policy decisions in Sweden. Pharmaceuticals have increased their share of total health care expenditure in Sweden, from about 9% in 1990 to about 14% in 1995. The Swedish pharmaceutical market can be divided into sub-markets, where the prescription sub-market accounts for the greater part of pharmaceutical expenditure. Further, a few disease categories account for a larger fraction of the cost of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The importance of pharmaceuticals as a production factor also differs between different age groups. Several factors are expected to contribute to a future increase in Swedish pharmaceutical expenditure, for instance an ageing population and the rapid introduction of expensive new pharmaceuticals. PMID:10538288

  12. Country Profiles, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svala, Gertrud

    A profile of Sweden is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Sweden. Educational Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret L.; Male, George A.

    Today Sweden has a highly developed comprehensive system of public elementary and secondary schools, along with universities and other institutions of higher education. Most of the actual administration of educational matters is the responsibility of three appointed national government agencies operating under the overall jurisdiction of the…

  14. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The forms of adult education in Sweden discussed in this review include the courses provided by the Labour Market Board, the folk high schools, the national and local educational schemes, the Commission for TV and Radio in Education (TRU), and the training courses arranged by the employee organizations. Brief mention is also made of the courses…

  15. Group Psychotherapy in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Göran

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the national developments of group psychotherapy (GPS) in Sweden during the period from World War II until the present time. Methods and concepts, imported primarily from England and the United States, inspired trainings and widespread psychodynamic and group analytic applications in schools, health treatment, and social care. Education in psychotherapy and GPS at universities opened new therapeutic and vocational areas during the period 1970-2005. Increasing criticism of psychodynamics, as in other Western societies, but more radical in Sweden, has in the last decades made group analytic GPS diminish in favor of cognitive behavioral therapy models. Prospects for GPS further development may presently look bleak but, in a longer perspective, are promising. PMID:26401795

  16. Sweden considers wind power

    SciTech Connect

    Baurrau, P.

    1989-09-01

    During 1988, Sweden increased its number of wind generating facilities from 13 to 22, reflecting a new attitude toward wind power developing in the country. Last fall, a 750 kW wind turbine installed in the archipelago of Gothenburg was connected to the grid. The turbine is the biggest in use in Sweden, operated and maintained by the local energy authority of Gothenburg. Most turbines being manufactured have a capacity of 20 to 200 kW. The Maglarp turbine in the south of Sweden has a capacity of 3,000 kW, and the Naesudden turbine on an island in the Baltic Sea has 2,000 kW. The two projects are considered experimental by the owner, Vattenfall, the State Power Board. On the basis of energy production, Maglarp may be the largest in the world. Its highest production, 4,400 MWh, was achieved in 1988. In January 1989, the production was 900 MWh, the third highest monthly production so far since September 1983. The State Power Board, the members of the Swedish Power Association, Sydkraft, together with a number of municipal power companies and stations, have formed the Swedish Energy Development Corporation, SWEDCO. One goal for the new corporation is to include wind power in the Swedish energy system. SWEDCO will provide economic and operation data to pursue wind technology.

  17. The ICOS Sweden technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelle, Achim; Norén, Bengt

    2015-04-01

    In ICOS Sweden, all 6 sites are equipped with a novel, standardized system for high-quality measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations and fluxes of energy and greenhouse gases along with environmental variables needed to understand the underlying ecosystem processes. Turbulent fluxes are determined from 20-Hz data of wind components and scalar concentrations, all sampled digitally and synchronously by a newly developed digital datalogger (ISDL). Vertical concentration gradients of greenhouse gases are measured by an infrared gas analyzer through a multi-level air sampling system. Relevant components of the radiation balance are measured at different levels above ecosystems as well as along transects below forest canopies. To determine energy storage within vegetation, a large number of thermocouples are installed in different parts of selected trees. At several locations in each ecosystem, groundwater level and depth profiles of soil temperature and soil water content are measured. Meteorological driving variables such as air temperature profiles, air pressure, and precipitation are also measured at each site. With regard to the long-term perspective of ICOS RI, the entire measurement system is constructed with emphasis on reliability, durability, and robustness with respect to wearing and strain caused by harsh Nordic environment. In particular, a specialist lightning protection system efficiently prevents instrument damage and data gaps. Fulfilling these needs, the ICOS Sweden system represents the high end of technological requirements for measurement systems in all European regions and climatic zones, providing a new standard for harmonized data collection along climatic and geographic transects.

  18. [Primary care in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first European Union countries that saw the opportunity in the free movement of professionals. First offers for jobs were managed in 2000. Since then, a large number of professionals have taken the opportunity of a decent job and have moved from Spain to Sweden. The Swedish health care model belongs to the group of national health systems. The right to health care is linked to legal citizenship. Health is financed through regional taxes, but there is a compulsory co-payment regardless of the financial situation of the patient. The provision of health care is decentralised at a regional level, and there is a mixture of private and public medical centres. Primary care is similar to that in Spain. Health professionals work as a team with a division of tasks. Like in Spain, waiting lists and coordination between primary and specialised care are a great problem. Patients may register with any public or private primary care centre and hospital provider within their region. Access to diagnostic tests and specialists are restricted to those selected by specialists. Doctors are salaried and their job and salary depend on their experience, professional abilities and regional needs. Medicine is curative. General practitioners are the gateway to the system, but they do not act as gatekeeper. Hospitals offer a number of training post, and the access is through an interview. Continuing medical education is encouraged and financed by the health centre in order to increase its revenues. PMID:26613624

  19. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  20. Heat Wave–Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G.H.; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  1. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  2. Porphyria in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  3. Inventory of post-glacial fault scarps in Sweden derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colby A.; Mikko, Henrik; Lund, Björn; Munier, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Post-glacial faults are well documented in northern Fennoscandia. They are pre-existing bedrock structures that were reactivated through a combination of isostatic and tectonic stresses following the retreat of the last Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. The locations and geometries of such features are important for evaluating seismic hazard. The current project utilizes LiDAR-derived imagery, which covers 80% of Sweden, to map linear scarps that cross cut glacial deposits or landforms. Through detailed manual interpretation of high-resolution imagery, previously unknown post-glacial fault scarps have been identified in central Sweden. Additionally, previously mapped scarps in northern Sweden have been refined or rejected. Despite full LiDAR coverage of southern Sweden, no post-glacial fault scarps were identified. The current dataset is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, and will be kept up to date as new LiDAR coverage becomes available.

  4. Sweden health system review.

    PubMed

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  5. Regional Warning Center Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    RWC-Sweden is operated by the Lund division of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics located at IDEON, a Science Research Technology Park. The Institute of Technology of Lund and Lund University are just adjacent to IDEON. This creates a lot of synergy effects. Copenhagen, with the Danish National Space Center DNSC), and Atmosphere Space Research Division of Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), is 45 min away via the bridge. The new LOIS Space Centre is located two hours away by car, north of Lund and just outside V¨xj¨. The IRF Lund a o division is aiming at becoming a "Solar and Space Weather Center". We focus on solar magnetic activity, its influence on climate and on space weather effects such the effect of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). Basic research: A PostDoc position on "Solar Magnetic Activity: Topology and Predictions has recently been created. Research is carried on to improve predictions of solar magnetic activity. Preparations for using upcoming SDO vector magnetic fields are ongoing. Predictions: RWC-Sweden offers real-time forecasts of space weather and space weather effects based on neural networks. We participated in the NASA/NOAA Cycle 24 Prediction Panel. We have also participated in several ESA/EU solar-climate projects New observation facilities: Distributed, wide-area radio facility (LOIS) for solar (and other space physics) observations and a guest prof: Radio facility about 200 km distant, outside V¨xj¨ (Sm˚ a o aland), in Ronneby (Blekinge) and Lund (Sk˚ ane) is planned to be used for tracking of CMEs and basic solar physics studies of the corona. The LOIS station outside V¨xj¨ has a o been up and running for the past three years. Bo Thidé has joined the Lund division e as a guest prof. A new magnetometer at Risinge LOIS station has been installed an calibrated and expected to be operational in March, 2008.

  6. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  7. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  8. Contraception in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Riphagen, F E; von Schoultz, B

    1989-06-01

    In 1987, a survey of contraceptive use, knowledge and attitudes was conducted in Sweden by the International Health Foundation (IHF) as part of a multi-country study that has so far involved six other countries in Europe. The women involved, who were aged 15-44, completed a standard questionnaire. The overall percentage use of contraceptive methods, especially the reliable ones, was found to be high (95%). Oral contraception was the most frequently used method, followed by barrier methods and the intrauterine device (IUD). Contraceptive methods were chosen or abandoned mainly because of health reasons and better reliability. Knowledge of fertility proved to be generally good. Medical methods such as oral contraceptives and IUDs were associated with health hazards. In the case of the pill, fears of cardiovascular risks, thrombosis and cancer were widespread, while infection risk and menorrhagia were the most frequently quoted perceived disadvantages of the IUD. Indeed, these two methods suffer from a very negative image among Swedish users. PMID:2752752

  9. Analysis of particle size distribution changes between three measurement sites in northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, R.; Kyrö, E.-M.; Nieminen, T.; Kivekäs, N.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Svenningsson, B.; Holst, T.; Arneth, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated atmospheric aerosol particle dynamics in a boreal forest zone in northern Scandinavia. We used aerosol number size distribution data measured with either a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) or scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at three stations (Värriö, Pallas and Abisko), and combined these data with the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) air mass trajectory analysis. We compared three approaches: analysis of new particle formation events, investigation of aerosol particle number size distributions during the air mass transport from the ocean to individual stations with different overland transport times, and analysis of changes in aerosol particle number size distributions during the air mass transport from one measurement station to another. Aitken-mode particles were found to have apparent average growth rates of 0.6-0.7 nm h-1 when the air masses traveled over land. Particle growth rates during the new particle formation (NPF) events were 3-6 times higher than the apparent particle growth during the summer period. When comparing aerosol dynamics for different overland transport times between the different stations, no major differences were found, except that in Abisko the NPF events were observed to take place in air masses with shorter overland times than at the other stations. We speculate that this is related to the meteorological differences along the paths of air masses caused by the land surface topology. When comparing air masses traveling in an east-to-west direction with those traveling in a west-to-east direction, clear differences in the aerosol dynamics were seen. Our results suggest that the condensation growth has an important role in aerosol dynamics even when NPF is not evident.

  10. Analysis of particle size distribution changes between three measurement sites in Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, R.; Kyrö, E.-M.; Nieminen, T.; Kivekäs, N.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Svenningsson, B.; Holst, T.; Arneth, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated atmospheric aerosol particle dynamics in a boreal forest zone in Northern Scandinavia. We used aerosol size distribution data measured with either a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) or Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) at three stations (Värriö, Pallas and Abisko), and combined these data with the HYSPLIT air mass trajectory analysis. We compared three approaches: analysis of new particle formation events, investigation of air masses transport from the ocean to individual stations with different over-land transport times, and analysis of changes in aerosol particle size distributions during the air masses transport from one measurement station to another. Aitken mode particles were found to have an apparent average growth rate of 0.6-0.7 nm h-1 when the air masses travelled over land. Particle growth rates during the NPF events were 3-6 times higher than the apparent particle growth. When comparing aerosol dynamics between the different stations for different over-land transport times, no major differences were found except that in Abisko the new particle formation events were observed to take place in air masses having shorter over-land times than at the other stations. We speculate that this is related to the meteorological differences along the paths of air masses caused by the land surface topology. When comparing between air masses travelling the east-to-west direction to those traveling the west-to-east directions, clear differences in the aerosol dynamics were seen. Our results suggest that the condensation growth has an important role in aerosol dynamics also when new particle formation is not evident.

  11. Contemporary relevance of Rokliden, Sweden's first forest hydrology field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grip, Harald

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades of the 19th century a great worry arose about forest landscape paludification in Northern Sweden. This was the original impetus for forest hydrological research in Sweden and the Swedish Institute of Experimental Forestry established the first field research site in 1905 at Rokliden, close to Piteå in North Sweden. It comprised 8.64 ha located 2 km down a 3 km long gently sloping (ca 4%), north facing Norway spruce covered till slope, interspersed with small mires. By 1931 it was concluded that paludification was not spreading across Northern Sweden at an appreciable rate. Within the Rokliden research site 22 groundwater wells were installed and levels measured weekly until 1926. A map with 0.5 m equidistance, 10 vegetation classes, and soil profiles was established. A limited forest harvest was done in 1908, but significant effects on groundwater levels were not found. Groundwater flow velocity was estimated by tracing added sodium chloride. Hydraulic conductivity was measured on undisturbed soil cores, while mechanical and chemical analyses were done on other samples. Groundwater was collected and analyzed for dissolved compounds including oxygen. Hydrology was found important for soil types and vegetation development. The necessary profile drainage for podzol soil development was identified as vein drainage at the bedrock surface. The low lateral hydraulic gradient in the gentle slopes and the low hydraulic conductivity in the deeper till soil made lateral flow much smaller than required. The vein drainage was a perfect solution to the problem and great effort was put into showing the existence and importance of veins. Modern measurements in the re-established groundwater observation network and re-analysis of old data confirmed the plausibility of these original conclusions. Partial catchment area could explain rates of both groundwater level rise and recession. Revisiting this field study reveals that many issues in contemporary

  12. Primary and Secondary Education in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    In addition to giving pertinent historical background, this document describes the current educational system in Sweden. Specifically described are reform efforts since World War II; responsibilities of the federal, county and municipal governments; features held in common by schools in the municipalities; organization and curriculum of compulsory…

  13. Child Care in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    Child care services in Sweden are distinguished by a high standard of quality and by the fundamental principle that they exist for all children. This governmental fact sheet provides useful facts and figures on Swedish child care law and government policy. It is divided into 16 sections covering: (1) rights of children and their families; (2)…

  14. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. Methods The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. Results We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15–94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. Conclusions In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment. PMID:25973769

  15. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  16. Nuclear Energy Encore in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishlock, David

    1991-01-01

    This article traces Sweden's decision to indefinitely delay their previous plan to phase out nuclear power generators which had been scheduled for 1995. Discussed as major factors in this delay are the excellent safety record of current reactors and the unacceptable economic, as well as environmental, consequences of switching to other power…

  17. Children and Massmedia in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schyller, Ingela; And Others

    Focusing mainly on television, this document provides facts about the mass media world of children in Sweden. Contents concern (1) toddlers and television; (2) viewing among 3- to 8-year-olds, including the number of children viewing, television in day care centers, times at which children view television, and viewing with others; (3) viewing…

  18. Vector-borne viral diseases in Sweden--a short review.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, B; Vene, S

    1996-01-01

    Ockelbo disease, caused by a Sindbis-related virus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, was first described in the central part of Sweden in the 1960s as clusters of patients with fever, arthralgia and rash. An average annual rate of 30 cases was recorded in the 1980s but no cases have been diagnosed during the last few years. Nephropathia epidemica (NE) characterized by fever, abdominal pain and renal dysfunction has been known to cause considerable morbidity in Sweden during the last 60 years but the etiologic agent (Puumala virus) was not isolated until 1983. This virus's main reservoir is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). NE is endemic in the northern two thirds of Sweden where more than a hundred cases are diagnosed each year. Tick-borne encephalitis transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks is restricted to the archipelago and Lake M-alaren on the east coast close to Stockholm. Between 30 and 110 cases are diagnosed every year. Inkoo virus, a California encephalitis group virus, has been isolated from mosquitoes in Sweden. The antibody prevalence to Inkoo virus is very high in a normal population, but no disease has as yet been associated with this virus in Sweden. Among the vector-borne virus diseases imported to Sweden, dengue is the most important, with approximately 50 cases recorded every year. PMID:8800805

  19. Ecosystem-Vegetation Dynamics in sub-arctic Stordalen Mire, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnani, M. P.; Varner, R. K.; Steele, K.; Frey, S. D.; Crill, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Increased global temperatures have contributed to the thaw of permafrost and a subsequent atmospheric release of stored methane (CH4) from sub-arctic ecosystems. Palsas, small frost uplifted mounds that support specialized dry-tolerant vegetation species, degrade when permafrost thaws, allowing other species such a Sphagnum and Eriophorum to encroach on the microhabitats and outcompete other species, altering the carbon feedback into the thin arctic soil. Other climate change-related events including increased precipitation, seasonal temperature abnormalities and changes in humidity and nutrient availability may alter vegetation dynamics in terms of diversity and abundance in sub-arctic regions. During July 2012, measurements of vegetation composition and species abundance estimates were made in Stordalen Mire (68° 21' N, 19° 03' E), Abisko Sweden, two hundred kilometers north of the Arctic Circle. The mire is an area of discontinuous permafrost populated by micro-ecosystems that vary in vegetation species and abundance depending on growth conditions. All ecosystems provide beneficial services to support a range of life forms including rodents, birds, insects and reindeer. Five representative ecosystems of the mire were chosen to conduct studies on vegetation diversity and percent cover-based abundance: palsa, Eriophorum-dominated fen, Sphagnum-dominated peatland, lakeshore edge and lakeside heath. In each ecosystem vegetation species were recorded in six transects with quadrats along with a corresponding percent cover estimation and scale number based on the Braun-Blanquet percent cover method. To determine nutrient dynamics between ecosystems, soil peat samples were also taken at random from all ecosystem transects. These were analyzed for carbon and inorganic nitrogen as well as ammonium and nitrate. In the vegetation data analysis, the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index showed that the lakeside heath ecosystem was the most diverse and even in species distribution

  20. How Sweden Saves So Much Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, James

    1978-01-01

    Swedens necessity for and present efforts toward energy conservation are discussed. The district system for space heating and certain Swedish laws that promote energy conservation are described. (MDR)

  1. Trichinella pseudospiralis foci in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Christensson, D; Stéen, M; Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Bröjer, C; Mörner, T; Uhlhorn, H; Agren, E; Hall, M

    2004-11-10

    In Sweden, the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs has greatly decreased since the 1970s, with no reports in the past 4 years. However, infected wild animals continue to be found. The objective of the present study was to identify the species of Trichinella present in animals of Sweden, so as to contribute to the knowledge on the distribution area and hosts useful for the prevention and control of this zoonosis. In the period 1985-2003, Trichinella larvae were detected in the muscles of 81/1800 (4.5%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 1/6 (16.7%) arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), 1/7 (14.3%) wolf (Canis lupus), 10/200 (5.0%) lynxes (Lynx lynx), 4/8000 (0.05%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 27/66 x 10(6) (0.000041%) domestic pigs. All four Trichinella species previously found in Europe were detected (Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis). The non-encapsulated species T. pseudospiralis was detected in three wild boars from Holo (Stockholm area) and in one lynx from Froso (Ostersund area), suggesting that this species is widespread in Sweden. These findings are consistent with those of a study from Finland, both for the unexpected presence of T. pseudospiralis infection and the presence of the same four Trichinella species, suggesting that this epidemiological situation is present in the entire Scandinavian region. The widespread diffusion of T. pseudospiralis in the Scandinavian region is also important in terms of it potential impact on public health, given that human infection can occur and the difficulties to detect it by the trichinelloscopic examination. PMID:15482889

  2. Sweden sees Arctic, subsea challenges

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    Marine research organizations in Sweden are developing solutions in three broad areas of maritime research - Artic and sub-Arctic technology, underwater engineerng and marine environment monitoring. One of the Arctic projects already under way is a solution to safe navigation through the Arctic ice pack. Icebergs and deep-keeled ice ridges are imbedded in the ice pack and present a hazard to transiting vessels. Underwater programs are being established to deal with the problem of poor underwater visibilty due to turbid water conditions near the bottom. A device is being tested which will allow a diver or submerged vehicle to be accurately tracked using short-baseline acoustics.

  3. Species Composition at the Sub-Meter Level in Discontinuous Permafrost in Subarctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Palace, M. W.; Layne, M.; Varner, R. K.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing rapid warming. Wetlands underlain by permafrost are particularly vulnerable to warming which results in changes in vegetative cover. Specific species have been associated with greenhouse gas emissions therefore knowledge of species compositional shift allows for the systematic change and quantification of emissions and changes in such emissions. Species composition varies on the sub-meter scale based on topography and other microsite environmental parameters. This complexity and the need to scale vegetation to the landscape level proves vital in our estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and dynamics. Stordalen Mire (68°21'N, 18°49'E) in Abisko and is located at the edge of discontinuous permafrost zone. This provides a unique opportunity to analyze multiple vegetation communities in a close proximity. To do this, we randomly selected 25 1x1 meter plots that were representative of five major cover types: Semi-wet, wet, hummock, tall graminoid, and tall shrub. We used a quadrat with 64 sub plots and measured areal percent cover for 24 species. We collected ground based remote sensing (RS) at each plot to determine species composition using an ADC-lite (near infrared, red, green) and GoPro (red, blue, green). We normalized each image based on a Teflon white chip placed in each image. Textural analysis was conducted on each image for entropy, angular second momentum, and lacunarity. A logistic regression was developed to examine vegetation cover types and remote sensing parameters. We used a multiple linear regression using forwards stepwise variable selection. We found statistical difference in species composition and diversity indices between vegetation cover types. In addition, we were able to build regression model to significantly estimate vegetation cover type as well as percent cover for specific key vegetative species. This ground-based remote sensing allows for quick quantification of vegetation

  4. Inclusive Education in Sweden? A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goransson, Kerstin; Nilholm, Claes; Karlsson, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the…

  5. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L. |; Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L.; Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. |

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  6. Profile of recruitment in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bygdeman, M

    1999-09-01

    Sweden enjoys a good doctor and specialist obstetrician and gynaecologist to population ratio. The medical education for 5.5 years is state funded. The specialist training period is flexible but 5 years is a minimum. The head of department takes the responsibility of assessing and certifying the physician based on completion of the training objectives. There is a voluntary examination by Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. The university hospitals accept those who combine specialist training with research. The research programme has to be approved by the faculty and should lead to a doctoral degree by a thesis. Those who are trained in a non-university hospital are virtually guaranteed continued employment while those from the university hospitals have to apply for a position. There are many applicants to each post and they are judged by an internal and external panel based on the attributes of research, teaching and administrative skills. PMID:10718722

  7. Epidemiology and ecology of tularemia in Sweden, 1984-2012.

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984-2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984-1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999-2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  8. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

    PubMed Central

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  9. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  10. Public Library Services for Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Hanna S.; Schulte-Albert, Hans G.

    1982-01-01

    Several new ideas regarding public library services for helping immigrants adjust to life in Sweden are discussed with respect to standards, selection, and acquisition of materials, children's services, and future plans. A bibliography of 19 references is included. (CHC)

  11. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  12. Simulated water balance of Scots pine stands in Sweden for different climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärdenäs, Annemieke I.; Jansson, Per-Erik

    1995-03-01

    The effects of climate change on the water balance of Scots pine were studied with a coupled water and heat flow model called 'SOIL'. Two forest soil types (a silty-sand and a sand) at five locations in Sweden were chosen to represent sites with different air temperature, growing season length and precipitation excess. The simulated water balance for the period 1961-1987 was compared with those simulated with two climate change scenario schemes: one is based on increased temperature and the other on both increased temperature and increased precipitation. Different assumptions regarding the effects of changes in leaf area index and minimum canopy resistance on transpiration were studied. Water stress increased substantially in the scenarios based on increased temperature only, which prevented transpiration from increasing. But with scenarios based on simultaneous changes in temperature and precipitation, water stress increased mainly during spring and transpiration increased by 50 mm and 100 mm in northern and southern Sweden, respectively, i.e. by 30-50%. When simultaneous changes in climate and stand characteristics were assumed, transpiration increased by 30-70% with the relative change being greatest for northern Sweden. Differences in water balance between the locations and soil types were less pronounced in the climate change scenarios than in the present climate scenario.

  13. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined. PMID:23527451

  14. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  15. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  16. Sweden will build an ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-16

    It is reported that a 10 million dollar demonstration plant for producing ethanol by continuous fermentation will be built in Sweden. The plant will have a capacity of 20,000 liters/day of ethanol and 30.5 metric tons/day of protein-rich cattle fodder using potatoes and grain as feedstock.

