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Sample records for abitibi subprovince canada

  1. Lode Gold Deposits and Archean Mantle Plume-Island Arc Interaction, Abitibi Subprovince, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wyman; Kerrich; Groves

    1999-11-01

    In combination with seismic interpretations and geochronological constraints, the association of juvenile arc-type low-Ti tholeiitic basalts with komatiites in the southeastern Abitibi subprovince, Canada, supports a history of subduction step back following Late Archean mantle plume-island arc interaction. The resulting paired collision zones preserved abundant komatiites and numerous massive sulphide deposits and established the critical metallogenic features to concentrate the majority of Canada's Precambrian gold resources in a small area of the southern Abitibi subprovince. PMID:10517886

  2. Single zircon age constraints on the tectonic juxtaposition of the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt and Pontiac subprovince, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Kerrich, R. )

    1991-11-01

    Zircons from metasediments and granitoids in the high-grade Lacorne block within the low-grade Archean Abitibi greenstone belt have been dated by single zircon Pb-evaporation technique, yielding {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb minimum ages. Detrital zircons in the mature clastic metasediments of the Lacorne block display a range of ages from 2,691 {plus minus} 8 Ma to 3,042 {plus minus} 6 Ma. The younger zircon ages thus impose an upper limit for deposition and indicate that the high-grade Lacorne block is not basement to the Abitibi supracrustal sequence (2,747-2,680 Ma). Existence of abundant (69%) older detrital zircons (> 2,750 Ma) suggest in turn that the Abitibi supracrustal rocks are not the source of the Lacorne sediments. Two generations of granitoids occur in the Lacorne block, an early monosodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-syenite series and a younger S-type garnet-muscovite granite series. This contrasts with granitoid magmatism in the Abitibi greenstone belt which ended at {approximately}2675 Ma. The Pontiac subprovince to the south of the Abitibi greenstone belt shares all of the above features of the Lacorne block, including detrital zircon ages as well as the composition and timing of granitoid magmatism. This is interpreted detrital zircon ages as well as the composition and timing of granitoid magmatism. This is interpreted to indicate that the Lacorne block was originally part of the same tectonic terrane as the Pontiac subprovince. After development of the MMGS magmatism (21,670-2,680 Ma), the Pontiac subprovince locally underthrust the Abitibi greenstone belt, and crustal thickening promoted partial melting of underthrust Pontiac metasediments to form the {approximately}2,644 {plus minus} 13 Ma S-type granites.

  3. Are the alteration halos of massive sulfide deposits syngenetic Evidence from U-Pb dating of hydrothermal rutile at the Kidd volcanic center, Abitibi subprovince, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Schandl, E.S.; Davis, D.W.; Krogh, T.E. )

    1990-06-01

    The Kidd volcanic complex is composed of felsic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Archean age. Metasomatic events affecting the lithology of the Kidd volcanic complex include silicification, extensive CO{sub 2} metasomatism (carbonate), K-metasomatism (sericite-fuchsite), and chlorite and minor carbonate alterations. Petrographic evidence, supported by stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies, suggests that silicification and early carbonate alteration were synvolcanic, and therefore related to ore deposition. During subsequent extensive K-metasomatism, sericite precipitated in the rhyolite, and fuschsite precipitated in the ultramafic rocks. Although chlorite postdates K-metasomatism, the micas and chlorite are both found in anastomosing microfissures, commonly occupying the same set of fractures. Hydrothermal rutile formed by the breakdown of magnetite-ilmenite during K-metasomatism and chlorite alteration gives an age of 2624 {plus minus} 62 Ma (95% confidence level). It is therefore approximately 100 m.y. younger than syngenetic massive sulfide mineralization (2712 {plus minus} 2 Ma). Sulfide stringers within sericite and chlorite veins suggest some remobilization of the ores during these later events. This alteration assemblage, is identical to that found associated with many lode-gold deposits in the Superior province. Recent dating of micas and rutile associated with gold deposits in the Abitibi subprovince gives comparable ages to the rutile in the Kidd volcanic complex, which must therefore record a widespread, late hydrothermal event affecting mineralized rocks.

  4. The western Wabigoon Subprovince, Superior Province, Canada: Archean greenstone succession in rifted basement complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. R.; Davis, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Wabigoon Subprovince, interposed between the predominantly metasedimentary-plutonic and gneissic English River and Quetico Subprovinces to the north and south respectively, exposed Archean greenstone and granitoid rocks for a strike length of greater than 700 km. Based on predominating rock types, the western part of the subprovince is divided into two terrains: the northern Wabigoon volcano-sedimentary and pluonic terrain (NWW) and the Wabigoon Diapiric Axis terrain (WDA). Both the NWW and WDA are described according to volcanic sequence, geological faults, chemical composition and evolutionary history.

  5. Biomarker Record From the Tisdale Group (2707 - 2705 Ma) and Porcupine Group (2685 - 2673 Ma) of the Abitibi Subprovidence, Timmins, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, G. T.; Kenig, F.

    2004-12-01

    Saturated/unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions extracted from greenshist facies metasedimentary greywackes, siltstones, and shales of the Tisdale (2707-2705 Ma) and Porcupine Group (2685-2673 Ma) of the Abitibi Subprovince, Ontario Canada were analyzed for biomarkers. Core and hand samples were obtained from three mines run by Porcupine Joint Ventures and the core library at the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Timmins, Ontario. Tisdale Group sedimentary facies were previously interpreted as laminated massive sulfide and/or interflow sediments interstratified by subaqueous komatitic-tholeiitic flows. Porcupine Group turbidite facies were interstratified by massive, brecciated alkaline lava flows and reworked volcaniclastic facies. All Porcupine Group samples contained primary depositional fabric. Biomarker maturity calculations indicate the sediments are mature and either reached or surpassed oil generation. All samples contained hopanes C27 22,29,30-trisnorhopane-II (Ts & Tm), C29 α β -30-norhopane, C29 18α -30-norneohopane, C{30 } α β hopane, C30 β α - hopane, and C31-C35 (22S & R) homohopanes. Most samples contained C27-C29 (20S & R) β α diacholestane, C27-C29 α β β cholestane (20S & R), C27-C29 α α α cholestane (20S & R), and 4-methyl steroids. Tricyclic terpanes ranging from C19-C29, but were not present in all samples. Biomarkers from the Tisdale Group samples are similar to those found in modern hydrothermal systems and include unresolved complex mixtures, abundant branched alkanes with quaternary carbon atoms, alkyl-cyclohexanes (C16-C29 with strong odd over even dominance), alkyl-cyclopentanes (C16-C29) containing only even carbon number homologs), and C37-C40 acyclic and cyclic archeal isoprenoids. Biomarkers from the Porcupine Group samples include C16-C35, branched alkanes, C16-C29 alkyl-cyclohexanes and alkyl-cyclopentanes (with no carbon number preference). Aromatic fraction for this group were generally low and

  6. Sulfur isotope and trace element data from ore sulfides in the Noranda district (Abitibi, Canada): implications for volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, Elizabeth R.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Minarik, William G.; Dubé, Benoît; Wing, Boswell A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine models for volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) mineralization in the ~2.7-Ga Noranda camp, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada, using a combination of multiple sulfur isotope and trace element data from ore sulfide minerals. The Noranda camp is a well-preserved, VMS deposit-rich area that is thought to represent a collapsed volcanic caldera. Due to its economic value, the camp has been studied extensively, providing a robust geological framework within which to assess the new data presented in this study. We explore previously proposed controls on mineralization within the Noranda camp and, in particular, the exceptional Au-rich Horne and Quemont deposits. We present multiple sulfur isotope and trace element compositional data for sulfide separates representing 25 different VMS deposits and "showings" within the Noranda camp. Multiple sulfur isotope data for this study have δ34SV-CDT values of between -1.9 and +2.5 ‰, and Δ33SV-CDT values of between -0.59 and -0.03 ‰. We interpret the negative Δ33S values to be due to a contribution of sulfur that originated as seawater sulfate to form the ore sulfides of the Noranda camp VMS deposits. The contribution of seawater sulfate increased with the collapse and subsequent evolution of the Noranda caldera, an inference supported by select trace and major element analyses. In particular, higher concentrations of Se occur in samples with Δ33S values closer to 0 ‰, as well as lower Fe/Zn ratios in sphalerite, suggesting lower pressures and temperatures of formation. We also report a relationship between average Au grade and Δ33S values within Au-rich VMS deposits of the Noranda camp, whereby higher gold grades are associated with near-zero Δ33S values. From this, we infer a dominance of igneous sulfur in the gold-rich deposits, either leached from the volcanic pile and/or directly degassed from an associated intrusion.

  7. Archaean wrench-fault tectonics in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, C.

    1986-01-01

    A tectonic model is proposed in which the southern Abitibi belt formed in a series of rift basins which dissected an earlier formed volcanic arc. Comparisons can be made with Phanerozoic areas such as, the Hokuroko basin of Japan, the Taupo volcanic zone of new Zealand and the Sumatra and Nicaragua volcanic arcs. In addition the identification of the major E - W thrust shears make it possible to speculate that the southern Abitibi belt comprises a collage of blocks of terrane which have been accreted against a more stable continental margin or microcontinent. If this interpretation is correct analogies can be made with the SW margin of the U.S.A. in which recently formed blocks of volcanic terrane are being accreted against its western margin.

  8. Volcanic environments of ore formation in the late Archaean Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The tectonic and petrological evolution of the late Archaean Abitibi greenstone belt indicate both emergent and submergent volcanism played a role in its metallogenesis. At approximately 2700 m.y. the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Abitibi belt was dominated by a rift-related tectonic and volcanic evolution in a transcurrent (wrench) fault regime. The tholeiitic and komatiitic magmas and associated differentiated volcanic rocks had access to shallow crustal levels allowing the development of submarine hydrothermal systems and syngenetic Cu-Zn (Noranda type) massive sulfide ore bodies. These deposits formed along a 300 km. axis in submerging, fault bounded, basins. In contrast, the northern volcanic zone (the Chibougamau-Chapais area) formed at 2720 m.y and was characterized by emergent volcanoes emplaced on a continental crust and cored by coeval diorite-tonalite plutons. Mafic magma was inhibited from the crust by fractionated and contaminated magmas. This resulted in the emplacement of hydrous calc-alkaline magmas and associated porphyry-type epigenetic Cu(Au) massive sulfides. Au-lode deposits are predominantly located near major shear-zones in the SVZ. The are forming solutions were released as a result of burial due to wrench faulting. The dynamic regime of the rifted SVZ may have resulted in the syngenetic massive sulfides, the Au-lode deposits, metamorphism and sedimentation being synchronous on a regional scale, whilst on a local scale, Au-lodes superimpose and replace massive sulfides, iron formation and metamorphic isograds.

  9. Archean terrane docking: upper crust collision tectonics, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, W. U.; Daigneault, R.; Mortensen, J. K.; Chown, E. H.

    1996-11-01

    The northern (NVZ) and southern volcanic zones (SVZ) of the Abitibi greenstone belt are separated by the major E-trending Destor-Porcupine-Manneville fault zone (DPMFZ). The DPMFZ is interpreted to be the locus of Archean terrane docking between the older diffuse volcanic arc of the NVZ (2730-2710 Ma) and the younger arc segments of the SVZ (2705-2698 Ma). Two distinct evolutionary phases can be documented along the DPMFZ of the Abitibi greenstone belt and include (1) arc-arc collision occurring between 2697 and 2690 Ma, and (2) arc fragmentation between 2689 and 2680 Ma. Identification of these two events along the DPMFZ is based on detailed structural studies, sedimentary basin analysis, and precise UPb age determinations. The thrusting event, representative of the arc-arc collision phase, is characterized by shallow north-dipping foliations (20-40°) and dip-parallel stretching lineations in the eastern Manneville segment of the DPMFZ. Local overturned mafic pillowed units suggest recumbent folding. Late strike-slip or transcurrent movement displayed in the late-orogenic sedimentary Duparquet Basin records the arc fragmentation phase. Basin geometry, E-trending en-echelon folds, shallow E-plunging stretching lineations and a late NE-striking cleavage cross-cutting the folds support a dextral shear sense along the western Destor-Porcupine segment of the DPMFZ. The sedimentary facies observed in the basin are consistent with those of modern strike-slip basins located along the East Anatolian fault, Turkey (Hazar Lake) and the Hope fault, New Zealand (Hanmer Basin). Precise UPb zircon age determinations from porphyry stocks located at the northern and southern limits of the Duparquet Basin, yielded 2681 ± 1 Ma and 2689 +3.2-2.9 Ma, respectively. These ages constrain the rapid change from thrusting to transcurrent movement. It is apparent that once thrusting ceased the response to oblique subduction continued in the form of strike-slip displacement. Modern

  10. Niobium-enriched basalts from the Wabigoon subprovince, Canada: evidence for adakitic metasomatism above an Archean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, D. A.; Ayer, J. A.; Devaney, J. R.

    2000-06-01

    Late Archean niobium-enriched basalts from the Central Sturgeon Lake assemblage and Neepawa group of the western Wabigoon subprovince have mantle-normalized Nb/La between 0.8 and 1.3 and Zr/Y between 4 and 7. They are compositionally similar to basalts attributed to adakite metasomatism of mantle wedge regions in Cenozoic subduction zones [Sajona et al., J. Petrol. 37 (1996) 693-726]. In detail, their Sc-REE systematics suggest the Archean basalts were generated above the garnet stability field. An association with adakite-like volcanic rocks, an absence of komatiites and the arc-like attributes of their host sequences suggest a subduction-related origin for the basalts. If current models of adakite and Niobium-enriched basalt genesis are valid, then additional examples of these rocks should be relatively common in other Archean greenstone belts.

  11. The Key Tuffite, Matagami Camp, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada: petrogenesis and implications for VMS formation and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genna, Dominique; Gaboury, Damien; Roy, Gilles

    2014-04-01

    The Key Tuffite is a stratigraphic marker unit for most of the zinc-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Matagami Camp in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. This 2- to 6-m-thick unit was previously interpreted as a mixture of ash fall (andesitic to rhyolitic tuffaceous components) and volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)-related chemical seafloor precipitate (exhalative component). Previous attempts to develop geochemical exploration vectoring tools using metal content within the Key Tuffite were mostly inconclusive due to the complex nature of the Key Tuffite unit and a poor understanding of its composition, origin and relationship with the VMS-forming hydrothermal systems. Detailed mapping and thorough lithogeochemistry of the Key Tuffite in the vicinity of the Perseverance and Bracemac-McLeod deposits indicate that the Key Tuffite is a homogeneous calc-alkaline, andesitic tuff that was deposited before the VMS deposits were formed. The unit is mostly devoid of exhalative component, but it is strongly hydrothermally altered close to orebodies. This is characterized by a strong proximal chloritization and a distal sericitization, which grades laterally into the unaltered Key Tuffite. Neither the Key Tuffite nor the ore was formed by seafloor exhalative processes for the two studied deposits. This probably explains why previously proposed exploration models based on metal scavenging proved unsuccessful and suggests that a re-evaluation of the exhalative model should be done at the scale of the mining camp. However, as shown in this study, hydrothermal alteration can be used to vector towards ore along the Key Tuffite.

  12. Palaeoseismic events recorded in Archaean gold-quartz vein networks, Val d'Or, Abitibi, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Robert, François

    1992-02-01

    Archaean gold-quartz vein deposits are commonly hosted in high-angle reverse shear zones and are interpreted to have formed in a regime of horizontal compression and high fluid pressure environment. This paper presents the results of a combined structural and fluid inclusion study on three gold-quartz vein deposits of the Val d'Or area (Abitibi, Quebec) consisting of subhorizontal extensional veins and E-W steeply dipping shear veins. Crack-seal structures, tourmaline fibres, stretched quartz crystals and open-space filling textures indicate that the subhorizontal veins formed by hydraulic fracturing under supralithostatic fluid pressure. CO 2-rich and H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusions, interpreted as two coexisting immiscible fluids, occur typically in microcracks of different orientations interpreted to have formed in the σ1- σ2 plane. Horizontal CO 2-rich fluid inclusion planes are contemporaneous with the opening of these veins (σ 3 vertical). Vertical H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusion planes, as well as some microstructures, such as deformed minerals, indicate that the same extensional veins have experienced episodic vertical shortening (σ 3 horizontal) alternating with the opening events. Deformation and slip/opening also occurred in shear veins in which preferred orientation of fluid inclusion planes is not clear, except that the H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusion planes tend to be oriented at high angles to the slip direction. The successive opening and collapse events in subhorizontal extensional veins are correlated with deformation and slip/opening events in shear veins, respectively, and are attributed to cyclic fluid pressure fluctuations in the system. They are thus consistent with the fault-valve model: sudden drop in fluid pressure from supralithostatic to lower values induces fluid unmixing and occurs immediately post-failure following seismic rupturing along the shear zone. Sealing of the shear veins allows the fluid pressure to build up again and the

  13. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.

    2016-03-01

    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  14. Protracted tectono-metamorphic history of the SE Superior Province : contribution of 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in the Abitibi-Opatica contact zone, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoudene, Yannick; Tremblay, Alain; Ruffet, Gilles; Leclerc, François; Goutier, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Archean orogens mainly consist of greenstone belts juxtaposing deeper crustal domains of TTG-type plutonic rocks. The greenstone belts show regional folds, penetrative steeply-dipping fabrics, and localised shear zones, whereas the plutonic belts predominantly display dome structures. Concurrently, rocks in Archean orogens undergone MT/HT-LP/MP metamorphic conditions that vary, from upper to lower crustal domains, between greenschist- and granulite-facies, respectively. These structural and metamorphic variations are well-documented, but modes of deformation related to such orogens is still debated. Some studies suggest that the Archean tectonic processes were comparable to present-day plate tectonics and the Archean greenstone belts were interpreted as tectonic collages commonly documented in Phanerozoic subduction/collision zones. Alternative models propose that the Archean tectonics were different from those predicted by the plate tectonics paradigm, mainly due to the existence of a hotter mantle and a mechanically weak crust. In such models, the burying and exhumation of crustal rocks are attributed to the vertical transfer of material, resulting in the development of pop-down and domes structures. As a contribution of the study of mechanisms that might have operated during the Archean, we present a structural and metamorphic study of the contact zone between the Abitibi subprovince (ASP), which contains greenstone belts, and the Opatica subprovince (OSP), which is dominated by plutonic rocks, of the Superior Province. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of amphiboles and micas is used to constrain the age and duration of regional metamorphism and associated deformations. On the basis of seismic profiling, showing a north-dipping lithospheric-scale reflector, the ASP-OSP contact has been interpreted as the surficial trace of an Archean subduction zone. However, our structural analysis suggest that the ASP overlies the OSP and that the ASP-OSP contact does not show evidences

  15. 3-D visualization of structural field data: examples from the Archean Caopatina Formation, Abitibi greenstone belt, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kemp, Eric A.

    2000-06-01

    A series of 3-D visualization approaches is presented with the aim of developing better interpretation tools for field-based geologists. Structural data from outcrop, mine and regional scales are used to create speculative 3-D surfaces that can be useful in addressing geological problems. These tools could help in resolving cryptic early fold geometries, extending stratiform mineralizations and the sub-surface interpretation of regional thrusts, unconformities or key lithostratigraphic boundaries. Using sparse data sets from the low-relief and structurally complex Archean Abitibi greenstone belt, I have demonstrated that speculative models can be created from such challenging terrains, provided that existing data are respected and that appropriate methods are applied at a given scale. Examples focus on optimizing the 3-D editing environment for making better interpretations. Applied techniques include custom projections of surface traces, 3-D digitizing, simple Bézier surface patches, and non-cylindrical fold construction using field based plunge models. These are implemented as several UNIX AWK programs in conjunction with commercial 3-D visualization and modeling software gOcad © and EarthVision ©. This integration and visualization study shows that complex fold geometries can be more rigorously constructed using constraining structural field data, but that current 3-D technologies are still very cumbersome for hard rock applications. Future development of field based case studies that will help validate and communicate the benefit of these methods is much needed, and will hopefully better articulate specific requirements to software developers. Professional 3-D software developers are encouraged to work towards the implementation of these types of programs in order to move the regional mapping community beyond 2-D and 21/2-D GIS-based modeling. National surveys and explorationists who are responsible for the collection, management, and archiving of geoscience

  16. Fluid chemistry and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in an Archaean transcrustal fault zone network: The case of the Cadillac Tectonic Zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Banks, D.A.; Yardley, B.W.D.; Couture, J.-F.; Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed fluid geochemistry studies on hydrothermal quartz veins from the Rouyn-Noranda and Val-d'Or areas along the transcrustal Cadillac Tectonic Zone (CTZ) indicate that unmineralized (with respect to gold) sections of the CTZ contained a distinct CO2-dominated, H2S-poor hydrothermal fluid. In contrast, both gold mineralized sections of the CTZ (e.g., at Orenada #2) and associated higher order shear zones have a H2O-CO2 ?? CH4-NaCl hydrothermal fluid. Their CO2/H2S ratios indicate H2S-rich compositions. The Br/Cl compositions in fluid inclusions trapped in these veins indicate that hydrothermal fluids have been equilibrated with the crust. Oxygen isotope ratios from hydrothermal quartz veins in the CTZ are consistently 2??? more enriched than those of associated higher order shear zones, which are interpreted to be a function of greater fluid/rock ratios in the CTZ and lower fluid/rock ratios, and more efficient equilibration of the hydrothermal fluid with the wall rock, in higher order shear zones. An implication from this study is that the lower metal endowment of the transcrustal CTZ, when compared with the higher metal endowment in higher order shear zones (ratio of about 1 : 1000), may be the result of the lack of significant amounts of H2O-H2S rich fluids in most of the CTZ. In contrast, gold mineralization in the higher order shear zones appear to be controlled by the high H2S activity of the aqueous fluids, because gold was likely transported in a bisulfide complex and was deposited during sulfidation reactions in the wall rock and phase separation in the quartz veins. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  17. Composition of komatiite melts from Abitibi and Belingwe inferred from melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asafov, Evgeny; Sobolev, Alexander; Arndt, Nicholas; Batanova, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Komatiites are the products of extreme amounts of partial melting and hence are best indicators of the composition of their mantle sources. However, the most known komatiites are highly altered, and this prevents the use of their compositions to estimate the volatile and mobile element contents of the mantle. To estimate the concentrations of these elements, we analyzed melt inclusions in high-Mg olivine phenocrysts from two 2.7 Ga sample suites, one from Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada and the other from the Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Fresh olivine grains 0.2-0.5 mm across were heated for 5 minutes and quenched at 1350°C in a C-O-H atmosphere with oxygen fugacity corresponding to quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. Homogenized melt inclusions were exposed at the surface of grains and analyzed by electron probe micro-analyzer for concentrations of Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, Cr, P, K, Cl and S. The size of melt inclusions ranges from 20 to 80 µm. The measured compositions were adjusted to equilibrium with host olivine with iron loss correction using Petrolog3 software (Danyushevsky & Plechov, G-cubed 12, 2011). Cracked inclusions were filtered out using their low S contents. Data on the volatile components Cl and S were thus obtained for the first time for the melt inclusions in Abitibi komatiites. Calculated melt compositions range from 19.5 to 27.1 wt.% MgO in Abitibi samples and from 18.9 to 22 wt.% in Belingwe samples. Other elements, except Cl and K, show strong negative correlation with MgO and follow an olivine fractionation trend. Concentrations of Si, Ti, Al, and Ca are consistent with the corresponding compositions of whole rocks. Variations of Cl and K cannot be explained by fractionation of olivine and are attributed to the variations in parental melt. The melt inclusion compositions from Abitibi and Belingwe komatiites have similar Ca, Na, K and S concentrations at the same concentration of Mg but Al and Ti are lower in Belingwe samples

  18. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea Biogeochemical Subprovinces and Synthetic Ocean Indicators Using Mesoscale Oceanographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Rossi, Vincent; Demarcq, Hervé; Dubroca, Laurent; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial applications as a geographical reference. We aim to identify biogeochemical subprovinces within this domain, and develop synthetic indices of the key oceanographic dynamics of each subprovince to quantify baselines from which to assess variability and change. To do this, we compile a data set of 101 months (2002–2010) of a variety of both “classical” (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and “mesoscale” (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We employ a k-means clustering algorithm to objectively define biogeochemical subprovinces based on classical features, and, for the first time, on mesoscale features, and on a combination of both classical and mesoscale features. Principal components analysis is then performed on the oceanographic variables to define integrative indices to monitor the environmental changes within each resultant subprovince at monthly resolutions. Using both the classical and mesoscale features, we find five biogeochemical subprovinces for the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Interestingly, the use of mesoscale variables contributes highly in the delineation of the open ocean. The first axis of the principal component analysis is explained primarily by classical ocean features and the second axis is explained by mesoscale features. Biogeochemical subprovinces identified by the present study can be useful within the European management framework as an objective geographical framework of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and the synthetic ocean indicators developed here can be used to monitor

  19. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea biogeochemical subprovinces and synthetic ocean indicators using mesoscale oceanographic features.

    PubMed

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Rossi, Vincent; Demarcq, Hervé; Dubroca, Laurent; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial applications as a geographical reference. We aim to identify biogeochemical subprovinces within this domain, and develop synthetic indices of the key oceanographic dynamics of each subprovince to quantify baselines from which to assess variability and change. To do this, we compile a data set of 101 months (2002-2010) of a variety of both "classical" (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and "mesoscale" (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We employ a k-means clustering algorithm to objectively define biogeochemical subprovinces based on classical features, and, for the first time, on mesoscale features, and on a combination of both classical and mesoscale features. Principal components analysis is then performed on the oceanographic variables to define integrative indices to monitor the environmental changes within each resultant subprovince at monthly resolutions. Using both the classical and mesoscale features, we find five biogeochemical subprovinces for the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Interestingly, the use of mesoscale variables contributes highly in the delineation of the open ocean. The first axis of the principal component analysis is explained primarily by classical ocean features and the second axis is explained by mesoscale features. Biogeochemical subprovinces identified by the present study can be useful within the European management framework as an objective geographical framework of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and the synthetic ocean indicators developed here can be used to monitor variability and

  20. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  1. Rainy Lake wrench zone: An example of an Archaean subprovince boundary in northwestern Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Superior Province of the Canadian Shield comprises an alternation of subprovinces with contrasting lithological, structural and metamorphic styles. Rocks of the Rainly Lake area form a fault bounded wedge between two of these subprovinces, the Wabigoon granite-greenstone terrain to the north and the Quetico metasedimentary terrain to the south. The Quetico and Seine River-Rainy Lake Faults bound this wedge within which interpretation of the stratigraphy has been historically contentious. In the eastern part of the wedge, volcanic rocks and coeval tonalitic sills are unconformably overlain by fluviatile conglomerate and arenite of the Seine Group; in the western part of the wedge, metamorphosed wacke and mudstone of the Coutchiching Group are cut by granodioritic plutons. The Coutchiching Group has previously been correlated with the Seine Group and with the turbiditic Quetico metasediments of the Quetico Subprovince and these correlations are the cornerstone of earlier tectonic models which relate the subprovinces. The structural geology of the Rainy Lake area is characterized by attributes which compare favourably with the known characteristics of dextral wrench or 'transpressive zones based both on experimental data and natural examples. Much of this deformation involved the Seine Group, the youngest stratigraphic unit in the area, and predates the emplacement of late-to-post-tectonic granodioritic plutons for which radiometric data indicate a Late Archean age.

  2. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  3. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  4. A Detailed Record of Archean Biogochemical Cycles and Seawater Chemistry Preserved in Black Shales of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.; Planavsky, N. J.; Bates, S. M.; Wing, B. A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Geological and biological evolution are intimately linked within the Earth System through the medium of seawater. Thus, in order to track the co-evolution of Life and Earth during the Archean Eon we must determine how biogeochemical cycles responded to and initiated changes in the composition of Archean seawater. Among our best records of biogeochemical cycles and seawater chemistry are organic carbon-rich black shales. Here we present a detailed multi-proxy study of 2.7 Ga black shales from the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada. Abitibi shales demonstrate extreme enrichments in total organic carbon (up to 15 wt. %) and total sulfur (up to 6 wt. %) reflecting vigorous biogeochemical cycling in the basin, likely driven by cyanobacteria. The speciation of reactive Fe minerals indicates that pyrite formed in a sulfidic water column (euxinia) and that dissolved Fe was the limiting reactant. The deposition of more than 50 m of euxinic black shales suggests that the Fe-rich conditions reflected by Archean BIF deposition were not necessarily ubiquitous. Biologically significant trace metals fall into two categories. Metals that can be delivered to seawater in large quantities from hydrothermal sources (e.g., Cu and Zn) are enriched in the shales, reflecting their relative abundance in seawater. Conversely, metals that are primarily delivered to the ocean during oxidative weathering of the continents (e. g., Mo and V) are largely absent from the shales, reflecting depleted seawater inventories. Thus, trace metal supply at 2.7 Ga was still dominated by geological processes. Biological forcing of trace metal inventories, through oxidative weathering of the continents, was not initiated until 2.5 Ga, when Mo enrichments are first observed in the Mt. McRae Shale, Hamersley Basin. Multiple sulfur isotope analysis (32S, 33S, 34S) of disseminated pyrite displays large mass independent fractionations (Δ33S up to 6 %) reflecting a sulfur cycle dominated by atmospheric processes

  5. Some Speculations Concerning The Abitibi Greenstone Belt As A Possible Analog To The Early Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M.; Allwood, A.; Anderson, R. B.; Atkinson, B.; Beaty, D.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hand, K. P.; Halevy, I.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Knoll, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Milliken, R.; Stolper, D. A.; Stolper, E. M.; Tosca, N. J.; Agouron Mars Simulation Field Team

    2011-12-01

    The Noachian crust of Mars comprises basaltic and, potentially, komatiitic lavas derived from a hot mantle slightly more reducing and sulfur-rich than that of the Earth. Ultramafic volcanic sequences of the ~2.7Ga Tisdale Group of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Ontario, provide a potential analog to these early martian lavas. The Abitibi rocks are a possible source of quartz veins carrying, in places, pyrite, carbonate and gold. These were hydrothermally introduced into volcanic and sedimentary rocks during greenschist metamorphism. Kilometer-scale talc-magnesite zones, resulting from the carbonation of serpentinized ultramafics, may have been the source and seawater, with some magmatic addition, was probably responsible for the pervasive alteration, although the chemical nature of hydrothermal fluids circulating in such piles depends upon the temperature of wall-rock interactions and is largely independent of fluid origin. Any sulfides and gold in unaltered ultramafic putative source rocks may have been lost to the invasive convective fluids. Given high heat flow and the presence of a hydrosphere, hydrothermal convection cells were probably the main mechanism of heat transfer through the crust on both planets. Exploration of the Abitibi belt provides a template for possible martian exploration strategies. Orbital remote sensing indicates that some ultramafic rocks on Mars have also been serpentinized and isolated areas of magnesite have been recently discovered, overlying altered mafic crust, with characteristic ridges at scales of a few hundred meters. While cogent arguments have been made favoring sedimentary exhalative accumulations of hydrothermal silica of the kind that are known to harbor bacteria on our own planet, no in situ siliceous sinters or even quartz veins have been identified with certainty on Mars. Here, we report on the mineralogic and visible to infrared spectral characteristics of mafic and ultramafic lithologies at Abitibi for comparison to

  6. High-precision U-Pb geochronology in the Minnesota River Valley subprovince and its bearing on the Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the southern Superior Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitz, M.D.; Bowring, S.A.; Southwick, D.L.; Boerboom, Terrence; Wirth, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision U-Pb ages have been obtained for high-grade gneisses, late-kinematic to postkinematic granitic plutons, and a crosscutting mafic dike of the Archean Minnesota River Valley tectonic subprovince, at the southern ramparts of the Superior craton of North America. The antiquity of the Minnesota River Valley terranes is confirmed by a high-precision U-Pb zircon age of 3422 ?? 2 Ma for a tonalitic phase of the Morton Gneiss. Voluminous, late-kinematic monzogranites of the Benson (Ortonville granite) and Morton (Sacred Heart granite) blocks yield identical crystallization ages of 2603 ?? 1 Ma, illustrating the synchrony and rapidity of deep crustal melting and plutonism throughout the Minnesota River Valley terranes. Postkinematic, 2591 ?? 2 Ma syenogranites and aplitic dikes in both blocks effectively constrain the final penetrative deformation of the Minnesota River Valley subprovince. Monazite growth from 2609 to 2595 Ma in granulitic paragneisses of the Benson and Montevideo blocks is interpreted to record prograde to peak granulite facies metamorphic conditions associated with crustal thickening and magmatism. Neoarchean metamorphism and plutonism are interpreted to record the timing of collisional accretion and terminal suturing of the Mesoarchean continental Minnesota River Valley terranes to the southern margin of the Superior Province, along the western Great Lakes tectonic zone. Subsequent Paleoproterozoic rifting of this margin is recorded by voluminous basaltic dike intrusion, expressed in the Minnesota River Valley by major WNW-trending tholeiitic diabase dikes dated at 2067 ?? 1 Ma, only slightly younger than the structurally and geochemically similar 2077 ?? 4 Ma Fort Frances (Kenora-Kabetogama) dike swarm of northern Minnesota and adjoining Canada. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  7. Block and shear-zone architecture of the Minnesota River Valley subprovince: Implications for late Archean accretionary tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southwick, D.L.; Chandler, V.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Minnesota River Valley subprovince of the Superior Province is an Archean gneiss terrane composed internally of four crustal blocks bounded by three zones of east-northeast-trending linear geophysical anomalies. Two of the block-bounding zones are verified regional-scale shears. The geological nature of the third boundary has not been established. Potential-field geophysical models portray the boundary zones as moderately north-dipping surfaces or thin slabs similar in strike and dip to the Morris fault segment of the Great Lakes tectonic zone at the north margin of the subprovince. The central two blocks of the subprovince (Morton and Montevideo) are predominantly high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneiss, some as old as 3.6 Ga, and late-tectonic granite. The northern and southern blocks (Benson and Jeffers, respectively) are judged to contain less gneiss than the central blocks and a larger diversity of syntectonic and late-tectonic plutons. A belt of moderately metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks having some attributes of a dismembered ophiolite is partly within the boundary zone between the Morton and Montevideo blocks. This and the other block boundaries are interpreted as late Archean structures that were reactivated in the Early Proterozoic. The Minnesota River Valley subprovince is interpreted as a late accretionary addition to the Superior Province. Because it was continental crust, it was not subductible when it impinged on the convergent southern margin of the Superior Craton in late Archean time, and it may have accommodated to convergent-margin stresses by dividing into blocks and shear zones capable of independent movement.

  8. Crustal anisotropy in the Archean Minnesota River Valley Subprovince and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelin, A.; Ferre, E. C.; Teyssier, C.

    2007-12-01

    The origin and evolution of the American continental lithosphere is a key question addressed by EarthScope. The Superior Province formed as an amalgamation of Archean/ Proterozoic terranes that subsequently acted as a stabilizing nucleus. This province is characterized by a strong seismic anisotropy (SWS = 1.3 s) of unknown origin. As suggested for the Archean Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), this could be attributed (1) to current asthenospheric flow, or (2) to fossil lithospheric anisotropy, or (3) to the role of lithospheric keels on modern asthenospheric flow. The first hypothesis is not favored because SWS data for the Superior Province do not fit global mantle flow models. The second hypothesis would be compatible with obliquity between lithospheric mantle and crustal seismic anisotropies, possibly due to oblique docking. The third hypothesis would require asthenospheric flow to be controlled by lithospheric block geometry. The origin of seismic anisotropy and its spatial variations need to be determined to test these hypotheses. The deployment of USArray in the Superior Province in FY10, along with the prospect of deployment of a Flexible Array and the GeoFrame Superior focus area should provide a wealth of seismic data. Yet, the contribution of the Archean-early Proterozoic continental crust to seismic anisotropy is unknown. This study focusses on the Minnesota River Valley (MRV) Subprovince, part of the Superior Province. The MRV Subprovince consists of four juxtaposed blocks (Benson, Montevideo, Morton and Jeffers) of amphibolite to granulite grade migmatites, tonalites, granodiorites, diorites and pelitic rocks interlayered into each other. These blocks are separated by EW-dipping shear zones broadly parallel to SWS observations. In other parts of the world, the crustal seismic anisotropy is generally considered to be modest (SWS = 0.1-0.2 s), although experiments specifically designed to constrain it are scarce. The MRV represents a 200 km-wide, tilted

  9. P-T-t path for the Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain and Cross Lake Subprovince, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezger, K.; Bohlen, S. R.; Hanson, G. N.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale was outlined for constructing pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) paths by using U-Pb dating of garnet produced in thermobarometrically sensitive reactions. In an example from the Pikwitonei granulites of the Northwestern Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, garnets were formed at 2744-2742 Ma, 2700-2689 Ma, and 2605-2590 Ma, the latter events coinciding with times recorded by U-Pb zircon systems. Garnet grew during metamorphism at 6.5 kbar, 630 to 750 C and later at 7.2 to 7.5 kbar, 800 C; the later metamorphism apparently did not exceed the U-Pb closure temperature. The resultant P-T-t path is counterclockwise, with late isobaric cooling, interpreted to result from magmatic heating at an Andean margin.