  17. Recognition of Prior Vocational Learning in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas; Ahn, Song-Ee

    2004-01-01

    Initiatives in the recognition of prior learning (RPL) have been taken in Sweden in recent years, mainly focusing on prior vocational learning among immigrants. The government started different projects to find methods for recognising a person's prior learning in the field of vocational competence. This article presents a study of how these…

  18. Handicapped Immigrant Preschool Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Gunilla

    1988-01-01

    Examines provisions made in Sweden for the education of handicapped and immigrant students and the services offered to their families. Stating that all handicapped persons have the right to receive government services, the article discusses preschool education, day nurseries, mother-tongue language activities, family services, and courses for…

  19. Decisive Factors for Language Teaching in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabau-Lampa, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    Examines why language teaching, including foreign languages, home languages, and Swedish as a second language, holds a prominent position in the Swedish school system. Provides information on teaching home languages and Swedish as a second language to immigrants. Discusses foreign language teaching in Sweden. Includes references. (CMK)

  20. Language Choice among Iranians in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namei, Shidrokh

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the language choice among Iranians in Sweden, both inside and outside the home domain. The data are collected from 188 participants through structured interviews and questionnaires. The results show that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the home domain between parents and children. However, some Swedish is…

  1. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  2. Public Dialogue on Science in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyring, Annagreta

    1988-01-01

    Explains how Sweden has proceeded to popularize science. Addresses topics dealing with policy, the energy debate, booklets with large circulation, computers and society, contacts between schools and research, building up small science centers, mass media, literary quality, children's responsibility, and some of the challenges. (RT)

  3. Outcomes of Family Group Conferencing in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut; Vinnerljung, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Between 1995 and 1997, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities implemented Family Group Conferences (FGC) in 10 local authorities throughout Sweden. This study reports on client outcomes of this implementation. Method: 97 children involved in 66 FGCs between November 1996 and October 1997 were compared with 142 children from a…

  4. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  5. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  6. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  7. Strong association between glucocerebrosidase mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ran, Caroline; Brodin, Lovisa; Forsgren, Lars; Westerlund, Marie; Ramezani, Mehrafarin; Gellhaar, Sandra; Xiang, Fengqing; Fardell, Camilla; Nissbrandt, Hans; Söderkvist, Peter; Puschmann, Andreas; Ygland, Emil; Olson, Lars; Willows, Thomas; Johansson, Anders; Sydow, Olof; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Galter, Dagmar; Svenningsson, Per; Belin, Andrea Carmine

    2016-09-01

    Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA), originally implicated in Gaucher's disease, and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have investigated the possible involvement of genetic GBA variations in PD in the Swedish population. Three GBA variants, E326K, N370S, and L444P were screened in the largest Swedish Parkinson cohort reported to date; 1625 cases and 2025 control individuals. We found a significant association with high effect size of the rare variant L444P with PD (odds ratio 8.17; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-26.23; p-value = 0.0020) and a significant association of the common variant E326K (odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; p-value = 0.026). The rare variant N370S showed a trend for association. Most L444P carriers (68%) were found to reside in northern Sweden, which is consistent with a higher prevalence of Gaucher's disease in this part of the country. Our findings support the role of GBA mutations as risk factors for PD and point to lysosomal dysfunction as a mechanism contributing to PD etiology. PMID:27255555

  8. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  9. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  10. Redefining epidemic hysteria: an example from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, R E

    1993-09-01

    François Sirois' influential paradigm for diagnosing episodes of epidemic hysteria is discussed. The part of his schema addressing the large diffuse outbreak should be eliminated as it does not possess characteristic features of mass hysteria and overlooks the potential social, cultural, political, ritualistic and institutional patterning of collective behavior. A case study involving the collective delusion of phantom rockets over Sweden during 1946 illustrates the complexities of such episodes. PMID:8249649

  11. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  12. Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident?

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, M.; Hjalmarsson, P.; Hardell, L.; Carlsson, G.; Axelson, O.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden? Design: A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988–1996. Setting: In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: <3 (reference), 3–29, 30–39, 40–59, 60–79, and 80–120 kiloBecquerel/m2. Participants: All people 0–60 years living in these parishes in 1986 to 1987 were identified and enrolled in a cohort of 1 143 182 persons. In the follow up 22 409 incident cancer cases were retrieved in 1988–1996. A further analysis focused on the secular trend. Main results: Taking age and population density as confounding factors, and lung cancer incidence in 1988–1996 and total cancer incidence in 1986–1987 by municipality as proxy confounders for smoking and time trends, respectively, the adjusted relative risks for the deposition categories were 1.00 (reference <3 kiloBecquerel/m2), 1.05, 1.03, 1.08, 1.10, and 1.21. The excess relative risk was 0.11 per 100 kiloBecquerel/m2 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.20). Considering the secular trend, directly age standardised cancer incidence rate differences per 100 000 person years between 1988 to 1996 and the reference period 1986–1987, were 30.3 (indicating a time trend in the reference category), 36.8, 42.0, 45.8, 50.1, and 56.4. No clear excess occurred for leukaemia or thyroid cancer. Conclusions: Unless attributable to chance or remaining uncontrolled confounding, a slight exposure related increase in total cancer incidence has occurred in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:15547062

  13. The Market Comes to Education in Sweden: An Evaluation of Sweden's Surprising School Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Anders; Clark, Melissa A.; Edin, Per-Anders; Fredriksson, Peter; Krueger, Alan B.

    2006-01-01

    A large central government providing numerous public services has long been a hallmark of Swedish society, which is also well-known for its pursuit of equality. Yet in the 1990s, Sweden moved away from this tradition in education, introducing market-oriented reforms that decentralized authority over public schools and encouraged competition…

  14. Training for wartime anesthesia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dalenius, E; Asåker, B M

    1989-06-01

    Sweden has been spared from wars and similar disasters for almost two centuries, and over the years the population and politicians have been lulled into the belief that "it'll never happen". This has affected the ability of the medical system to respond adequately to the enormous demands that a war would make upon us. The geographical and political situation and the basic facts about Swedish health care are briefly sketched. After a review of the history of anesthesia in war, current medical planning for war or similar disaster situations in Sweden is outlined and its weaknesses mentioned. A program is presented that aims at improving the situation in anesthesia manpower, postgraduate training and equipment. The expanded role of the already highly skilled and independent Swedish corps of nurse anesthetists (RNA's) is outlined, especially in the field of regional anesthesia. Standardized methods for anesthesia in war also are presented. The aim is to make optimal use of existing resources and enable patients to be transferred immediately postoperatively to understaffed wards. PMID:2773630

  15. Adjustment Failures in an Immigrant Population: Finns in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarela, Jan; Finnas, Fjalar

    2007-01-01

    Using data sets from both Sweden and Finland, which have been linked at the individual level, we analyse whether Finnish immigrants who lived in Sweden in 1990 were employed, non-employed, return-migrated, or dead by 2001. The aim is to see how they interrelate with socio-demographic characteristics, and to compare Finnish-speaking and…

  16. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  17. Children's School Achievement and Parental Work: An Analysis for Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg-Schonfeldt, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Data from Statistics Sweden on 70 000 students entering upper secondary school in 1994 are used along with socioeconomic characteristics from the 1990 census to explore the relationship between market work by parents in Sweden and their children's educational achievement, measured as the Grade Point Average. The results show that there is a…

  18. Education, Society and Politics in Sweden. Monograph No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, R. J.

    Interrelationships among the educational, social, and political systems of Sweden are examined, with particular emphasis on the recent trend toward internationalization. Sweden is described in general terms as a highly industrialized, technologically-advanced nation with a high standard of living, far-reaching welfare policies, and high levels of…

  19. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  20. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Linnéa; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Design and setting Population-based prospective cohort study. Method Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7–8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11–12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14–15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. Results At the age of 14–15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. Conclusions The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection. PMID:25976765

  1. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

  2. Acid rain mitigation strategies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The methods and costs of measures to restore acidified water areas or prevent further acidification to lakes and streams in Sweden are presented, along with the results of a five-year liming test period. The reduction of sulfur emissions is considered in terms of reducing sulfur content in home heating oils to a 1% maximum, the use of purifiers in industry, and international cooperation to reduce transboundary pollution. A total of over 300 liming projects consuming more than 200,000 tons of liming agents were placed in waters, in bogs and on farms, and on marshes, nominally by use of a centrifugal distributor on land and various spreading methods on water, principally with crushed limestone. Other methods are suggested, and liming results were found to be an improvement of farm soil fertility, a decrease in forest growth, and positive effects on fish populations. Full scale liming is recommended wherever natural buffering has been found to be insufficient.

  3. Review of North European species of the genus Lathrolestes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with description of one new species from Öland (Sweden).

    PubMed

    Reshchikov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lathrolestes Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Northern Europe is reviewed. A new species, L. oelandinus sp. n. from Öland (Southern Sweden) is described. Illustrated diagnoses for 23 Northern European species are provided. Lathrolestes soperi Reshchikov, 2010 is recorded for the first time in the Palaearctic region (from the UK) and L. bipunctatus (Bridgman, 1886), L. citreus (Brischke, 1878), L. clypeatus (Zetterstedt, 1838) are new records for Denmark, and L. moravicus Habermehl, 1923 is a new record for Finland, France and Russia. Additionally L. ensator recorded newly from Belorus, L. erythrocephalus from Azerbaijan, L. macropygus and L. pictilis from Austria. Trophic interactions of the genus are discussed. PMID:26624390

  4. Sweden leads race to host European neutron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Researchers in Sweden are "confident" they will host Europe's next-generation neutron facility that, once built, will be the most powerful source of neutrons in the world. The €1.48bn European Spallation Source (ESS) will cater for thousands of researchers every year in fields from condensed-matter physics to biology. A decision on where the ESS will be built - Lund in Sweden, Bilbao in Spain or Debrecen in Hungary - was due to be announced as Physics World went to press, with Sweden the front-runner.

  5. Modelling zoonotic diseases in humans: comparison of methods for hantavirus in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zeimes, Caroline B; Olsson, Gert E; Ahlm, Clas; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2012-01-01

    Because their distribution usually depends on the presence of more than one species, modelling zoonotic diseases in humans differs from modelling individual species distribution even though the data are similar in nature. Three approaches can be used to model spatial distributions recorded by points: based on presence/absence, presence/available or presence data. Here, we compared one or two of several existing methods for each of these approaches. Human cases of hantavirus infection reported by place of infection between 1991 and 1998 in Sweden were used as a case study. Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Europe, circulates among bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, it causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.Logistic binomial regression and boosted regression trees were used to model presence and absence data. Presence and available sites (where the disease may occur) were modelled using cross-validated logistic regression. Finally, the ecological niche model MaxEnt, based on presence-only data, was used.In our study, logistic regression had the best predictive power, followed by boosted regression trees, MaxEnt and cross-validated logistic regression. It is also the most statistically reliable but requires absence data. The cross-validated method partly avoids the issue of absence data but requires fastidious calculations. MaxEnt accounts for non-linear responses but the estimators can be complex. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. PMID:22984887

  6. Temporal and spatial trends for trace metals in streams and rivers across Sweden (1996-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huser, B. J.; Köhler, S. J.; Wilander, A.; Johansson, K.; Fölster, J.

    2011-07-01

    Long term data series (1996 through 2009) for trace metals were analyzed from a large number of streams and rivers across Sweden varying in tributary watershed size from 0.05 to 48 193 km2. The final data set included 139 stream sites with data for arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V). Between 7 % and 46 % of the sites analyzed showed significant trends according to the seasonal Kendall test. However, in contrast to previous studies and depositional patterns, a substantial portion of the trends were positive, especially for V (100 %), As (95 %), and Pb (68 %). Other metals (Zn and Cr) generally decreased, were mixed (Ni and Zn), or had very few trends (Co) over the study period. Trends by region were also analyzed and some showed significant variation between the north and south of Sweden. Regional trends for both Cu and Pb were positive (60 % and 93 %, respectively) in the southern region but strongly negative (93 % and 75 %, respectively) in the northern region. Kendall's τ coefficients were used to determine dependence between metals and potential in-stream drivers including total organic carbon (TOC), iron (Fe), pH, and sulphate (SO42-). TOC and Fe correlated positively and strongly with As, V, Pb, and Co while pH and SO42- generally correlated weakly, or not at all with the metals studied.

  7. Temporal and spatial trends for trace metals in streams and rivers across Sweden (1996-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huser, B. J.; Köhler, S. J.; Wilander, A.; Johansson, K.; Fölster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Long term data series (1996 through 2009) for trace metals were analyzed from a large number of streams and rivers across Sweden varying in tributary watershed size from 0.05 to 48193 km2. The final data set included 139 stream sites with data for arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V). Between 7% and 46% of the sites analyzed showed significant trends according to the seasonal Kendall test. However, in contrast to previous studies and depositional patterns, a substantial portion of the trends were positive, especially for V (100%), As (95%), and Pb (68%). Other metals (Zn and Cr) generally decreased, were mixed (Ni and Zn), or had very few trends (Co) over the study period. Trends by region were also analyzed and some showed significant variation between the north and south of Sweden. Regional trends for both Cu and Pb were positive (60% and 93%, respectively) in the southern region but strongly negative (93% and 75%, respectively) in the northern region. Kendall's τ coefficients were used to determine dependence between metals and potential in-stream drivers including total organic carbon (TOC), iron (Fe), pH, and sulphate (SO42-). TOC and Fe correlated positively and strongly with As, V, Pb, and Co while pH and SO42-generally correlated weakly, or not at all with the metals studied.

  8. Forest fire risk assessment in Sweden using climate model data: bias correction and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Gardelin, M.; Olsson, J.; Bosshard, T.

    2015-01-01

    As the risk for a forest fire is largely influenced by weather, evaluating its tendency under a changing climate becomes important for management and decision making. Currently, biases in climate models make it difficult to realistically estimate the future climate and consequent impact on fire risk. A distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed as a post-processing tool that intends to correct systematic biases in climate modelling outputs. In this study, we used two projections, one driven by historical reanalysis (ERA40) and one from a global climate model (ECHAM5) for future projection, both having been dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model (RCA3). The effects of the post-processing tool on relative humidity and wind speed were studied in addition to the primary variables precipitation and temperature. Finally, the Canadian Fire Weather Index system was used to evaluate the influence of changing meteorological conditions on the moisture content in fuel layers and the fire-spread risk. The forest fire risk results using DBS are proven to better reflect risk using observations than that using raw climate outputs. For future periods, southern Sweden is likely to have a higher fire risk than today, whereas northern Sweden will have a lower risk of forest fire.

  9. Modelling zoonotic diseases in humans: comparison of methods for hantavirus in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Because their distribution usually depends on the presence of more than one species, modelling zoonotic diseases in humans differs from modelling individual species distribution even though the data are similar in nature. Three approaches can be used to model spatial distributions recorded by points: based on presence/absence, presence/available or presence data. Here, we compared one or two of several existing methods for each of these approaches. Human cases of hantavirus infection reported by place of infection between 1991 and 1998 in Sweden were used as a case study. Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Europe, circulates among bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, it causes nephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Logistic binomial regression and boosted regression trees were used to model presence and absence data. Presence and available sites (where the disease may occur) were modelled using cross-validated logistic regression. Finally, the ecological niche model MaxEnt, based on presence-only data, was used. In our study, logistic regression had the best predictive power, followed by boosted regression trees, MaxEnt and cross-validated logistic regression. It is also the most statistically reliable but requires absence data. The cross-validated method partly avoids the issue of absence data but requires fastidious calculations. MaxEnt accounts for non-linear responses but the estimators can be complex. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. PMID:22984887

  10. EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING IN THE GOETA AELV AND VISKAN RIVERS, SWEDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint United States-Sweden effluent field study on the Gota Alv River was conducted on site in Sweden in the fall of 1985. The Gota Alv River has a mean flow of 575 cu m/s and is the largest river in Sweden. There are many industrial dischargers along the river and Sweden has b...

  11. Household Labor Supply and Welfare Participation in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Lennart; Hansen, Jorgen; Wahlberg, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A structural, static model of household labor supply and multiple welfare program participation is formulated and estimated. Results suggest that labor supply among two-parent families in Sweden was quite inelastic.

  12. Ice transport directions and distances as a tool for ore exploration in glaciated regions - a compilation in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohlenius, G. S.; Ladenberger, A.:L.; Lax, K. L.

    2009-04-01

    The complex information from SGU database has been used to evaluate ice transport directions and distances in Sweden. Till geochemistry, boulder counting and glacial striae have been applied to detect source rocks and mineralization in various regions of the country. The preliminary ice transport distances have been estimated in one region in middle Sweden (Bergslagen) and in two regions in northern Sweden (Västerbotten and Norbotten). Boulder dispersal trains have been recognized, classified based on lithology and morphology after which the maximum ice transport distance has been evaluated. In most areas the transport is short, up to 2-3 km. In Bergslagen, Cu-Zn and W mineralization can be traced in boulders from c. 300 m to c. 7 km. In Västerbotten, the transport distances range from 400 m to 3 km for sulphide mineralization. In Norbotten, a majority of known Ni mineralization can be detected in boulders located between 0.5 and 3 km. The source bedrock can be found based on outcrop record, ice direction indicators, presence of geophysical anomalies and glacial morphological landforms. The morphological information may, however, provide contradicting information when compared with independent ice direction indicators such as striae on the bedrock. During the latest glaciation an ice divide existed in northern Sweden which complicates the detection of source rocks. Till geochemistry provides information about local and regional anomalies, however quality of information depends on the methodology (e.g. sampling density) and the grid used, which sometimes is larger then the largest boulder train observed in the studied area. On the other hand, application of boulder trains can be difficult in areas with long transport distances. While boulder trains provide exact information about the mineralization, the till geochemistry carries uncertainty about exact ore type. Geochemical anomalies can be both very local or widely spread out, e.g. in southwestern Sweden

  13. Climate impact on floods: changes in high flows in Sweden in the past and the future (1911-2100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, B.; Lindström, G.

    2015-02-01

    There is an ongoing discussion whether floods occur more frequently today than in the past, and whether they will increase in number and magnitude in the future. To explore this issue in Sweden, we merged observed time series for the past century from 69 gauging sites throughout the country (450 000 km2) with high-resolution dynamic model projections of the upcoming century. The results show that the changes in annual maximum daily flows in Sweden oscillate between dry and wet periods but exhibit no significant trend over the past 100 years. Temperature was found to be the strongest climate driver of changes in river high flows, which are related primarily to snowmelt in Sweden. Annual daily high flows may decrease by on average -1% per decade in the future, mainly due to lower peaks from snowmelt in the spring (-2% per decade) as a result of higher temperatures and a shorter snow season. In contrast, autumn flows may increase by +3% per decade due to more intense rainfall. This indicates a shift in flood-generating processes in the future, with greater influence of rain-fed floods. Changes in climate may have a more significant impact on some specific rivers than on the average for the whole country. Our results suggest that the temporal pattern in future daily high flow in some catchments will shift in time, with spring floods in the northern-central part of Sweden occurring about 1 month earlier than today. High flows in the southern part of the country may become more frequent. Moreover, the current boundary between snow-driven floods in northern-central Sweden and rain-driven floods in the south may move toward higher latitudes due to less snow accumulation in the south and at low altitudes. The findings also indicate a tendency in observations toward the modeled projections for timing of daily high flows over the last 25 years. Uncertainties related to both the observed data and the complex model chain of climate impact assessments in hydrology are

  14. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities and body mass index in Västerbotten County, Sweden: a longitudinal study of life course influences over two decades

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Life course socioeconomic inequalities in heart disease, stroke and all-cause mortality are well studied in Sweden. However, few studies have sought to explain the mechanism for such associations mainly due to lack of longitudinal data with multiple measures of socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course. Given the population health concern about how socioeconomic inequality is related to poorer health, we aim to tackle obesity as one of the prime suspects that could explain the association between SES inequality and cardiovascular disease and consequently premature death. The aim of this study is to test which life course model best describes the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity among 60 year old inhabitants of Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. Methods A birth cohort consisting of 3340 individuals born between 1930 and 1932 was studied. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 60 and information on socioeconomic status at three stages of life (ages 40, 50, and 60 years) was collected. Independent samples t-test was used to compare BMI between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and one-way ANOVA was used to compare BMI among eight SES trajectories. We applied a structured modeling approach to examine three different hypothesized life course SES models (accumulation, critical period, and social mobility) in relation to BMI. Results We found sex differences in the way that late adulthood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with BMI among inhabitants of Northern Sweden. Our study suggests that social adversity in all stages of late adulthood is a particularly important indicator for addressing the social gradients in BMI among women in Northern Sweden and that unhealthy behaviors in terms of smoking and physical inactivity are insufficient to explain the relationships between social and lifestyle inequalities and BMI. Conclusion In order for local authorities to develop informed preventive efforts, we suggest

  16. Biliary tract cancer and occupation in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, B K; Stone, B J; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Blot, W J

    1986-01-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry, which links the incidence of cancer (1961-79) and the 1960 census data on industry and occupation for all employed individuals in Sweden, the occurrence of biliary tract cancer (ICD 7th rev 155.1-.9) was systematically assessed according to occupational and industrial classifications. Data are presented separately for cancer of the gall bladder (ICD 155.1) and other cancers of the biliary tract (ICD 155.2-.9) including cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts, ampulla of Vater, and unspecified bile passages. Statistically significant increased risks for cancer of the gall bladder were observed for men employed in petroleum refining, papermills, chemical processing, shoemaking, and repairing, and for both men and women employed in textile work. A significant increase in the incidence of other cancers of the biliary tract (mostly cancers of the bile duct) was found for such asbestos related employment as shipbuilding and in the wholesale construction materials industry and among insulation workers. These findings should be considered only as clues to aetiological factors, although several are consistent with earlier observations from other countries. PMID:3964574

  17. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies. PMID:23996012

  18. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment. PMID:24047043

  19. Reflection seismic imaging of the end-glacial Pärvie Fault system, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Dehghannejad, M.; Lund, B.; Malehmir, A.; Pratt, G.

    2010-04-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired along a c. 23 km long profile over the Pärvie Fault system with a nominal receiver and source spacing of 20 m. An hydraulic breaking hammer was used as a source, generating signals with a penetration depth of about 5-6 km. Steeply dipping reflections from the end-glacial faults are observed, as well as sub-horizontal reflections. The location and orientation of the reflections from the faults agree well with surface geological observations of fault geometries. Reflections from a potential fourth end-glacial fault is observed further to the east along the profile. The more sub-horizontal reflections may originate from gabbroic bodies within the granitic basement or from deeper lying greenstones. Our results indicate that the end-glacial faults dip at moderate to steep dips down to at least 2-3 km depth, and possibly continue at this dip to depths of 6 km. This result has significant implications for determining the state of stress required to activate the faults in the past and in the future.

  20. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zepeda Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Lundberg, Johannes; Ivarsson, Magnus; Campos, Paula; Nylander, Johan A A; Sallstedt, Therese; Dalen, Love

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i) an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii) functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii) taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching. PMID:26985997

  1. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Lundberg, Johannes; Ivarsson, Magnus; Campos, Paula; Nylander, Johan A. A.; Sallstedt, Therese; Dalen, Love

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante’s cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante’s cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i) an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii) functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem’s different formation periods, and iii) taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching. PMID:26985997

  2. Increasing glucose concentrations and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in northern Sweden, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bernt; Stenlund, Hans; Norberg, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in the world is projected to rise from 2.8% in the year 2000 to 4.4% in 2030, an increase suggesting an ongoing global epidemic of diabetes. Objective To examine time trends in fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations, prevalence and 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes, and the role of education in these trends. Design Each year the Västerbotten Intervention Programme invites all 40, 50, and 60-year-old individuals to a health survey, which includes a cardiovascular risk factor screening and oral glucose tolerance test. The cross-sectional part of the study is based on health examinations conducted between 1990 and 2007 (n = 102,822). The prospective subset (panel dataset) of the study is based on individuals who have had two health examinations 10 years apart and were not defined as having diabetes at their first health examination (n = 23,546). Results Between 1990 and 2007, the mean population fasting glucose concentration increased 0.5 mmol/L. Comparing the prevalence in 1990–1995 with 2002–2007 demonstrated a significant 44% increase in men (p < 0.001) and a significant 17% increase in women (p<0.001). Socioeconomic status, here represented by education, clearly influenced both prevalence and incidence of diabetes and glucose concentration. In all time periods and in all age groups, individuals with low education were more likely to have or get diabetes. The 10-year risk of developing diabetes was four to five times higher in the oldest age group (50–60 years) compared with the youngest (30–40 years). A 30% reduction in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes was found in women (p<0.001) between 2000–2003 and 2004–2007. Conclusions Despite a clear increase in glucose concentrations and diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2007, especially in men, there was a decline in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes in women between 2000–2003 and 2004–2007. PMID:21042431

  3. Structural controls on the formation and transposition of the Malmberget apatite iron ore deposit, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Andersson, Joel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Malmberget mine is the World's second largest underground iron ore operation. It is composed of approximately 20 apatite iron ore bodies, whereas 13 ore bodies with 5-245 Mt each are presently mined. The massive magnetite ore is hosted within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Host rocks within the entire area were subject to intense hydrothermal alteration. The ore reserves at beginning of 2012 totalled 290 Mt at 44 percent iron. Together with Kiruna and Svappavaara these three deposits stands for more than 90 percent of the iron ore production in Europe. An on-going collaborative research project aims at unravelling the structural geometries, relationships and control on ore formation and ore body transposition at different scales in the Gällivare district in general and in the Malmberget mine in particular. Recent results show the three-dimensional crustal architecture of the Malmberget deposit which has undergone at least two separate deformation events. The first deformation event (D1) resulted in the formation of a strong and penetrative cleavage (S1) forming a varyingly intense banding within the volcanic rocks. The D1-event coincides with the amphibolite facies peak metamorphism in the area. Distinct, biotite-rich D1 shear zones are spatially related to the majority of the S1-parallel massive magnetite bodies. These D1 shear zones seem to be responsible for a strong strain partitioning during D1. A second compressional event (D2) resulted in open to close folding of the S1 fabric, the D1 shear zones and the related ore bodies. The result is an asymmetric F2-synform with moderately south-west-plunging fold axis. Furthermore, distinct D2 high strain zones are responsible for local transposition of S1 fabrics, tight to isoclinal folding and channeling or re-mobilization of hydrothermal alteration minerals. Both deformation events are accompanied by syn- and late-tectonic granitic intrusions forming both foliated and unfoliated and commonly boudinaged granitic sheets and dikes. Strong hydrothermal alteration occurred during several phases and is spatially and temporally related to D1 and D2 structures. Based on the structural observations a robust three-dimensional framework model is currently constructed using MOVE by Midland Valley Exploration. The resulting 3D-model visualizes the F2 folding pattern, the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 high strain zones and the structural controls on both primary and remobilized ore minerals. This framework model can act as a base for further modelling actions as well as for production and near mine exploration purposes.

  4. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT < 60 min after emergency room arrival. Penetrating trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance programmes must be emphasized to ensure future competence and quality of trauma care at low trauma volume hospitals. PMID:25124882

  5. Nordic Lightning Information System: Thunderstorm climate of Northern Europe for the period 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Enno, Sven-Erik; Haapalainen, Jussi

    2014-03-01

    A 10-year statistics (2002-2011) of the Nordic Lightning Information System (NORDLIS) are presented. NORDLIS is a joined lightning location network between Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia, comprising in 2011 of 32 lightning location sensors. Our data set contains a total of 4,121,649 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. We show the regional and temporal distribution of lightning in Northern Europe during the study period. Our results indicate that the average annual ground flash density values are greatest in Southern Sweden, Baltic countries and Western Finland. The average number of thunderstorm days is largest in the Baltic countries and Southwestern Sweden, and the annual number of ground flashes has varied during the study period from 250,000 to 620,000. The largest observed daily number of ground flashes is 51,500, and the largest daily ground flash density is about 5 CGs km- 2; this has occurred in southern Sweden in July 2003. The average daily number of ground flashes peaks in mid-July-early-August. Cold season (October-April) thunderstorms occur frequently over the North Sea west of Norway and in the west coast of Denmark. Our results also show that an intense thunderstorm may occur practically anywhere in the Northern Europe except for certain maritime and mountain areas.

  6. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  7. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  8. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  9. 22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO...) Major project authorization. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

  10. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section.... The estimated annual generation of the New Sweden Irrigation Project would be 5.6...

  11. Day Care in Scandinavia: Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Steen B.

    Day care programs in the Scandinavian countries have been viewed as exemplary models to transfer to Canada and the United States. This publication, which provides an overview of day care in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, discusses conditions, facts, and programs contributing to the widespread acclaim. It is pointed out that day care in Denmark is an…

  12. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  14. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  15. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  16. Bilingual-Bicultural Education of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, I.

    1975-01-01

    Current research emphasizes the importance of the mother tongue in second language teaching. This paper describes a longitudinal project which studies 4 groups of Finnish children in Malmo, Sweden, who are receiving a bilingual education starting from the pre-school. (Editor)

  17. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  18. Between Empowerment and Powerlessness: Separated Minors in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Kristina; Fioretos, Ingrid; Norstrom, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration experiences of thirteen separated minors who arrived in Sweden between 1943 and 2008. Using the framework of "dislocation" and the "liberated self," this chapter shows that the experiences of separated minors are shaped in the intersection between contexts and conditions of transnational migration and the…

  19. Technological Solutions for Visually Impaired People in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses technology available in Sweden for visually impaired and deaf-blind people. It describes systems for stop announcements on buses and trams, queuing systems in shops and banks, text telephones, synthetic speech or braille displays of newspapers and other information sources, and home computers. Ideas for the future are also…

  20. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  1. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  2. Health care expenditure in Sweden--an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Jönsson, B

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses health care expenditure in Sweden and compares this with the corresponding expenditure in OECD countries. The definition and measurement problems of health care expenditure are discussed, new figures for the development of health care expenditure are presented and different measures of health care expenditure are provided. We found that health care expenditure has increased by about 20% in constant prices for Sweden between 1980 and 1988, but that health care expenditure as a share of the GDP has dropped during the same period in current prices. Health care expenditure disaggregated on different age groups show for Sweden that in the age group 15-64 years, health care expenditure has not increased in constant prices between 1976 and 1985, but in the oldest age group, health care expenditure has increased considerable during this period. Health care expenditure in Sweden is as high as would be expected, taking into account the degree of economic development and the growth of expenditure during the 80s, and has followed that in comparable OECD countries. However, the relative price is lower, which means that the input of real resources are greater than in other countries. PMID:10115993

  3. National-Scale Professional Development in Sweden: Theory, Policy, Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesen, J.; Helenius, O.; Johansson, B.

    2015-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016 all teachers of mathematics, in primary through to upper secondary and adult education, in Sweden are to be given the opportunity of receiving state-coordinated professional development (PD), generally involving around one meeting per week for a year. We examine the ways in which this programme and its content are research-based…

  4. Lise Meitner in Sweden 1938-1960: Exile from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1994-08-01

    Lise Meitner fled Germany for Sweden in 1938. Her professional difficulties in Stockholm coupled with her exclusion from the discovery of fission diminished her ability to work, damaged her reputation and, in the opinion of many of her contemporaries, kept her from a Nobel prize.

  5. Constructing Learning Spaces? Videoconferencing at Local Learning Centres in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logdlund, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    This article explores videoconferencing in the context of local learning centres in Sweden. The practice is described as a "learning space" in which adult learners construct socio-spatial relations. The study goes beyond a sociological apprehension of actors and opposes the idea of the material as neutral, passive and conformed by practice. On the…

  6. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wadmann, Sarah; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues. PMID:19340328

  7. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  8. Expectations and Experiences of Inbound Students: Perspectives from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores expectations and outcomes for inbound students at Umeå University, Sweden, comparing their expectations with what they actually experienced. Based on an initial sample of 296 students, 116 answered surveys before and after experiencing of studying abroad. The same individuals have been followed. Most of the respondents'…

  9. Culture in the Swedish Preschool. Current Sweden No. 324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerud, Peter

    Serious discussion of the status of children's culture in Sweden began 15 to 20 years ago. Today, it is increasingly realized that children need and have a right to personal artistic experiences. A report presented in the spring of 1983 by the National Council for Cultural Affairs on interaction between preschools and local cultural life prompted…

  10. Case Studies in Special Education: Cuba, Japan, Kenya, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese National Commission for UNESCO, Tokyo.

    Collected is information provided by Cuba, Japan, Kenya, and Sweden on the historical background, the present situation, and the future outlook of their systems of special education. Introductory comments compare the national systems in terms of historical developments, arrangements for identifying the handicapped, special educational provisions,…

  11. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  12. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  13. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  14. Conflict Experience: A Phenomenological Study among Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szklarski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how young people in Sweden experience conflicts. The study is phenomenological, which means that the focus is on the essence of the investigated experience. Data have been collected by self-reports and analyzed with the help of an empirical phenomenological method. The research process has resulted in…

  15. Research Planning and Organization. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This paper describes the organization and planning for research and development in Sweden, particularly the role of higher education. A section on policies notes that the state has overall responsibility to fund basic research and the training of research workers. Issues receiving particular attention include environmental problems and new…

  16. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  17. Johanna and Tommy: Two Preschoolers in Sweden with Brittle Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millde, Kristina; Brodin, Jane

    Information is presented for caregivers of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and their families. Approximately five children with brittle bones are born in Sweden annually. Two main types of brittle bone disease have been identified: congenita and tarda. Typical symptoms include numerous and unexpected fractures, bluish…

  18. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  19. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden (70 FR 39734). The Commission is conducting reviews... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b)(19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May...

  20. Pesticide Reduction Programs in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden are leaders in introducing comprehensive and targeted risk reduction programs for pesticides. Describes these programs and their implementation, incorporating material obtained through interviews with representatives of the main constituencies involved in reduction Tables list pesticides that do not meet the…

  1. Everyday Classroom Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…

  2. Inclusive and Exclusive Education in Sweden: Principals' Opinions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Hansen, Audrey Malmgren

    2009-01-01

    To support the national and international aims of inclusion, "special teacher" training in Sweden was replaced in 1990 by "special educator" training. These special educators would supervise the teachers in their school and would not exclusively teach students. The aim of this study was to investigate what the principals of 14 municipal compulsory…

  3. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  4. A well-preserved Cambrian impact exposed in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, Maurits; Ekvall, Johan; Hagenfeldt, Stefan E.; Säwe, Brigitta; Sturkell, Erik F. F.

    1991-02-01

    The Lockne impact crater south of Östersund formed in the early Middle Cambrian with a diameter of 7 km. It is identified by its rim wall of crushed Precambrian basement granite, by fragments of impact melt, and by grains of shocked quartz. The exceptional preservation, in particular of the rim wall, is due to a complicated geological history, the first stage of which consisted of burial by marine sediments. This stage lasted until the Middle Ordovician, or over 50 million years. An early Caradoc lowering of the sea-level may have induced debris flows that stripped the rim wall of much of its sedimentary cover. Because normal marine sedimentation recommenced soon after this event, the structure was not seriously damaged, as it was buried again. The Caledonian orogeny emplaced an overthrust nappe as ultimate protection, which was removed by a recent erosion episode from all but the center of the structure. Structures formed by the impact of extraterrestrial bodies are very rare throughout much of Europe, because such structures are neither well preserved nor displayed in young mountain belts or sedimentary basins. However, northern Europe has several ascertained structures of this kind ( Svensson & Wickman, 1965; Svensson, 1968; Bruun & Dahlman, 1982; Kala et al., 1984; Flodén et al., 1986; Wickman, 1988). Unfortunately, the hitherto known structures are either poorly preserved or hidden by younger deposits. We are reporting the discovery of a well-preserved exposed and accessible impact structure that has escaped the notice of geologists although important features of it have been described and puzzled over by generations of researchers ( Wiman, 1900; Hadding, 1927; Thorslund, 1940; Lindström et al., 1983). The structure is located in the Lockne area to the south of Östersund in central Sweden. It has a diameter of 7 km and its center is near Tramsta on the northwest shore of Lake Locknesjön (Fig. 1). Its middle is covered by folded Lower to Middle Ordovician

  5. Student Essay Sleeping in Snow, Swimming in Ice: Welcom to Sweden--Duchy College, Cornwall, Visits Bollerup College, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Mark; Petitt, Ed; Thompson, Andy

    2001-01-01

    In Sweden, winter survival is taught to children from age 3 upwards. Bollerup College students learn extreme survival and then teach the skills to children. Two students from Duchy College (Cornwall, England) and their professor describe a week they spent at Bollerup College learning winter survival skills and the effects of winter conditions on…

  6. 15 years slow deformation in and around Lake Vänern (SW Sweden) deduced from repeated GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Hodacs, Peter; Talbot, Christopher; Koyi, Hemin; Sjöberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    In this contribution, we present the new geodetic velocity and strain rate fields obtained from GPS surveys around Lake Vänern in southwestern Sweden during the period 1997-2012. The lake Vänern is a graben bounded to the east and west by main N-S striking faults, whereas ENE-WSW striking faults define its northern and southern boundaries. The Värmland GPS network, was setup to monitor the ongoing slow deformation in and around this lake due to tectonic and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) processes in Fennoscandia. This network straddles the Protogine and the Mylonite zones and covers one of the most active seismic zones of Sweden. We use GAMIT-GLOBK software to process the past GPS data, collected in October 1997, and the new GPS data, collected in October 2010, 2011 and 2012. We also integrate our local network with the SWEPOS (Swedish Permanent GPS network) and IGS (International GNSS Service) stations to better constrain the velocity fields in ITRF2008 and Eurasia-fixed reference frames. The preliminary results obtained from campaign-mode measurements between 1997 and 2011 shows that the eastern part of the network, located on the eastern side of the NS trending Mylonite zone, is deforming relatively faster than the western part. In the eastern part, the overall extensional components trending NW-SE with local variations are observed. To constrain better these preliminary results, we will add the new campaign data collected in October 2012 to the 1997-2011 solutions and present new deformation maps. The 15 years long observation period (1997-2012) can better constrain sub-mm/yr horizontal crustal shortening or extension rates in Sweden, more specifically around Lake Vänern.

  7. Genome-Based Characterization of Emergent Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup Y Isolates in Sweden from 1995 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Törös, Bianca; Hedberg, Sara T.; Unemo, Magnus; Jacobsson, Susanne; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Olcén, Per; Fredlund, Hans; Bratcher, Holly B.; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y has increased in Europe, especially in Scandinavia. In Sweden, serogroup Y is now the dominating serogroup, and in 2012, the serogroup Y disease incidence was 0.46/100,000 population. We previously showed that a strain type belonging to sequence type 23 was responsible for the increased prevalence of this serogroup in Sweden. The objective of this study was to investigate the serogroup Y emergence by whole-genome sequencing and compare the meningococcal population structure of Swedish invasive serogroup Y strains to those of other countries with different IMD incidence. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on invasive serogroup Y isolates from 1995 to 2012 in Sweden (n = 186). These isolates were compared to a collection of serogroup Y isolates from England, Wales, and Northern Ireland from 2010 to 2012 (n = 143), which had relatively low serogroup Y incidence, and two isolates obtained in 1999 in the United States, where serogroup Y remains one of the major causes of IMD. The meningococcal population structures were similar in the investigated regions; however, different strain types were prevalent in each geographic region. A number of genes known or hypothesized to have an impact on meningococcal virulence were shown to be associated with different strain types and subtypes. The reasons for the IMD increase are multifactorial and are influenced by increased virulence, host adaptive immunity, and transmission. Future genome-wide association studies are needed to reveal additional genes associated with serogroup Y meningococcal disease, and this work would benefit from a complete serogroup Y meningococcal reference genome. PMID:25926489

  8. Multi-variable bias correction: application of forest fire risk in present and future climate in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Gardelin, M.; Olsson, J.; Bosshard, T.

    2015-09-01

    As the risk of a forest fire is largely influenced by weather, evaluating its tendency under a changing climate becomes important for management and decision making. Currently, biases in climate models make it difficult to realistically estimate the future climate and consequent impact on fire risk. A distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed as a post-processing tool that intends to correct systematic biases in climate modelling outputs. In this study, we used two projections, one driven by historical reanalysis (ERA40) and one from a global climate model (ECHAM5) for future projection, both having been dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model (RCA3). The effects of the post-processing tool on relative humidity and wind speed were studied in addition to the primary variables precipitation and temperature. Finally, the Canadian Fire Weather Index system was used to evaluate the influence of changing meteorological conditions on the moisture content in fuel layers and the fire-spread risk. The forest fire risk results using DBS are proven to better reflect risk using observations than that using raw climate outputs. For future periods, southern Sweden is likely to have a higher fire risk than today, whereas northern Sweden will have a lower risk of forest fire.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  10. Risk factors and potential preventive measures for nephropatia epidemica in Sweden 2011–2012: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Gherasim, Alin; Hjertqvist, Marika; Lundkvist, Åke; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Carlson, Jenny Verner; Stenmark, Stephan; Widerström, Mikael; Österlund, Anders; Boman, Hans; Ahlm, Clas; Wallensten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nephropatia epidemica (NE), a relatively mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV), is endemic in northern Sweden. We aim to study the risk factors associated with NE in this region. Methods We conducted a matched case–control study between June 2011 and July 2012. We compared confirmed NE cases with randomly selected controls, matched by age, sex, and place of infection or residence. We analyzed the association between NE and several occupational, environmental, and behavioral exposures using conditional logistic regression. Results We included in the final analysis 114 cases and 300 controls, forming 246 case–control pairs. Living in a house with an open space beneath, making house repairs, living less than 50 m from the forest, seeing rodents, and smoking were significantly associated with NE. Conclusion Our results could orient public health policies targeting these risk factors and subsequently reduce the NE burden in the region. PMID:26134289

  11. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny. PMID:26924220

  12. Meltwater production due to strain heating in Storglaciären, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Andy; Blatter, Heinz

    2005-12-01

    Storglaciären, northern Sweden, is temperate in most parts except for a cold surface layer in the ablation zone. One of four possible sources for liquid water in temperate ice is melting due to strain heating. Velocity fields are calculated with an ice flow model, so that calculated and observed surface velocities agree. Meltwater accumulation is computed by integrating strain heating along trajectories starting at the surface in the accumulation area and ending at the cold-temperate transition surface in the ablation zone. The distribution of moisture content due to strain heating alone is mapped in a longitudinal section of Storglaciären. Values reach more than 10 g of water per kilogram ice-water mixture in the lowest parts of the temperate domain. For this moisture content the rate factor is more than 3 times higher than for water-free ice, and therefore water production by strain heating is important for the modeling of temperate and polythermal glaciers.

  13. Long term variations of extreme rainfall in Denmark and southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    A high number of studies have detected changes in the observed heavy rainfall in Northern and Central Europe, all adding to the debate on anthropogenic climate change and its potential impact on rainfall extremes. However, it is equally relevant to understand natural variations on which the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study identifies multi-decadal variations in daily rainfall extremes from Denmark and southern Sweden, with a recurrence level relevant for flood hazard analysis. Based on smoothed series it is concluded that the frequency of the extreme events shows both a general increase from 1874 to present and an oscillation with a cycle of 25-40 years. The magnitude of the extreme events also oscillates, but with a cycle of 15-30 years and a smaller amplitude. Regional analysis of a larger Danish dataset with a shorter observations period found a countrywide low period in 1970-1979. It is furthermore concluded that the oscillation signal along the west coast of Denmark is dominated by the changeable coastal weather of this region. The eastern part of Denmark shows a more consistent signal, which partly can be explained by an index derived from sea level pressure differences between Gibraltar and Haparanda. The identification of a cyclic pattern in the extreme rainfall is highly relevant for our understanding of the non-stationarities in flood hazard.

  14. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  15. Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry. PMID:22102063

  16. Veganism as status passage: the process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel L; Rönnlund, Ulla; Johansson, Gunnar; Dahlgren, Lars

    2003-08-01

    In a town in northern Sweden, 3.3% of the 15-year-old adolescents were vegans in 1996. This study describes the process of becoming a vegan among adolescents and interprets the informants' descriptions by constructing categories, which later on were related to relevant theories. Group interviews were conducted with three vegans and in-depth interviews were performed with three other vegan adolescents. The methodology was grounded theory and the adolescents' perceptions were analyzed in the framework of symbolic interactionism. Three types of vegans were identified: the Conformed Vegan, the Organized Vegan, and the Individualistic Vegan. The decision to become a vegan was reported to be influenced by perceived internal reasons such as ethics, health, distaste for meat, and preference for vegetarian food. In addition, friends, family, school, media, and music influenced the decision to become a vegan. The perceived consequences of becoming a vegan were positive as well as negative and differed between the three types of vegans. Veganism as a new type of status passage with specific characteristics was illustrated. No modifications or new properties were discovered that add to the theory of status passage which indicates that the general model is applicable also in a vegan context. PMID:12880622

  17. Increased occurrence of lightning flashes in Sweden during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, S.; Schuette, T.; Pisler, E.; Lundquist, S.

    1987-09-20

    As a result of the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, USSR, a considerable increase in radioactive background radiation was noted in some regions of Sweden. In areas with high radioactive fallout an increase in the amount of lightning flashes was observed during the 1986 thunderstorm season. A statistical test shows that there is a risk of less than 1% that the observed difference has occurred by mere chance. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  18. Land cover controls on river discharge in Sweden. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Velde, Y.; Vercauteren, N.; Jaramillo, F.; Dekker, S. C.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    As humans alter landscape, vegetation, climate and atmospheric composition, changes in the terrestrial water balance and fresh water resources are likely to occur. Understanding how climate, vegetation, humans and hydrology interact is key for accurate projections of future fresh water resources. In this study we focus on forest dominated Sweden where significant changes in climate and increasing human activity have co-occurred during the past 50 years. For 280 catchments in Sweden, we related runoff coefficients and change trends thereof to land-surface characteristics. With these relationships we created average and change trend maps for runoff and evapotranspiration across Sweden. All this information is summarized by plotting water use efficiency (actual evapotranspiration (ET)/precipitation) against energy use efficiency (actual ET/potential ET ) in a Budyko-type framework for areas with unique land cover across Sweden. This plot clearly shows that wetlands tend to have lower water and energy use efficiencies compared to 'open waters', forests and agriculture, and that agriculture and forests have comparable water and energy use efficiencies closest to those of 'open waters'. These results demonstrate how a change in land cover driven by climate change or by humans is likely to alter land-cover-atmosphere interactions, thereby changing both the water and energy balance of catchments. Looking at runoff coefficient change trends during the last 50 years we see that forests tended to become more efficient in using water and energy (i.e. the fractions of water and energy converted into river runoff and heat decreased). As this behavior coincides with an increase in precipitation it signals an acceleration of the hydrological cycle of Swedish forests. In this presentation we will discuss these findings focusing on the impact of forests on river discharges and the implications for future water cycles.

  19. Cancer risks in Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, K; Li, X

    2002-12-01

    Numerous migrant studies on cancer have been carried out, but little data are available on cancer incidence upon inter-European migration. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risk among Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden. The parental population had entered Sweden in their 20s and they had become parents in Sweden. Finns were the largest immigrant group including approximately 183,000 parents and 278,000 offspring. We calculated the standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 90 or 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 26 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Cancers in the first generation immigrants followed the rates in the countries of origin, reaching high SIRs for tobacco-related, cervical and testicular cancer among Danes and for stomach cancer among Finns. Only a few cancers, such as cervical cancer was increased in the second generation. At many sites, particularly among the Finns, protection was observed in the first generation. At three sites, breast, ovary and urinary bladder, where plausible evidence for protection was found even among offspring, this was not reinforced among the offspring of compatriot parents, which is inconsistent with heritable effects. Protection against melanoma was strongest among the offspring of compatriots, but the contribution of cultural factors cannot be excluded. As the parents immigrated to Sweden in their 20s, their cancer pattern, including habits and life style, appeared to be set before that age because the differences to Swedes persisted even in cancers that predominate in old age. Immigrant populations would appear to be attractive subjects to study etiological factors of cancer at sites where causes remain poorly understood, such as testicular cancer. PMID:12460788

  20. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, L

    1977-01-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  1. Cancer risks in second-generation immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun

    2002-05-10

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyze cancer risks in Sweden-born descendants of immigrants from European and North American countries. Our study included close to 600,000 0-66-year-old descendants of an immigrant father or mother. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 17 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. All cancer was marginally below the Swedish incidence in offspring of immigrant origin. Decreased SIRs were observed for breast cancer among Norwegian descendants, melanoma among descendants of Hungarian fathers and ovarian and bladder cancer among descendents of Finnish mothers, all consistent with the difference in cancer incidence between Swedes and the indigenous populations. Cervical cancer was increased in daughters of Danish men, whereas thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were in excess in offspring of parents of Yugoslav and Asian descent. Even these results agreed with the high incidence rates in parents compared to Swedes, except that for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma other explanations are needed; these may be related to immune malfunction. Comparison of the results between the first- and the second-generation immigrants suggest that the first 2 decades of life are important in setting the pattern for cancer development in subsequent life. Birth in Sweden sets the Swedish pattern for cancer incidence, irrespective of the nationality of descent, while entering Sweden in the 20s is already too late to influence the environmentally imprinted program for the cancer destiny. PMID:11979438

  2. Historical view and future demand for knee arthroplasty in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rolfson, Ola; W-Dahl, Annette; Garellick, Göran; Sundberg, Martin; Kärrholm, Johan; Robertsson, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The incidence of knee osteoarthritis will most likely increase. We analyzed historical trends in the incidence of knee arthroplasty in Sweden between 1975 and 2013, in order to be able to provide projections of future demand. Patients and methods We obtained information on all knee arthroplasties in Sweden in the period 1975–2013 from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register, and used public domain data from Statistics Sweden on the evolution of and forecasts for the Swedish population. We forecast the incidence, presuming the existence of a maximum incidence. Results We found that the incidence of knee arthroplasty will continue to increase until a projected upper incidence level of about 469 total knee replacements per 105 Swedish residents aged 40 years and older is reached around the year 2130. In 2020, the estimated incidence of total knee arthroplasties per 105 Swedish residents aged 40 years and older will be 334 (95% prediction interval (PI): 281–374) and in 2030 it will be 382 (PI: 308–441). Using officially forecast population growth data, around 17,500 operations would be expected to be performed in 2020 and around 21,700 would be expected to be performed in 2030. Interpretation Today’s levels of knee arthroplasty are well below the expected maximum incidence, and we expect a continued annual increase in the total number of knee arthroplasties performed. PMID:25806653

  3. The impact of health economic evaluations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results. PMID:25444295

  4. “We are like lemmings”: making sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among the indigenous Sami in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Jon Petter A; Kaiser, Niclas; Jacobsson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Silviken, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a widespread problem among indigenous people residing in the circumpolar Arctic. Though the situation among the indigenous Sami in northern Scandinavia is better than among some other indigenous people, suicide is still regarded as a major public health issue. To adapt prevention strategies that are culturally attuned one must understand how suicide is understood within context. That is, the cultural meaning(s) of suicide. Objective To explore and make sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among Sami in Sweden. Design Open-ended focus group discussions (FGDs) on the topic “suicide among Sami” were carried out in 5 Sami communities in Sweden, with in total 22 strategically selected Sami participants. FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed through employing content analysis. Results From the FGDs 4 themes emerged including “The Sami are fighting for their culture and the herders are in the middle of the fight,” “Suicide as a consequence of Sami losing (or having lost) their identity,” “A wildfire in the Sami world” and “Difficult to get help as a Sami.” Conclusions Findings indicate that Sami in Sweden make sense of suicide in relation to power and identity within a threatened Sami cultural context. Suicide is then understood as an act that takes place and makes sense to others when a Sami no longer has the power to maintain a Sami identity, resulting in being disconnected from the Sami world and placed in an existential void where suicide is a solution. The findings are useful in development of culturally attuned suicide prevention among Sami in Sweden. PMID:26333721

  5. Sweden's population grows, Swedish population doesn't.

    PubMed

    Gendell, M

    1984-03-01

    The example of Swedish demography offers a contemporary insight into population growth or decline. In addition to the numerical increase due to the arrival of immigrants, migration can have an indirect effect on a country's population growth due to the arrived immigrants' subsequent natural fertility. Some very interesting differences also can often be observed in the births and deaths between the native born and immigrant populations. This phenomenon is particularly striking in the case of Sweden. In 1970 Sweden's population was growing at nearly 1% per year (9.83/1000), a relatively rapid pace by today's standard. Since 1970, the growth rate dropped steadily, down to only 0.1% in 1981. The main reason for the slowed population growth has been the decline in the birthrate, from 14/1000 population to the 11.3-11.7 range since 1976. At the same time, the death rate rose from 10 to 11. Gains in life expectancy have been outweighed by the increasing proportion of the elderly. During the 1970s the rate of net migration fluctuated considerably. It dropped from a high rate of 6/1000 in 1970 to -1.5 in 1972. 1972 and 1973 are the only postwar years in which Sweden experienced a net outflow. The rate rose again to 2.89 in 1977, falling to 0.3 in 1981, the latest year for which data are available. Starting in 1975 the components of Sweden's population change began to exhibit a remarkable aspect: population growth due to migration exceeded that due to natural increase. This had not occurred previously. Close examination reveals that the gain due to natural increase had become dependent upon the natural increase of the immigrants. Births of Swedish citizens, which had exceeded deaths by 22,000 in 1971, fell until natural decrease appeared in 1976. That gap has been growing wider ever since, to -6100 in 1982. A growing number of immigrants have been attaining Swedish citizenship, but the category of "citizen" is still the virtual equivalent of "native born." At the end of 1981

  6. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Design Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Populations MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975–2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970–2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Main outcome measures Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Results MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975–1979 to 2005–2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100 000 to 5.4/100 000. The largest increases occurred among those 70–79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100 000 to 33.6/100 000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100 000. Conclusions MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. PMID:26801465

  7. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colby A.; Sundh, Martin; Mikko, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    In Sweden, knowledge of the location and timing of glacially induced faulting and seismicity is critical to effective engineering of a long-term nuclear disposal facility. To improve understanding and modeling of the complex ice-induced and tectonic stresses associated with glacially induced faulting, field studies detailing the location and timing of movement of such structures are required. Although the fault has not been confirmed in the bedrock, multi-proxy surficial geologic evidence indicates that the recently discovered scarp in Bollnäs is such a structure. Machine-excavated trenches across the scarp reveal landsliding down the scarp and, in one location, faulted and vertically offset fine-grained glacial sediments. The presence of water-escape structures in trenches excavated on a topographic high strongly suggests a co-seismic origin derived from earthquake magnitudes >5.5. Numerous landslides in till exist in the region as well. Four slopes with landslides were examined in detail, and the factors of safety for these slopes indicate stable conditions and suggest a seismic trigger. Basal radiocarbon dates from peat bogs located stratigraphically above the landslides provide minimum limiting ages for the co-seismic landslides. The oldest date indicates sliding prior to 10,180 calendar years before the present. The proposed Bollnäs Fault is 400 km south of the so called Lapland Fault Province. To date, it is the southernmost confirmed glacially induced fault in Sweden. The results of this study are consistent with existing modeling results that indicate fault instability in this region of central Sweden following deglaciation.