  10. Structural and alteration controls on gold mineralization the of the amphibolite facies Detour Lake Deposit, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosq, Renelle; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    The 15M oz Detour Lake deposit is a Neoarchean orogenic gold ore body located in the northern most region of the Abitibi district within the Superior Province. The mine is an open pit design in the high strain zone of the Sunday Lake Deformation Zone (SLDZ). The ductile-brittle SLDZ parallels the broadly E-W Abitibi greenstone belt and the deposit is situated in a dilation zone between volcanoclastic rocks of the Caopatina Assemblage and Lower Detour Lake Formation, consisting of ultramafic talc-chlorite-sericite schist. The Upper Detour Lake Formation consists of pillowed and massive flows and hyloclastic units crosscut by minor felsic to intermediate dykes. All of the formations are sub-vertical, north-dipping units with stretching lineations indicating dip-slip motion. The Detour deposit differs from other classic ore deposits in the dominantly greenschist facies Abitibi Subprovince by possessing an amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblage of actinolite-biotite-plagioclase-almandine. Consequently, the typical indicator minerals used to identify alteration and mineralization, such as secondary biotite, may not be useful. Petrological and geochemical analyses have revealed at least four populations of biotite: 1) large euhedral crystals located within quartz-carbonate veins, 2) small, euhedral zoned crystals present as alteration haloes, 3) very small, anhedral to subhedral indistinct crystal present in mafic volcanic host rock, and 4) large euhedral crystals defining the main metamorphic foliation in the metasediments. Extensive examination of mineral assemblages, alteration products, and vein structure in rock core across barren and mineralized zones has documented over a dozen vein types which can be grouped into two main categories: 1) sulfidized quartz-carbonate veins associated with biotite alteration and 2) late carbonate veins. Gold grades do not prove to be dependent on vein type but rather on the host rock composition: the highest ore grades are present

  11. Determinants of Electricity Consumption Intensity in China: Analysis of Cities at Subprovince and Prefecture Levels in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Xia, X. H.; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well. PMID:22927781

  12. Evaluation of garnet-biotite geothermometers by trend surface analysis: application to the English Rive subprovince, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, D.; Chipera, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The eastern Lac Seul region of the English River Subprovince (ERSP), Ontario, contains upper amphibolite/granultie facies metasediments. Widespread occurrences of garnet-biotite in pelites and psammites permit application of Gt-Bi thermometry over a 20,000 sq. km area. Trend surface analysis permits estimation of the accuracy and precision of the numerous calibrations of Gt-Bi thermometers presently available, and provides a statistical analysis of regional temperature variations. Temperatures obtained from 90 garnet cores and matrix biotites showed almost identical regional trends, regardless of the calibration used. The absolute temperature values, and the amounts of imprecision resulting from each calibration do vary greatly, however. Geothermometers based solely on 1nK/sub d/ were found to give more consistent and precise temperatures than calibrations that attempted to incorporate the effects of diluents. The Perchuk and Lavrent'eva (1983) thermometer yields the most precise and accurate results. Metamorphism and migmatization of the ERSP occurred during the Kenoran orogeny, 2.68 BYA. A thermal anticline has been preserved, with temperatures of approximately 600/sup 0/C at the north and south contacts with the Uchi and Wabigoon greenstone belts, increasing to approximately 750/sup 0/C at the center of the subprovince. A garnet-cordierite in isograd occurs at about 675/sup 0/C, and an orthopyroxene isograd at about 700/sup 0/C. Trend surface analysis is an excellent statistical tool for evaluating geothermometers and geobarometers. Application to feldspar and oxide temperatures form the Adirondacks suggests precision of +/-40/sup 0/C.

  13. Using the Abitibi Greenstone Belt to understand Martian hydrothermal systems and the potential for biosignature preservation in high temperature aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; Abelson, J.; Allwood, A.; Anderson, R. B.; Atkinson, B.; Beaty, D.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hand, K. P.; Halevy, I.; Knoll, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Milliken, R.; Russell, M.; Stolper, D. A.; Stolper, E. M.; Tosca, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    Impact and magmatic driven hydrothermal systems have long been postulated to exist on Mars. Recent observations of high-temperature mineral associations, e.g., smectite-chlorite-carbonate-serpentine, provide evidence consistent with the presence of hydrothermal environments in the ancient Martian rock record. In light of these discoveries, it is instructive to examine fossil hydrothermal systems on Earth to better understand the conditions under which putative Martian hydrothermal mineral assemblages may have formed. Such investigations may prove to be important in the era of Mars Sample Return, as we possess little scientific understanding of the biosignature preservation potential of ancient terrestrial hydrothermal systems. Motivated by these issues, the Agouron Institute organized a Geobiology Field School in July, 2011 to study the 2.7 Ga Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario, CA. The Abitibi hosts world-renowned economic volcanogenic massive sulfide mineral deposits, and is characterized by a rich suite of lithologies emplaced predominantly in sub-oceanic settings, including komatiites, basalts, and rhyolitic volcanic rocks and banded iron formation, most of which have been hydrothermally altered, remineralized, and tectonically deformed under greenschist facies conditions. During a 10-day excursion to the Abitibi, guided by the Ontario Geological Survey, our team examined these assemblages, performed in-situ analyses using field portable active mid-IR and reflectance VIS-NIR spectrometers, an X-ray diffractometer, and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to inform an extensive sampling campaign. These samples have been returned to our laboratories for in-depth analysis. We will report on the outcome of our field campaign and discuss the unique opportunity provided by examination of the Abitibi to compare and contrast the effects of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization on an ocean planet with an active biosphere to a planet where the presence of large, long

  14. Evolution of Palaeoproterozoic mafic intrusions located within the thermal aureole of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Canada: Isotopic, geochronological and geochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevec, Stephen A.; Baadsgaard, Halfdan

    2005-07-01

    Impact cratering and their resultant geological phenomena are recognised as significant factors in the lithological and biologic evolution of the earth. Age-dating of impact events is critical in correlating cause and effects for these catastrophic processes. The Falconbridge and Drury Township (Twp) intrusions were emplaced at the contact between Neoarchaean basement and Palaeoproterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks, and also lie at the southeast and southwest edges of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), within its thermal contact aureole. The Falconbridge Twp intrusion is dated at 2441 ± 3 Ma by U-Pb zircon, with evidence of Archaean inheritance from its host granitoids. Granitoids from the southernmost Abitibi Subprovince are dated here between 2670 ± 11 Ma for an undeformed Algoman granite, and 2696 ± 18 Ma for a foliated granitoid, consistent with existing data from the Abitibi Greenstone Belt and from the Wawa Subprovince. Major and trace element geochemical evidence, common-Pb isotopic compositions, and ɛNd2440 values between 0 and -1 are all consistent with a Palaeoproterozoic origin for the Falconbridge Twp intrusion, and support inclusion in the East Bull Lake-type suite of leucogabbroic plutons and sills. In contrast, the Drury Twp intrusion gives a U-Pb zircon age of 1859 ± 13 Ma, coincident with the date of SIC-emplacement. While the major and trace element compositions are comparable to the Falconbridge data, the Drury displays significant heterogeneity in ɛNd2440, with values ranging from +3.7 to -0.1, and contains more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions. Field, geochemical and isotopic evidence clearly distinguishes this intrusion from constituents of the SIC itself, and indicates that the Drury too is a Palaeoproterozoic intrusion. This requires that apparently unshocked, undeformed magmatic-looking zircon has been grown or reset in a postmagmatic setting. This has significant implications for the identification of mantle-derived magmas and

  15. Prevalence and determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain: a postal survey of physicians in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec

    PubMed Central

    St-Amant, Huguette; Ware, Mark A.; Julien, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have been conducted to explore physicians’ prescription practices and attitudes toward the use of cannabinoids in Canada.We measured the prevalence and identified determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain among physicians in southwestern Quebec. Methods In February 2013, we conducted a postal survey using a modified Dillman method that involved physicians practising in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify determinants of cannabinoid prescription. Results A total of 166 physicians of 318 practising in the region participated in the survey (response rate 52.2%). The prevalence of cannabinoid prescription was 27.3% (45/165) for any indication and 23.0% (38/165) for the management of chronic noncancer pain; 91.1% (41/45) of the physicians prescribed cannabinoids to 5 or fewer patients. Of the 38 physicians who prescribed cannabinoids for chronic noncancer pain, 35 (92.1%) prescribed nabilone, 7 (18.4%) medical marijuana and 2 (5.3%) nabiximols. The principal determinant of cannabinoid prescription was the physician’s level of comfort with prescribing cannabinoids (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.55, per 1-point increase in comfort level measured on 10-point scale). Respondents reported that continuing medical education (CME) activities could increase their comfort level. They also indicated a need for guidelines or algorithms that included cannabinoid use as well as more studies about the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids for the management of chronic noncancer pain. Interpretation We found that cannabinoids were not often prescribed for the management of chronic noncancer pain and that survey respondents were not comfortable with prescribing this drug class. This degree of discomfort could be addressed by CME activities, more effective dissemination of guidelines and more evidence regarding cannabinoid

  16. Garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry: refinement and application to the English River subprovince and the Minnesota River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Dexter; Chipera, Steve J.

    1985-03-01

    > Enlish River subprovince, Ontario 4.7 5.4 Furua Complex, Tanzania 10.8 10.6 Granite Falls, Minnesota 5.3 6.9 Huntley-Portsoy, Scotland 3.8 4.1 Inarijärvi Complex, Finland 6.0 6.7 Indian Shield 8.9 9.5 Kapuskasing Zone, Ontario 7.8 8.2 Lachnagar, Scotland 3.9 2.6 Molodezhnaya Station, Antartica 7.1 7.5 Nain Province, Labrador

  17. Intra-sill magmatic evolution in the Cummings Complex, Abitibi greenstone belt: Tholeiitic to calc-alkaline magmatism recorded in an Archaean subvolcanic conduit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, Jean H.; Leclerc, François; Harris, Lyal B.; Goulet, Normand

    2009-07-01

    The stratigraphy of the Abitibi greenstone belt in the Chibougamau area (southern Superior Province, Québec), is dominated by 2 cycles of mafic-felsic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks constituting the Roy Group, which is riddled by metagabbroic sills (25%). The Doré Lake Complex (DLC, 2728 Ma) is emplaced into the lower Roy Group. The Cummings Complex sills (2717 Ma) were injected between the Bruneau member and Blondeau Formations of the 2nd Roy Group cycle. The sills of the Cummings Complex (Roberge, Ventures and Bourbeau Sills) contain metaperidotite, metapyroxenite, metagabbro and metagranophyric facies. The trace element contents of melts in equilibrium with these metacumulate rocks were calculated and are compared to Roy Group lavas to clarify the regional magmatic history. Many DLC model melts have fractionated trace element profiles, with LILE-LREE-enrichment, HREE-depletion, and negative Nb-Ta-anomalies suggesting that the DLC formed largely from calc-alkaline melts extracted from garnet-bearing residues. The DLC is coeval with, and shows geochemical resemblances to Waconichi Formation tuffs (the felsic cap of the 1st Roy Group cycle), suggesting it could represent the Waconichi's shallow magma chamber. Meta-anorthosite rafts from the para-autochtonous zone of the Grenville province yield model melts closely resembling those of the DLC and are correlated on this basis. Most Roy Group sills yield model melts with trace element patterns typical of Archaean tholeiites, suggesting they fed the regionally-dominant tholeiitic volcanic plain lavas of the Roy Group. Models for the Cummings Complex imply that it contained two types of magma. Model melts from the Roberge Sill have strongly fractionated calc-alkaline-like trace element patterns, while those of the Ventures and Bourbeau Sills are mostly flat, N-MORB-normalized tholeiitic-like patterns that cannot be derived from the Roberge Sill melts by fractional crystallization. The Roberge Sill must have a

  18. Petrology of the Rainy Lake area, Minnesota, USA-implications for petrotectonic setting of the archean southern Wabigoon subprovince of the Canadian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Rainy Lake area in northern Minnesota and southwestern, Ontario is a Late Archean (2.7 Ga) granite-greenstone belt within the Wabigoon subprovince of the Canadian Shield. In Minnesota the rocks include mafic and felsic volcanic rocks, volcaniclastic, chemical sedimentary rocks, and graywacke that are intrucded by coeval gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite. New data presented here focus on the geochemistry and petrology of the Minnesota part of the Rainy Lake area. Igneous rocks in the area are bimodal. The mafic rocks are made up of three distinct suites: (1) low-TiO2 tholeiite and gabbro that have slightly evolved Mg-numbers (63-49) and relatively flat rare-earth element (REE) patterns that range from 20-8 x chondrites (Ce/YbN=0.8-1.5); (2) high-TiO2 tholeiite with evolved Mg-numbers (46-29) and high total REE abundances that range from 70-40 x chondrites (Ce/YbN=1.8-3.3), and (3) calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and geochemically similar monzodiorite and lamprophyre with primitive Mg-numbers (79-63), enriched light rare-earth elements (LREE) and depleted heavy rare-earth elements (HREE). These three suites are not related by partial melting of a similar source or by fractional crystallization of a common parental magma; they resulted from melting of heterogeneous Archean mantle. The felsic rocks are made up of two distinct suites: (1)low-Al2O3 tholeiitic rhyolite, and (2) high-Al2O3 calc-alkaline dacite and rhyolite and consanguineous tonalite. The tholeiitic felsic rocks are high in Y, Zr, Nb, and total REE that are unfractionated and have pronounced negative Eu anomalies. The calcalkaline felsic rocks are depleted in Y, Zr, and Nb, and the REE that are highly fractionated with high LREE and depleted HREE, and display moderate negative Eu anomalies. Both suites of felsic rocks were generated by partial melting of crustal material. The most reasonable modern analog for the paleotectonic setting is an immature island arc. The bimodal volcanic rocks are

  19. Petrology of the Rainy Lake area, Minnesota, USA-implications for petrotectonic setting of the archean southern Wabigoon subprovince of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Warren C.

    1990-08-01

    The Rainy Lake area in northern Minnesota and southwestern, Ontario is a Late Archean (2.7 Ga) granite-greenstone belt within the Wabigoon subprovince of the Canadian Shield. In Minnesota the rocks include mafic and felsic volcanic rocks, volcaniclastic, chemical sedimentary rocks, and graywacke that are intrucded by coeval gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite. New data presented here focus on the geochemistry and petrology of the Minnesota part of the Rainy Lake area. Igneous rocks in the area are bimodal. The mafic rocks are made up of three distinct suites: (1) low-TiO2 tholeiite and gabbro that have slightly evolved Mg-numbers (63 49) and relatively flat rare-earth element (REE) patterns that range from 20 8 x chondrites (Ce/YbN=0.8 1.5); (2) high-TiO2 tholeiite with evolved Mg-numbers (46 29) and high total REE abundances that range from 70 40 x chondrites (Ce/YbN=1.8 3.3), and (3) calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and geochemically similar monzodiorite and lamprophyre with primitive Mg-numbers (79 63), enriched light rare-earth elements (LREE) and depleted heavy rare-earth elements (HREE). These three suites are not related by partial melting of a similar source or by fractional crystallization of a common parental magma; they resulted from melting of heterogeneous Archean mantle. The felsic rocks are made up of two distinct suites: (1)low-Al2O3 tholeiitic rhyolite, and (2) high-Al2O3 calc-alkaline dacite and rhyolite and consanguineous tonalite. The tholeiitic felsic rocks are high in Y, Zr, Nb, and total REE that are unfractionated and have pronounced negative Eu anomalies. The calcalkaline felsic rocks are depleted in Y, Zr, and Nb, and the REE that are highly fractionated with high LREE and depleted HREE, and display moderate negative Eu anomalies. Both suites of felsic rocks were generated by partial melting of crustal material. The most reasonable modern analog for the paleotectonic setting is an immature island arc. The bimodal volcanic rocks are

  20. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (12th, Quebec City, Canada, March 26-27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boissonneault, Chantal, Ed.

    Papers on language research include: "L'expression de l'opposition en Latin" ("The Expression of Opposition in Latin" (Claude Begin); "Le francais de l'Abitibi: characteristiques phonetiques et origine socio-geographique des locuteurs" ("The French of Abitibi: Phonetic Characteristics and Socio-Geographic Origin of Speakers") (Chantal…

  2. ASA24-Canada-2014

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24-Canada-2014) Recall has been developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  3. Archean gold mineralization and metamorphism: timing constraints from precise U-Pb dating

    SciTech Connect

    Colvine, A.C.; Corfu, F.; Davis, D.W.; Stott, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gold mineralization is tightly constrained to an event closely following establishment of peak metamorphic condition, in all areas of the Superior Province of Canada where precise dating has been applied to defined field relationships. In the Abitibi and Wabigoon Subprovinces of the Southern Superior Domain, peak metamorphism caused by major batholith emplacement is consistently >2685 Ma and affects Archean supracrustal units of all ages (mainly >2700 Ma). Gold is commonly hosted by felsic stocks, dated at a specific age in the Abitibi Belt (2688-2684 Ma), and is therefore close to or younger than peak metamorphism. Dateable units crosscutting mineralization are extremely rare, but at Shebandowan and Mine Centre dated field relationships bracket the maximum and minimum age of mineralization between 2689 - 2684 and 2692 - 2686 Ma, respectively. While the metamorphic event in the Northern Superior Domain is approximately 20 my older, relative timing of gold mineralization is identical. At Red Lake, gold is hosted by units ranging in age from 2990-2718 Ma, all metamorphosed at >2704 Ma. Peak metamorphic minerals are retrograded by alteration during gold localization and mineralization is cut by a 2704 Ma dyke. These data show that gold mineralization was the product of a tectonic event during the latest Archean which involved major plutonism, deformation and metamorphism.

  4. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  5. Canada: Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Canada emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and graphs. Aspects of the country depicted include: geography, population, resources, international trade, government, and energy. Short texts on multiculturalism, the Canadian economy, the country's history, and U.S.-Canada relations also are included.…

  6. Canada and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights Canada's high marks in a poll on its international image in 20 countries. Asks how Canada should take advantage of its positive international image. Notes areas where Canadian foreign policy is most admired: advancement of global peace and human rights, provision of aid, and participation in international peacekeeping. (DSK)

  7. Canada's iron creek meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    An iron mass, of meteoritical origin, found on a hilltop in the southern Canadian prairies, is unique to Canadian scientific history. It is the third largest meteorite to have been found in Canada (at one time it was reported to be Canada's largest single meteorite mass). A brief historical account, and a corrected official weight (145 kilograms), of this interesting meteorite is presented.

  8. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  9. Canada thistle phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the establishment year for the experimental population. Other...

  10. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  11. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  12. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  13. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  14. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  15. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  16. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  17. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  18. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease. PMID:4541003

  19. The internal geology and emplacement history of the Renard 2 kimberlite, Superior Province, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, C. E.; Hetman, C. M.; Lepine, I.; Skelton, D. S.; McCandless, T. E.

    2009-11-01

    The Renard 2 kimberlite is located in the Otish Mountains region of Quebec, Canada and is one of the largest pipes in the Renard cluster. The cluster consists of nine kimberlite bodies and was discovered in 2001 by Ashton Mining of Canada Inc. and its joint venture partner SOQUEM Inc. Renard 2 was emplaced into Archean meta-greywacke derived migmatite, gneiss and granite of the Opinaca Subprovince of the eastern Superior Province at approximately 640.5 ± 2.8 Ma. An undetermined amount of erosion has occurred since emplacement with the present surface expression of the pipe estimated to be 0.75 ha. This kimberlite is interpreted as a steep-sided diatreme with minor irregularities in the external shape. The dominant infill is a massive volcaniclastic kimberlite (MVK) that is classified as tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (TKB) and is characterized by a high proportion of granitoid country rock xenoliths. A second dominant infill is a texturally complex, less diluted coherent kimberlite (CK) characterized locally by a transitional textures between CK and TKB. Surrounding the diatreme is a significant zone of variable width comprised of extensively brecciated country rock (+/-kimberlite) and referred to as marginal breccia. In addition to the two main rock types infilling the pipe, a number of hypabyssal kimberlite (HK) dykes and irregular shaped intrusions occur throughout the body, along the pipe contacts, within the marginal breccia and in the surrounding country rock. Geological features displayed by Renard 2 are similar to those described from Class 1 kimberlites of the Kimberley area of South Africa, the Gahcho Kué cluster of Canada and the Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field of Brazil. The economic evaluation of Renard 2 is in progress and to date has included extensive diamond and reverse circulation drilling as well as the collection of an underground bulk sample. Results from material sampled from Renard 2, including a 2449 tonne bulk sample, suggest Renard 2 has

  20. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  1. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    PubMed

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  2. Tectonic setting and evolution of late Archaean greenstone belts of Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Late Archean (3.0-2.5 Ga) greenstone belts are a major component of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield where alternating, metavolcanic - rich and metasedimentary - rich subprovinces form a prominent central striped region bordered in part by high-grade gneiss subprovinces, the Pikiwitonei and Minto in the north, and the Minnesota River Valley in the south. The high-grade gneiss subprovinces are characterized by granulite facies gneiss of plutonic and supracrustal origin, and by abundant plutonic rocks. Minnesota River Valley has rocks older than 3.5 Ga; absolute ages of Pikiwitonei and Minto rocks are unknown but Minto does have north-south structural trends distinctive from the dominant east-west structures of Superior Province. A discussion follows.

  3. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  4. Canada's population is aging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages. PMID:21464621

  5. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  6. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate. PMID:26871530

  7. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  8. Canada: irrational energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Paehlke, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    Despite energy shortages, recent weeks have seen the collapse or at least postponement of three major energy projects in Canada: the Cold Lake (Alberta) heavy oil plant, the Alsands oil sands plant, and the Alaska Highway natural gas pipeline. All have fallen victim to the combination of high interest rates and increasing doubts that oil prices will continue to rise at an annual rate of five percent in real terms. Current energy problems and policies are discussed including decline of oil reserves, expanded domestic use and export of Canadian natural gas, expansion of the nuclear energy program, demand for electricity, and energy conservation. (JMT)

  9. Women Physicists in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Austin, Roby; Bhadra, Sampa; McKenna, Janis; Xu, Li-Hong; Steinitz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the overall climate for women in academia in Canada has improved. Efforts are being made to attract girls to science at a young age. The enrollment of women across undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical sciences has increased gradually in the past decade, with a sharp increase at the graduate level. In light of a large number of upcoming retirements in academic positions, the presence of women in academia will continue to grow, supported by efforts to ensure equity in academia made by government agencies, academic institutions, and faculty associations.

  10. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  11. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  12. Education in Canada: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Paula

    This reference book provides a basic understanding of how education works in Canada, from preschool to adult education. Chapter 1 examines Canada's elementary and secondary schools and covers: (1) decision making for public schools (roles and responsibilities of provincial, local, and federal governments); (2) paying for public education (revenue…

  13. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  14. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  15. Groundwater age investigation of eskers in the Amos region, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Christine; Pinti, Daniele L.; Roy, Martin; Castro, M. Clara; Cloutier, Vincent; Blanchette, Daniel; Larocque, Marie; Hall, Chris M.; Wen, Tao; Sano, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Noble gases, in particular 3He/4He (R) ratios, were measured together with tritium activity in groundwater from eskers and moraines of the Abitibi-Temiscamingue region of northwestern Quebec (eastern Canada). These high-latitude glaciofluvial landforms contain precious freshwater resources that need to be quantified. Here we provide estimates of residence time for groundwater in glaciofluvial sediments forming the Saint-Mathieu-Berry (SMB) and Barraute eskers, the Harricana moraine and in the underlying fractured bedrock aquifer. The 3He/4He ratios range from 0.224 ± 0.012 to 1.849 ± 0.036Ra, where Ra is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio (1.386 × 10-6). These results suggest the occurrence of 3He produced by decay of tritium and terrigenic 4He produced by decay of U and Th. Calculated 3H/3He apparent ages of groundwater from the SMB esker and the Harricana moraine range from 6.6 ± 1.1 a to 32 ± 7.4 a. Terrigenic 4He (4Heterr) was found in the deeper wells of the SMB esker and in the wells tapping water from the deeper fractured aquifer located below the eskers and moraines and confined by postglacial clays. The amount of 4Heterr ranges from 3.4 × 10-9 to 2.2 × 10-6 cm3STP g-1 and shows a clear gradient with depth, suggesting addition of a 4Heterr flux entering the bottom of the eskers. Modeled 4Heterr fluxes range from 2.0 × 10-8 cm3STP cm-2 yr-1 at the Harricana moraine to 6.6 × 10-7 cm3STP cm-2 yr-1 in the southern section of the SMB esker. Calculated fluxes are highly variable and 5-165 times lower than the helium continental crustal flux, suggesting local helium sources, with helium being driven upward through preferential pathways such as local faults. Maximum U-Th/4He ages obtained for the groundwater in the fractured bedrock range from 1473 ± 300 a to 137 ± 28 ka, suggesting the occurrence of several generations of fossil meltwater trapped under the clay plain after the last two glaciations.

  16. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  17. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  19. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Canada: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  1. A Plan to Appreciate Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Yorke

    1971-01-01

    A plan is suggested for establishing a chain of ecology-wildlife interpretation centers throughout Canada emphasizing regional interpretation of the landscape. Wye Marsh Wildlife Center, Midland, Ontario, is described in detail. (BL)

  2. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  3. Sustainable health care for Canada.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J; Angus, D; Albert, T

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable Health Care For Canada is a synthesis of the research findings of the Cost-Effectiveness of the Canadian Health Care System Project initiated by the Economic Council of Canada. Upon the council's closing, the team moved to become part of the Queen's-University of Ottawa Economic Projects to complete the research. During the project, 18 working papers were produced, in addition to the research report and the synthesis report. In this article, the authors provide an overview of this large-scale research program and highlight some of its key findings. PMID:10140965

  4. Volcanological constraints of Archaean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, P. C.; Ayres, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanological and trace element geochemical data can be integrated to place some constraints upon the size, character and evolutionary history of Archean volcanic plumbing, and hence indirectly, Archean tectonics. The earliest volcanism in any greenhouse belt is almost universally tholeitic basalt. Archean mafic magma chambers were usually the site of low pressure fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and later Cpx + or - an oxide phase during evolution of tholeitic liquids. Several models suggest basalt becoming more contaminated by sial with time. Data in the Uchi Subprovince shows early felsic volcanics to have fractionated REE patterns followed by flat REE pattern rhyolites. This is interpreted as initial felsic liquids produced by melting of a garnetiferous mafic source followed by large scale melting of LIL-rich sial. Rare andesites in the Uchi Subprovince are produced by basalt fractionation, direct mantle melts and mixing of basaltic and tonalitic liquids. Composite dikes in the Abitibi Subprovince have a basaltic edge with a chill margin, a rhyolitic interior with no basalt-rhyolite chill margin and partially melted sialic inclusions. Ignimbrites in the Uchi and Abitibi Subprovinces have mafic pumice toward the top. Integration of these data suggest initial mantle-derived basaltic liquids pond in a sialic crust, fractionate and melt sial. The inirial melts low in heavy REE are melts of mafic material, subsequently melting of adjacent sial produces a chamber with a felsic upper part underlain by mafic magma.

  5. Canada's Highly Qualified Manpower Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. G.; And Others

    The purpose of this report is to assemble basic statistics on highly qualified manpower resources in Canada, especially focusing on scientists and engineers, for the development of policies and research in this field. The economic background contributing to the growth of the white-collar and professional labor force is discussed, and the roles of…

  6. Registration of 'Homestead' Canada Wildrye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Homestead’ ( PI 655522) Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis L.) was developed cooperatively by USDA-ARS and the University of Nebraska and was released in 2008 for use in the Great Plains and the Midwest USA. It was developed using the Ecotype Selection Breeding System from a collection made in a r...

  7. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  8. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  9. Teaching Composition Theory in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience of teaching composition theory on the graduate level at a Canadian university. Explains that there are only two rhetoric and composition programs in Canada and that, generally, Canadian universities have been slow to make the transition from neocolonialism to postcolonialism. (TB)

  10. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  11. The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, D. Bruce; Lussier, Antoine S.

    The Metis appeared early on the pages of Canada's history, were a major determinant in the westward expansion of the nation, and are still a significant segment of modern Canadian society. This book (1) traces their origin and their slow evolution to nationhood; (2) examines the Golden Age; (3) describes the battles won and lost with the nation of…

  12. Women in physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  13. Toxic shock syndrome in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, A. J.; Peacocke, J. E.; Ewan, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1976, 53 confirmed or suspected cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) have been reported in Canada. Twenty-two cases occurred in 1980, and by October 1981 another 21 had been reported. In Canada, like the United States, where nearly 1200 cases have been recorded, TSS appears to be associated with tampon use, although a few cases have occurred in males and in nonmenstruating women. Of the 53 patients 3 died. The enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus is probably responsible for TSS. Manufacturers of tampons have now placed warning labels on tampon boxes and information on TSS in the instruction inserts. Women should select tampons of appropriate absorbency for the various stages of menstruation. PMID:7042059

  14. Ottawa, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes.

  15. Women in Physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  16. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  17. Education of pharmacists in Canada.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zubin; Ensom, Mary H H

    2008-12-15

    In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948

  18. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  19. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  20. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  1. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  2. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  3. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  4. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  5. An Update on School Choice in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article gives an update on school choice in Canada. Currently, school choice in Canada is stable. Provincialism, in both senses of the word, is a major factor in Canadian political life. There is no contradiction between Ontario's recent electoral rejection of the extension of funding to non-Catholic religious schools, and the strong support…

  6. Indians: An Introduction to Canada's Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Hope

    An introduction to Canada Natives briefly identifies the seven different culture areas which existed in Canada before the white man came, and the Indian tribes who lived in those areas. The booklet then gives more extensive description of the history and culture of the Huron (farmers of the Eastern Woodlands), the Blackfoot (Plains), the Ojibwa…

  7. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  8. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  9. Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

  10. Illiteracy and Adult Literacy Teaching in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Serge

    1985-01-01

    In Canadian society there are people who are totally illiterate, and they are all the more conscious of their illiteracy as a personal weakness because most of the population is literate. Literacy teaching and practices in Canada are discussed. Illiteracy in Canada and in the third world is also compared. (RM)

  11. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

  12. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    PubMed

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives. PMID:12335577

  13. Energy reality and future projections for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dincer, I.; Dost, S.; Li, X.

    1997-04-01

    Energy is of great importance in the Canadian economy. Canada is not only the world`s largest consumer of energy per capita, but is also a major energy producer, including significant amounts for export. Technology has altered the way Canadians produce and consume energy, increasing the diversity of energy sources, i.e., natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids, coal, hydro, nuclear, and renewables and others. In this article a detailed investigation is carried out to analyze the present situation of Canada`s energy resources in terms of energy production and consumption and sectoral energy uses, and simple and effective correlations for their future projections are provided.

  14. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  15. [Colorectal carcinoma in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J

    2001-05-01

    We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916

  16. New statistical downscaling for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, T. Q.; Cannon, A. J.; Sobie, S.

    2013-12-01

    This poster will document the production of a set of statistically downscaled future climate projections for Canada based on the latest available RCM and GCM simulations - the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2007) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The main stages of the project included (1) downscaling method evaluation, (2) scenarios selection, (3) production of statistically downscaled results, and (4) applications of results. We build upon a previous downscaling evaluation project (Bürger et al. 2012, Bürger et al. 2013) in which a quantile-based method (Bias Correction/Spatial Disaggregation - BCSD; Werner 2011) provided high skill compared with four other methods representing the majority of types of downscaling used in Canada. Additional quantile-based methods (Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogues; Maurer et al. 2010 and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint ; Hunter and Meentemeyer 2005) were evaluated. A subset of 12 CMIP5 simulations was chosen based on an objective set of selection criteria. This included hemispheric skill assessment based on the CLIMDEX indices (Sillmann et al. 2013), historical criteria used previously at the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (Werner 2011), and refinement based on a modified clustering algorithm (Houle et al. 2012; Katsavounidis et al. 1994). Statistical downscaling was carried out on the NARCCAP ensemble and a subset of the CMIP5 ensemble. We produced downscaled scenarios over Canada at a daily time resolution and 300 arc second (~10 km) spatial resolution from historical runs for 1951-2005 and from RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 projections for 2006-2100. The ANUSPLIN gridded daily dataset (McKenney et al. 2011) was used as a target. It has national coverage, spans the historical period of interest 1951-2005, and has daily time resolution. It uses interpolation of station data based on thin-plate splines. This type of method has been shown to have

  17. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  18. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  19. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  20. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  2. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  3. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  4. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  5. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  6. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  7. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  8. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  9. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  10. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  11. Zn isotope fractionation in the komatiitic and tholeiitic lava flows of Fred's flow and Theo's flow (Ontario, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattielli, N. D.; Haenecour, P.; Debaille, V.

    2010-12-01

    Komatiites are subvolcanic or volcanic ultramafic rocks characterized by a high MgO content (>18 wt%) usually but not systematically associated to a spinifex texture. Komatiites are nearly exclusively Archean in age and essentially found in the greenstone belts of the oldest cratons, although some rare Proterozoic and Cretaceous examples are also known. Komatiitic flows are commonly associated with tholeiitic lavas, which have many petrological, textural and geochemical similarities with komatiites. We present new high-precision MC-ICPMS Zinc isotopic data for the komatiitic lavas of Fred’s flow and the associated tholeiitic lavas of Theo’s flow from Munro Township in the 2.7 Ga Abitibi greenstone belt (Ontario, Canada). Zinc isotopes show a significant shift between Fred’s flow (mean δ66Zn = +0.30±0.04‰ (2SD)) and Theo’s flow samples (mean δ66Zn = +0.39±0.03‰ (1)). In addition, the two flows show a systematic shift in δ66Zn between the ultrabasic level at the bottom of the sequence (= +0.51± 0.04‰ and +0.47±0.04‰ for Fred’s Flow and Theo’s Flow, respectively) and the rest of the pile (Δ = 0.21±0.01‰). According to the literature, processes of secondary alteration may cause Zn isotope fractionation. However, petrographic data indicate a slight alteration fingerprint while the geochemical study (whole rock and in-situ) shows no remobilization of HFSE and REE by secondary alteration (low-grade metamorphism and/or hydrothermal alteration). In addition, if similar levels of alteration affected the two lava flows, the alteration process cannot explain the difference of δ66Zn between Fred’s and Theo’s flows. Alternatively, this isotopic difference can be interpreted as reflecting either source effects or mineral fractionation related to spinel crystallization. The correlation between the δ66Zn values and the Cr bulk concentrations may suggest fractionation effects of Zn isotopes by the crystallization of spinel minerals. However, the

  12. Federal Support of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waines, W. J.

    The purpose of this report is to help the people and governments of Canada face the financial problems of university development over the next decade. The report deals with: (1) enrollment projections of Canada's universities and colleges; (2) projection of operating expenditures; (3) projection of capital expenditures; (4) estimated total…

  13. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  14. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  15. NEPTUNE Canada Community Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S.; Bornhold, B.; Barnes, C.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2006-05-01

    In 2007 NEPTUNE Canada will install the first stage of a regional cabled observatory (RCO) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Stage 2 of the RCO is being developed by the US-based ORION Project Office, through the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI). For Stage 1, a 800km fiber-optic cable will loop out from a shore station on Vancouver Island to the Juan de Fuca volcanic spreading ridge. Two seafloor nodes are planned, one to support studies of tectonic and hydrothermal activity on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the other for investigation of a broad range of processes in Barkley Canyon, on the continental slope of Vancouver Island. Each node will provide power and Ethernet communications to instruments that comprise multi-disciplinary community science experiments. These experiments were developed through a 2-year series of workshops and a final competition. Data from all instruments will be available on-line, through the NEPTUNE data management and archive system. Investigations at the Endeavour node will focus on links between seismic activity and hydrothermal emissions and their resulting impact on hydrothermal vent organisms and regional oceanic circulation and geochemical fluxes. This area provides a number of technical challenges, including the laying of the backbone cable over a volcanic terrain, and the placement of instruments and extension cables in areas of abundant high-temperature venting. Planned instruments include broad-band seismometers, acoustic Doppler current meters, video and digital still cameras and chemical sensors. Experiments at the Barkley Canyon site will emphasis the effects of water currents passing through the canyon, and seismic activity. Combined biological and physical oceanographic instruments will monitor the interaction between sediment transport along the axis of the canyon and the bioturbation activity of the fauna. A combined physical/biological experiment in the water column

  16. Primary health care nurse practitioners in Canada.

    PubMed

    DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne

    2007-08-01

    Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990

  17. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    PubMed

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291896

  18. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  19. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  20. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  1. Work-Related Child Care in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Margie I.

    This study provides information on work-related child care programs and services in Canada today. In an overview of the subject, Chapter 1 discusses the criteria used to select programs for presentation in the study; defines work-related child care; and examines the increasing number of women in the workplace and the adaptation of the workplace to…

  2. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  3. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  4. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  5. Health Status of Older Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, K. Bruce; Filice, John K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged 55[thorn]) immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to…

  6. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  7. Sport in Canada During the Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappage, Ronald S.