  8. Fighting antibiotic resistance in Sweden--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Struwe, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Sweden has been in the favorable situation of having limited antibiotic resistance and low antibiotic consumption. When pneumococci with reduced susceptibility to penicillin and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged during the 1990s, professionals and relevant authorities called for extensive action plans to avoid the critical threshold levels of resistance experienced in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish experiences in light of new and future challenges by reviewing Swedish data on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use, notifications, outbreak control, action plans and scientific papers. The tradition of liberal performance of clinical cultures, together with well functioning diagnostic laboratories, has formed a basis for close collaboration and development of surveillance within quality assurance programs. For more than 20 years the pharmacy monopoly in Sweden has made it possible to collect well defined data on antibiotic sales at the county level with almost 100% coverage. Multisectorial collaboration was set up in regional Strama (Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance) groups. Large diagnosis-prescribing surveys have been undertaken, and the concept of basic hygiene precautions was introduced, together with extensive programs for early case finding. However, surveillance has been hampered by inadequate IT systems and some difficulties in collecting relevant data on antibiotic sales at the national level. Also, a decentralized system with 21 counties and regions has resulted in divergence of action plans and rules. The containment of antibiotic resistance thus far may be explained by the early response in human and veterinary medicine and close multisectorial collaboration, supported by the government, before problems got out of hand. Nevertheless, rapidly growing problems with bacteria that produce extended beta-lactamases have recently emerged and antibiotic sales have started to increase

  9. Variability of Carbon Exchanges Between Two Contrasting Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulet, N. T.; Nilsson, M.

    2008-12-01

    Northern peatland contain about one quarter of the world's terrestrial carbon. It appears that many peatlands still remains a small, but persistent sinks of carbon dioxide and sources of methane. The sink strength is small compared to actively growing boreal forests but equal to the Holocene average peatland carbon accumulation. This suggests that the function of northern peatlands, with regard to C sequestration, has not change relative to the Holocene average uptake. In contrast to forested ecosystems there have been few long-term continuous measurements of the components of the C balance of peatlands ecosystems. In addition to measurements of net ecosystem exchange and net methane emission (or uptake), the C balance of peatlands requires accurate estimates of the loss of carbon dissolved in runoff. Multi-year measurements of these three major exchanges have been made in contrasting northern peatlands: Mer Bleue, a raised ombrotrophic bog located at the boreal - temperate boundary in eastern Canada, and Degero Stormyr, a mineral poor, oligotrophic fen located in northern Sweden. Despite very different plant communities and moisture regimes the long-term average NEE, methane exchange and net loss of carbon dissolved in water are surprisingly similar in these two systems. However, Mer Bleue has a much greater inter-annual variability in the exchanges than does Degero Stormyr peatland. The difference in exchanges appears related to differences in the variability in moisture supply to the vegetation layer and water storage in the peat. In the early 1990s, the eminent peatland ecologist, Eville Gorham estimated, with few observations, the relative importance of the C balance components of northern peatlands. The multi-year records indicate that these early estimates with reasonable good within an order of magnitude.

  10. The Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in south-western Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olausson, E.

    The boundary between the Pleistocene/Holocene epochs was placed at 10,000 C(14) years B.P. (Libby half time) by the Holocene Commission. In search of a stratotype locality three cores from the province of Bohusian, south-western Sweden, were scrutinized concerning different geophysical, geochemical and bioastratigraphical parameters. The marine sequences of the cores from Moltemyr and Solberga reveal a distinct boundary and a transition zone respectively which meet the requirements laid down by the Holocene Commission. The suggested age of the lithological boundary is c. 10,200-10,300 years B.P.

  11. Uranium in the Upper Cambrian black shale of Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1955-01-01

    The Peltura zone of the Upper Cambrian black shales of Sweden contains about 0.02 percent uranium. Maximum amounts are present in rocks deposited in an embayment in the sea and in rocks in or closely adjacent to that part of the vertical sequence that contains maximum amounts of distillable oil, total organic matter, pyrite, and a black highly uraniferous kerogen called "kolm". Available data suggest that the precipitation of uranium is favored by a low redox potential and that the uranium in the shale matrix may be in fine-grained kolm.

  12. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  13. Prenatal diagnosis in Sweden: organisation and current issues.

    PubMed

    Bui, T H; Kristoffersson, U

    1997-01-01

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis was introduced in Sweden in the early 1970s and is an integral part of the public health care system. Funding is provided by taxation; the patient only pays a consultation fee. Genetic analyses on a broad range of cytogenetic and molecular disorders are performed at the 6 university-affiliated hospitals and in 1 county hospital. About 6% of all newborns have been cytogenetically screened during pregnancy, and about 90% of the analyses are performed after amniocentesis. The main indication is chromosome analysis because of advanced maternal age. PMID:9101184

  14. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. PMID:25201049

  15. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN CORNER - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. Science in Transit: Enlightenment Research Policy and Astronomy in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmalm, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Swedish participation in the international efforts to measure the transits of Venus in the 1760s was impressive considering the size and the relative youth of the mathematical and astronomical community in the country. In this paper it is argued that the relative success of the Swedish contribution may be seen as the result of an early-modern form of research policy. This policy was promoted by the progressive so-called Hat Party that came into power in the late 1730s, an event that coincided with the creation of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, soon to emerge as an organizational hub of astronomical research in Sweden and to some extent also on the European level. The close connection between the scientific and political elites in Enlightenment Sweden made possible the creation and international integration of a Swedish research community, not least in astronomy under the leadership of the Academy's perpetual secretary and astronomer Pehr Wargentin. The fact that these elites shared a common fate is also illustrated by their simultaneous decline from around 1770.

  18. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services. PMID:26460449

  19. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated. PMID:21770823

  20. On the characteristics of positive lightning ground flashes in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi; Cooray, Vernon; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hettiarachchi, Pasan; Ahmad, Noor Azlinda

    2016-02-01

    In this study the stroke characteristics of positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Sweden were obtained from the electric field records measured from 14 thunderstorms. The electric fields were measured with nanosecond resolution. Together with the fast and the slow electric field records, the narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals were also measured simultaneously. Out of a total of 107 flashes, 30 flashes had two strokes, 7 had three strokes and 3 flashes had four strokes. The arithmetic and geometric means of the interstroke intervals were found to be 116 and 70 ms, respectively. The arithmetic and geometric mean ratio between the peak electric field of the Subsequent Return Stroke (SRS) and the first Return Stroke (RS) were 0.48 and 0.36, respectively. Of the 40 positive multiple-stroke ground flashes, 5% have at least one SRS with field peak higher than the first RS. The percentage of SRS with field peaks greater than the first RS was 6%. In our best of our knowledge, this is the first time a large sample of positive return strokes in Sweden was analysed. It was found to be statistically more significant than the previous studies.

  1. European Linguistic Diversity--For Whom? The Cases of Finland and Sweden. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainio, Jarmo

    Linguistic diversity in the Nordic countries has several dimensions. One main division is between what the majority group thinks it is about versus what the minority group thinks it is about. This paper examines the situation in Finland and Sweden, noting implications for linguistic diversity. Finland and Sweden contain five main varieties of…

  2. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  3. Educational Reform and Class Cleavages in Social Democratic Regimes: The Case of Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between the educational system of Sweden and its social class structure. The first section provides background information on Sweden's social democratic system which exhibits a strong tendency towards pragmatism, practicality, rationality, efficiency, competence, and educational planning.…

  4. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  5. Consultation in Special Needs Education in Sweden and Finland: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Christel; von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée; Ström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The article compares the conditions and implementation of special education professionals' consulting task in Sweden and Finland. The article first describes the background of the consulting teacher role and special education in Sweden and in Finland. Two different perspectives in the continuum on consultation are presented, followed by a…

  6. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  7. Bilateral Vision: Gender and Education in the United Kingdom and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the sum of the author's experience when she moved from England to Sweden four years ago. Sweden's international reputation for gender equality is unparalleled and therefore she expected to be part of a different gender order than that in the United Kingdom. However, she finds that at the level of everyday experience, gender relations…

  8. Wealth "Dynamics" in the 1980s and 1990s: Sweden and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevmarken, N. Anders; Lupton, Joseph P.; Stafford, Frank P.

    2003-01-01

    Given differences in public saving programs between Sweden and the United States, an examination of household private wealth accumulation in these two countries can be enlightening. In this paper we examine wealth inequality and mobility in Sweden and the United States over the past decade. We show that wealth inequality has been significantly…

  9. Investigating Architectural Quality Theories for School Evaluation: A Critical Review of Evaluation Instruments in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygt, Erland

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of instruments used to evaluate compulsory schools in Sweden and is part of a doctoral programme project investigating the relationship between school architecture and learning. In Sweden, as in many countries, evaluation instruments are used both to improve school quality and as a means to provide…

  10. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... maintaining irrigation flows; (4) a powerhouse containing a 1.2- megawatt (MW) Kaplan turbine; (5) a...

  11. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  12. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  13. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  14. The effect of harvest intensity on long-term calcium dynamics in soil and soil solution at three coniferous sites in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterberg, Therese; Olsson, Bengt; Löfgren, Stefan; von Brömssen, Claudia; Brandtberg, Per-Olov

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy from forests is a mean to reduce fossil fuel related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The potential to replace fossil fuel with logging residues is large in countries with extensive forest resources such as Sweden where the supply of bioenergy to district heating plants has quintupled since the 1990's, now accounting for 46% of the total energy supply. However, the loss of nutrients and other elements in biomass is higher following harvest for bioenergy purposes (whole-tree harvest, WTH) compared with traditional clear-cutting (conventional harvest, CH). Calcium (Ca2+) is an important base cation, which buffer soils and surface water against acidification. The loss of Ca2+ and other base cations via harvest for bioenergy could therefore result in soil acidification and there is a growing concern in Sweden that the depletion in base cation pools would also lead to surface water acidification associated with lower base cation concentrations in runoff (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Furthermore, WTH may also prevent or delay a recovery from acidification in areas such as the southwestern parts of Sweden, where the pools of exchangeable cations have been substantially depleted as a result of historically high sulfate (SO42-) deposition. In this paper, long-term treatment differences in soil exchangeable Ca2+ pools (down to 20 cm) and soil solution Ca2+ concentrations at 50 cm soil depth were examined at three coniferous sites in Sweden following CH and WTH in 1974-76. The results showed that soil water concentrations of Ca2+were -17 μeq l-1 (or 40%) lower in WTH plots compared with CH plots, 27-30 years after harvest. The main treatment differences had largely disappeared 32 to 35 years after harvest although site specific treatment differences (ΔWTH-CH: -24 μeq l-1) were still measurable at the well-buffered site in northern Sweden. These results are in agreement with soil data showing that previously found treatment differences in Ca2

  15. Early retirement pensions in Sweden: trends and regional variations.

    PubMed

    Berglind, H

    1978-01-01

    The total number of early retirement pensiones has risen sharply since the end of the 1960s. The increase was greatest during the early 1970s following a reform in 1970 which extended the right to early retirement pension to older workers because of labour market considerations. This article discusses various conceivable explanations for the growth in the number of early retirement pensioners and regional variations of this phenomenon. The following explanatory factors are considered: (a) The prospects of getting (keeping) a job. (b) Work capacity. (c) The nature of the pension scheme. (d) Alternative possibilities of support. (e) Preferences concerning early retirement pensions. The discussion focuses on two explanations highlighted in the public debate in Sweden: changes in pension legislation and the role of the solidarity wages policy. An empirical analysis of variations at the provincial level reveals a definite correlation between the proportion of early retirement pensioners and various indices of unemployment and underemployment. PMID:635502

  16. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sorbring, Emma; Gurdal, Sevtap

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 77 Swedish families. Results Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers’ and fathers’ progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions We conclude that in Sweden fathers are more likely to attribute failures in caregiving situations both to themselves and to children than are mothers and that there is moderate concordance between fathers and mothers within the same family in progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes. PMID:21927589

  17. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change. PMID:26334698

  18. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-09-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education. PMID:25169002

  19. Use of creative activities in occupational therapy practice in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Ivarsson, Ann Britt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of creative activities in occupational therapy in Sweden and how often Swedish occupational therapists use creative activities as a means of intervention. A web-mail survey was sent to 2975 Swedish occupational therapists working in health care at regional, county council or primary health care level, and those working in vocational rehabilitation. A total of 1867 (63%) answered the questionnaire and showed that 44% did use creative activities as a means of intervention and most often by practitioners working in psychiatric health care. The most commonly used form of creative activity was arts and crafts followed by gardening. This web-mail survey was based on a limited amount of items regarding creative activities. Further research should focus on in-depth inquiries about how occupational therapists and their patients perceive the use of creative activities as a means of treatment in occupational therapy. PMID:22489029

  20. Pathological withdrawl of refugee children seeking asylum in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2006 there was an 'epidemic' of complete withdrawal from daily life among numerous children in refugee families seeking asylum in Sweden. It became embedded in many distinct controversies, including the politics of immigration, and acrimonious disagreements between pediatricians dealing with individual families, and government-employed sociologists commissioned to report on what was going on. Most of the cases resolved themselves when an amnesty was agreed in 2006, although there remain many doubts about the statistics. After describing this phenomenon, the paper proposes a (non-exclusive) model called Imitation & Internalisation. Most of the children may have begun by imitating others who had fallen ill, but soon internalized it to the extent that it became an integral part of their psychophysical and social constitution. The model can be applied to phenomena as diverse as hypnotism, the placebo effect, and catching faith by association with believers (Pascal's wager). PMID:21112004

  1. Scientific dishonesty--questionnaire to doctoral students in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nilstun, Tore; Löfmark, Rurik; Lundqvist, Anita

    2010-05-01

    'Scientific dishonesty' implies the fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research or in reporting research results. A questionnaire was given to postgraduate students at the medical faculties in Sweden who attended a course in research ethics during the academic year 2008/2009 and 58% answered (range 29%-100%). Less than one-third of the respondents wrote that they had heard about scientific dishonesty in the previous 12 months. Pressure, concerning in what order the author should be mentioned, was reported by about 1 in 10 students. We suggest that all departments conducting research should have a written policy about acceptable research behaviour and that all doctoral students should be informed of the content of this policy. Participants in the research groups concerned should also be required to analyse published articles about scientific dishonesty and critically discuss what could be done about unethical conduct. PMID:20439329

  2. Recurrent education policy in Sweden: A moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenson, Kjell

    1994-05-01

    The initiative to establish a programme of recurrent education in Sweden arose from a government commission appointed in 1968. The idea received strong support from certain sections of the Swedish trade union movement, who saw it as a way of sharing the benefits of education more equitably among the population. The scheme, however, ran into opposition and was never implemented as a comprehensive strategy. In the 1980s, with the shift of emphasis towards the private sector and the rapid development of information technology, the idea of recurrent education reappeared, although not explicitly acknowledged as official policy. During this period there was a rapid expansion of courses sponsored by employers. Under the present government, recurrent education has ceased to play an important role in education policy. The author argues that these shifts in priorities illustrate how education, and especially adult and recurring education, acts as an arena for ideological struggle.

  3. Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, Asa

    2014-01-01

    After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been "in control" of their senses or not "in complete control" of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged. PMID:24315847

  4. Unintentional Nonhunting Firearm Deaths in Sweden, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Sjöberg, Ameli; Eriksson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    We examined the association between unintentional nonhunting firearm deaths and changes in firearm legislation in Sweden. There were 43 fatalities during the study time frame 1983-2012, representing 46% of all unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The victims were predominantly young males (mean age 25 years). Slightly more than half of the deaths were caused by another person and were inflicted at close range. The main cause of the incidents was human error. The majority of the involved firearms were legal; however, most victims killed with illegal firearms were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time. The death rate decreased significantly following the introduction of the hunter's examination in 1985. Education and training associated with the hunter's examination was at least partially responsible for the decline in fatalities after 1985. Future prevention should target the availability of illegal firearms. PMID:27364274

  5. Rising incidence of breast cancer among young women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ranstam, J.; Janzon, L.; Olsson, H.

    1990-01-01

    The national Swedish cancer registry was used to analyse the age-specific time trends in breast cancer incidence in Sweden from 1970 to 1984. The analysis included both a calendar year and a birth cohort approach to estimate time trends in disease occurrence. According to the birth cohort approach there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence with an average annual increase of the incidence of 3.2% (P = 0.0114), 3.4% (P = 0.0002) and 2.2% (P = 0.0264) in the age groups 25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively. Possible causes of the observed increasing incidence are discussed. PMID:2297482

  6. Understanding intraplate earthquakes in Sweden: the where and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Björn; Tryggvason, Ari; Chan, NeXun; Högdahl, Karin; Buhcheva, Darina; Bödvarsson, Reynir

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) underwent a rapid expansion and modernization between the years 2000 - 2010. The number of stations increased from 6 to 65, all broadband or semi-broadband with higher than standard sensitivity and all transmitting data in real-time. This has lead to a significant increase in the number of detected earthquakes, with the magnitude of completeness being approximately ML 0.5 within the network. During the last 15 years some 7,300 earthquakes have been detected and located, which can be compared to the approximately 1,800 earthquakes in the Swedish catalog from 1375 to 1999. We have used the recent earthquake catalog and various antropogenic sources (e.g. mine blasts, quarry blasts and infrastructure construction blast) to derive low resolution 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for entire Sweden. Including the blasts provides a more even geographical distribution of sources as well as good constraints on the locations. The resolution of the derived velocity models is in the 20 km range in the well resolved areas. A fairly robust feature observed in the Vp/Vs ratio of the derived models is a difference between the Paleoproterozoic rocks belonging to the TIB (Transscanidinavian Igneous Belt) and the Svecofennian rocks east and north of this region (a Vp/Vs ratio about 1.72 prevail in the former compared to a value below 1.70 in the latter) at depths down to 15 km. All earthquakes occurring since 2000 have been relocated in the 3D velocity model. The results show very clear differences in how earthquakes occur in different parts of Sweden. In the north, north of approximately 64 degrees latitude, most earthquakes occur on or in the vicinity of the Holocene postglacial faults. From 64N to approximately 60N earthquake activity is concentrated along the northeast coast line, with some relation to the offset in the bedrock from the onshore area to the offshore Bay of Bothnia. In southern Sweden earthquake activity is more widely

  7. Northern Meridiani Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of layered sedimentary rock in northern Sinus Meridiani. The layering is best seen in the circular feature at the center/right, which is an old meteor impact crater that was once filled and buried beneath the sedimentary rocks, then later exhumed and eroded to its present state. All of the sedimentary rocks exposed in this portion of northern Sinus Meridiani are probably older than the rocks in central Sinus Meridiani that have been examined this year by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity. Like the rocks visited by the rover, these, too, may contain detailed clues regarding a wetter Mars in the distant past. These landforms are located near 6.0oN, 2.0oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  8. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  9. Suicide among young people aged 10-29 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hultén, A; Wasserman, D

    1992-06-01

    This study analyses the incidence of suicide among children and young people aged between 10 and 29 in Sweden, during the period 1974-1986. The study comprises 4,624 individuals whose deaths were the outcome of verified, E950-E959 (n = 3,511) and undetermined, E980-E989 (n = 1,113) suicides. Regression analysis of different age groups separately and all age groups combined shows that the frequency of suicide among children and young people in Sweden did not increase in this period. Nonetheless, mortality figures are high, especially for boys and young men aged 15-29. The maximum suicide-mortality rate (43.2 per 10,000) is noted for young men aged 25-29 in 1984. The male-female ratio with respect to deaths from suicide is 2.5 for the entire group, the smallest difference being in the 15-19 age group (1.7) and the largest in the 25-29 age group (2.8). Methods of committing suicide vary between the sexes and the various age groups. Boys and young men use violent methods more often, and this situation has remained stable throughout the 13-year period. Girls use non-violent methods to a greater extent, but young women aged 18-29 use violent and non-violent methods to almost the same extent. During the 13-year period studied, a change took place in the girls' and young women's choice of methods towards more violent methods in the 1980s compared with the 1970s. Regardless of sex, there are significantly (p less than 0.001) fewer married and more divorced people among those committing suicide compared with corresponding age groups in the overall population. PMID:1496332

  10. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  11. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Kollberg, Linnea; Kerekes, Nora; Palm, Camilla; Carlström, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Halldner, Linda; Bölte, Sven; Gillberg, Christopher; Gumpert, Clara; Råstam, Maria; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems. PMID:22506305

  12. Trends in diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Fadl, Helena E; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes in pregnancy has been shown to increase in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity. In this national population-based study, we analyzed the trends for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes in pregnancy, and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden between 1998 and 2012. Research design and methods A population-based cohort study using the Swedish national medical birth registry data. The time periods were categorized into 3-year intervals and adjusted for maternal body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age in a logistic regression. Results Each type of diabetes increased over the studied 15-year period. Type 1 diabetes increased by 33.2% (22.2–45.3) and type 2 diabetes by 111% (62.2–174.4) in the adjusted model. Nordic women had the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes (0·47%) compared with other ethnic groups. The increase in GDM and, to a lesser extent, type 2 diabetes was explained by country of birth, BMI, and maternal age. The prevalence of GDM in Nordic women (0.7–0.8%) did not increase significantly over the time period. Conclusions All types of diabetes in pregnancy increased over the 15-year time period in Sweden. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI remains the key factor explaining the increase in GDM/type 2 diabetes. How to turn around the growing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy, with its short-term and long-term health effects on both mother and child, requires population-based interventions that reduce the likelihood of entering pregnancy with a raised BMI. PMID:27547412

  13. Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ljung, Rickard; Peterson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Johan; Heimerson, Inger; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences, measured by socioeconomic position, to assess the burden of disease using DALYs. We found that in Sweden one-third of the burden of the diseases we studied is unequally distributed. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of disease that take both mortality and morbidity into account can help policy-makers understand the magnitude of inequalities in health for different disease groups. PMID:15744401

  14. Discontinued dental attendance among elderly people in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Grönbeck-Linden, Ingela; Hägglin, Catharina; Petersson, Anita; Linander, Per O.; Gahnberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to study the loss of dental attendance and a possible age trend among patients aged ≥65 years in Sweden. Regular dental check-ups are considered to be an important factor in maintaining oral health. Approximately 80% of the adult population in Sweden are enrolled in a regular check-up system; however, dental practitioners often find that older patients attend fewer check-ups. Old people may naturally lose contact with dental services as they move to special housing or die. In this systematic study, these factors were investigated and used as exclusion criteria. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for all patients (n = 4759) aged 65 or older from the electronic journal system in 3 large public dental clinics in 3 communities. Their dental records for the years 2004–2009 were studied longitudinally by 1 person at each clinic; 1111 patients were excluded (patients died during study period, wanted emergency care only, obtained special dental care allowance, moved from the community or moved to special housing, or left the clinic for another caregiver). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM). Results: Of the 3648 patients (1690 men and 1958 women) included in the study, 13% lost contact with their dental service over the course of the study (10% of those were aged 65–79 and 21% ≥80). The decrease in regular dental contact had a statistically significant association with increasing age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable number of older people living independently or with moderate supportive care in their own homes lost contact with dental service despite enrolment in a recall system. PMID:27382538

  15. Reduced cadmium levels in human kidney cortex in sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Friis, L; Petersson, L; Edling, C

    1998-01-01

    Environmental pollution with the nephrotoxic metal cadmium is considered a potential health risk for the general population. In 1976 it was reported that the cadmium concentration in human kidney cortex in Sweden had increased in parallel with increasing levels in soil and grain during the twentieth century. Since the cadmium concentration in farming lands is still increasing, the present study was undertaken to further elucidate whether the cadmium concentration in the kidney is still increasing. Kidney cortex biopsies were collected at 171 autopsies of victims to sudden and accidental death during 1995 and 1996, and the cadmium concentrations were determined and compared with previously published Swedish data obtained from forensic autopsies. The geometric mean cadmium concentration in kidney cortex in subjects 40 years of age and younger was about 40% of the concentration found in the 1970s, while the reduction was less pronounced among older people. The highest individual concentration of cadmium was 41.5 microg/g wet weight (ww). The geometric mean concentration was less than 14 microg/g ww at ages around 50 years of age, when the cadmium concentration in kidney cortex is highest, as compared with approximately 20 microg/g ww in the 1970s. There was also a reduction in cadmium concentrations among nonsmokers; thus, a decrease in tobacco smoking in Sweden during the last decades is not the only explanation for the reduction of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Other reasons for this reduction could be changes in dietary habits and reduced cadmium contamination from Swedish industries. Images Figure 1 PMID:9485480

  16. The obesity epidemic slows among the middle-aged population in Sweden while the socioeconomic gap widens

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Margareta; Lindvall, Kristina; Stenlund, Hans; Lindahl, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence has continuously increased in Northern Sweden as elsewhere. A cohort effect has been shown and an increasing proportion of the middle-aged population is maintaining body weight. Objective To test the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic continues but at different speeds that are dependent on socioeconomic status. Design Cross-sectional (103,940 adults) and longitudinal (26,872 adults) data from the Västerbotten Intervention Program 1990–2007 were included. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a health examination at the ages of 40, 50, and 60 years. Body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status, assessed by residence location, marital status, and education were evaluated. Results BMI increased in all groups but was greater among men. During 1990–1995 and 2002–2007, mean BMIs were 25.9 and 26.8 among men and 25.2 and 25.9 among women. The trend of increasing BMI slowed around the year 2000 (p<0.001), but this was only observed among the highly educated adults in the most urbanized area. The difference between educational groups increased throughout the study period (men p=0.014, women p=0.002). Longitudinal data for both sexes showed a twofold higher baseline prevalence of obesity among individuals with basic compared to high education and it nearly doubled in all groups during the 10-year follow-up. Low education, living in a rural environment, and living alone were independent predictors of obesity development. The overall cumulative 10-year incidence was 9.4% in men, 9.1% in women, and twofold higher among those with basic and mid-level education who live in rural areas compared to those with high education who live in cities. Conclusion The trend of increasing obesity has slowed in this middle-aged Northern Sweden population, but this trend shift occurred primarily among those with high education who live in an urban environment. Greater efforts to combat obesogenic environments are needed and should take

  17. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  18. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Net Fertility during the Fertility Decline: A Comparative Analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J. David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Most previous work on the historical fertility transition has been macro-oriented, using aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels, while much less has been done using micro data, and specifically looking at behavioural differentials among social groups. In this paper we study at the impact of socioeconomic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European Countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the USA). We use micro-level census data in 1900, containing information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain also after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711

  20. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  1. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... review (75 FR 57815, September 22, 2010). Due to a scheduling conflict with the hearing in another... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...

  2. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  3. Pharmaceutical management through environmental product labeling in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wennmalm, Ake; Gunnarsson, Bo

    2009-07-01

    There is an increased awareness that medicinal products for human use may cause negative effects in the environment. In Sweden a voluntary environmental classification system for drugs has been established in collaboration between producers, authorities and the public health care, and used for five years. The idea is to enhance the market demand for medicines with less environmental impact, which in turn will stimulate the producers to design future medicines to be more environmentally friendly. The system is open to the public and based on assessment of the active ingredient in the medicinal product into several classes of risk and hazard, respectively. It is closely related to the EMEA guidelines. Risk is expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of the active ingredient (AI) and its predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The hazard is expressed in terms of the AI's persistence, potential to bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity. Drug data for the classification are delivered by the respective producers. Hitherto more than 300 AI, representing more than 50% of the Swedish volume of drug use, have been classified. Data for risk assessment were missing in 47% of AI. Among drugs with data 7% had a PEC/PNEC ratio >1, and another 7% had a ratio between 0.1 and 1. The AIs with highest ratio (>10) were two estrogens. Data for hazard assessment were lacking in 16% of the AI. Among drugs with environmental data 92% were not ready biodegradable, 23% had potential to bioaccumulation, and 61% were toxic to aquatic organisms at a concentration below 1 mg/l. These data are utilized by regional pharmaceutical expert groups when selecting substances to be recommended in public health care in Sweden. They may also be used by prescribing doctors who want to identify the environmentally most favourable substance among several with equivalent medical effect. We conclude that environmental data on human medicinal products are often missing, or

  4. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  5. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. PMID:26840007

  6. Adsorption of trace elements on pyrite surfaces in sulfidic mine tailings from Kristineberg (Sweden) a few years after remediation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara; Axelsson, Mikael D; Ohlander, Björn

    2002-10-21

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) has been used to determine the elemental composition of the surface and interior layers of pyrite grains from the mine tailings from Kristineberg (northern Sweden) in order to determine concentration gradients between these two layers. The pyrite grains were collected from oxidized and unoxidized zones within the tailings. The aim of this study was to assess the role of pyrite surfaces as sites for the attenuation of solutes from the mine-tailings porewater. The normalized intensities of Cu, Zn, Ag, Sb, Ce, Pb and Bi are highest at the surface of each grain (within the surface layer drilled by the LA) and decrease towards the interior. The surface adsorption of Cu, Zn and Pb is more pronounced within the unoxidized than within the oxidized zone of the tailings. Copper exhibits a distinct concentration peak at the surface of the pyrite grains below the pre-remediation oxidation front. Silver, Sb, Bi, As and Au are preferably adsorbed within the uppermost layer of the oxidized zone in the tailings, where the pH is as high as 6.2. The conversion of intensity signals of the elements to concentration values in ppm was accomplished using an external calibration against an in-house pyrite standard. PMID:12449325

  7. Letter to the Editor: A strange cloud in the Arctic summer stratosphere 1998 above Esrange (68 deg N), Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, J.; Timmis, C.; Vaughan, G.; Fricke, K. H.

    2000-04-01

    When the University of Bonn lidar on the Esrange (68 deg N, 21 deg E), Sweden, was switched on in the evening of July 18, 1998, a geometrically and optically thin cloud layer was present near 14 km altitude or 400 K potential temperature, where it persisted for two hours. The tropopause altitude was 4 km below the cloud altitude. The cloud particles depolarized the lidar returns, thus must they have been aspherical and hence solid. Atmospheric temperatures near 230 K were approximately 40 K too high to support ice particles at stratospheric water vapour pressures of a few ppmv. The isentropic back trajectory on 400 K showed the air parcels to have stayed clear of active major rocket launch sites. The air parcels at 400 K had traveled from the Aleutians across Canada and the Atlantic Ocean arriving above central Europe and then turned northward to pass over above the lidar station. Parcels at levels at +/-25 K from 400 K had come from the pole and joined the 400 K trajectory path above eastern Canada. Apparently the cloud existed in a filament of air with an origin different from those filaments both above and below. Possibly the 400 K level air parcels had carried soot particles from forest wild fires in northern Canada or volcanic ash from the eruption of the Korovin Volcano in the Aleutian Islands.

  8. Approaches and algorithms for groundwater flow modeling in support of site investigations and safety assessment of the Forsmark site, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Lee; Joyce, Steven

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has in 2011 finalized a safety assessment project, SR-Site, with the objective to assess the long term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Northern Uppland of Sweden. Prior to the safety assessment, comprehensive site investigations were conducted at the Forsmark site to build understanding and characterize the site. An essential part of the site investigations were to describe hydrological properties and characteristics of the site and use this to assess the groundwater pathway. The geological structural context of the crystalline bedrock at Forsmark implied a fracture network concept was the natural description for interpreting site data and assessing the groundwater pathway. Of primary importance to the description of the fracture system was the assignment of down-borehole flow-logging measurements to individual fractures identified by imaging techniques, providing the basis to relate hydrogeological characteristics such as anisotropy and heterogeneity to the geological structural framework. Also, the key input quantities to the assessment of long-term safety can be closely related to the derived fracture flow-rate distributions. Key success factors for this project were to develop and test strategies for modeling methodologies, as described in this paper, from an early stage, hand-in-hand with the planning and phased acquisition of site data as well as successive safety assessments.

  9. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  10. [The history of polio in Sweden - from infantile paralysis to polio vaccine].

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Although other epidemics declined due to improved hygiene and sanitation, legislation, and vaccination, polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became and annual feature in the Swedish epidemiological pattern. Due to the vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This article deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and gives a brief description of: the demographical influence of polio, how did the medical authorities investigate and try to combat it, and the different comprehensions of how polio affected its victims.A study of polio incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused major epidemics in 1911-1913 and 1953. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age, and at the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 20-39. Due to its enigmatic appearance, polio was not considered as an epidemic infectious disease during the 19th century. Sweden's early epidemics enabled Swedish medical science to act and together with American research institutes it acquired a leading role in international medical research on the disease. In the 1955 Jonas Salk produced the first successful vaccine against polio but also Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine. PMID:16025605

  11. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives. PMID:18649447

  12. Diabetes and glucose disturbances in patients with psychosis in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Eric; Westman, Jeanette; Sudic Hukic, Dzana; Eriksson, Sven V; Edman, Gunnar; Bodén, Robert; Jedenius, Erik; Reutfors, Johan; Berntsson, Anders; Hilding, Agneta; Schalling, Martin; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, and antidiabetic medication in patients with psychosis compared with control subjects and (2) determine what factors in patients with psychosis were associated with antidiabetic medication. Method We studied 977 patients with psychosis recruited from outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden, and they were compared with 3908 non-psychotic control subjects for fasting plasma glucose levels; prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, antidiabetic treatment, and tobacco use; and blood pressure, weight, height, and waist circumference. Group differences were evaluated with analysis of variance and χ2 test, and factors associated with antidiabetic treatment were evaluated with logistic regression. Results Diabetes was observed in 94 (10%) patients with psychosis, 2.7 times the prevalence observed in control subjects. Among patients with psychosis, 87 (10%) had prediabetes (fasting glucose, 6.1–6.9 mmol/L) compared with 149 (3.8%) control subjects. Most patients with psychosis (77%) who had prediabetes fulfilled criteria for metabolic syndrome. In patients with psychosis, both lipid-lowering medication and fasting glucose were significantly associated with antidiabetic treatment. There was no significant relation between antidiabetic treatment and lifestyle factors such as smoking or degree of psychiatric illness. Conclusions The high prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis warrants further clinical research in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes in these patients by pharmacotherapy and/or lifestyle intervention. PMID:26468398

  13. Public Awareness of Sepsis Is Low in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Mellhammar, Lisa; Christensson, Bertil; Linder, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sepsis is a serious and common condition with high mortality and morbidity. The public awareness, knowledge, and perception of sepsis in Sweden are unknown. Methods. A survey was performed using an online interview distributed to adults, aged 18–74, between March 6 and 9, 2015. Results. A total of 1001 people responded to the survey. Twenty-one percent of participants had heard of sepsis, whereas more than 86% had heard of each of the other conditions listed; for example, stroke (95%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (95%), and leukemia (92%). Of those who had heard of sepsis, 93% responded that it is an infection or blood poisoning in an open question. The respondents who had heard of each disease estimated its mortality. For sepsis, the mortality was estimated at an average of 30%, which was at the same level as estimated mortalities for prostate and breast cancer but lower than for stroke, COPD, and leukemia. Conclusions. The awareness and knowledge of sepsis is low. The mortality for sepsis is not as overestimated as for many other diseases. The lack of awareness of sepsis might be a target to improve the outcome for sepsis patients by reducing the prehospital delay and hence enable early interventions. An increased general awareness might also raise interest for funding for research in this area and for its priority in healthcare support. PMID:26634220

  14. Improving discharge estimates from routine river flow monitoring in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capell, Rene; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) maintains a permanent river gauging network for national hydrological monitoring which includes 263 gauging stations in Sweden. At all these stations, water levels are measured continuously, and discharges are computed through rating curves. The network represents a wide range of environmental settings, different gauging measurement types and gauging frequencies. Gauging frequencies are typically low compared with river gauges in more research-oriented settings, and thus uncertainties in discharges, particularly extremes, can be large. On the other hand, the gauging stations have often been in use for very long, with the oldest measurements dating back to 1900, and at least partly exhibit very stable conditions. Here, we show the variation in gauging stability in the SMHI's gauging network in order to try to identify more error-prone conditions. We investigate how the current, largely subjective, way of updating rating curves influences discharge estimates, and discuss ways forward towards a more objective evaluation of both discharge uncertainty and rating curve updating procedures.

  15. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Finnveden, Göran; Björklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials. PMID:17412580

  16. Ivan Bratt: the man who saved Sweden from prohibition.

    PubMed

    Nycander, S

    1998-01-01

    For forty years, until 1955, spirits were rationed in Sweden under a system of individual control. Local "System companies" had a monopoly on the retail trade in spirits and wine. Private profits on alcohol were also eliminated in the restaurants and the wholesale trade. Legislation was based on the proposals put forward by the physician Ivan Bratt (1878-1956), who presented his ideas in 1909 as an alternative to prohibition. Bratt had the support of leading personalities in Swedish medicine, newspapers and politics, and he also enlisted the support of some of the leaders of the powerful temperance movement. In 1922, Swedes voted against prohibition in a referendum by 51% to 49%. The Bratt system substantially reduced alcohol abuse. When it was abolished, drunkenness in the streets doubled. By 1960, when high taxes had replaced rationing as the policy for controlling the consumption of alcohol, delirium tremens had increased since the Bratt period from 160 cases a year to 700 cases a year. PMID:9624708

  17. Everyday places, heterosexist spaces and risk in contemporary Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Katarina Giritli; Öhman, Susanna; Olofsson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Subjective feelings of risk are a central feature of everyday life, and evidence shows that people who do not conform to contemporary normative notions are often more exposed to everyday risks than others. Despite this, normative notions are rarely acknowledged as risk objects. By drawing on the theory of 'doing' and 'undoing' risk, which combines intersectional and risk theory, this study contributes new perspectives on the everyday risks in contemporary society that face people who many would label as being 'at risk' - lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. The study consists of five focus group interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people of different ages in Sweden. Findings pinpoint risks and how these are done and un-done in different spheres of interviewees' lives: the emotional risks prevailing in their private lives; the risk of discrimination at work and in relations with other institutions; and the risk of violence and harassment in public places. These risks are all related to the heteronormative order in which the mere fact of being lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender is perceived as a risk. PMID:26242996

  18. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539

  19. QWIP at Acreo in Sweden: not only a nightvision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Bernhard; Andersson, Jan Y.; Alverbro, Jorgen; Halldin, Urban; Malm, Hedda; Martijn, Henk H.; Nordahl, Charlotte; Norden, Ulrika

    2003-01-01

    Acreo in Sweden has been invovled in Quantum Well IR Photodetector (QWIP) reserach and development since 1986. During the first years a small group led by Jan Andersson was dedicated to research on QWIP structures and means of coupling radiation into the quantum-well structure. One of the resarech results is a 2D optical grating couler to create an optimal elecgtric field pattern for highest possible absorption and responsivity. Acreo holds a patent for this grating coupler. Since 1988 FLIR Systems, later FMV, Saab Dynamics, Celsius Tech and NUTEK have sponsoered an R and D project with the goal to develop QWIP detectors and start up production. Soon it became clear that an adapted ROIC deisng and the hybridization of the focal plane array are key issues in order to achieve the highest possible performance and operability of the complete detector device for voluem production. Extended measures where taken in 1996. In 1997 the industrial interest increased further, ClesiusTech and Saab Dynamics, merged in 2000, and now a division of FLIR Systems AB started to sponsor the R and D project. Because of its success during the last years it has now been expanded and scheduled until 2003 and beyond. Volume production of QWIP FPAs started in 2000.

  20. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Goeran Bjoerklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Soerbom, Adrienne

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  1. Increasing its allocations for development cooperation. Sweden. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Edstrom, L O

    1999-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, and ICPD+5 are but markers along a more long-term path and process of cooperation and dialogue between the world's governments and civil society organizations. Some groups are involved in implementing action, while others focus upon advocacy or act as watchdogs and pathfinders. Civil society organizations need space and financial resources to work upon their issues. In some areas, the ICPD program of action has not achieved what was expected. In particular, almost all countries have considerable work to do on gender equality, the needs of young people, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and maternal mortality. These issues are discussed. More resources must be allocated to the social services in order to achieve the goals of the Cairo program of action. To that end, the government of Sweden is planning to increase its allocations for development cooperation over the next few years, moving upward from the 0.7 level adopted by the UN. PMID:12322191

  2. Equality of the sexes in Sweden under a new government.

    PubMed

    Mccrea, J M

    1979-07-01

    Although the Social Democratic Party lost its long control of Parliament, Sweden is a country with a strong egalitarian philosophy which transcends party politics, and it is felt that the loss of the election had virtually no affect on policy toward women or other aspects of social policy. A review of the Swedish political situation, including political parties; election issues; aftermath of the election; and labor force participation precedes consideration of developments in the economic status of women, 1976-1978. Factors considered include Labour Market Board equality measures; parenthood insurance; work hours; the Committee on Equality Between Men and Women; proposed legislation on equality; private agreements between employers and trade unions on family policy; and womens' participation. It is concluded that the new government has merely continued the equality programs of the previous government, with the only meaningful contribution of the new Equality Committee to draft legislation prohibiting discrimination. The law on equality is a vital issue for the Liberal Party and they will have to persuade the Social Democrats that its enactment will provide the basis of an egalitarian society. PMID:12309568

  3. Geohydrological data from the macropermeability experiment at Stripa, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.R.; Long, J.C.S.; Galbraith, R.M.; Karasaki, K.; Endo, H.K.; DuBois, A.O.; McPherson, M.J.; Ramqvist, G.

    1981-03-01

    The Macropermeability Experiment was conducted in a granite body adjacent to a recently abandoned iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. This experiment was conducted to measure the permeability of a large volume of low permeability, fractured rock. The experiment was conducted over 11 months in an approximately 4m x 4m x 33m drift at the 335 m level of the mine. Groundwater seepage into the drift was measured as the net moisture pickup of the ventilation system. Water pressure and temperature were monitored at 95 locations in the rock surrounding the drift. The data collection system was designed to provide in-situ averaging of the measured parameters, to ultimately estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the rock as if it were a porous medium. This report is limited to data presentation. It describes the types of data collected, the methods of measurement, and procedures used for data collection, storage, and reduction. Experimental errors are reviewed for all principal types of data. The data presented are sufficient to estimate (1) the rate of seepage of moisture into the drift; (2) the three-dimensional distribution of hydraulic head in the rock mass to a radial distance of 30 m from the drift; and (3) the three-dimensional distribution of temperature in the rock mass, also to a radial distance of 30 m. These data can in turn be used to estimate the intrinsic permeability of the monitored rock mass. Analysis and interpretation of these results will be presented in subsequent reports.

  4. Timing and duration of autumn leaf development in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    The growing season is changing in both ends and autumn phases seem to be responding in more diverse ways than spring events. Indeed, we know little about autumn leaf phenological strategies and how they are correlated with fitness components or ecosystem properties, and how they vary between species and over bioclimatic gradients. In this study more than 10 000 students were involved in observing autumn leaf development at 378 sites all over Sweden (55-68°N). They followed an image based observation protocol classifying autumn leaf development into five levels, from summer green (level 0) to 100% autumn leaf colored (level 4) canopy. In total, they submitted almost 12 000 observations between August 9 and November 15. 75% of the observations were made on the common species of Populus tremula, Betula pendula/pubescens and Sorbus aucuparia. The expected (negative) correlation between latitude and start of leaf senescence (level 2) was found in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. The duration of the leaf senescence period, defined as the period between 1/3 (level 2) and 100% (level 4) of the canopy autumn leaf colored, was negatively correlated with latitude in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. There was also a strong (negative) correlation of the start (level 2) and the duration of the leaf senescence in the early senescing Sorbus and Betula, while this effect was weaker in the late senescing Populus.

  5. A genetic reinterpretation of the Falun and Åmmeberg ore types, Bergslagen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, K.

    1994-06-01

    The stratiform sulphide and oxide ores of Bergslagen, south-central Sweden, constitute the largest concentration of base metal and iron ores in northern Europe. They are hosted by Early Proterozoic metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary successions, which (together with later granitoids) belong to the Svecofennian Domain. An earlier genetic model suggested that two principal types of sulphide ores existed in Bergslagen (Falun and Åmmeberg), which had been formed through two contrasting granitoid-related processes, whereas the iron oxide ores were considered exhalative-volcanogenic. The prevailing view for the Bergslagen ores is that all stratiform sulphide (and oxide) ores were formed by exhalative-volcanogenic processes from one homogenous metal source. In this paper are presented new high-precision determinations of the ore lead isotopic composition of twentytwo stratiform sulphide and oxide ores in Bergslagen (among them Falun, Zinkgruvan-Åmmeberg and Dannemora), in order to provide an improved base for their genesis. The results show that significant variations in metal sources existed in Bergslagen for the volcanogenic ores. Most ores (including the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb deposit) were formed from a major isotopic reservoir that occurs in the interior parts of Bergslagen. This source is defined as the Falun reservoir and is dominated by calcalkaline felsic volcanic rocks. A variable input from a more evolved source component (recycled pre-Svecofennian crustal components) is locally important in sedimentdominated areas, particularly the Stockholm archipelago. A third source, representing relatively primitive metabasalts, influenced the lead isotopic pattern of ores in westernmost Bergslagen. The composition of the Zinkgruvan (Åmmeberg) ore lead is distinctly different from that of the Falun reservoir, but forms, together with other sulphide deposits along the southern margin of Bergslagen, a pronounced linear trend in standard isotope diagrams. The linear trend is

  6. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  8. Teleradiology in northern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Pagé, G; Grégoire, A; Galand, C; Sylvestre, J; Chahlaoui, J; Fauteux, P; Dussault, R; Séguin, R; Roberge, F A

    1981-08-01

    A two-way television network using the Canadian satellite ANIK-B was utilized to transmit radiographic images from Northern Quebec to Montreal. The accuracy of the radiologist's interpretation and his satisfaction with the TV system were studied using a series of 67 preselected cases and 425 current clinical cases. The four participating radiologists gave correct TV interpretations in 81% of the 39 selected cases presented at the beginning of the experiment. This value reached 94% for the other 28 selected cases presented after three months of regular use of the TV system. With current clinical cases, the agreement between TV and direct interpretations was 93%. Although magnification was available, correct identification of very small lesions proved to be the major source of error. On the whole, the radiologists were satisfied with the TV system. PMID:7255709

  9. Immigrants and the Mass Media in Sweden. Interviews with Yugoslav, Greek and Turkish Families in the South of Sweden. No. 9-76/77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowander, Birgitta

    This study builds on the findings of a prior study of the information needs of immigrant families in Sweden to explore the manner in which immigrants come in contact with and use the various channels of information available to them in their new surroundings, especially those channels carrying messages in the major migrant languages. Intended to…

  10. How Do Teacher Students for Compulsory School Learn Compared to Music Teacher Students in Sweden? A Comparative Study of Two Different Student Teacher Groups in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. The teacher education systems are currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. Hence, it is importance for educational institutions to be aware of the different ways that their student teachers learn and it is importance…

  11. GIS supported calculations of (137)Cs deposition in Sweden based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Almgren, Sara; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Erlandsson, Bengt; Isaksson, Mats

    2006-09-15

    It is of interest to know the spatial variation and the amount of (137)Cs e.g. in case of an accident with a radioactive discharge. In this study, the spatial distribution of the quarterly (137)Cs deposition over Sweden due to nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) during the period 1962-1966 was determined by relating the measured deposition density at a reference site to the amount of precipitation. Measured quarterly values of (137)Cs deposition density per unit precipitation at three reference sites and quarterly precipitation at 62 weather stations distributed over Sweden were used in the calculations. The reference sites were assumed to represent areas with different quarterly mean precipitation. The extent of these areas was determined from the distribution of the mean measured precipitation between 1961 and 1990 and varied according to seasonal variations in the mean precipitation pattern. Deposition maps were created by interpolation within a geographical information system (GIS). Both integrated (total) and cumulative (decay corrected) deposition densities were calculated. The lowest levels of NWF (137)Cs deposition density were noted in north-eastern and eastern parts of Sweden and the highest levels in the western parts of Sweden. Furthermore the deposition density of (137)Cs, resulting from the Chernobyl accident was determined for an area in western Sweden based on precipitation data. The highest levels of Chernobyl (137)Cs in western Sweden were found in the western parts of the area along the coast and the lowest in the east. The sum of the deposition densities from NWF and Chernobyl in western Sweden was then compared to the total activity measured in soil samples at 27 locations. Comparisons between the predicted values of this study show a good agreement with measured values and other studies. PMID:16647743