    The author discusses the effect of the Great Depression upon sport in Canada. The difficulties of hockey and football teams are contrasted with the success of professional wrestling, horseracing, and bicycling. The economic plight of professional players who were not allowed to return to the "amateur" rank is discussed. Increased participation in…

  8. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G.; Gesy, Karen M.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids. PMID:23017505

  9. Careers Canada. Volume 3, Mechanical Repair Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the third of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in mechanical repair occupations. The pamphlet is divided into eight major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of work; (3) nature of work (this section is subdivided into automotive repair…

  10. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  11. New Markets for Private Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice; Quirke, Linda

    2002-01-01

    While provincial governments in Canada are increasingly regulating public schools in the name of accountability, more parents are choosing unregulated tutoring businesses or "new sector" private schools. Reasons include a competitive edge, an emphasis on cognitive development, a more personalized environment due to small teacher-student ratios,…

  12. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  13. Some Issues in Bilingual Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    The basic language issues in Canada are two-fold: (1) French-Canadians are making serious attempts to maintain their native language and culture, and a move towards French unilingualism is apparent; (2) English-Canadians are showing increasing interest in becoming bilingual, mainly because they are not threatened by native language loss or by…

  14. Language and Ethnic Relations in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberson, Stanley

    This study of contact between the French and English language groups in Canada is based on an ecological approach, emphasizing factors such as population composition, residential patterns, occupational pressures and age and sex differences rather than cultural or psychological ones. Part 1 begins with a general discussion of the problems of…

  15. Minority Language Education Rights in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar N.

    1994-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada has ensured that provincial legislatures are under a compulsory obligation to take measures to provide whatever type and level of rights and services are appropriate for minority-language education for the particular number of pupils involved. (MLF)

  16. Teenage Pregnancy in Canada and Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith; Forget, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, there were 36 694 known pregnancies in Canada among women aged 15 to 19. Although the Canadian teenage pregnancy rate decreased from 1980 to 1987, it remains three times higher than that of the industrialized country with the lowest rate. Health professionals, social workers, and educators can have an important role in preventing teenage pregnancy. PMID:21229025

  17. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  18. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  19. Health claims on foods in Canada.

    PubMed

    L'abbé, Mary R; Dumais, Lydia; Chao, Eunice; Junkins, Beth

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the health effects of foods by both industry and consumers has put a spotlight on the role of health claims on foods in Canada. The current regulatory framework governing the use of different health claims on foods in Canada is described and compared with international approaches. Similarities were observed in how risk-reduction claims for serious diseases are managed in the United States, European Union and proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, including the need for premarket authorization and the requirement for a high level of certainty based on the totality of evidence in substantiating this type of claim. However, approaches to permitting function claims other than those for the well-established functions of known nutrients are divergent among the jurisdictions compared. Canada also differs from other jurisdictions in not establishing core nutritional criteria for foods carrying disease risk-reduction claims. A brief overview of the status in Canada of a number of disease risk-reduction claims that have been approved in the United States, based on significant scientific agreement under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act or through authoritative statements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, is also provided. PMID:18492861

  20. Historical Writing on Native People in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of native Canadian history. Because of more adequate available documentation, findings showed the most extensive work was on European-Indian contacts resulting from the fur trade. The author cites the need for more work on individual Indian cultural histories as well as a good general history of Canada's indigenous groups.…

  1. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  2. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have demonstrated the suitability of satellite retransmission as a means of obtaining near real time data from remote areas in Canada. Capital costs of the equipment installed at a gaging station are reasonable, and indications are that the DCPs do not require much maintenance. The potential impact on water resources data gathering activities is considerable.

  3. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  4. Careers Canada. Volume 2, Clerical Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the second of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in clerical occupations. The pamphlet is divided into nine major parts: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of employment; (3) nature of the work (this is subdivided into the secretarial group, the…

  5. Petrified Campus: The Crisis in Canada's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercuson, David; Bothwell, Robert; Granatstein, J. L.

    This book, which examines Canada's university system in the 1990s, is a follow-up to a 1984 book that was critical of Canadian undergraduate education. Educational finance, college admission standards, gender and racial issues, tenure, academic freedom, and scholarly writing and publishing are among the topics discussed. The charges against the…

  6. International Reports on Literary Research: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research recently conducted by three Canadian researchers that involves professional practice, multicultural education, and media literacies. Details three very different studies focused on young children, providing evidence of the rich variety of research currently being undertaking in western Canada. (PM)

  7. Careers Canada. Volume 1, Careers in Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the first of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in construction. The pamphlet is divided into six major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) nature of the work, including planning, contracting, site preparation, roofing, finishing, plumbing; (3)…

  8. Teacher Quality in Canada. SAEE Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan M.

    This report examines the impact of teacher quality on student achievement in Canada, analyzing current research, practices, and innovations to provide a better understanding of the complexity of teaching and effective teacher deployment. The nine chapters focus on: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Indicators of Teacher Quality" (defining teacher quality…

  9. Education in Canada. Reference Series No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Dept. of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Each province in Canada has executive constitutional responsibility for education within its boundaries, so a single national system of education has not developed. Instead, there are distinct provincial systems that differ in organization, policies, and practices. This booklet describes those features of Canadian education common to most…

  10. Career Development in Canada: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Ralph

    In Canada, responsibility for the career development delivery system is divided among federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government. Education comes under provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Career development varies across provinces and often from school to school. There are eight transition points throughout the school…

  11. VEGETATION AND POLLEN RELATIONSHIP IN EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between the vegetation and modern pollen assemblages in eastern Canada is summarized and analyzed using isopoll maps, ordination, and cluster analysis. he major vegetation zones recognized in the region are the shrub tundra, forest tundra (divided into shrub and ...

  12. Production Systems and Rural Development in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Peter R.

    The paper examines the social structure of Canada's agricultural production. It argues that "the official development strategy is typical of state involvement in maturing capitalist economies and that, in so far as these policies are successful, they bring to an end small scale production of primary products by absorbing rural people into an…

  13. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  14. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  15. Immigrant and refugee children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Beiser, M; Dion, R; Gotowiec, A; Hyman, I; Vu, N

    1995-03-01

    In view of Canada's commitment to immigration, understanding the sources of successful adaptation by immigrant and refugee children is vital. This paper reviews the literature on the mental health of migrant children and suggests an agenda for future research. PMID:7788620

  16. What Happened to Charter Schools in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, charter schools have held a precarious existence in Canada. Implemented in the province of Alberta in 1994, only a handful of charter schools remain in the entire nation. In this article, I explore the ideas of school choice and charter schooling and how they have largely disappeared as educational policy issues for Canadians. While…

  17. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  18. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  19. A New College Challenges Canada's Public Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchard, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a brand-new liberal-arts university which promises a different approach to teaching. Quest University is the first private, nonprofit, secular college in Canada. It has attracted professors with stellar credentials. Of its 79 freshmen, most are graduates of the rigorous International Baccalaureate high-school program, and…

  20. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

  1. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  2. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  3. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit...

  4. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  5. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  6. Labor Standards in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Richard N.; Roberts, Karen; Clarke, R. Oliver

    This volume attempts to measure and quantify 10 labor standards in the United States and Canada. Its two purposes are to begin to fill the gap in the research by developing a measure of labor standards that can be applied across countries and to apply that measure to the United States (U.S.) and Canada to test a popular hypothesis that Canada has…

  7. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit...

  8. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  9. Canada: Unity in Diversity. Headline Series. No. 291.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Charles, F.; Tang, Puay

    This document examines the historical, political and geographical status of Canada, its distribution of power, the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement of 1989, and Canada's relations with the United States. The Meech Lake accord, a proposal designed to establish Quebec more firmly under the constitutional umbrella by granting the province distinct…

  10. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  11. Progress Towards IYA2009 in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Canada Committee, IYA

    2007-12-01

    We want Canadians to reconnect with the night sky through seven themes identified for national focus during IYA. Our overarching goal is to offer an engaging astronomy experience to every Canadian, with special efforts towards young people. Our partnership between the Canadian Astronomical Society, the Fédération des Astronomes Amateurs du Québec and the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada is bolstered by diverse national collaborators, e.g., planetarium and science centre communities, a national broadcaster, Canada's Aboriginal communities, the National Research Council and the Canadian Space Agency. Canada's amateur astronomers are committing magnificently to IYA and will be key to meeting our ambitious vision. We describe our themes, as well as progress towards their realization. Our vision involves many elements in common with U.S. plans, with mutual benefits arising from good liaison between the AAS and Canadian Committees. Naturally, our team is addressing responsibilities and opportunities unique to Canada. Our efforts are led by volunteers. Through programmes that create a legacy, we seek strong impact beyond 2009. We are providing activities accessible in both French and English, and are striving to leverage and strengthen existing outreach efforts wherever possible (thus avoiding reinventing the wheel and maximizing the impact of our limited resources). We are encouraging individuals to take local initiative, and are offering them moral support within the national context provided by our steering committee, as well as within the context provided by the IAU. Among examples that are described are strong efforts to involve Canada's Aboriginals, musical and arts organizations, etc., as well as our efforts to secure national exposure through, e.g., a series of postal stamps.

  12. Canada's Kids: Thriving? Or Just Surviving? = Les enfants du Canada: Se developpent-ils bien ou vivotent-ils simplement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Donna, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This quarterly journal issue (in English and French versions) includes the following articles: (1) "Canada's Kids: Thriving? Or Just Surviving?" (McCloskey, Donna), an overview of the latest research on the well-being of Canada's children; (2) "The Fence at the Edge of the Cliff: Approaching Family Policy in Canada" (Mirabelli, Alan), which…

  13. Bursal depths of lesser snow and small Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1969-01-01

    Bursa of Fabricius depths of 88 lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and 69 small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii/parvipes complex) were measured. Bursal depths were unreliable indicators of age-classes of lesser snow geese and small Canada geese; previously, the same had been found to be true for large Canada geese (B. c. interior). Regression in size or closure of the bursa first occurred at 17-20 months of age (yearlings) in lesser snow geese and small Canada geese, but at 29-32 months of age (2-year-olds) in large Canada geese.

  14. Human botulism in Canada (1919-1973)

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1919, in Canada, 62 authenticated outbreaks of human botulism have affected 181 persons, with 83 deaths, a fatality rate of 46%. Among these, 41 outbreaks were bacteriologically determined (31 in one laboratory) as six type A, four type B, one both A and B, and 30 type E. About two thirds of the total outbreaks, cases and deaths involved Eskimos and Pacific coast Indians consuming raw marine mammal products and salmon eggs, respectively. Other parts of Canada recorded seven occurrences due to miscellaneous vehicles, three being type B. Since January 1961 there have been 38 outbreaks, involving 94 cases with 33 deaths. These include 18 outbreaks among Eskimos, affecting 51 persons (of whom 24 died) in Labrador, southern Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and the Mackenzie area. Also, putrid salmon eggs caused 15 outbreaks among Pacific coast Indians, totalling 35 cases, of whom only six died, the low fatality rate reflecting the introduction of type E botulinus antitoxin during 1961. PMID:4855671

  15. Mental hospital depopulation in Canada: patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herman, N J; Smith, C M

    1989-06-01

    This paper reviews briefly the history of mental health depopulation in Canada over the past 30 years. The term "deinstitutionalization" is often used but is unsatisfactory. Using an exploratory, qualitative, methodological approach, data were collected on the problems encountered by a disproportionate, stratified random sample of 139 formerly institutionalized patients living in various geographical locales in Eastern Canada. Adopting a symbolic interactionist theoretical approach, this study, in an effort to fill a neglect in the literature, attempted to discover what the everyday world(s) of Canadian ex-mental patients was really like. Problems encountered related to stigma, poor housing, lack of back living skills, poverty, unemployment and aftercare. Quotations from patients are provided to illustrate such themes. The findings are discussed. PMID:2548698

  16. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-05-18

    This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206

  17. Canada invests in weather and climate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Canada is investing $78.7 million over the next 5 years to improve weather and climate monitoring infrastructure, Canada's minister of the environment Peter Kent announced on 20 January. The Canadian weather radar network, which consists of 31 radar sites around the country, is slated to receive the bulk of the funding ($45.2 million) to allow existing newer-generation radars to upgrade to dual-polarization technology. Of the remainder, $18.8 million is for the Canadian weather and climate observing networks to supplement existing resources and upgrade about 250 observing stations; $10.5 million is to improve the Canadian lightning detection network; and $4.2 million is to upgrade the Canadian aerological network's navigational technology with multisensor GPS radiosonde equipment.

  18. Informed consent for videoconsultations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Isabelle; Scott, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study of the practice of informed consent for videoconsultation in Canada. Fourteen cases were examined: the 13 provinces and territories, and the Federal jurisdiction representing aboriginal groups. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with key informants (14 telehealth experts, 13 legal experts). The telehealth experts were people with direct experience of telehealth practice. The majority of the telehealth experts agreed that videoconsultations had not been integrated into the health-care system. An interesting finding of the study was that the integration status of videoconsultations was not indicative of informed consent practices. Telehealth providers favoured express written consent, or risk management practices, although there was a desire to move towards implied consent models for videoconsultations. The study also showed that the legal ramifications of the electronic transmission of non-recorded, real-time, personal health information had not been explored. This represents an important factor in guiding future consent for videoconsultations in Canada. PMID:19471027

  19. Trends in ectopic pregnancy in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Hockin, J C; Jessamine, A G

    1984-01-01

    The incidence in Canada of one complication of sexually transmitted disease, ectopic pregnancy, was examined by age group for the years 1971 through 1980 by means of hospital statistics provided by Statistics Canada. The denominator was "reported pregnancies"--the total of live births, stillbirths, legal abortions and ectopic pregnancies in a given year. In 1980, 4123 ectopic pregnancies (9.3/1000 reported pregnancies) were reported, a 63% increase from 1970. The incidence had increased in each age stratum. This trend may be related to increasing rates of gonococcal infection and of hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease and lends confirmation to data from other countries that relate the increase in the rate of ectopic pregnancy to rising rates of sexually transmitted disease. PMID:6478362

  20. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  1. Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Kral, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Indigenous youth suicide incidence is high globally, and mostly involves young males. However, the Inuit of Arctic Canada have a suicide rate that is among the highest in the world (and ten times that for the rest of Canada). The author suggests that suicide increase has emerged because of changes stemming in part from the Canadian government era in the Arctic in the 1950s and 1960s. The effects of government intervention dramatically affected kin relations, roles, and responsibilities, and affinal/romantic relationships. Suicide is embedded in these relationships. The author also discusses the polarization between psychiatric and indigenous/community methods of healing, demonstrating that government-based intervention approaches to mental health are not working well, and traditional cultural healing practices often take place outside of the mainstream clinics in these communities. The main questions of the paper are: Who should control suicide prevention? What is the best knowledge base for suicide prevention? PMID:22392639

  2. Health Care Reform: Lessons From Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa Berlin

    2003-01-01

    Although Canadian health care seems to be perennially in crisis, access, quality, and satisfaction in Canada are relatively high, and spending is relatively well controlled. The Canadian model is built on a recognition of the limits of markets in distributing medically necessary care. Current issues in financing and delivering health care in Canada deserve attention. Key dilemmas include intergovernmental disputes between the federal and provincial levels of government and determining how to organize care, what to pay for (comprehensiveness), and what incentive structures to put in place for payment. Lessons for the United States include the importance of universal coverage, the advantages of a single payer, and the fact that systems can be organized on a subnational basis. PMID:12511378

  3. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  4. Seasonal variation in anencephalus in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, J M

    1975-01-01

    A study of the monthly numbers of stillbirths and of deaths due to anencephalus in Canada from 1954 to 1962 showed a weak tendency to a winter excess of affected births. The seasonal trend was more marked in the Prarie provinces and in Quebec than elsewhere; the maximum rate of anencephalus occurrence was in October to December in the Prairies and in British Columbia, and in January to March in other regions. PMID:1137766

  5. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  6. Measles in Canada Between 2002 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    De Serres, Gaston; Desai, Shalini; Shane, Amanda; Hiebert, Joanne; Ouakki, Manale; Severini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 1994, Canada committed to eliminate measles by the year 2000. This report presents the epidemiology of measles in Canada between 2002 and 2013 and its implications in sustaining measles elimination. Methods. Cases included individuals reported to the Canadian Measles and Rubella Surveillance System with confirmed measles. Results. In Canada, 1171 cases of measles were reported between 2002 and 2013 (incidence 0.29 cases per 100 000 population). The annual number of cases ranged from 6 to 752. The majority of cases were unvaccinated (63%) or had an unknown vaccination status (19%). The median age of cases was 14.4 years (range, <1 to 63 years) globally and 14 years when excluding the 2011 outbreak in Quebec where 68% of the 678 cases were 10 to 19 years old. With the exclusion of this outbreak, the incidence was highest in infants (1.0 per 100 000), lower but fairly similar between 1 and 19 years of age (0.2 to 0.4 per 100 000), and there was a substantial decline between 20 and 39 years of age (0.1 per 100 000). There was a significant trend towards a greater annual number of importations over the period. Although importations resulted in no transmission sustained for ≥12 months, 5 chains of transmission had >30 cases. The effective reproductive number between 2002 and 2013 was estimated at 0.86 (95% confidence interval, .81–.92). Conclusions. Canada has maintained elimination between 2002 and 2013, but additional efforts are needed to reduce the proportion of unimmunized individuals and respond to importation events. PMID:26110163

  7. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The LANDSAT program has demonstrated that polar orbiting satellites can be used to relay hydrologic data from any part of Canada to a user without difficulty and at low cost. These data can be used for many operational purposes, the most important of which were identified as follows: hydroelectric power plant operation; water supply for municipalities, industries, and irrigation; navigation; flood forecasting; operation of flood control structures and systems; and recreation.