  12. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  13. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  14. Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in calf diarrhoea in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Björkman, C; Svensson, C; Christensson, B; de Verdier, K

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study conducted in 75 herds was to investigate the presence and significance of Criptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in Swedish dairy calves in comparison with rotavirus, coronavirus and Escherichia coli K99+. The farmers were asked to collect faecal samples from each heifer calf that had diarrhoea between birth and 90 days of age, and also from a healthy calf of the same age. In total, 270 samples were collected and analysed. C. parvum, either alone or together with G. intestinalis and/or rotavirus, was detected in 16 (11%) and 6 (5%) of the samples from diarrhoeic and healthy calves, respectively. Even though a higher proportion of diarrhoeic calves shed C. parvum, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.067), possibly due to the low number of positive samples. G. intestinalis was found in 42 (29%) of the diarrhoea samples and in 29 (23%) of the samples from healthy calves. Rotavirus and coronavirus were demonstrated in 24% and 3% of the diarrhoea samples, respectively, whereas E. coli K99+ was only found in samples from 2 healthy calves. C. parvum and G. intestinalis were found in samples from calves 7 to 84 days of age and during all seasons. The results confirm that C. parvum is present in Swedish dairy herds and might have clinical significance. G. intestinalis was the most common agent found but the importance of this parasite remains unclear. Both parasites have suggested zoonotic potential and thus warrant further attention. In addition, rotavirus is a major pathogen in neonatal enteritis in Sweden, whereas coronavirus and E. coli K99+ seem to be of less importance. PMID:15074627

  15. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Gösta; Eriksson, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A) noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19) per 5 dB(A) noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning. PMID:21537104

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Potentially Involved in the TB Epidemic in Sweden a Century Ago

    PubMed Central

    Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Jonsson, Jerker; Hoffner, Sven; Couvin, David; Koivula, Tuija; Rastogi, Nalin; Källenius, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    A hundred years ago the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in Sweden was one of the highest in the world. In this study we conducted a population-based search for distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from patients born in Sweden before 1945. Many of these isolates represent the M. tuberculosis complex population that fueled the TB epidemic in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century. Methods Genetic relationships between strains that caused the epidemic and present day strains were studied by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The majority of the isolates from the elderly population were evolutionary recent Principal Genetic Group (PGG)2/3 strains (363/409 or 88.8%), and only a low proportion were ancient PGG1 strains (24/409 or 5.9%). Twenty-two were undefined. The isolates demonstrated a population where the Euro-American superlineage dominated; in particular with Haarlem (41.1%) and T (37.7%) spoligotypes and only 21.2% belonged to other spoligotype families. Isolates from the elderly population clustered much less frequently than did isolates from a young control group population. Conclusions A closely knit pool of PGG2/3 strains restricted to Sweden and its immediate neighbours appears to have played a role in the epidemic, while PGG1 strains are usually linked to migrants in todaýs Sweden. Further studies of these outbreak strains may give indications of why the epidemic waned. PMID:23056484

  17. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed. PMID:27000134

  18. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  19. Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semadeni-Davies, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from cold regions in North America has shown that the performance of stormwater ponds differs between winter and summer. The pond hydraulics change seasonally, and winters have lowered removal efficiency due to a combination of an ice cover, cold water and de-icing salts. This study examines the function of the Bäckaslov stormwater pond under the more mild conditions of southern Sweden, where there are several snow and melt cycles per year.Event sampling in the summer of 1997 showed good removal efficiencies for nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS) and a selection of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), but winter grab-tests taken in 1995-96 and 1997-98 suggest that the pond acts as a pollutant source under cold conditions. To better assess winter and spring pond performance, water at the inflow and outflow was sampled from January to April 2003. The low intensity of runoff delivery and slow inflow velocities meant that time- rather than flow-weighted sampling was used. Five consecutive events were sampled and analysed for TSS, chloride and the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. YSI probes were in place at both the inlet (pH, temperature) and outlet (pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) to determine the timing of pollution flows. In addition, profiles of the same quality indicators allowed snapshots of pond processes.De-icing salt has a major effect on pond hydraulics. Strong stratification occurred after each snowmelt-generated flow event and up to 80% of chloride could be retained by the pond. However, continuous conductivity measurements show that chloride is flushed between events. Ice changes retention times and causes oxygen depletion, but bed scour was not observed. Pond performance decreased during the winter and spring, albeit not as badly as the grab tests suggest. A seasonal comparison of the removal efficiencies showed that removal of Cd (75%) and Cu (49%) was about the same for summer and winter-spring, but removal of Pb, Zn and TSS

  20. Adiposity indicators and dementia over 32 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D R.; Bäckman, K; Waern, M; Östling, S; Guo, X; Zandi, P; Mielke, M M.; Bengtsson, C; Skoog, I

    2009-01-01

    Background: High midlife and late-life adiposity may increase risk for dementia. Late-life decrease in body mass index (BMI) or body weight within several years of a dementia diagnosis has also been reported. Differences in study designs and analyses may provide different pictures of this relationship. Methods: Thirty-two years of longitudinal body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) data, from the Prospective Population Study of Women in Sweden, were related to dementia. A representative sample of 1,462 nondemented women was followed from 1968 at ages 38-60 years, and subsequently in 1974, 1980, 1992, and 2000, using neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, clinical, and other measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated incident dementia risk by baseline factors. Logistic regression models including measures at each examination were related to dementia among surviving participants 32 years later. Results: While Cox models showed no association between baseline anthropometric factors and dementia risk, logistic models showed that a midlife WHR greater than 0.80 increased risk for dementia approximately twofold (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.00-4.94, p = 0.049) among surviving participants. Evidence for reverse causality was observed for body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in years preceding dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: Among survivors to age 70, high midlife waist-to-hip ratio may increase odds of dementia. Traditional Cox models do not evidence this relationship. Changing anthropometric parameters in years preceding dementia onset indicate the dynamic nature of this seemingly simple relationship. There are midlife and late-life implications for dementia prevention, and analytical considerations related to identifying risk factors for dementia. GLOSSARY ADCVD = AD with cerebrovascular disease; BMI = body mass index; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; DSM-III-R = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

  1. Microseismic activity after blasting at Zinkgruvan Mine (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erguncu Güçlü, İrem; Dineva, Savka; Hansen-Haug, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Local seismic system consisting of 18 sensors 4.5 Hz was installed in Zinkgruvan Mine (Sweden) in 2015 at depth ˜1140 m. The system is concentrated in a small area of 40 x 50 m and is able to record very small seismic events (magnitude -4 or lower) induced by the mining activity. This study is related to two larger seismic events with moment magnitudes 0.6 and 1.2 that occurred in two consecutive days and their aftershock series on July 1 and 2, 2015. The first seismic events occurred seconds after a blast and the second one during blasting. The latter one caused a rockburst and extensive damage in the mine. More than 3000 seismic events were recorded at distances up to 100 m from the local seismic system during these two days. Manual data processing was done only for the events recorded by more than 15 sensors following the larger events and 3 hours before them. In total approximately 240 events have been analyzed. Seismic event locations and other source parameters were obtained by IMS Trace software. The aftershock areas of the two seismic events formed two separate aftershock areas, The first series (Mw -3 to -1) lasted about one hour but the second one (Mw -3 to 0) was more complicated with two larger aftershocks (Mw 0.3 and 0.7) with their own aftershock series within 90 minutes. Based on the Es/Ep energy ratio the main events were classified as shear seismic events (Es/Ep ˜10). The other events were approximately equally divided between shear and not-shear (tensile) events. No apparent correlation was found between the type of the events and the magnitude. The apparent stress of both series varied within four orders (from 6.7*103 to 2.4*107 Pa) with a weak trend of increase with the magnitude. The configuration and source parameters of the aftershock series were related to the observed damage due to the rockburst on July 2, 2015. The results were used to obtain a possible mechanism of the main events.

  2. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  3. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden. PMID:24909018

  4. Characterization of human invasive isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden 1986-2007.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vishal Singh; Lopez-Valladares, Gloria; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise; Peiris, Inoka; Helmersson, Seved; Unemo, Magnus; Andersson, Birgitta; Arneborn, Malin; Bannerman, Elizabeth; Barbuddhe, Sukdevo; Bille, Jacques; Hajdu, Lajos; Jacquet, Christine; Johansson, Christina; Löfdahl, Margareta; Möllerberg, Gunnel; Ringberg, Håkan; Rocourt, Jocelyne; Tjernberg, Ingela; Ursing, Jan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Tham, Wilhelm

    2008-12-01

    Since 1986, 68% of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases of invasive listeriosis in Sweden are available for retrospective studies. The aim of the present study was to characterize 601 human invasive isolates of L. monocytogenes in Sweden from 1986 to 2007 by using serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Since 1996, serovar 4b was permanently reduced to the second or third most common serovar in human cases in Sweden. During the latter period, 2000-2007, only 13% belonged to serovar 4b and 71% to 1/2a. The dendrogram, based on pulsovars, reveals two clusters with different serovars. Cluster 1 exhibits serovars 4b and 1/2b, whereas cluster 2 consists of serovar 1/2a. Serovar 1/2a seems to be more heterogeneous than serovar 4b. PMID:18847381

  5. Outbreak of Salmonella Livingstone infection in Norway and Sweden due to contaminated processed fish products.

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, P. J.; De Jong, B.; Heir, E.; Hasseltvedt, V.; Kapperud, G.; Styrmo, K.; Gondrosen, B.; Lassen, J.; Andersson, Y.; Aavitsland, P.

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, the number of reported sporadic human cases of Salmonella Livingstone infection is low, and outbreaks are rare. We report the largest S. Livingstone outbreak described in the literature having an identified source of infection. In February 2001, an increased incidence of infection caused by S. Livingstone was observed in Norway and Sweden. By July 2001, 44 cases were notified in Norway and 16 in Sweden. The median age was 63 years, and 40 were women. There were three deaths, and 22 patients were hospitalized. Based on standardized questionnaires and retrospective studies of S. Livingstone strains in Norway and Sweden, food items with egg powder were suspected, and S. Livingstone was subsequently recovered from a processed fish product at the retail level. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis documented that isolates from the fish product belonged to the same clone as the outbreak strain. PMID:15473152

  6. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy. PMID:23475653

  7. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  8. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  11. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  13. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001). We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9%) and Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  14. Highly Pathogenic Leptospira Found in Urban Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Largest Cities of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Strand, Tanja M; Löhmus, Mare; Persson Vinnersten, Thomas; Råsbäck, Therese; Sundström, Karin; Bergström, Tomas; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis of global concern; however, its contemporary occurrence in Sweden, a European country partly located north of the Arctic Circle, is poorly known. Four out of 30 brown rats, captured within urban districts in Sweden, were found to be positive for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. This serovar causes Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage. Our study is the first finding of this highly pathogenic serovar in Swedish rats since the 1930s. PMID:26579782

  15. Climate change impacts related to food consumption - a case study of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, A.

    1997-12-31

    Present patterns of food consumption in Sweden include a substantial amount of imported vegetables as well as meat. Such a diet may be questioned for sustainability because of its dependence on, for example, inputs of energy emissions of greenhouse gases during the production, transportation and storage of some selected food consumed in Sweden during 1993 are quantified here. Contributors to the selected impact category are energy related emissions, leakage of refrigerants, and emissions of nitrous oxides from farm land. Total emissions are calculated in grams of CO{sub 2} equivalents per capita and per kg product.

  16. [Reports on eye diseases and their care in Sweden in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rehn, Nils O

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the physicians, active in the 1800 century in Sweden, who have reported in the annual proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, dealing with diseases and care of the eye. These articles, earlier described in a paper by the author, show a wide panorama in this field, discussing cataract surgery as well as surgery of other parts of the eye, injuries and diseases and ways of treatment. Most physicians have gone through their basic medical education in Sweden, completed with often many years studying abroad at well-known universities or hospital clinics. Some of them, particulary Acrel and Odhelius, specialized in eye surgery. PMID:17153173

  17. Privatisation, Decentralisation And Governance In Education In The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany And Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daun, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as evaluation, assessment and reporting. It shows that such trends have been most radical in the Czech Republic and Sweden, while England has centralised curriculum policy and France has devolved some decision-making to bodies at lower levels, but as representatives of the central state.

  18. Different patient-reported outcomes in immigrants and patients born in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Krupic, Ferid; Garellick, Göran; Gordon, Max; Kärrholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Some patients have persistent symptoms after total hip arthroplsty (THA). We investigated whether the proportions of inferior clinical results after total hip arthroplasty—according to the 5 dimensions in the EQ-5D form, and pain and satisfaction according to a visual analog scale (VAS)—are the same in immigrants to Sweden as observed in those born in Sweden. Methods Records of total hip arthroplasties performed between 1992 and 2007 were retrieved from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) and cross-matched with data from the National Board of Health and Welfare and also Statistics, Sweden. 18,791 operations (1,451 in immigrants, 7.7%) were eligible for analysis. Logistic and linear regression models including age, sex, diagnosis, type of fixation, comorbidity, surgical approach, marital status, and education level were analyzed. Outcomes were the 5 dimensions in EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, VAS pain, and VAS satisfaction. Preoperative data and data from 1 year postoperatively were studied. Results Preoperatively (and after inclusion of covariates in the regression models), all immigrant groups had more negative interference concerning self-care. Immigrants from the Nordic countries outside Sweden and Europe tended to have more problems with their usual activities and patients from Europe and outside Europe more often reported problems with anxiety/depression. Patients born abroad showed an overall tendency to report more pain on the VAS than patients born in Sweden. After the operation, the immigrant groups reported more problems in all the EQ-5D dimensions. After adjustment for covariates including the preoperative baseline value, most of these differences remained except for pain/discomfort and—concerning immigrants from the Nordic countries—also anxiety/depression. After the operation, pain according to VAS had decreased substantially in all groups. The immigrant groups indicated more pain than those born in Sweden, both before and

  19. Near Nativeness and Stylistic Lexical Competence in Swedish of First and Second Generation Finnish Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Characterizes the perception of stylistic nuances of lexical items in both Swedish and Finnish among members of the Sweden Finnish minority in Sweden, with special emphasis on Swedish. Results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate on immigrants and integration, and suggest a more similar language use may indicate a higher degree of…

  20. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  1. 78 FR 62660 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan Institution of... retarded, by reason of imports from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan of...

  2. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  3. From Conflicting Interests to Collective Consent in Advanced Vocational Education: Policymaking and the Role of Stakeholders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2004-01-01

    This study considers the policymaking process of forming a new tertiary vocational education and training (VET) policy in Sweden during the 1990s, and the influence that external stakeholders played in that process. Since the late 1960s onwards, the VET system in Sweden has been mainly integrated with general and school-based education. Due to the…

  4. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  5. No association found between cardiovascular mortality, and job demands and decision latitude: experience from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Padyab, Mojgan; Blomstedt, Yulia; Norberg, Margareta

    2014-09-01

    The current prospective study with the longest follow-up period in Northern Sweden aims to investigate the association between job demands and decision latitude and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Further, we aim to assess the effect of conventional risk factors (i.e., body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, education and smoking) on the association between job demands and decision latitude and CVD mortality. The data originated from the Linnaeus database, available at the Center for Population Studies, Umeå University, Sweden. A cohort of men and women aged 40, 50 and 60 years were recruited from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Deaths due to stroke and myocardial infarction at the end of the follow up are considered the outcome. Baseline job characteristics were defined by the Swedish version of the Karasek demand/control model. Statistical methods include proportional Cox hazard modeling and Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI) to assess interactions. The findings from this study did not support the association between job demands and decision latitude and CVD mortality. Instead, conventional risk factors were found stronger predictors, most evidently education differentials were associated with CVD mortality. We know from previous research that the greater the attenuation of the gradient after adjustment for a given risk factor, the greater the potential to reduce educational inequality via interventions that target this factor. Based on the present findings of the experience in Västerbotten, further research is needed to identify other risk factors besides job strain and its components that would reduce the socioeconomic gradient in CVD mortality. PMID:25047710

  6. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  7. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  8. Spatial clustering of mental disorders and associated characteristics of the neighbourhood context in Malmö, Sweden, in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Basile; Leyland, Alastair H; Sabel, Clive E; Chauvin, Pierre; Råstam, Lennart; Kristersson, Håkan; Merlo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Study objective Previous research provides preliminary evidence of spatial variations of mental disorders and associations between neighbourhood social context and mental health. This study expands past literature by (1) using spatial techniques, rather than multilevel models, to compare the spatial distributions of two groups of mental disorders (that is, disorders due to psychoactive substance use, and neurotic, stress related, and somatoform disorders); and (2) investigating the independent impact of contextual deprivation and neighbourhood social disorganisation on mental health, while assessing both the magnitude and the spatial scale of these effects. Design Using different spatial techniques, the study investigated mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use, and neurotic disorders. Participants All 89 285 persons aged 40–69 years residing in Malmö, Sweden, in 2001, geolocated to their place of residence. Main results The spatial scan statistic identified a large cluster of increased prevalence in a similar location for the two mental disorders in the northern part of Malmö. However, hierarchical geostatistical models showed that the two groups of disorders exhibited a different spatial distribution, in terms of both magnitude and spatial scale. Mental disorders due to substance consumption showed larger neighbourhood variations, and varied in space on a larger scale, than neurotic disorders. After adjustment for individual factors, the risk of substance related disorders increased with neighbourhood deprivation and neighbourhood social disorganisation. The risk of neurotic disorders only increased with contextual deprivation. Measuring contextual factors across continuous space, it was found that these associations operated on a local scale. Conclusions Taking space into account in the analyses permitted deeper insight into the contextual determinants of mental disorders. PMID:16614334

  9. Dye tracing to determine flow properties of hydrocarbon-polluted Rabots glaciär, Kebnekaise, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clason, C. C.; Coch, C.; Jarsjö, J.; Brugger, K.; Jansson, P.; Rosqvist, G.

    2015-06-01

    Over 11 000 L of kerosene was deposited on the surface of Rabots glaciär on the Kebnekaise Massif, northern Sweden, following the crash of a Royal Norwegian Air Force aircraft in March 2012. An environmental monitoring programme was subsequently commissioned, including a series of dye tracing experiments during the 2013 melt season, conducted to investigate the transport of pollutants through the glacier hydrological system. This experimental set-up provided a basis from which we could gain new insight into the internal hydrological system of Rabots glaciär. Results of dye tracing experiments reveal a degree of homogeneity in the topology of the drainage system throughout July and August, with an increase in efficiency as the season progresses, as reflected by decreasing temporary storage and dispersivity. Early onset of melting likely led to formation of an efficient, discrete drainage system early in the melt season, subject to decreasing sinuosity and braiding as the season progressed. Four distinct meltwater flow regimes are identified to summarize the temporal and spatial evolution of the system. Analysis of turbidity-discharge hysteresis further supports the formation of discrete, efficient drainage, with clockwise diurnal hysteresis suggesting easy mobilization of readily available sediments in channels. Dye injection immediately downstream of the pollution source zone reveals prolonged storage of dye followed by fast, efficient release. Twinned with a low dye recovery, and supported by sporadic detection of hydrocarbons in the proglacial river, we suggest that meltwater, and thus pollutants in solution, may be released periodically through an efficient, and likely pressurized, hydrological system within the upper reaches of the glacier.

  10. Orthodontic care in Sweden. Outcome in three counties.

    PubMed

    Bergström, K

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this series of studies was to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic care in Sweden from the professional's and the patient's perspective. In addition, a model was devised for the priority-planning of orthodontic care and for evaluating the different factors influencing the decision for orthodontic treatment. The results may be summarized as follows: Treatment Decision. Treatment desire, followed by treatment need and treatment benefit were the most important factors to consider when deciding whether or not treatment should be carried out. Regardless of the differences in resources and the structure of the free public care, a substantial proportion of the untreated 19-year-olds had malocclusions with treatment need, but they had no desire for treatment. Most of the 27-year-old individuals were satisfied with their earlier treatment decision, regardless of whether they had undergone orthodontic treatment. Dental professionals were considered to have had the greatest influence on this decision, which means that desire for treatment may be guided by the orthodontist. Individuals with malocclusions and treatment need--but who had refused proposed orthodontic treatment--were in general more discontented with their dental arrangement than other respondents, and a majority of them regretted their decision. Greater information to these individuals would have been desirable. Resources and Treatments Provided by General Practitioners or by Specialists. The sparsity of specialist resources resulted in either a greater restriction on the number necessary treatments being initiated or a greater proportion of the treatment being provided by general practitioners. In the 3 counties analysed, the treatment standard correlated well with the available resources: the greater the number of orthodontic specialists and ability to supervise the work of general practitioners and taking care of patients in need of specialist treatment, the higher the standard of treatment

  11. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  12. Uranium mineralization in response to regional metamorphism at Lilljuthatten, Sweden.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Troeng, B.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium deposits occur in the Olden granite of approx 1650 m.y. in age. This granite outcrops in the northern and eastern segments of the Precambrian Olden window of the central Swedish Caledonides. The Olden granite is a 'highly evolved' biotite granite, with SiO2 >70%. The granite was rich in U (and other incompatible trace elements) and much of the U was located in labile sites. During the Caledonian orogeny 420 m.y. ago, the granite was metamorphosed to greenschist facies, clastically deformed, hydrothermally altered in turn, and mineralized along fractures with quartz, fluorite, calcite and galena. Pitchblende and coffinite were locally deposited as fracture fillings, in particular association with biotitic alteration, whose relation to hydrothermal alteration is obscure; biotite is concentrated along fractures. The U deposits are partly and 'recently' oxidized. The Pb-U, Pb-Pb, and Sr-Rb isotopic systems of most samples were strongly to completely reset by the Caledonian orogeny. The source and host of the Lilljuthatten uranium ore was a special type of granite. The granite fractured, U was mobilized by metamorphism, and deposited in the fractures, and the deposit was preserved from weathering. Similar U deposits in high U granites, common in the Swedish Caledonides, should occur elsewhere.-G.J.N.

  13. Developmental plasticity increases at the northern range margin in a warm-dependent amphibian.

    PubMed

    Orizaola, Germán; Laurila, Anssi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate predictions regarding how climate change affects species and populations are crucial for the development of effective conservation measures. However, models forecasting the impact of climate change on natural environments do not often consider the geographic variation of an organism's life history. We examined variation in developmental plasticity to changing temperature in the pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae) across its distribution by studying populations from central areas (Poland), edge populations (Latvia) and northern marginal populations (Sweden). Relative to central and edge populations, northern populations experience lower and less variable temperature and fewer episodes of warm weather during larval development. Plasticity in larval life-history traits was highest at the northern range margin: larvae from marginal populations shortened larval period and increased growth rate more than larvae from central and edge populations when reared at high temperature. Maintaining high growth and development under the scarce spells of warm weather is likely adaptive for high-latitude populations. The detection of high levels of developmental plasticity in isolated, marginal populations suggests that they may be better able to respond to the temperature regimes expected under climate change than often predicted, reflecting the need to incorporate geographic variation in life-history traits into models forecasting responses to environmental change. PMID:26989438

  14. Relationships between vegetation dynamics and hydroclimatic drivers in the northern high-latitude uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.; Spence, C.

    2015-12-01

    IPCC projections show that climate warming will be particularly high in northern high-latitude regions, which has profound ecohydrological implications: a small rise of temperature may result in lower water availability in summer due to less rainfall and more evapotranspiration, increase flooding risks by accelerating melting rates in spring, and more rain rather than snow in winter, etc. These impacts will affect vegetation communities by altering timing of the spring "green-up" and fall "senescence". Change in vegetation water use will feedback to atmospheric and hydrological cycles. Here, we report results from the PLATO "Plant-water interlinkages in northern uplands - mediation of climate change?" project where we investigate water uptake by plants and consequent water availability in northern regions along a cross-regional climate gradient to understand future responses to change in high-latitude uplands. Six sites in Sweden (Krycklan), Canada (Wolf Creek; Baker Creek; Dorset), Scotland (Girnock) and the USA (Dry Creek) span moisture and energy gradients found at high-latitudes. We are presenting preliminary results of vegetation phenology changes from 2000 to 2014 by analysing remote sensing vegetation indices. The relationship between vegetation phenology and climatic drivers (temperature and precipitation) is also investigated.

  15. Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern Forest-Based sectors.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, E Carina H; Baird, Julia; Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline; Plummer, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist. PMID:24570210

  16. Educational Financing and Policy Goals for Primary Schools. Country Reports. Volume III: Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume, number three in a series of three, investigates the relationship between modes of finance for primary schools and educational policy objectives in the countries of the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Italy. The first purpose of the book was to tell the history of educational finance arrangements in order to frame the context within…

  17. Speculative Pedagogy: Education, Entrepreneurialism and the Politics of Inclusion in Contemporary Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors focus on the consequences of economies and cultures of speculation in the field of education. Education is one of the arenas where the logics of speculation are being played out. It is argued that the major shifts in educational policy over the past decades in Sweden derive from what Ian Baucom aptly called "speculative…

  18. HIV-Infected African Parents Living in Stockholm, Sweden: Disclosure and Planning for Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asander, Ann-Sofie; Bjorkman, Anders; Belfrage, Erik; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, most HIV-infected parents are of African origin. The present study explored the frequency of HIV-infected African parents' disclosure of their status to their children and custody planning for their children's future to identify support needs among these families. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 parents (41 families).…

  19. Discourse in Adult Education: The Language Education of Adult Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Hannah

    1990-01-01

    A shortcoming of adult education theories is lack of attention to social, historical, and institutional contexts. A case study of language education programs for adult immigrants in Sweden illustrates how assumptions about participant-centered, needs-based education justified and legitimated the use of these programs as a tool for employment…

  20. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  1. Toward an Equal Level of Educational Attainment between Deaf and Hearing People in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C.; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from…

  2. Catching Up with the Swedes: Probing the Canada-Sweden Literacy Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapsalis, Constantine

    A study was conducted to determine what factors account for the wide Canada-Sweden literacy gap, and what lessons can be learned from such a comparison that may help reduce the incidence of low literacy skills in Canada. The study found that the incidence of low literacy skills (failing to exceed level 2 in all three literacy domains--prose,…

  3. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  4. In drastic reversal, Sweden looks to halt nuclear phase-out

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In early February, Sweden's coalition government announced that it would introduce a bill in the parliament in March to halt the nuclear phase-out. The bill would also make it possible to build new nuclear plants. Similar sentiments are appearing elsewhere in Europe.

  5. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low. PMID:23667800

  6. "Special Support" in Preschools in Sweden: Preschool Staff's Definition of the Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Lillvist, Anne; Eriksson, Lilly; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the definitions of the construct "young children in need of special support" given by preschool staff in Sweden in 540 preschool units. The study has a mixed-methods design based on qualitative analysis of an open-ended question and quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses. The results reveal two general…

  7. Changing Perspectives in Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    1997-01-01

    This article describes early intervention services provided to families with infants and young children with disabilities in Sweden. The "habilitation model" is based on medical, educational, psychological, and social perspectives placed in a family context. Government legislation stresses intervention focused on the handicapping consequences of…

  8. Family Involvement in Assessment and Intervention: Perceptions of Professional and Parents in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    1995-01-01

    Professionals (n=139) in habilitation teams and parents (n=73) of children with disabilities in Sweden were surveyed concerning early intervention services. The survey revealed discrepancies between current and ideal practices in parent involvement in child assessment decisions, assessment activities, team meetings and decision making, and…

  9. Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Tord

    1979-01-01

    Studies were carried out in Japan, United States, and Sweden regarding comparability of analytical methods for cadmium, daily intake of cadmium via food, daily amount of cadmium in feces, concentrations of cadmium in different tissues and the body burden of cadmium, urinary excretion of cadmium and cadmium concentrations in blood. It was found that the cadmium intake via food among adults is about 35 μg/day in Japan (Tokyo) and about 17 μg/day in the U.S. (Dallas) and Sweden (Stockholm). It varies with age in a way similar to calorie intake. Body burden increases rapidly with age. The half-time of cadmium is longer in muscles than in liver or kidneys. In the cross-sectional population samples studied (smokers and nonsmokers mixed) the average cadmium body burden at age 45 was about 21 mg in Japan, 9 mg in the U.S., and 6 mg in Sweden. Among nonsmokers in the U.S. and Sweden the body burden at age 45 was about 5–6 mg. The difference in average body burden for smokers and nonsmokers is explained by differences in smoking habits. Cadmium excretion in urine was closely correlated with body burden and about 0.005–0.01% of body burden is excreted daily in urine. Cadmium concentration in the blood was a good indicator of average recent intake over a 3-month period. Neither blood cadmium nor urine cadmium changed immediately after an increase of exposure level. PMID:226355

  10. Is It Ever Too Late to Study? The Economic Returns on Late Tertiary Degrees in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallsten, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic returns on tertiary degrees obtained in ages above 30 for individuals with upper-secondary schooling in light of current ideas on lifelong learning. Sweden is a case in point: Swedish tertiary education is open to older students, and labor market legislation supports employees who take a leave to study. The…

  11. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  12. Reflections on the Revised National Curriculum for Preschool in Sweden--Interviews with the Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Renblad, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden a Revised National Curriculum for Preschool (Lpfö 98, revised 2010) was implemented on 1 July 2011. The purpose of the revised curriculum was to increase the quality in the Swedish preschool by stressing the scientific basis. The aim was to explore how four heads of preschool reflect on the curriculum and the quality in preschool. This…

  13. The Preparation of School Psychologists and Specialists in Educational Psychology in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists have a new and stronger position in Sweden's educational system than earlier. For example, as of July 2011, all Swedish students ages 6 through 18 have guaranteed access to school psychology services. The school psychologists' roles are to be active participants and coworkers in the student health service team, working to…

  14. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  15. The Fading of a Teaching Profession? Reforms of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlsson

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, working with young children in institutions outside the home dates back to the late nineteenth century when public child care provision developed in a context of industrialization, urbanization and democratization. Out of the charitable work of unmarried women in these early institutions, pre-schools and teacher education programmes…

  16. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  17. Challenging Changes: Responses of Three Upper Secondary Schools to Sweden's Decentralization Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wettersten, Jill A.

    Sweden is undergoing a school decentralization process from a formerly centralized system. This report examines how school personnel are adapting to the changes. Schoolteachers, administrators, and staff members were interviewed, and, where appropriate, responses were coded for numerical assessment. Additional data include school-reform plans for…

  18. Comparative Analysis of Employment Services for People with Disabilities in Australia, Finland, and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, James; Dempsey, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Described and discussed are comparative employment policies and programs for people with intellectual and other disabilities in Australia, Finland, and Sweden. The dominant economic and social policies of many Western countries are such that they continue to place considerable pressure on the development and maintenance of employment programs for…

  19. Educational Research: The State of Sweden and the Australian 2.2 World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss Lindblad, Rita; Lindblad, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Current tendencies in educational research in Sweden are presented and compared to Australia. We here refer to; organization of research, research allocation, publication patterns, and assessments of research qualities. Different trajectories of educational research were identified, where Australian research was organized as a field of study,…

  20. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  1. The Meaning of a Teacher Education Reform: National Story- Telling and Global Trends in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Goran

    2003-01-01

    Describes how Sweden's teacher education has developed historically and how development of schools and teacher education links to political, social, and economic development; discussing current teacher education reform in relation to its history and contemporary social/political change; and concluding that patterns of teacher education in one…

  2. Intercultural Education in Sweden through the Lenses of the National Minorities and of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Bromssen, Kerstin; Olgac, Christina Rodell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss two perspectives in relation to intercultural education and diversity in Sweden. One of the perspectives concerns the historical and current situation of the five Swedish national minorities with a special focus on education. The second perspective is related to religious diversity and education, as connected to…

  3. Evaluation of Engineering Double-Degree Programs in Sweden: Results of the Lund Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Steven M.; Warfvinge, Per; Grossmann, Christina; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the results of focus groups at Lund University, Sweden, intended to gather the perceptions of stakeholder groups associated with double-degree programs at the graduate level in engineering: students currently enrolled in double-degree programs, faculty teaching in those programs, and alumni who have recently graduated from…

  4. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's…

  5. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  6. Trends in Care and Services for Elderly Individuals in Denmark and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Denmark and Sweden have achieved reduction in institutionalization of elderly individuals by increasing home care and housing with services and adaptation. Describes innovative model of nursing home care in Denmark--a self-care model that fosters independent living and decision making as long as possible. (Author/NB)

  7. Abandonment of mandatory jail for impaired drivers in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ross, H L; Klette, H

    1995-04-01

    In 1988 and 1990, respectively, Norway and Sweden adopted legal reforms including abandonment of mandatory jail sentences for persons driving with BACs above specific limits. Interrupted time-series analysis finds that in both countries traffic deaths diminished simultaneously with the reforms, consistent with the understanding that Scandinavian success in reducing impaired driving does not depend upon mandatory jail. PMID:7786382

  8. Successful School Leadership in Sweden and the US: Contexts of Social Responsibility and Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Betty; Arlestig, Helene; Garza, Encarnacion; Johansson, Olof; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Tornsren, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-cultural study of schools in Sweden and Texas is to examine the cultural contexts of schools in both settings, and the leadership role of principals in creating and sustaining inclusive schools for diverse populations. Design/methodology/approach: The data were drawn from two studies; the first involving school…

  9. Canons and Communities: Children and Social Cohesion in Sweden and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    In this article I compare the lines of argumentation that are used in two public debates about the introduction of national canons in Sweden and the Netherlands. These arguments illustrate how different political actors understand the balance they think should be struck between the interests of individual children and society in obtaining social…

  10. Causes of Educational Segregation in Sweden--School Choice or Residential Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang Hansen, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine changes in school segregation across different types of municipalities between 1998 and 2011 in Sweden, and to explore the extent to which these changes are the consequences of school choice. Multilevel models were applied to register data using a counterfactual approach. The results showed that school…

  11. An Inevitable Progress? Educational Restructuring in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lindblad, Sverker; Simola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how current changes in the system of reasoning about education in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden are characterized by culturally woven patterns in high marketization strategies are introduced as technically effective devices both for educating the best and to increase inclusion. The system of reason presupposes that the neo-liberalist…

  12. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  13. Residential mobility among foreign-born persons living in Sweden is associated with lower mortality

    PubMed Central

    Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina; Ekberg, Jan; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2010-01-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the effect of within-country mobility on patterns of mortality in deceased foreign-born individuals. The results have varied; some studies have found that individuals who move around within the same country have better health status than those who do not change their place of residence. Other studies have shown that changing one’s place of residence leads to more self-reported health problems and diseases. Our aim was to analyze the pattern of mortality in deceased foreign-born persons living in Sweden during the years 1970–1999 in relation to distance mobility. Data from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the study population consisted of 281,412 foreign-born persons aged 16 years and over who were registered as living in Sweden in 1970. Distance mobility did not have a negative effect on health. Total mortality was lower (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.69–0.73) in foreign-born persons in Sweden who had changed their county of residence during the period 1970–1990. Higher death rates were observed, after adjustment for age, in three ICD diagnosis groups “Injury and poisoning”, “External causes of injury and poisoning”, and “Diseases of the digestive system” among persons who had changed county of residence. PMID:20865116

  14. The Smaller the Better? A Review of Research on Small Rural Schools in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This review of 30 years of research in small rural schools in Sweden includes projects focusing directly upon rural education and rural schools, reports from national agencies, and official statistics. Two main foci were found: (i) the quality of education and pupils' academic performance, and (ii) the economics of running schools in different…

  15. Privatisation, Decentralisation and Governance in Education in The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as…

  16. Mass Communication Researchers in Sweden. Swedish Mass Communication Research: Publications in English, French and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Ulla, Ed.

    This listing of researchers and publications in mass communications research in Sweden is integrated into a single list arranged by the name of the researchers and noting their publications (if any) in the appropriate languages. In addition to publications, information provided for each researcher includes title and academic degree, project,…

  17. The European Knowledge Society and the Diminishing State Control of Education: The Case of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safstrom, Carl Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the changing relation between education and the state as this is expressed through a new language of education within Sweden, structured by terms such as the knowledge society, life-long learning and validation. The author read closely a policy document on life-long learning, taking as the point of departure the "authentic…

  18. Early Childhood Curricula in Sweden from the 1850s to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ann-Christine Vallberg

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the curriculum history of early childhood education in Sweden. The study is based on curriculum theory and gender theory. A broad curricular concept is used. The period analysed ranges from approximately the 1850s to the present day. Examples of key-texts analysed are National curricula, Handbooks, one journal (The…

  19. Preschool Teachers' and Student Preschool Teachers' Thoughts about Professionalism in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuisma, Marja; Sandberg, Anette

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the different ways in which students and preschool teachers at two Swedish universities interpret the concept of professionalism. Data for this article are drawn from a study conducted in two different urban areas of Sweden which explored the following four questions: (1) What does the concept of professionalism imply for…

  20. Framework for Optimizing the Evaluation of Data From Contaminated Soil in Sweden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Swedish guidelines for the evaluation of data for the purpose of a risk assessment at contaminated sites are of a qualitative character, as opposed to the USEPA’s Data Quality Objective Process. In Sweden, this can sometimes be a problem because the demands on data quality ar...

  1. Personal Assistant Service Programs in Germany, Sweden and the USA. Differences and Similarities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Theresia

    This report compares personal assistance services to enable independent living for people with disabilities in Sweden, West Germany, and the United States. The report focuses on kinds of personal assistant services available, laws governing these services, the extent to which these services are met by each country's social security and welfare…

  2. The Impact of Lifelong Learning on Vocational Education and Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats; Abrahamsson, Kenneth

    In Sweden, initial vocational education (IVT) is financed by public money and is designed to provide basic skills and general qualifications to perform certain functions in an occupation. Continuing vocational training (CVT) is provided primarily by public school institutions, private enterprises, and training companies, trade unions, and employer…

  3. Lessons from a Concurrent Evaluation of Eight Antibullying Programs Used in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Erik; Gill, Peter Edward; Johansson, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Sweden has a low prevalence of bullying and Swedish schools are legally obliged to have anti-bullying policies. Many commercial programs are available. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental, concurrent evaluation of 8 programs, chosen from a pool of 21 widely used anti-bullying programs, was planned. Preliminary data, based on 835 stakeholder…

  4. Mathematics in VET Programmes: The Tensions Associated with Reforms in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lisbeth; Grevholm, Barbro

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a new curriculum and set of school organisational structures were introduced in Sweden. One consequence is a much stronger separation of the theoretical and vocational programmes in the upper secondary school. The paper explores the nature of the changes that have occurred particularly in relation to mathematics studies, the background…

  5. Comparing Hong Kong and Sweden ICT Policy in Education; Reaching the Third Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, W. Craig

    2005-01-01

    In this study I address the problem of the implementation and the foreseeable success of the July 2004 document from the Education and Manpower Bureau of Hong Kong, "Empowering Learning and Teaching with Information Technology" (EMB 2004). The statements in this policy will be compared to Sweden's ICT policy and a report completed by Peter Kearns…

  6. Motives, Commitment and Student Identity in Higher Education -- Experiences of Non-Traditional Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunborg, Camilla; Bron, Agnieszka; Edström, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Changes in higher education (HE) in Sweden, from elite to mass education, with an increased number of students and institutions, has raised questions about the role of HE in society. Relating to conflicts between discourses of employability, democracy, traditional academic norms and experiences of non-traditional students, the aim of this article…

  7. Attitudes toward Older People among Nursing Students and Registered Nurses in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderhamn, Olle; Lindencrona, Catharina; Gustavsson, Siw Merit

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 151 undergraduate nursing students and 41 registered nurses in Sweden found that those who were under 25, male, or had limited prior experience caring for older people had less favorable attitudes toward the elderly. First-year students were more negative than third-year students. No differences among nurses in different practice…

  8. Slippage and/or Symbolism: Gender, Policy and Educational Governance in Scotland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Ohrn, Elisabet; Weiner, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of the relationship between gender, educational policy, and governance in Scotland and Sweden and the two countries' response to European Union and global legislative and policy change. In Scotland, gender is mainly invisible in recent policies on inclusion, achievement beyond academic attainment, and…

  9. Music Education--A Personal Matter? Examining the Current Discourses of Music Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgii-Hemming, Eva; Westvall, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The embedding of informal practices in music education in school relates to significant issues concerning students' engagement, participation, inclusion and the role of the teacher. This article addresses these issues by presenting and discussing current music education in compulsory comprehensive schooling in Sweden. It does so by drawing upon…

  10. School Choice in Sweden: Effects on Student Performance, School Costs, and Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents empirical analyses of the effects of independent schools in Sweden. The most important result is that the impact--both the positive and the negative--is relatively marginal. This said, there are now a number of studies that show that when independent schools are established the pupils in municipal schools perform better.…

  11. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY:...

  12. Play in the Kindergarten: The Case of Norway, Sweden, New Zealand and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synodi, Evanthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the kindergarten curricula of Norway, Sweden, Japan and New Zealand in terms of whether they recommend or suggest teachers unify play and pedagogy by employing a pedagogy of play. These countries were selected because, while they have to provide for children's right to play, they cover different geographical and cultural parts…

  13. Distance Education and the Role of the State: A Sweden/USA Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Henrik; Mihailidis, Paul; Holmberg, Carl

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to comparatively explore the role of the state (federal policy) in distance-education initiatives in the higher education communities of Sweden and the United States. In a globalized context, education institutes now have the capabilities to provide education and educational resources more efficiently and to a wide-ranging and…

  14. Congenital Tracheal Web Malformation in a Wild Brown Bear ( Ursus arctos ), Sweden, 2010.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Erik O; Söderberg, Arne

    2016-04-28

    We describe a congenital tracheal web malformation in a wild female brown bear (Ursus arctos) yearling that was euthanized after being hit by a train in Norrbotten County, Sweden, December 2010. A 3-cm-long, abnormal, longitudinal mucosal fold divided the trachea into two halves, without obviously blocking the airflow. PMID:27054473

  15. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  16. Parenting with Disabilities: Experiences from Implementing a Parenting Support Programme in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starke, Mikaela; Wade, Catherine; Feldman, Maurice A.; Mildon, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the initial stages of implementing an Australian-based education programme for parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) in Sweden. The clinical utility of the programme, Parenting Young Children (PYC), in the new country context is explored through Swedish professionals' experiences in learning and using it. Study…

  17. Child Custody Rules in the Context of Swedish Family Law. Social Change in Sweden, No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    In recent years, existing family legislation in Sweden has undergone a review process resulting in extensive revisions. The decisive factor behind these revisions has been change in Swedish society during the 20th century, including urbanization, frequent changes in residence, fewer children per family, the labor force participation of most women…

  18. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of…

  19. Infections with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Cytokine Responses in 2 Persons Bitten by Ticks, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Grankvist, Anna; Sandelin, Lisa Labbé; Andersson, Jennie; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Forsberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection was determined in 102 persons bitten by ticks in Sweden. Two infected women had erythematous rashes; 1 was co-infected with a Borrelia sp., and the other showed seroconversion for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both patients had increased levels of Neoehrlichia DNA and serum cytokines for several months. PMID:26197035

  20. OER, Resources for Learning--Experiences from an OER Project in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossiannilsson, Ebba S. I.; Creelman, Alastair M.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to share experience from a Swedish project on the introduction and implementation of Open Educational Resources (OER) in higher education with both national and international perspectives. The project, "OER--resources for learning", was part of the National Library of Sweden Open Access initiative and aimed at exploring, raising…

  1. 76 FR 29194 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico and Sweden: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Netherlands and Sweden, 70 FR 39734 (July 11, 2005). On June 2, 2010, the Department initiated its five-year... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010). As a result of these sunset reviews, the... the Antidumping Duty Orders, 75 FR 61700 (October 6, 2010), and Purified Carboxymethylcellulose...

  2. Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants' long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on…

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  4. Better Homes and Families: Housing Markets and Young Couple Stability in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauster, Nathanael T.

    2008-01-01

    I model the relationship between aspects of the housing market influenced by housing policy and couple stability for cohabiting couples in Sweden. Using data on 3,851 cohabiting couples obtained from the Swedish Family Survey of 1992, I examine the effects of housing market characteristics on couple outcomes. I focus on three housing variables,…

  5. Medical intelligence in Sweden. Vitamin B12: oral compared with parenteral?

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, M; Norberg, B; Hultdin, J; Sandstrom, H; Westman, G; Lokk, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sweden is the only country in which oral high dose vitamin B12 has gained widespread use in the treatment of deficiency states. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe prescribing patterns and sales statistics of vitamin B12 tablets and injections in Sweden 1990–2000. Design, setting, and sources: Official statistics of cobalamin prescriptions and sales were used. Results: The use of vitamin B12 increased in Sweden 1990–2000, mainly because of an increase in the use of oral high dose vitamin B12 therapy. The experience, in statistical terms a "total investigation", comprised 1 000 000 patient years for tablets and 750 000 patient years for injections. During 2000, 13% of residents aged 70 and over were treated with vitamin B12, two of three with the tablet preparation. Most patients in Sweden requiring vitamin B12 therapy have transferred from parenteral to oral high dose vitamin B12 since 1964, when the oral preparation was introduced. Conclusion: The findings suggest that many patients in other post-industrial societies may also be suitable for oral vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:15749797

  6. Music Teachers--in Training and at Work: A Longitudinal Study of Music Teachers in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladh, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author makes a short presentation of an ongoing longitudinal research project in Sweden. However, he wants to focus on the theoretical perspective he has found fruitful for his understanding of music teachers' professional socialisation, and on the question whether the music teacher must also be a musician in order to possess…

  7. From Vocational Training to Academic Education: The Situation of the Schools of Nursing in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    1999-01-01

    The success of the change from vocational training to academic education for nurses in Sweden depends on faculty competence. Observations at three Swedish nursing schools and interviews with 59 nurse educators identified strategies educators used to maintain teaching competence: being "real" nurses, being prepared in different subjects, and having…

  8. Voices of Authority in Conflict: The Making of the Expert in a Language Debate in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Tommaso M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate an aspect of a recent public debate about bilingual education in Sweden. Focusing on the textual exchanges between some of the academics who intervened in the debate in the columns of one of the leading Swedish dailies, "Dagens Nyheter," the paper will draw upon performativity theory to argue that expertise in…

  9. Family-Friendly Labour Market Policies and Careers in Sweden--and the Lack of Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornqvist, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour market has no doubt…

  10. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  11. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  12. Clinical Physiology: A Successful Academic and Clinical Discipline is Threatened in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Clinical physiologists in Sweden are physicians (the majority with a PhD degree) with thorough training in system physiology and pathophysiology. They investigate patients in a functional approach and are engaged in basic and applied physiology teaching and research. In 1954, clinical physiology was founded as an independent academic and clinical…

  13. A Comparison of the National Preschool Curricula in Norway and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvestad, Marit; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    1999-01-01

    Norway and Sweden have similar histories within the field of early childhood education and similar traditions of state financial support for children. Recently, both countries adopted national preschool plans for children ages 1 to 5 years old. When comparing the two plans, the first noticeable difference is that the Norwegian approach gives…

  14. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  15. Refugees and Adult Education in Sweden. The Gatekeeper Janus. Reprints and Miniprints No. 852.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Karsten

    Experiences of Bosnian adult refugees within the Swedish educational system raise questions of diversity and indications of institutionalized discrimination. Approaches to diversity within the education system reflect those approaches within the social system of the nation. Sweden is presently moving toward a uniform and more restrictive European…

  16. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  17. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  18. Voices of Special Educators in Sweden: A Total-Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Göransson, Kerstin; Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are two occupational groups in Sweden that are expected to have significant impact on educational work related to children in need of special support. These two groups are special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name "special educators" to…

  19. Further Education and Training of the Labour Force. Country Report: Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Education is the strategic instrument for the overriding aim of Sweden's economic policy--full employment. The fundamental idea of the Swedish school system is to include all citizens. Youth education is intended to take the form of comprehensive, integrated schooling with no dead ends. Adult education occupies a strong position by international…

  20. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Sweden. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ronnie

    This publication charts and analyzes vocational education and training (VET) funding in Sweden in 1997 with some comparisons back to the late 1980s. Description of the Swedish system for vocational education and training (VET) is complicated, since there is no natural distinction between VET and general education. All initial vocational training…

  1. Psst, Have You Ever Cheated? A Study of Academic Dishonesty in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Kari

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that academic dishonesty is a prevalent problem that crosses all disciplines at the university level. But, how prevalent is it in Sweden? Little is published in the literature about lying, cheating, and plagiarism amongst Swedish university students. This paper focuses on the frequency of past specific academically dishonest…

  2. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  3. Youth Athletes, Bodies and Gender: Gender Constructions in Textbooks Used in Coaching Education Programmes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on analyses of ideas about girls and boys in sports as they are presented in textbooks used in coaching education programmes in Sweden. Specifically, it explores gender in relation to descriptions of girls' and boys' bodies and bodily development during puberty. Texts construct gender differences. Masculinity is…

  4. Learning Style Differences between Nursing and Teaching Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Hallin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. Teacher education, as well as nursing education, is currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. At the university where the research was conducted, teaching and nursing programs are two priority educational programs and…

  5. Independence for Swedish Universities and University Colleges. Sweden Is Preparing a Reform of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Stockholm (Sweden).