  8. Intestinal parasites in man in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sole, T D; Croll, N A

    1980-05-01

    Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896

  9. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  10. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  11. Cancer mortality in Italian migrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Geddes, M; Balzi, D; Buiatti, E; Brancker, A; Parkin, D M

    1994-02-28

    The present study reports on the analysis of cancer mortality in Italian first-generation migrants resident in Canada, deceased in the period between 1964-1985 (5,801 males: 3,267 females). Mortality in migrants is compared to that of the host population as well as to that in the migrants' country of origin. This is carried out both on a national level (Italy), and on a regional level with those regions that have made the greatest contribution to the Italian migratory flow (Southern Italy). Compared with the Canada-born population, significantly higher risks were evident for nasopharynx, stomach, liver and gallbladder tumors in migrants. Lower risks were observed for the oral cavity, esophagus, colon, rectum, pancreas (females), larynx, lung, melanoma, breast, ovary, prostate, bladder (females), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in migrants. This is consistent with that evidenced in the comparison between Italy and Canada. The data are discussed in relation to the results of other studies on Italian migrants and the prevalence of main risk factors. PMID:8191592

  12. Climate impacts on northern Canada: introduction.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris; Prowse, Terry

    2009-07-01

    There is significant evidence that northern Canada's climate has already undergone substantial change. These changes have meant significant impacts for physical, natural and human systems in Canada's North. Climate models suggest that such trends will continue into the future, and therefore shifts in Arctic systems are expected for some time to come. This introductory paper is the first in a series published in two issues of Ambio presenting work conducted for northern chapters of two recent Canadian national climate science assessment initiatives, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 and Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity. Collectively, these assessments involved the work of 24 scientists with expertise in a variety of disciplines and regions in the Canadian North. These assessment processes adopted aspects of a vulnerability approach to climate assessment, primarily through a review of existing and projected exposures and elements of adaptive capacity based on existing literature. In so doing, they have contributed towards a more comprehensive understanding of climate impacts and adaptations across the northern regions of the country. This paper provides an overview and introduction to the series of papers contained in the two issues of Ambio. PMID:19714956

  13. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Griffith Pearson, F; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s contributions toward the 21st century’s practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. OBJECTIVE: To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. METHOD: Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. RESULTS: Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. CONCLUSIONS: Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  14. Canada geese in the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, Jay B.

    1995-01-01

    Overall, the total number of wintering geese reaching a peak of 955,000 in 1981 and has since declined 40% to 569,000 in 1993. Compounding these distributional changes in wintering numbers, the subspecies composition has also changed. The Canada goose population is composed of migrant geese (primarily B.c. canadensis and B.c. interior) that breed in the subarctic regions of Canada and resident geese (primarily B.c. maxima and B.c. moffitti) that breed in southern Canada and the United States (Stotts 1983). The number of resident geese in Maine to Virginia has increased considerable from maybe 50,000 to 100,000 in 1981 (Conover and Chasko 1985) to an average of 560,000 in 1992-93 (H. Heusman, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, personal communication). This rapid increase in resident geese suggests that the migrant population has declined more than the 40% decline observed in total wintering geese from 1981 to 1993.

  15. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  16. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  17. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  18. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  19. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  20. Climate Change and Malaria in Canada: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berrang-Ford, L.; MacLean, J. D.; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; Ford, J. D.; Ogden, N. H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  1. Canada's first fixed-site aircraft noise monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Standen, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of aircraft noise management in Canada as it is presently evolving is discussed. The population of aircraft operating in Canada is similar to most western nations with regard to aircraft type. Canada's airport system includes major airports owned and operated by the federal Department of Transport (Transport Canada), airports owned and operated by provinces, municipalities or local commissions, and privately owned and operated airports, largely catering to general aviation. In addition, there are airports which are owned by Transport Canada, but operated by another agency. The consequence of this arrangement is that the major jet transport traffic is handled by airports which are owned and operated by either Transport Canada or another government agency.

  2. Climate change and malaria in Canada: a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, L; Maclean, J D; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Ford, J D; Ogden, N H

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  3. Prior Learning Assessment in Canada: A Credit to Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Roberta; Van Kleef, Joy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the implementation of Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) at many educational institutions across Canada. Suggests that PLA should be incorporated into every skills training and upgrading program. (JOW)

  4. The formation and continuance of lesbian families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Foster, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    What makes a lesbian family? It has been said that the last few decades have seen a "lesbian baby boom" as reproductive choices have opened up for lesbians; but has this been true for lesbians in Canada? This article explores how lesbian families have formed and grown in Canada since the 1970s. It looks at the various types of lesbian families in Canada and explores lesbians' past and current access to reproductive technologies and adoption across Canada. Current Canadian literature is presented, including information on lesbians' and their families' experience with the medical profession. PMID:16482703

  5. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  6. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three radar frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the image, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  7. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Zou, Shimian; Giulivi, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a current and comprehensive review of the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Canada. DATA SOURCES: Published and unpublished epidemiological studies and surveillance reports of the past decade, primarily from Canada were studied. Fifty reports addressing HBV surveillance, incidence and prevalence, transmission-associated risk factors, co-infections, and prevention strategies were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: HBV infection is an important vaccine-preventable infectious disease in Canada. The incidence rate of clinically recognized, acute HBV infection in 1998/1999 was estimated to be 2.3/100,000 people or approximately 700 cases a year. The prevalence of HBV carriers is estimated to be 0.5% to 1.0% of the population, but varies substantially according to population-specific risk factors. Most acute HBV infections are associated with injection drug use or high risk heterosexual activities, but 20% to 30% of acute cases did not report any identified risk factors. Surveillance activities such as the National Notifiable Disease Reporting system provide information regarding trends and risk factors. The primary preventive strategy for HBV consists of universal immunization for preadolescents and/or infants. Other strategies, such as the universal prenatal screening and postnatal immunization, and the prevention of nosocomial acquistion, are also important. The recently described hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) escape mutants may not be detected by current HBsAg test assays, and the existing HBV vaccines may not protect vaccinees from infections by such mutants. CONCLUSION: Ongoing surveillance and research are required to assess risk factors for HBV transmission, evaluate the effectiveness of immunization programs and monitor the impact of HBsAg escape mutants. PMID:18159361

  8. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  9. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  10. Canada deserves a national health system.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, T W

    1997-01-01

    A defining--some would say peculiar--feature about Canada and Canadians is the strong position that we give social programs within our national identity. FORUM presents an essay by Dr. Thomas Noseworthy based on an address to the annual meeting of the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges in April 1996. In it, Dr. Noseworthy calls for a national health system. He sees the federal government retaining an important role in preserving medicare and, in fact, strengthening its powers in maintaining national consistency and standards. Dr. Noseworthy's views are contrary to the governmental decentralization and devolution of powers occurring across the country. In a "point/counterpoint" exchange on this issue, we have invited commentaries from three experts. Raisa Deber leads off by noting that while a national health system may be desirable, constitutional provisions would be an obstacle. Governments, says Deber, have an inherent conflict of interest between their responsibility for maintaining the health care system and their desire to shift costs. Michael Rachlis reminds us that medicare fulfills important economic as well as social objectives. It helps to support Canada's business competitiveness among other nations. The problem, say Rachlis, is that public financing of health care does not ensure an efficient delivery system. Michael Walker offers some reality orientation. He observes that Canada's health care system is based upon ten public insurance schemes with widely different attributes. While he supports a minimum standard of health care across the country, citizens should be able to purchase private medical insurance and have access to a parallel private health care delivery system. Ultimately, this debate is about who should control social programs: the provinces or the federal government? We'll let you, the readers, decide. PMID:10167074

  11. Progress on the NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R. D.; Heesemann, M.; Mulder, T. L.; Brillon, C. D.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada is the world's first deep-sea regional multi-disciplinary scientific cabled ocean observatory. In the fall of 2007 an 800 kilometer ring of powered fiber optic cable was laid on the seafloor over the northern part of the Juan de Fuca plate and connected to a shore facility near Port Alberni on Vancouver Island. In September 2009, three broadband OBS packages were deployed in the form of a large triangle with apexes at mid plate near ODP 1027 (water depth of 2654m) and two sites on the continental slope, near ODP 889 (1256m) and Barkley Canyon (396m). The broadband systems comprise a broadband seismometer and strong motion accelerometer in a spherical titanium case surficially buried in a caisson backfilled with glass beads. Noise levels observed are as expected with the spectra being similar to, or quieter than, coastal seismograph stations in approximately the 10 to 20 second period range. The OBS's have higher noise levels at longer periods where ocean swells and the resultant infragravity waves dominate the noise spectra, and in the 1-10 Hz bandwidth typically used for locating local earthquakes. The shallowest site at Barkley Canyon has the highest noise levels. A small array, about 6 km in maximum dimension, is under construction on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to record earthquake activity in the vicinity of the many NEPTUNE Canada multi-disciplinary ridge experiments. Two short period instruments were installed there in 2010. A broadband instrument and two additional short period instruments are planned to complete the initial ridge array. Even though the NEPTUNE Canada seismograph network is not yet complete, measured by the use of its data, it is a success already. The data are routinely used along with data from land seismographs of the Canadian National Seismograph Network for locating earthquakes in the region. However, the smallest seismic arrivals picked on the land stations cannot be routinely picked on the OBS

  12. Genesee Phase 3, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2005-08-01

    Genesee Phase 3 is Canada's first supercritical power plant and, at 450 MW, is significant not only for its low levels of greenhouse gas emissions, made possible by the use of supercritical technology and emissions off-sets. It also marks the North American debut of a boiler, derived from a proven 500-MW-class Hitachi reference plant, that operates at sliding pressure. The key benefits of operating in this mode are high efficiency, operating flexibility, and reliability. This boiler design may well migrate to the US in the very near future. 6 figs.

  13. Cronkhite Canada syndrome: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, K; Anthony, P P; Miller, D S; Warin, A P

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of Cronkhite Canada syndrome in a 78 year old man is described. The presence of total gastrointestinal mucosal atrophy with nail loss is reported for the first time. It is suggested that the polyps represent residues of aged cells with no absorptive function and that the condition results from the loss of normal proliferative stimuli or acquired resistance to them. The primary biochemical abnormality may be in the affected epithelia but the changes here could alternatively be secondary to failure of synthesis or release of growth factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3996943

  14. ACCC's Response to Industry Canada's Consultation on Improving Canada's Digital Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the national and international voice representing over 150 publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, university colleges and universities with a college mandate, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) welcomes the opportunity to provide input to Industry Canada's consultation on a Digital Economy Strategy for…

  15. Models of Community Learning Networks in Canada = Modeles de reseaux d'apprentissage communautaires au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, Hull (Quebec). Office of Learning Technologies.

    Canada-based community learning networks (CLNs) were examined to provide an operational definition of CLNs, design a framework for their review and analysis, and identify best practices in CLNs. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 16 key stakeholders in CLNs, literature review, and case studies of five Canadian CLNs. The…

  16. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada I. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This is the first volume of a six-volume review of educational practices and policies in Canada. This is an introduction that provides a general overview of the constitutional, statistical, operational, and organizational background of education in the nation. The subsequent volumes deal with education in four geographical regions and the…

  17. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada VI. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Western Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The final volume in a series on educational policy and planning in Canada, this review concentrates on the western provinces--British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Sections of the document discuss the educational foundations of the Canadian west; the educational system as it was in 1974--its purposes and institutions, attendance,…

  18. Response to Industry Canada's Consultation Paper "Seizing Canada's Moment: Moving Forward in Science, Technology and Innovation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Wayne D.; Turk, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to these authors, Canada is in need of a new science policy and strategy. The current direction of the federal government is threatening to impede scientific progress and compromise the integrity and independence of public science. This is reflected in the government's waning commitment to funding basic research; its attempts to steer…

  19. Canada's Campaign for Immigrants and the Images in "Canada West" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detre, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges that Canadian government officials felt they faced at the end of the nineteenth century was the development of the prairie West. By this time there were large urban centers in eastern Canada, but many Canadians worried that they had not truly ensured the future existence of their country. To do this the government…

  20. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    PubMed

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905

  1. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  2. Physician-Assisted Death in Canada.

    PubMed

    Browne, Alister; Russell, J S

    2016-07-01

    The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits persons from aiding or abetting suicide and consenting to have death inflicted on them. Together, these provisions have prohibited physicians from assisting patients to die. On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada declared void these provisions insofar as they "prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1) clearly consents to the termination of life and (2) has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." This declaration of invalidity was scheduled to take effect one year (later extended by six months) after the ruling, to give the government time to put legislation in place. We trace the history of this decision, discuss how it has forever changed the debate on physician-assisted dying, and identify the issues that must be resolved to write the legislation. Of special importance here are the topics of access, safeguards, and conscientious objection. PMID:27348822

  3. Health status of prisoners in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Schuler, Andrée; Matheson, Flora I.; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the literature for quantitative research on the health status of persons in custody in provincial, territorial, and federal correctional facilities in Canada, and summarize recent evidence. Quality of evidence A search was performed in research databases and the websites of relevant Canadian governmental and non-governmental organizations for quantitative studies of health conducted between 1993 and 2014. Studies were included that provided quantitative data on health status for youth or adults who had been detained or incarcerated in a jail or prison in Canada. Main message The health status of this population is poor compared with the general Canadian population, as indicated by data on social determinants of health, mortality in custody, mental health, substance use, communicable diseases, and sexual and reproductive health. Little is known about mortality after release, chronic diseases, injury, reproductive health, and health care access and quality. Conclusion Health status data should be used to improve health care and to intervene to improve health for persons while in custody and after release, with potential benefits for all Canadians. PMID:27427562

  4. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Energy in Canada. Review and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, R. S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both nonrenewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long term security.

  6. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  7. 19 CFR 123.27 - Feeding and watering animals in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.27 Feeding and watering animals in Canada. If animals in sealed conveyances or...

  8. State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the initial "Snapshot State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada" report was to provide an overview of the state of K-12 online learning in Canada. This was accomplished through the use of short commentaries about the state of K-12 distance education for each province and territory, along with more developed case studies for…

  9. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  10. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shelly; Reid-Smith, Richard; McClure, J. Trenton; Weese, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was not identified in any of 497 horses from Atlantic Canada. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from a subsample of 19/242 (7.9%) horses. Colonization with MSSA is relatively common in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada, but MRSA is currently rare or absent. PMID:18978975

  11. The DELF in Canada: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The "Diplôme d'études de langue française" (DELF) has recently gained attention in Canada for its potential as a national French second language (FSL) proficiency test. This article explores the perceptions of students, teachers, and parents in various school jurisdictions across Canada on a range of issues related to the DELF test…

  12. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  13. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Judith, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  14. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  15. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  16. Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada Utilizing MACE Proofs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...

  17. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  18. CAUT Response to Industry Canada's 2014 S&T Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2015

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of December 2014, Canada's Prime Minister and Minister of State (Science and Technology) released their science, technology and innovation strategy and launched the Canada First Excellence Research Fund (CFERF). This brief looks at the implications of the proposed policy on academic research and on research and development…

  19. Female First Nations Chiefs and the Colonial Legacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyageur, Cora J.

    2011-01-01

    The social, economic, and political regulation of Canada's First Nations was codified in the Indian Act. Rooted in colonialism and paternalism, the Indian Act was created by the government of Canada to fulfill three functions: (1) to define who was and was not an Indian; (2) to civilize the Indian; and (3) to manage the Indian people and their…

  20. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  1. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research is to…

  2. Apprenticeship Programme Requirements and Apprenticeship Completion Rates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen considerable growth in new apprenticeship registrations in Canada. However, this has not been matched by a corresponding increase in completions. Across provinces, trades and time, there is considerable variation in apprenticeship completion rates. In Canada, apprenticeship programmes are provincially regulated and…

  3. Science Education in Canada: The Basis for a Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpwood, Graham W. F.

    A conceptual basis for a major study on science education in Canada to be conducted by the Science Council of Canada is presented. Section one explains the rationale behind the study. Different people argue that the relevance of science to daily living has been lost and that science education should therefore focus on the purpose of science rather…

  4. Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

  5. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work Reorganization and Industrial Relations Change"…

  6. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Judith, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  7. Productivity through Innovation: Applied Research at Canada's Colleges and Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Applied research at Canada's colleges and institutes has expanded rapidly over the last five years. This report provides an overview of the current context and positions colleges and institutes as key players in Canada's innovation system. The report builds upon findings of previous research and reports on the results of the 2009-2010 "Applied…

  8. Teaching Canada, Volume 6, Numbers 1-2, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; Sherman, George, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Issue one of this volume of "Teaching Canada" contains: (1) "Calgary: The Olympic City" (T. Rumney); (2) a winning student essay, "Sharing a Continent: Ways in Which Canada Affected the History of the United States" (J. Mar); and (3) "Canadian Sovereignty and the North" (W. Morrison). Issue two includes: "Montreal: Cradle of Canadian Industry" (S.…

  9. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  10. What Is the Future of Learning in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In its final report to Canadians, the Canadian Council on Learning (CCL) reveals that Canada is slipping down the international learning curve. The needs in this area are stark. The potential rewards are enormous. But Canada is falling behind competitor countries and economies. It is on the wrong road and must make a dramatic change in the course…

  11. Weeds of the Midwestern United States and Central Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Weeds of the Central United States and Canada, includes 356 of the most common and/or troublesome weeds of agricultural and natural areas found within the central region of the United States and Canada. The books includes an introduction, a key to plant families contained in the book, glo...

  12. Early Childhood Education and Care in Canada, 2001. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Martha; Beach, Jane; Turiano, Michelle

    Noting that in Canada, regulated child care and most other early childhood services are under provincial jurisdiction, this report is the fifth to provide statistical and other information on early childhood care and education services for each province and territory in Canada. Data were assembled from a variety of sources, including…

  13. Resource protection. Mississippi Valley Canada Geese: flyway management obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service's legislation, regulations, and various documents and statistics were examined regarding federal migratory bird and Canada goose protection and management. The service's legal authority to take action to require states to limit harvests of Canada geese was also reviewed. (ACR)

  14. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  15. 47 CFR 1.928 - Frequency coordination, Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency coordination, Canada. 1.928 Section 1.928 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.928 Frequency coordination, Canada....

  16. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  17. Private health insurance: an international overview and considerations for Canada.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Irfan

    2007-01-01

    Since the passage of the Canada Health Act in 1984 and its prohibition of extra-billing, there has been an extremely limited role for private health insurance in Canada as a mechanism to pay for medically necessary physician or hospital services. In the aftermath of the landmark Supreme Court decision Chaoulli v. Québec, this may change. PMID:18274001

  18. People Communications in Canada's North. Part II: The Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, G. I.

    Possible solutions to communication problems in Canada's North are presented in this report. A centralized source of information is proposed, along with suggestions for aid from the government and universities. Recommendations for improving communication are also listed: the modification of Canada's Anik satellite program; the involvement of…

  19. Canada First: The 2009 Survey of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jennifer, Ed.; Knight-Grofe, Janine, Ed.; Klabunde, Niels, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) regularly evaluates the experience of international students in Canada through a benchmarking survey. Canada First 2009 represents the fourth time CBIE has conducted this research. Previous editions appeared in 1988, 1999 and 2004. This year's survey used a revised questionnaire similar…

  20. The Developmental Systems Approach to Early Intervention in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kathryn; Frankel, Elaine B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines current policies and early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families in Canada within the principles of the Developmental Systems Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2005, 2011). The article considers the sociopolitical context of Canada, especially with respect to diversity and equity. Applying the…

  1. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) suppession by sudangrass interference and defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle is difficult to manage in farming systems with reduced reliance on herbicides, including organic and low-external input systems. Previous field studies found that defoliation or sudangrass interference suppressed Canada thistle. Our objective was to understand the factors causing supp...