    This paper briefly describes a higher education reform movement underway in Sweden and offers, respectively, the text and a summary of two policy-forming memoranda. A 1977 legislative decision on all postsecondary education gave the government authority to set education policy, and based the entire university and university college system on…

  6. Experimental studies of aluminum mobility in organic rich riparian soil and stream water in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonisch, H.; Cory, N.; Buffam, I.; Laudon, H.; Bishop, K.; Dietzel, M.; Köhler, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The role of organic acids in mobilizing and controlling aluminum (Al) from a riparian soil profile into a small humic-rich stream draining a forested catchment area was studied in Northern Sweden. Three in-situ soil and stream water manipulation experiments were performed by changing total concentrations of Al and silica while keeping pH constant between 4.8 and 5.6 to decipher the processes regulating stream Al solubility and export. Removal of added silica could not be observed along the 80 m stream reach during the stream manipulation despite a saturation index for Proto-Imogolite higher than 2.5. Removal of dissolved Al and DOC in the stream and the superficial soil solutions of the unsaturated zone occurred at molar Al/DOC ratios above 0.13±0.01. For the lower soil horizons that are in permanent contact with groundwater (45-65 cm) and supply the stream with water during the largest part of the year a ratio above 0.073±0.01 was sufficient to induce Al removal. In all experiments (lab and field) an apparent ion activity product (IAP) for Al(OH)3 of 10.5±0.5 was necessary to induce Al removal. This IAP is rarely reached in the soil solutions or the adjacent stream despite large temporal fluctuations of both TOC and pH during the last 10 years. Al/TOC ratios in both environments are independent of pH and have a constant Al/TOC ratio with minimal variation; 0.013±0.002 (n=61) for the stream and 0.037±0.010 (n=135) for the riparian soil waters within the catchment. The similarities in the riparian soil depth profiles for BaCl2 exchangeable Al and TOC concentrations indicate that the soil organic exchanger complex may explain the small variability of the Al/TOC ratio in the soil. The loss of Al from the soil water during the transport through the riparian zone into the stream might be controlled by organic matter and not an inorganic Al bearing phase. However, to decipher the exact mechanism for the fixation of more than 70% of the soil solution Al in the

  7. A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation of a prospective post-glacial fault in central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Andersson, Magnus; Maries, Georgiana; Mehta, Suman; Munier, Raymond; Place, Joachim; Brodic, Bojan; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik

    2015-04-01

    Glacially induced, intraplate faults are conspicuous in northern Fennoscandia where they reach trace lengths of up to 150 km with estimated magnitudes of 8 and above (e.g. Lagerbäck and Sundh 2008). Based on a nationwide LiDAR survey (Petersen and Rost 2011), recent studies suggest that glacially induced faults are not, as previously understood, confined to the northernmost parts of Sweden and can also be found in the central parts (Smith et al., 2014). Some of these faults are associated with scarps (and possibly landslides) that strike for more than 5 km giving a recognizable expression on LiDAR data. While LiDAR data provide valuable information, it is important that the presence of the fault is ground truthed, its extent and geometry at depth are unraveled and if possible an estimate on its displacement is given. These together with the surface expression represented by the scarp can then provide some information about their displacement mechanism(s) and earthquake magnitude. In this study, we focused on a recently inferred (Smith et al., 2014), through LiDAR data, post/end-glacial fault near the city of Bollnäs about 250 km north of Stockholm. The prospective fault has about 6 km long scarp expression that is ca. 5 m higher in the western side of the scarp. A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation was conducted during October 2014 to provide information about the fault geometry with respect to the scarp, and displacement in the bedrock. This included high-resolution three-component refraction and reflection seismics, gravity and magnetic measurements, ground penetrating radar, radio-magnetotellurics and direct current geoelectrics. Preliminary results suggest a zone of low-velocity and conductivity that is associated with a magnetic lineament that is horizontally about 50 m offset from the scarp. Depth to bedrock surface is about 10 m (consistent in all the measurements) in the eastern side of the scarp while it is about 20 m in the western side. This

  8. Methane Concentrations and Biogeochemistry in Lake Sediments from Stordalen Mire, Sub-Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, M.; DeStasio, J.; Erickson, L.; Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Setera, J.; Prado, M. F.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Lake sediments are an important global carbon sink of both allochthonous and autochthonous inputs. However, lakes are also known to emit carbon in gaseous form, most often as methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2), which are potent greenhouse gases. As northern latitudes warm, it is increasingly important to understand these gases and the sediments that store them. In July of 2013 we took 48 cores at 16 sites throughout three lakes surrounding a mire underlain by degrading permafrost in sub-arctic Sweden. The goal was to characterize the sedimentology and geochemistry of the lake sediments to better understand the production, distribution, and flux of CO2 and CH4 from these lakes. Villasjön is a shallow lake less than 1.5 meters deep, Mellan Harrsjön has a maximum depth of 7 meters and is stream-fed, and Inre Harrsjön has a maximum depth of 5 meters and is connected to Mellan Harrsjön. Published radiocarbon dates suggest that all three lakes formed approximately 3400 years ago. At each sample site, we retrieved 2 to 4 cores from the lake bottom, approximately 40-80 cm in length. The cores were sub-sampled for measurements of bulk TOC, TC, TN, TS, and CaCO3 (by difference) using a CHNS Elemental Analyzer, and grain size using a laser particle size analyzer. Headspace CO2 and CH4 by gas chromatography and infrared gas analysis (IRGA) yielded production rates and CH4 sediment concentrations. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from porewater extractions were analyzed using IRGA and stable carbon isotopes of DIC were analyzed via a Quantum Cascade Laser. The recovered sediments in the cores from all three lakes were composed of three layers: an upper layer of organic rich sediment (30-40 cm thick), a middle transition layer of mixed organic and lithogenic materials (5-10 cm thick), and a deep layer of grey lithogenic clay with less organic carbon (of variable thickness). Preliminary results from the 12 Villasjön sites indicate that CH4 is present and produced from the

  9. Admixture and Gene Flow from Russia in the Recovering Northern European Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F.; Danilov, Pjotr I.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia. PMID:24839968

  10. Experienced Harm from Other People’s Drinking: A Comparison of Northern European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Sundin, Erica; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bloomfield, Kim; Hope, Ann; Ramstedt, Mats; Huhtanen, Petri; Kristjánsson, Sveinbjörn

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study addresses how experienced harm from other people’s drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1) the prevalence of experienced harm and 2) the correlates of harm. METHOD The data comprise 18–69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. RESULTS This study shows that harms from other’s drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. CONCLUSIONS The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design. PMID:26609236

  11. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Northern peatlands span only 3 million square kilometers, about 3% of the terrestrial area of the globe, yet they represent a significant terrestrial sink for carbon dioxide. They are also important emitters of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas. Despite their substantial role in the global carbon cycle, peatlands are not typically incorporated into global climate models. The AGU Monograph Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands, edited by Andrew J. Baird, Lisa R. Belyea, Xavier Comas, A. S. Reeve, and Lee D. Slater, looks at the disproportionate role peatlands play in the global carbon budget. In this interview, Eos talks with Andy Baird, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

  12. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrea L.; Olsson, Gert E.; Walburg, Marion R.; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Ley, Cecilia; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%), 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6%) Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6%) Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3%) Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%). The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance. PMID:27054089

  13. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea L; Olsson, Gert E; Walburg, Marion R; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Ley, Cecilia; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013-2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0-2.9%), 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8-3.6%) Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0-0.6%) Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0-1.3%) Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%). The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance. PMID:27054089

  14. Trends in the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis isolates from Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Rasmussen, S R; Artursson, K; Jensen, N E

    1998-08-28

    This study was conducted to determine the MIC values of historical and contemporary Streptoccocus suis (serotypes 2 and 7) from Denmark and S. suis (serotype 2) from Sweden. A total of 52 isolates originating from 1967 through 1981 and 156 isolates from 1992 through 1997 in Denmark and 13 isolates from Sweden were examined for their MICs against 20 different antimicrobial agents. Most antimicrobials were active against most isolates. A frequent occurrence of resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed, with most resistance among historic isolates of serotype 7 and least resistance among isolates from Sweden. A large number of the isolates was resistant to macrolides. However, all historic serotype 2 isolates from Denmark were susceptible, whereas 20.4% of the contemporary isolates were resistant. Among serotype 7 isolates 23.3% of the historic isolates were resistant to macrolides, whereas resistance was found in 44.8% of the contemporary isolates. All isolates from Sweden were susceptible to macrolides. Time-associated frequency of resistance to tetracycline was also found. Only a single historic isolate of serotype 2 was resistant to tetracycline, whereas 43.9% of the contemporary serotype 2 isolates and 15.5% of the contemporary serotype 7 isolates were resistant. Only one (7.7%) of the isolates from Sweden was resistant. The differences in resistance between historic and contemporary isolates from Denmark were statistically significant. This study demonstrated a significant serotype-associated difference in the susceptibility to macrolides and tetracycline and demonstrated that an increase in resistance among S. suis isolates has taken place during the last 15 years to the two most commonly used antimicrobial agents (tylosin and tetracycline) in pig production in Denmark. PMID:9810623

  15. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  16. Structural Analysis of the Pärvie Fault in Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeckstroem, A.; Rantakokko, N.; Ask, M. V.

    2011-12-01

    governs the destabilization of a structure, such as the Pärvie fault, rather than the induced stresses from the weight of ice-sheet (Lund, 2005). This is a presentation of the first part of the structural analysis of the brittle structures around the Pärvie fault in order to evaluate its brittle deformation history and to attempt to constrain the paleostress fields causing these deformations. References Kukkonen, I.T., Olesen, O., Ask, M.V.S., and the PFDP Working Group, 2010. Postglacial faults in Fennoscandia: targets for scientific drilling. GFF, 132:71-81. Kukkonen, I.T., Ask, M.V.S., Olesen, O., 2011. Postglacial Fault Drilling in Northern Europe: Workshop in Skokloster, Sweden. Scientific Drilling, 11, doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.11.08.2011. Lagerbäck, R. & Sundh, M., 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. Geological survey of Sweden. Research paper, C 836. 80 p. Lund, B., Schmidt, P., Hieronymus, C., 2009. Stress evolution and fault stability during the Weichselian glacial cycle. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm. TR-09-15. 106 p. Riad, L., 1990. The Pärvie fault, Northern Sweden, Uppsala University. Research report 63. 48 p

  17. The influence of surface characteristics on lapse rates and temperature profiles in areas of complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.; Pike, G.; Fower, D.; Schaefer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Temperatures near the ground are often decoupled from free-air equivalents, particularly in areas of complex relief and at high latitudes where cold air drainage occurs particularly when radiation balances become negative. This means that it is hard to predict spatial patterns of surface temperature in such regions. In this study several years of intensive field measurements in complex terrain in northern Finland (Kevo) and Sweden (Abisko) allow detailed examination of the interaction between land surface characteristics (including cryosphere), vegetation, and local/micro-climate in mountain basins. Temperature and vapour pressure were measured every 30 minutes for 5 years (2007-2012) at 60 sites at Kevo and for a winter season (September-June) at 52 sites in Abisko, ranging over 300/600 metres of elevation respectively. In Finland lapse rates vary considerably both seasonally and diurnally, the relative importance of seasonal and diurnal forcing changing throughout the year. The results show intense (up to +80 °C/km) and persistent inversion events during the winter months (NDJ) which are broken up by mechanical effects since there is no diurnal cycle. In the transition from winter into spring (FMA) these inversions still occur but increasing radiation imposes a diurnal pattern on their formation and destruction. As snow cover peaks in spring the interaction between surface albedo, land cover and radiation serves to amplify the diurnal cycle in lapse rates. Daytime lapse rates peak in spring because of an increase in albedo with elevation as dark trees give way to reflective snow. At night inversions rapidly reform. Summer lapse rates are modified (usually weakened) by the presence of open water at low elevations. In Abisko similar processes are shown to be at work, although since the valley system is more open and at a larger spatial scale, the range of lapse rate variability is slightly less and the influence of surface characteristics more subdued. Taken

  18. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  19. "Subtractive" Bilingualism in Northern Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert A.

    "Subtractive" bilingualism in Northern Belize is analyzed based on an extension of a model by Wallace Lambert. The impact of English language instruction on Spanish speaking children in Corozal Town, the northernmost urban center in the British colony of Belize, Central America, is described. This description extends an earlier account of…

  20. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  1. DC-8 and ER-2 in Sweden for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 48 second video shows Dryden's Airborne Science aircraft in Kiruna Sweden in January 2000. The DC-8 and ER-2 conducted atmospheric studies for the Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE).

  2. Understanding the mechanism behind the nitrous acid (HONO) emissions from the northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Siljanen, Henri MP; Biasi, Christina; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    The interest of the flux of nitrous acid (HONO) from soils has recently increased. HONO is an important source of the oxidant OH- radical in the troposphere and thus results a reduction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Soils have been recently found to be potential sources of HONO as these emissions are linked to other nitrogen cycle processes, especially presence of nitrite in soils. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been suggested as possible yet substantial sources of HONO. Along with soil pH, other physical properties such as C:N, nitrogen availability, soil moisture and temperature may effect HONO emissions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that drained acidic peatlands with a low C:N produces higher NO, N2O and HONO emissions compared to those in pristine peatlands and upland forest soils. This study will identify the hotspots and the process involved in HONO emissions in northern ecosystems. Along with HONO, we will examine the emissions of NO and N2O to quantify the related N-gases emitted. These results will add a new piece of information in our knowledge of the nitrogen cycle. Soil samples will be collected from several boreal and arctic sites in Finland, Sweden and Russia. In the laboratory, soil samples will be manipulated based on previously described soil physical properties. This will be followed by labelling experiment coupled with selective nitrification inhibitor experiment in the soils. Our first hypothesis is that northern ecosystems are sources of HONO. Second, is that the soil properties (C:N ratio, moisture, N-availability, pH) regulate the magnitude of HONO emissions from northern soils. Third is that the first step of nitrification (ammonium oxidation) is the main pathway to produce HONO. This study will show that the northern ecosystems could be sources of HONO and therefore increasing the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere.

  3. A practical approach to low protein diets in Sweden- 45 years of clinical use.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Sintra; Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Attman, Per-Ola; Evans, Marie; Windahl, Karin; Wegener, Sigrid; Andersén, Charlotte; Nykvist-Raanaes, Karin; Einemo, Sara; Carrero, Juan-Jesus

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the development, implementation and practise of low protein diets (LPD) in Sweden. While the current practice is discussed in general terms emphasizing the interplay between nephrologists and dieticians, the "self-selected" LPD model is explained as a practical approach to facilitated patient's adherence to the nutritional therapy. This model is currently implemented in most clinics of the country and gives considerable flexibility regarding variation in meal planning, food selection, amounts consumed, cooking methods as well as adaptations to day-to-day changes. Current LPD use in Sweden is presented through analysis of the Swedish Renal Registry. Finally two patient cases are illustrated, with examples on their diets, attempts to reduce the protein content to the desired thresholds and their clinical course. PMID:27435012

  4. A one-year study of foodborne illnesses in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, R.; Andersson, Y.; Lindbäck, J.; Wegscheider, M.; Eriksson, Y.; Tideström, L.; Lagerqvist-Widh, A.; Hedlund, K. O.; Löfdahl, S.; Svensson, L.; Norinder, A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance was enhanced and a retrospective interview study performed in 1998-99 to determine incidence, causes, and costs of foodborne illnesses in Uppsala, Sweden. Sixty-eight percent of the detected foodborne illness incidents were single cases, and 32% were outbreaks. Most (85%) of the incidents came to the attention of the municipal authorities through telephone calls from affected persons. Calicivirus, Campylobacter spp., and Staphyloccocus aureus were the most common etiological agents; meat, meat products, and mixed dishes were the most implicated food categories. The incidence of foodborne illness was estimated to be 38 cases per 1,000 inhabitants per year. The estimated average costs per illness were 2,164 Swedish Krona (SEK) ($246) to society and 500 SEK ($57) to the patient. The annual cost of foodborne illnesses in Sweden was estimated to be 1,082 million SEK ($123 million). PMID:11485680

  5. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden. PMID:25373497

  6. Genetic counsellors in Sweden: their role and added value in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Pestoff, Rebecka; Ingvoldstad, Charlotta; Skirton, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Genetic testing is becoming more commonplace in general and specialist health care and should always be accompanied by genetic counselling, according to Swedish law. Genetic counsellors are members of the multi-disciplinary team providing genetic counselling. This study examined the role and added value of genetic counsellors in Sweden, using a cross-sectional on-line survey. The findings showed that the genetic counsellors added value in the clinical setting by acting as the 'spider-in-the-web' regarding case management, having a more holistic, ethical and psychological perspective, being able to offer continuous support and build a relationship with the patient, and being more accessible than medical geneticists. The main difference between a genetic counsellor and medical geneticist was that the doctor had the main medical responsibility. Thus genetic counsellors in Sweden contribute substantially to the care of patients in the clinical genetic setting. PMID:26014428

  7. Labour market career among young Finnish immigrants in Sweden: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, J

    1996-01-01

    "The conditions for young immigrants in the Swedish labour market have been widely discussed in recent years. One hypothesis put forward is that young immigrants tend to remain in jobs with low wages, high risks of unemployment and bad working environments, and their mobility out of such jobs is low.... Because composition of the immigrant group, through immigration and re-emigration, changes over time, the use of longitudinal studies is especially useful. However, only a few such studies have been conducted in Sweden, none of which gives special attention to the labour market careers of immigrant youth. The aim of this paper is to remedy this deficiency by using comprehensive longitudinal data for the period 1970 to 1990. Finnish-born youth were selected for study because they are the largest immigrant group in Sweden." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12292231

  8. State policy, popular discourse, and the silence on homosexual acts in early modern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Liliequist, J

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden, homosexual acts between men were mentioned in secular law for the first time in 1608. Despite the explicit criminalization, very few trials are known from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the new National Law Code of 1734 contained no sanction at all. The central issue of this essay is how the insignificant number of court cases and the seemingly very limited judicial interest in the issue of sodomy in Early Modern Sweden should be interpreted. The silence of the new law is explained by a shift in the official policy from deterrence to a policy of silence, but the low number of court cases was foremost dependent on a lacking actualization and problematization of homosexual acts in the Swedish popular discourse on sexuality, gender, and prestige. Finally, it is argued that this undeveloped popular discourse probably also corresponded to a meagre and rather restricted sexual practice. PMID:9638557

  9. Organized medicine and Scandinavian professional unionism: hospital policies and exit options in Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heidenheimer, A J; Johansen, L N

    1985-01-01

    Strikes by junior hospital doctors over the issue of on-call remuneration in Denmark and Sweden in 1981 are analyzed to clarify the impact of public-sector cost-control policies on intra- and interprofessional solidarity within the Scandinavian professional peak associations. The junior doctors' grievances could find expression either through increased "voice" within the medical negotiating machinery, or by pursuing the exit option in having the medical associations quit the peak associations. The article explains why the "exit" option was selected in Denmark, while in Sweden the granting of additional voice helped persuade the medical association to withdraw its exit threat and to remain within the peak association. The two cases are interpreted as presaging a divergence in the paths being taken by the various Scandinavian welfare states. PMID:4045171

  10. Groundwater flow modeling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Follin, Sven; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Näslund, Jens-Ove

    2014-09-01

    The impact of periglacial and glacial climate conditions on groundwater flow in fractured crystalline rock is studied by means of groundwater flow modeling of the Forsmark site, which was recently proposed as a repository site for the disposal of spent high-level nuclear fuel in Sweden. The employed model uses a thermal-hydraulically coupled approach for permafrost modeling and discusses changes in groundwater flow implied by the climate conditions found over northern Europe at different times during the last glacial cycle (Weichselian glaciation). It is concluded that discharge of particles released at repository depth occurs very close to the ice-sheet margin in the absence of permafrost. If permafrost is included, the greater part discharges into taliks in the periglacial area. During a glacial cycle, hydraulic gradients at repository depth reach their maximum values when the ice-sheet margin passes over the site; at this time, also, the interface between fresh and saline waters is distorted the most. The combined effect of advances and retreats during several glaciations has not been studied in the present work; however, the results indicate that hydrochemical conditions at depth in the groundwater flow model are almost restored after a single event of ice-sheet advance and retreat.

  11. Governance of water resources in the phase of change: a case study of the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Monica; Balfors, Berit; Mörtberg, Ulla; Petersson, Mona; Quin, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels. PMID:21446399

  12. Data-based evidence for contrasting land cover-atmosphere interactions across Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan; Lyon, Steve; Destouni, Georgia

    2013-04-01

    As humans alter landscape, vegetation, climate and atmospheric composition, changes in the terrestrial water balance and fresh water resources are likely to occur. Understanding how climate, vegetation, humans and hydrology interact and feedback to the atmosphere is key for accurate projections of future fresh water resources. To this end, we will present the results of a data-driven regionalization approach for river discharges, using 280 river discharge and over 400 meteorological records (1960-2010) in Sweden. We related catchment runoff coefficients and change trends thereof to land-surface characteristics. With these relationships we were able to create average and change trend maps for runoff and evapotranspiration across Sweden. We summarized all this information by plotting water use efficiency (actual evapotranspiration (ET)/precipitation) against energy use efficiency (actual ET/potential ET by Priestley Taylor Eq.) for areas with unique land cover across Sweden. This plot clearly shows that wetlands tend to have lower water and energy use efficiencies compared to "open waters", forests and agriculture, and that agriculture has water and energy use efficiencies closest to those of "open waters". These results demonstrate how a change in land cover driven by climate change or by humans is likely to alter land-cover-atmosphere interactions, thereby changing both the water and energy balance of catchments. Looking at the change trends during the last 50 years we see that the vegetation tended to become more efficient in using water and energy (i.e. the fractions of water and energy converted into river runoff and heat decreased). As this behavior coincides with an increase in precipitation it signals an acceleration of the hydrological across Sweden. In this presentation we will discuss the potential mechanisms explaining this increase in efficiency and discuss the implications of our findings for future water cycles.

  13. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  14. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  15. Characterization of epidemic and nonepidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strains from Sudan and Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Salih, M A; Danielsson, D; Bäckman, A; Caugant, D A; Achtman, M; Olcén, P

    1990-01-01

    A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985). Images PMID:1975593

  16. Dientamoeba fragilis prevalence coincides with gastrointestinal symptoms in children less than 11 years old in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ögren, J; Dienus, O; Löfgren, S; Einemo, I-M; Iveroth, P; Matussek, A

    2015-10-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan with a debated role in gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Although correlated to GI symptoms, no virulence factors have been described. In this study, we evaluated the cause of GI symptoms in children at two schools, with children aged 1 to 10 years, in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. D. fragilis infection correlated to GI symptoms in children and Enterobius vermicularis correlated to D. fragilis infection. PMID:26173693

  17. Comparing and improving chronic illness primary care in Sweden and the USA.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, John; Ramsay, Patricia; Shortell, Stephen M; Brommels, Mats

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify opportunities for improving primary care services for people with chronic illnesses by comparing how Sweden and US services use evidence-based practices (EBPs), including digital health technologies (DHTs). Design/methodology/approach - A national primary healthcare center (PHCC) heads surveys in 2012-2013 carried out in both countries in 2006. Findings - There are large variations between the two countries. The largest, regarding effective DHT use in primary care centers, were that few Swedish primary healthcare compared to US heads reported having reminders or prompts at the point of care (38 percent Sweden vs 84 percent USA), despite Sweden's established electronic medical records (EMR). Swedish heads also reported 30 percent fewer centers receiving laboratory results (67 percent Sweden vs 97 percent USA). Regarding following other EBPs, 70 percent of Swedish center heads reported their physicians had easy access to diabetic patient lists compared to 14 percent in the USA. Most Swedish PHCC heads (96 percent) said they offered same day appointment compared to 36 percent in equivalent US practices. Practical implications - There are opportunities for improvement based on significant differences in effective practices between the countries, which demonstrates to primary care leaders that their peers elsewhere potentially provide better care for people with chronic illnesses. Some improvements are under primary care center control and can be made quickly. There is evidence that people with chronic illnesses in these two countries are suffering unnecessarily owing to primary care staff failing to provide proven EBP, which would better meet patient needs. Public finance has been invested in DHT, which are not being used to their full potential. Originality/value - The study shows the gaps between current and potential proven effective EBPs for services to patients with chronic conditions. Findings suggest possible

  18. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background. Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. Methods. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. Results. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and “Other African” countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. Conclusions. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (<50 years) than in natives of Sweden (>50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention. PMID:21266400

  19. Driving forces for import of waste for energy recovery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Mattias; Sahlin, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Sundberg, Johan

    2005-02-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, the Swedish import of so-called yellow waste for energy recovery increased. The import mainly consisted of separated wood waste and mixes of used wood and paper and/or plastics that was combusted in district heat production plants (DHPPs). Some mixed waste was imported to waste incineration plants for energy recovery (10% of the import of yellow waste for energy recovery in 2002). The import came primarily from Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and Finland. We identified six underlying driving forces for this recent increase of imported waste which are outlined and their interactive issues discussed. --The energy system infrastructure, which enables high energy recovery in Sweden. --The energy taxation, where high Swedish taxes on fossil fuels make relatively expensive solid biofuels the main alternative for base load production of district heat. --The quality of the waste-derived fuels, which has been higher in the exporting countries than in Sweden. --The bans on landfilling within Europe and the shortage of waste treatment capacity. --Taxes on waste management in Europe. --Gate fee differences between exporting countries and Sweden. In the future, the overall strength of these driving forces will probably be weakened. A Swedish tax on waste incineration is being investigated. In other European countries, the ambition to reach the Kyoto targets and increase the renewable electricity production could improve the competitiveness of waste-derived fuels in comparison with fossil fuels. Swedish DHPPs using waste-derived fuels will experience higher costs after the Waste Incineration Directive is fully implemented. The uncertainty about European waste generation and treatment capacity, however, might have a large influence on the future gate fees and thus also on the yellow waste import into Sweden. PMID:15751390

  20. Astronomical journey to the Skåne district in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2006-09-01

    In September of 2005, we had a chance to travel to the Skåe district of Sweden. This short paper briefly reports what we saw there, along with historical episodes relating to Lund Observatory, the medieval astronomical clock preserved at the Lund Cathedral, and the Hven island where Tycho Brahe constructed in the late 16th century the first modern astronomical observatory called Uraniborg.