  2. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2010-01-01

    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…

  3. P-Them Response for Geologically Active and Non-Active Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2011-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic air-borne systems are widely used in geological exploration for minerals associated with conductive rocks, underground water resources and geological underground mapping. The newly designed P-THEM system has been test-flown at the Reid Mahaffy geological test site in Northern Ontario, Canada; and then over an area near Newmarket, north of Toronto. While the flight in Reid Mahaffy was made to verify real characteristics of the system: stability and repeatability of results, the flight over the Newmarket area was made to verify correct operation of the EM system with a magnetometer and gamma-ray spectrometer. Interesting and significant response of the TDEM observations to geological, agricultural and engineering objects were observed during the test flights. These results demonstrate a possibility of TDEM method for mineral research and environmental tasks. The Reid Mahaffy Test Site is located in the Abitibi Subprovince, immediately east of the Mattagami River Fault in Ontario, Canada. The test site was created in 1999 by the Ontario Geological Survey, initially to enable various airborne geophysical systems to demonstrate their basic performance capabilities. The general geology of the site contains known overburden thickness based on almost 50 diamond drill holes, with geological logs available for these. The survey flights over Reid Mahaffy test site were performed in April 2010. The altitude and direction tests were flown on three lines over the test survey area. The response of early times represents overburden and correlates with its known thickness. The conductive body appears on later time channels and remains detectable over noise level. The electrical inversion of the results allows distinguishing a structure of several vertical conductor slices, forming the conductive body. The Newmarket area selected for tests in June 2010 is a highly developed urban zone in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Geologically, the area is

  4. Work-Related Child-Care Centres in Canada, 2001 = Les garderies en milieu de travail au Canada, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbeau, Carole

    Noting that the number of work-related child care centers has nearly doubled in the past 10 years in Canada, this report, in both English and French, details a study examining the current practices pertaining to work-related child care in Canada. The report highlights the best examples in this area and discusses what has been learned from the…

  5. Languages in Canada 1996 Census. New Canadian Perspectives = Les langues au Canada Recensement de 1996. Nouvelles Perspectives Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmen, Louise; Corbeil, Jean-Pierre

    This book analyzes the evolution of the language situation in Canada over the last 45 years, drawing heavily from census data taken between 1951 and 1996. Chapters discuss: the evolution of the English language in Canada, including the size and distribution of the English native-language population, use of English as a home language, knowledge of…

  6. Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).

  7. Linguistic Minorities in Canada and Health

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  8. Reproductive technology and the law in Canada.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, B

    1986-06-01

    Even leaving aside the question of the impact of reproductive technology on property law, successions, commercial law and the legal qualification to be given to some of the relationships it entails (e.g. 'deposit' of genetic material, 'lease and hire' of wombs, 'gifts' of embryos), there is no doubt that, like the discovery of the atom, no other scientific advance portends such an enormous potential for human benefits or harm. No other scientific advance will so affect the personal, intimate life of the individual person in its public or private aspects. Beginning then with the positive law (Part I), we will attempt to trace, albeit summarily, possible legal approaches to reproductive technology in Canada and to conclude with an overview of proposed reforms (Part II). PMID:3558768

  9. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  10. Family Medicine Education in Canada, 1983

    PubMed Central

    Hennen, Brian K. E.

    1983-01-01

    We now have good information about family medicine in terms of content, principles, and practice load. Undergraduate, residency and continuing education are improving, but some family medicine programs still have limited support from their university's faculty and governments. Residency in-training assessment and the certification process are better developed than is evaluation of new family doctors' practice performance. Research in the family medicine base is expanding, and residents are increasingly involved in projects. Family medicine teachers are now on a par with other clinical faculty, because they must meet tougher criteria for appointment and promotion. The political leadership of family medicine education, shared by the College of Family Physicians of Canada and academic departments, requires strong consensus and persistent activity. PMID:20469408

  11. Air pollution levels and regulations in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Monarch, M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is one of a series of three prepared for the Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy. Each report deals with one county in which acid deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, has been a prominent issue of public discussion. The three countries covered in this series of reports are Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom. For each country, air pollution control regulations are trends in air quality and emissions are broadly outlined, then are compared with corresponding regulations and trends in the United States. Since acid rain is the intended field of application, the reports generally deal only with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and total suspended particulates.

  12. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Excipients in topical corticosteroid preparations in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Searles, G E; DesGroseilliers, J P

    1989-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of dermatoses in Canada. The effects of the various nontherapeutic components of these formulations are less well known than those of the active ingredients and may cause adverse reactions. Information on the components is fragmentary and is scattered throughout the literature. We have attempted to consolidate this information into one source. Recent provincial legislation requiring the generic substitution of interchangeable products and the nondisclosure of all ingredients in product labelling hinder the search for an excipient that has caused an adverse reaction. Practitioner participation in the Cutaneous Adverse Reaction Registry of the Canadian Dermatology Association will identify sensitizing excipients and will support efforts by the profession to obtain more effective and safer products. PMID:2766179

  14. Control of transformer losses in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.

  15. Smallpox and its control in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, J W; Houston, C S

    1999-01-01

    Edward Jenner's first treatise in 1798 described how he used cowpox material to provide immunity to the related smallpox virus. He sent this treatise and some cowpox material to his classmate John Clinch in Trinity, Nfld., who gave the first smallpox vaccinations in North America. Dissemination of the new technique, despite violent criticism, was rapid throughout Europe and the United States. Within a few years of its discovery, vaccination was instrumental in controlling smallpox epidemics among aboriginal people at remote trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Arm-to-arm transfer at 8-day intervals was common through most of the 19th century. Vaccination and quarantine eliminated endemic smallpox throughout Canada by 1946. The last case, in Toronto in 1962, came from Brazil. PMID:10624414

  16. The status of metformin in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.

    1983-01-01

    During the 1970s two biguanide drugs, phenformin and metformin, were used to control hyperglycemia. Phenformin was phased out of the Canadian market because it carried an unacceptable risk of causing lactic acidosis, but metformin remains available. All documented cases of lactic acidosis associated with metformin administration, which are rare, have occurred abroad in patients who were taking the drug in spite of having contraindications to its use. The two drugs are metabolized differently, phenformin being deactivated and concentrated in the liver, and metformin being excreted rapidly, unchanged, by the kidneys. In properly selected diabetic patients therapeutic doses of metformin do not raise the blood levels of intermediary metabolites enough to induce ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. The safety of the drug is supported by the clinical experience over about 56,000 patient-years in Canada. PMID:6847752

  17. Population Health in Canada: A Brief Critique

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, David; Denny, Keith; Mykhalovskiy, Eric; McDonough, Peggy; Robertson, Ann; Love, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    An internationally influential model of population health was developed in Canada in the 1990s, shifting the research agenda beyond health care to the social and economic determinants of health. While agreeing that health has important social determinants, the authors believe that this model has serious shortcomings; they critique the model by focusing on its hidden assumptions. Assumptions about how knowledge is produced and an implicit interest group perspective exclude the sociopolitical and class contexts that shape interest group power and citizen health. Overly rationalist assumptions about change understate the role of agency. The authors review the policy and practice implications of the Canadian population health model and point to alternative ways of viewing the determinants of health. PMID:12604479

  18. U.S. drilling due second-half rebound; Canada`s binge cools

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.; Beck, R.J.

    1995-07-31

    US drilling in the second half of 1995 will pick up from the low first-half level, pushing the total number of wells drilled during the year to about the level of 1994. Drilling is easing in Canada from the binge of 1994, but it is still above 1992--93 levels. The paper discusses estimates of US well drilling activities, plans of the major oil companies, and Canadian outlook.

  19. An updated GPS velocity field for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Lapelle, E.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to improve previous continental-scale GPS velocity fields for North America and Canada in particular, we have reprocessed data from nearly all continuous GPS sites in Canada, the northern portions of the US including Alaska, Greenland as well as a set of global sites used to define the reference frame. In addition, repeated high accuracy campaign surveys of the Canadian Base Network were included. Previous velocity fields were derived from coordinate time series of somewhat inhomogeneous GPS results due to: (1) the use of relative antenna calibrations that did not include satellite antennas or account for the presence of antenna radomes, (2) the use of different reference frames, (3) the use of IGS precise orbits based on these calibrations and reference frames, and (4) the use of different (evolving) versions of GPS processing software and procedures. This reprocessing effort of all previous data since 2000 is based on more consistent and accurate absolute antenna calibrations of both station and satellite antennas, the ITRF2005 reference frame and the latest versions of the Bernese GPS Software and IGS processing procedures with their so-called "repro1" reprocessed orbits. Also, more than four additional years of continuous data and a new CBN survey campaign have been included in this velocity field estimation. Furthermore, we have processed all the continuous data with NRCan's Precise Point Positioning (PPP) software using the same IGS repro1 orbits, precise clocks and absolute antenna calibrations together with the Vienna Mapping Function (VMF1) for the tropospheric model. The PPP software has proven to be highly efficient for processing such large networks and the additional solutions have provided much needed redundancy for some regions. The new time series and velocity results from both the Bernese and PPP solutions are compared with each other and with our previous solution. Comparisons are also made with solutions from other GPS analysis

  20. Modes of continental decretion in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Between the Archean Slave Province and the Pacific Ocean, the North American continent in Canada appears to have ‘grown’ westward during Paleoproterozoic (Wopmay) and Paleozoic-Mesozoic (Cordilleran) orogenesis. However, results from geological observations combined with regional geophysical surveys lead to interpretations in which pre-orogenic basement in both the Wopmay and the Cordillera projects far beneath proposed ‘accreted’ terranes. In the Wopmay orogen (1.89-1.84 Ga), deep geophysical images indicate that Archean Slave basement projects in the subsurface up to 50 km west of the Medial zone (formerly Wopmay fault), a boundary that was previously interpreted as the transition from Slave basement to accreted terrane basement. The Slave basement appears as a west-tapering tectonic wedge into accreted(?) rocks, consistent with an interpretation by Hildebrand and Bowring (Geology, 1999) that the Archean lithosphere that was formerly west of the wedge broke off and was recycled. In the Cordillera, cross sections of the lithosphere illustrate that lower crustal and upper mantle rocks as much as 2/3 of the distance across the orogen can be stratigraphically, geologically and seismically correlated to the ancient cratonic margin. Retrodeformation of rocks that were deposited on or adjacent to the craton leads to the conclusion that, prior to the onset of terrane accretion, the North American margin and associated rocks projected even farther west (today’s coordinates) - at least as far as the modern margin. Apparently, as flakes of terranes were added to the surface in the western regions of the Cordillera, the North American lithosphere, which may have been foreshortened during contraction, was tectonically and/or thermally eroded from below. As a result, terrane accretion in the Cordillera apparently resulted in a net decretion of continental lithosphere. Together, these observations lead to the interpretation that the processes responsible for

  1. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F., IV

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  2. Health promotion in Canada: 1986 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Riley, Barbara L

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion in Canada between 1986 and 2006 is characterized by three major eras: Health Promotion in the Limelight, 1986-1992, Health Promotion Behind the Scenes, 1993-2003, and Health Promotion Restaged, 2003-2006. These eras are illustrated using the Canadian Heart Health Initiative as an example. The first era, backed by strong federal government leadership and support, was a progressive time of developing concepts, collaborations and infrastructure for health promotion across the country. Despite significant progress, by the end of this era, health promotion was neither sufficiently developed nor funded to make it a cornerstone of the health system. In addition, the emphasis was heavily biased towards changing individual behaviour. In the second era, health promotion continued to develop in pockets across the country and debates within the field intensified. However, these events went largely unnoticed and massive overall cuts at federal and provincial levels of government made acute care a much higher priority than health promotion. The third era, mostly shaped by fears linked to public health threats, saw a restaging of health promotion through efforts to strengthen public health infrastructure. Nevertheless, at the end of this era, the necessary intersectoral partnerships (such as in health, housing, education, food, income) remained scarce, and little progress was made to decrease health inequalities. The Canadian Heart Health Initiative was implemented over the same time period as the three eras. Its legacy includes collegial relationships across various levels of government and with non-government organizations, a culture that values pan-Canadian initiatives, and support for integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. It remains to be seen how quickly it will be possible to advance the vision of health promotion conceived during the Limelight Era in Canada. PMID:18372871

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  4. Considerations related to the use of toxicity testing in Canada`s ocean disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Riebel, P.; Rowland, A.; Samant, H.; Doe, K.

    1995-12-31

    As part of its Ocean Disposal Program, Environment Canada is proposing the use of sediment and porewater toxicity tests to evaluate the acceptability of estuarine and marine sediments for ocean disposal. Under a tiered testing approach, sediments which fail the regulated chemical limits would be subjected to toxicity testing using 5 different type of tests: a 10-day amphipod acute test, a bacterial bioluminescence test, an echinoid fertilization test, a 28-day bioaccumulation test and a polychaete growth test which is still in development. In the past year, the use of the first four of these tests in ocean disposal projects on Canada`s west and east coasts has generated several issues which need to be addressed. Among these is the need for more guidance on the selection of reference sediments and on the selection of appropriate test species. Also, the interpretation of toxicity due to unregulated parameters such as sulfides and ammonia must be considered. Pass/fail criteria based on sound scientific rationale must be established to justify land confinement or capping of sediments, and a weight-of-evidence approach (e.g. Triad) using site-specific studies should be considered to support the results of laboratory tests. Techniques such as Ecological Risk Assessment should be considered to predict potential biological effects at an ocean dump site.

  5. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii): advice, policy and research in Canada.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Franco J; Farber, Jeffrey M

    2009-12-31

    Although the number of reported cases of Cronobacter infection in Canada is low, Health Canada has been actively studying this organism since 1991. After reviewing the situation at the national level and due to health concerns with powdered formulae and its international trade, in 2003, Health Canada raised this issue at the international level by proposing to revise the Code of Practice for Powdered Formulae for Infants and Young Children at the Codex Alimentarius Committee of Food Hygiene. Canada volunteered to chair the Working Group that would be developing the Code, and the Code was completed in four years. The Code contributed to an improvement in the hygienic conditions in plants manufacturing Powdered Infant Formula (PIF), resulting in a lower level of product contamination with Cronobacter species. Canada has produced a document detailing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for Infant Formula in Canada. Health Canada uses the GMPs as a basis for assessing the manufacturing information received in pre-market notifications for new or changed infant formulas. Health Canada does not have microbiological criteria for Cronobacter spp. in PIF; however, we are currently working on developing these criteria. At present, there are no active or passive surveillance systems for Cronobacter spp. in Canada, although this has been discussed. Health Canada has recently adapted and condensed FAO/WHO guidelines to develop a draft guidance document for the hygienic preparation and handling of PIF in home and hospitals/care settings, which outline requirements for parents, caregivers, and staff in hospitals and day-care centres. Health Canada's Bureau of Microbial Hazards conducts research on the ecology, biology and pathogenesis of Cronobacter spp. Some of the research projects include specific aspects of molecular typing, virulence studies involving animal models, as well as in vitro tissue culture work to examine adhesion and invasion. Collaborative research is also being

  6. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources). PMID:18213939

  7. [Physical activity guidelines in Canada: context, process and development].

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources). PMID:19377535

  8. A perspective on forage production in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gareau, L

    1980-03-01

    Over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. With the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. By 1974, the tide began to turn - grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish - and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. The cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain economy was now obliged to rely more on forage for its survival. Unfortunately, the forage was not existent and the only salvation of the industry was the gift of Providence - weather patterns that provided ample moisture conditions and above normal forage crops, the utilization of cereals and the intervention of government cow-calf support programs. Over the past year, the cycle was completed and record beef prices again prevail. The barley bins are full again and the cattlemen are gearing up for a few fat years. Demands for forage seed are brisk and the seeding down of forage acreage is bound to increase substantially over the next few years. And with this increase, cattle population expansion is bound to follow: how much expansion can the economy support? The production cost factors will determine the extent, but one can almost be certain that any expansion will either be modest or of short duration. At least, it should be. If the cattle industry is to establish solid foundations, it cannot be dependent upon the instability of a grain surplus-shortage position. With the present resources and the potential for developing it in direct competition with other crops, one can only expect a small and steady expansion over a long time span. One must agree with the range researchers and specialists of the Canada Research Stations at Lethbridge and Swift Current that pasture and range will continue to be the limiting factors of cattle expansion as they have been for the past 50

  9. 76 FR 28026 - TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that on May 2, 2011, TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (TransCanada Keystone) filed a request for... changes to its committed rates. TransCanada Keystone states that good cause exists to grant such a...

  10. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  11. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  12. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  13. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  14. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  15. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  16. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  17. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  18. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  19. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  20. Healthcare in Canada's North: Are We Getting Value for Money?

    PubMed Central

    Chatwood, Susan; Marchildon, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine if Canadians are getting value for money in providing health services to our northern residents. Method: Secondary analyses of data from Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute of Health Information and territorial government agencies on health status, health expenditures and health system performance indicators. Results: Per capita health expenditures in Canada's northern territories are double that of Canada as a whole and are among the highest in the world. The North lags behind the rest of the country in preventable mortality, hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and other performance indicators. Discussion: The higher health expenditure in the North is to be expected from its unique geography and demography. If the North is not performing as well as Canada, it is not due to lack of money, and policy makers should be concerned about whether healthcare can be as good as it could be. PMID:27585027

  1. A Basic Bibliography on Canada for Social Studies Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yocum, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a bibliography that provides materials on Canada available to social studies educators. Resources for teachers include teaching strategies, literature guides, and books on acid rain. Student resources include books that provide a perspective on Canadian life. (DB)

  2. The Relationship Between Training and Canada's Competitive Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Training Methods, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Martin McBride, Hugh Henderson, Peter Dawson, and O. E. Gullander in a panel discussion present their views on the relationship between Canadian training needs and Canada's trade position. (Author/BP)

  3. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  4. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  5. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  6. Canada Thistle Phenology: Emergence, Growth, Anthesis, and Death of Shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota, USA, for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the "establishment" year for the experimental populatio...

  7. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  8. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

    2013-02-01

    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. PMID:23316890

  9. Capability engineering: transforming defence acquisition in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagotto, Jack; Walker, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    Capability engineering, a new methodology with the potential to transform defence planning and acquisition, is described. The impact of capability engineering on existing defence business processes and organizations is being explored in Canada during the course of a four-year Technology Demonstration Project called Collaborative Capability Definition, Engineering and Management (CapDEM). Having completed the first of three experimentation spirals within this project, a high-level capability engineering process model has been defined. The process begins by mapping strategic defence guidance onto defence capabilities, using architectural models that articulate the people, process and materiel requirements of each capability when viewed as a system-of-systems. For a selected capability, metrics are rigorously applied to these models to assess their ability to deliver the military capability outcomes required by a set of predefined tasks and force planning scenarios. By programming the modification of these tasks and planning scenarios over time according to evolving capability objectives, quantifiable capability gaps are identified, that in turn drive the process towards options to close these gaps. The implementation plan for these options constitutes a capability evolution roadmap to support defence-investment decisions. Capability engineering is viewed as an essential enabler to meeting the objective of improved capability management, subsuming the functions of capability generation, sustainment and employment.

  10. Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, K.; Hernández-Henríquez, M. A.; Déry, S. J.

    2013-05-01

    The Lake Athabasca drainage area in northern Canada encompasses ecologically rich and sensitive ecosystems, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of oil sands. The basin includes the Peace-Athabasca Delta, recognized internationally by UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention as a biologically rich inland delta and wetland that are now under increasing pressure from multiple stressors. In this study, streamflow variability and trends for rivers feeding Lake Athabasca are investigated over the last half century. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust regime shift detection method and the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, respectively. Results show that the Athabasca River, which is the main contributor to the total lake inflow, experienced marked declines in recent decades impacting lake levels and its ecosystem. From 1960 to 2010 there was a significant reduction in lake inflow and a significant recession in the Lake Athabasca level. Our trend analysis corroborates a previous study using proxy data obtained from nearby sediment cores suggesting that the lake level may drop 2 to 3 m by 2100. The lake recession may threaten the flora and fauna of the Athabasca Lake basin and negatively impact the ecological cycle of an inland freshwater delta and wetland of global importance.

  11. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry. PMID:3690482

  12. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  13. PPFC of Canada a committed partner.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Planned Parenthood Federation of Canada (PPFC) has supported the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) since 1989. PPFC receives funds from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and from Canadian inhabitants. These funds help IPPF/WHR provide family planning services and education in Latin America and the Caribbean. CIDA's matching 3-to-1 grant has allowed PPFC to implement projects in Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the Caribbean. The monies from Canadian citizens fund an adolescent clinic in Bogota, Colombia, and a women's education project for PROFAMILIA staff in Colombia which centers on gender issues. Other PPFC supported projects include an adolescent center in Cartagena, Colombia; a community doctors program in Jalisco, Mexico; and a maternal and child health project in Canto Grande, Peru. PPFC consultants visited projects and in early 1993 went to Colombia. Since conditions were too dangerous for a Canadian to visit the maternal and child health project in Peru, a local consultant had to evaluate the project. PPFC's Board of Directors support PPFC staff's commitment to helping IPPF/WHR. IPPF/WHR hopes to continue its collaborative relationship with PPFC as it addresses the unmet family needs of women, men, and adolescents in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:12179843

  14. Surveillance of hospitalized farm injuries in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Hartling, L; Dimich-Ward, H; Guernsey, J; Hagel, L; Voaklander, D; Brison, R

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To provide an overview of hospital admissions for the treatment of farm injuries. Methods—Design: descriptive analysis of data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program (CAISP). Population: persons experiencing a farm injury requiring hospitalization, April 1991 to March 1995. Access to hospital separation data was negotiated within Canadian provinces. Individual cases were verified by medical records personnel and supplemental data describing injury circumstances were obtained. Analysis: descriptive analyses characterizing farm injuries by: persons involved, mechanisms, primary diagnoses, and agents of injury. Results—Data from 8/10 Canadian provinces representing 98% of the farm population were obtained. A total of 8263 farm injuries were verified. Adults aged 60 years and older were over-represented in these injuries. Leading external causes of agricultural machinery injury included entanglements, being pinned/struck by machinery, falls, and runovers. Non-machinery causes included falls from heights, animal related trauma, and being struck/by against objects. Leading diagnoses varied by age group, but included: limb fractures/open wounds, intracranial injuries, skull fractures, and spinal/truncal fractures. Conclusions—CAISP is a new agricultural injury surveillance program in Canada. Data from this system are actively used to inform prevention initiatives, and to indicate priorities for etiological and experimental research in the Canadian agricultural setting. PMID:11428559

  15. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes in Calves, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stämpfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Peregrine, Andrew S.; Trotz-Williams, Lise A.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Brazier, Jon S.; Weese, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    We investigated Clostridium difficile in calves and the similarity between bovine and human C. difficile PCR ribotypes by conducting a case-control study of calves from 102 dairy farms in Canada. Fecal samples from 144 calves with diarrhea and 134 control calves were cultured for C. difficile and tested with an ELISA for C. difficile toxins A and B. C. difficile was isolated from 31 of 278 calves: 11 (7.6%) of 144 with diarrhea and 20 (14.9%) of 134 controls (p = 0.009). Toxins were detected in calf feces from 58 (56.8%) of 102 farms, 57 (39.6%) of 144 calves with diarrhea, and 28 (20.9%) of 134 controls (p = 0.0002). PCR ribotyping of 31 isolates showed 8 distinct patterns; 7 have been identified in humans, 2 of which have been associated with outbreaks of severe disease (PCR types 017 and 027). C. difficile may be associated with calf diarrhea, and cattle may be reservoirs of C. difficile for humans. PMID:17283624

  16. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States. PMID:25894533

  17. Progress with the PUB Initiative in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Whitfield, P.; Ouarda, T.; Metcalfe, R.; Pomeroy, J.; Pietroniro, A.

    2008-12-01

    Practicing hydrologists continually face the challenge of prediction in ungauged basins. They are well aware of the difficulties and risks inherent in making predictions and forecasts of the state of water resources. They are cognizant of the climate and landscape change that is forcing our community to address some of the long held assumptions in our methodologies - notably that of stationarity. Furthermore, as resources have become scarcer due to availability or quality limitations, decision makers' demands not only include reports of mere abundance or state but also change. Interactions among hydrological, biochemical and ecological processes now need to be understood and incorporated into new predictive tools. In Canada, progress has been slow but steady. Priorities were identified, including improving prediction in small basins, incorporating process algorithms into deterministic models, implementing new information generating methods, and expanding outreach of new knowledge and techniques. Individual successes are reflective of the needs of each segment of the community. Large utilities and operational forecast offices, with their larger infrastructure, have made progress incorporating new algorithms into deterministic models and applying advanced regionalization tools. The majority of consulting engineers remain constrained by time, budgets and access to data. They remain comfortable reducing uncertainty and building confidence with calibration and reproduction of past conditions. Conservative assumptions are a mainstay for reducing risk. Progress in reducing uncertainty for this segment is made by developing relationships and exchanging information so that practicing hydrologists are aware of the new tools and knowledge they need to ensure wise water management decisions.

  18. Opening Minds in Canada: Targeting Change

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the ongoing activities of the Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative of the Mental Health Commission of Canada regarding the 4 groups targeted (youth, health care providers, media, and workplaces), highlight some of the key methodological challenges, and review lessons learned. Method: The approach used by OM is rooted in community development philosophy, with clearly defined target groups, contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and a strong evaluative component so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: Results have been generally positive. Contact-based education has the capacity to reduce prejudicial attitudes and improve social acceptance of people with a mental illness across various target groups and sectors. Variations in program outcomes have contributed to our understanding of active ingredients. Conclusions: Contact-based education has become a cornerstone of the OM approach to stigma reduction. A story of hope and recovery told by someone who has experienced a mental illness is powerful and engaging, and a critical ingredient in the fight against stigma. Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. The next challenge will be to scale these up so that they may have a national impact. PMID:25565697

  19. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  20. Insights into the physician assistant profession in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Danielle; Shrichand, Arun

    2016-07-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) have been used for decades in the Canadian military. Now, PAs are being introduced in various clinical settings to provide patient care for the general population. This article reviews major developments in the PA profession across Canada over the last decade. Nearly 541 PAs are employed in Canada or work for a Canadian agency. Growing evidence demonstrates the positive effect of PAs; however, key issues challenge the extent to which the PA movement will continue to build momentum. PMID:27351645

  1. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mordellidae and Ripiphoridae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eleven species of Mordellidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Six of these, Falsomordellistena discolor (Melsheimer), Falsomordellistena pubescens (Fabricius), Mordellistena ornata (Melsheimer), Mordellaria undulata (Melsheimer), Tomoxia inclusa LeConte, and Yakuhananomia bidentata (Say)are new for the Maritime provinces. Falsomordellistena pubescens is new to Canada. Pelecotoma flavipes Melsheimer (family Ripiphoridae) is reported for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species. PMID:22539896

  2. The increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Catherine; Leonard, Erin; Koffi, Jules Konan; Pelcat, Yann; Peregrine, Andrew; Chilton, Neil; Rochon, Kateryn; Lysyk, Tim; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas Hume

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. The objectives of this article are to i) raise public awareness with the help of veterinarians on the emerging and expanding risk of Lyme disease across Canada, ii) review the key clinical features of Lyme disease in dogs, and iii) provide recommendations for veterinarians on the management of Lyme disease in dogs. PMID:26130829

  3. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Neisseria meningitidis with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Blondeau, J M; Ashton, F E; Isaacson, M; Yaschuck, Y; Anderson, C; Ducasse, G

    1995-01-01

    Moderately penicillin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis is rare in North America. We report an outbreak of meningococcal disease in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, with serogroup C N. meningitidis. The MICs of penicillin ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 micrograms/ml, and all isolates showing decreased susceptibility had identical genomic fingerprints when they were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our data indicate that N. meningitidis that is moderately resistant to penicillin is prevalent in Saskatchewan, Canada. PMID:7665646

  5. Cancer in Canada fact sheet series #1 - thyroid cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A; Semenciw, R; Mery, L

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing more rapidly than that of any other cancer in Canada, while mortality has remained low and stable. In the last 10 years the number of thyroid cancer cases has increased 144% from 1709 to 4172 cases per year. Thyroid cancer is three times more common in females than males. 40% of thyroid cancers are diagnosed in Canadians under 45 years of age. Some of the apparent increase in incidence is likely due to improved and more widely available diagnostic techniques. PMID:24618383

  6. Canada's space program, 1958 1989: A program without an agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainor, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Canada's space program began in 1958 with the work that led to the launch of Canada's first satellite, Alouette 1, in 1962. In 1967, two major reports on Canadian space research efforts called for a Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The Canadian government declined to set up an agency but chose instead in 1969 to establish an interdepartmental committee to coordinate Canada's space efforts. The CSA finally began operations on March 1, 1989. This paper will look at government documents, reports and statements about Canadian space efforts during this time to trace the efforts to establish a CSA. This paper will also examine the creation of the Interdepartmental Committee on Space in 1969. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Canadian government focused on satellites as a communications tool and as a means of encouraging high technology industry in Canada. After joining the US space shuttle program in the 1970s, Canada was invited in the 1980s to send astronauts into space and take part in the US space station program. Although the committee structure was awkward and inconvenient, Canada's space efforts during that time saw a high degree of political and economic success.

  7. Canada's role in pushing back the frontiers of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Ian H.

    This paper outlines the history of Canada's involvement in space science. An early interest in upper atmosphere phenomena resulted from the influence of the north magnetic pole on long distance radio communication. With the launch of the ionospheric sounder, Alouette 1, in 1962, Canada became the third nation to have a spacecraft in space. Canada was the first country to provide domestic satellite service for commercial communications with the Anik series of satellites. The latest satellite, the M-SAT will provide two way voice and data services. ( Primarily as a result of the work of the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Canada has been a leader in airborne remote sensing. This interest has continued in the data acquisition and interpretation of space based remote sensing. Radarsat, a remote sensing satellite which will provide synthetic aperture radar imagery at 10 meter resolution is currently in the design stage. The final role has been in the development of STEM (extendable member) devices for manned space flights. The most notable contribution is the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System first flown on Columbia in 1981. Canada's contribution to Space Station Freedom will be the Mobile Servicing System. The current space science program involves study of the universe and solar system, of the near earth environment, and of physical and biological processes occurring in space.

  8. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit. The area is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). The image was produced by using only the L-band. The three polarization channels HH, HV and VV are illustrated by red, green and blue respectively. The changes in the intensity of each color are related to various surface conditions such as variations in forest stands, frozen or thawed condition of the surface, disturbances (fire and deforestation), and areas of regrowth. Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the white Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are also shown by dark areas in the image. Since most of the logging practice at the Prince Albert area is around the major highways, the deforested areas can be easily detected as small geometrically shaped dark regions along the roads. At the time of the SIR-C/X-SAR overpass a major part of the forest is either frozen or undergoing the spring thaw. The L-band HH shows a high return in the jack pine forest. The reddish areas in the image are old jack pine forest, 12 to 17 meters (40to 55 feet) in height and 60 to 75 years old. The orange

  9. Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, K.; Hernández-Henríquez, M. A.; Déry, S. J.

    2012-08-01

    The 271 000 km2 Lake Athabasca drainage in Northern Canada encompasses ecologically-rich and sensitive ecosystems, intensive agricultural lands, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of tar-sands. In this study, streamflow variability and trends in eight rivers feeding the 7800 km2 Lake Athabasca are investigated over the period 1960-2010. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust regime shift detection method and the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, respectively. Results show that the Athabasca River, which provides ~ 57% of the total annual lake inflow of 34.06 km3 yr-1, experiences marked declines in recent decades impacting lake levels and its ecosystem. The Fond du Lac River, which contributes ~ 30% of total Lake Athabasca inflow, has an increasing trend of 0.021 km3 yr-1 over 1970-2010 according to the MK test, equating to a 0.86 km3 discharge increase from Fond du Lac River to the lake. From 1960 to 2010 there has been approximately a 21.2% reduction of average discharge equivalent to a 7.22 km3 recession in the Lake Athabasca causing lake levels to drop. The lake level has a trend of -0.008 m yr-1 which is equivalent to a 0.39 m decline in the lake level over 1960-2010. The total lake inflow trend over 1977-2010 is -0.207 km3 yr-1 or a reduction of 25.67 km3 by 2100 by linear extrapolation. This may imply a further reduction of 2 m to 3 m in lake level that is in the range of a 5200-yr historical minimum inferred from proxy data in nearby sediment cores.

  10. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  11. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively. PMID:26573434

  12. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people attending a workshop at the Section of Teachers of Family Medicine annual meeting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extent of training offered, educational models used, common problems for residents and teachers. RESULTS: Nine of 18 programs offer some family medicine training in a rural practice setting to some or all of their first-year family medicine residents, and 99 of 684 first-year family medicine residents did some training in a rural practice. All programs offer some training in a rural practice to some or all of the second-year residents, and 567 of 702 second-year residents did some training in a rural setting. In 12 of 18 programs, a rural family medicine block is compulsory. Education models for training for rural family practice vary widely. Isolation, accommodation, and supervision are common problems for rural family medicine residents. Isolation and faculty development are common problems for rural physician-teachers. Programs use various approaches to address these problems. CONCLUSIONS: The variety of postgraduate training models for rural family practice used in the 18 training programs reflects different regional health care needs and resources. There is no common rural family medicine curriculum. Networking through a rural physician-teachers group or a faculty of rural medicine could further the development of education for rural family practice. PMID:7780331

  13. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  14. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens. PMID:16206573

  15. Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Chudley, Albert E.; Clarren, Sterling K.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is underdiagnosed in Canada. The diagnosis of FASD is not simple and currently, the recommendation is that a comprehensive, multidisciplinary assessment of the individual be done. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual cost of FASD diagnosis on Canadian society. Methods The diagnostic process breakdown was based on recommendations from the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Canadian Guidelines for Diagnosis. The per person cost of diagnosis was calculated based on the number of hours (estimated based on expert opinion) required by each specialist involved in the diagnostic process. The average rate per hour for each respective specialist was estimated based on hourly costs across Canada. Based on the existing clinical capacity of all FASD multidisciplinary clinics in Canada, obtained from the 2005 and 2011 surveys conducted by the Canada Northwest FASD Research Network, the number of FASD cases diagnosed per year in Canada was estimated. The per person cost of FASD diagnosis was then applied to the number of cases diagnosed per year in Canada in order to calculated the overall annual cost. Results Using the most conservative approach, it was estimated that an FASD evaluation requires 32 to 47 hours for one individual to be screened, referred, admitted, and diagnosed with an FASD diagnosis, which results in a total cost of $3,110 to $4,570 per person. The total cost of FASD diagnostic services in Canada ranges from $3.6 to $5.2 million (lower estimate), up to $5.0 to $7.3 million (upper estimate) per year. Discussion As a result of using the most conservative approach, the cost of FASD diagnostic services presented in the current study is most likely underestimated. The reasons for this likelihood and the limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:23593216

  16. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng; Gupta, Nishi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data sources Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. Study selection After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province’s EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Synthesis Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software’s available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Conclusion Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada. PMID:27035020

  17. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    PubMed

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach. PMID

  18. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K. H.; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. Objective: We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Methods: Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms “vaccine,” “economics” and “Canada.” Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Results: 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. Conclusions: We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public

  19. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  20. Observational Evidence of an Intensifying Hydrological Cycle in Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, S. J.; Hernández-Henríquez, M. A.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Burford, J. E.; Wood, E. F.

    2009-05-01

    This talk will present an overview of recent trends and variability of river discharge in northern Canada, with a focus on our contributions to the IPY project "Arctic Freshwater Systems". We will first introduce the pan-Arctic domain, with a focus on northern Canada, and its hydroclimatology. Trends and variability in the 1964-2007 annual streamflow for 45 rivers spanning 5.2 × 106 km2 of northern Canada will then be discussed. We will present a trend analysis for the 44-year period that reveals a modest increase in the annual flows, with a recent trend reversal owing to much-above average values recorded over the past decade. Trends in the coefficient of variation computed from 11-year moving windows of annual streamflows exhibit spatially coherent signals with increasing variability across most of northern Canada, excluding some rivers with outlets to the Labrador Sea and eastern James Bay. This study therefore provides observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada.

  1. The Future of Postgraduate Medical Education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Busing, Nick; Harris, Ken; MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Moineau, Geneviève; Oandasan, Ivy; Rourke, James; Saxena, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project was launched in 2010 by a consortium of four organizations: the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, the Collège des Médecins du Québec, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The FMEC PG study set out to review the state of the Canadian postgraduate medical education (PGME) system and make recommendations for improvements and changes. The extensive process included literature reviews, commissioned papers, stakeholder interviews, international consultations, and dialogue with the public and learners. The resulting key findings and 10 recommendations, published in a report in 2012, represent the collective vision of the consortium partner organizations for PGME in Canada. Implementation of the recommendations began in 2013 and will continue beyond 2016.In this article, the authors describe the complex process of developing the recommendations, highlight several recommendations, consider implementation processes and issues, and share lessons learned to date. They reflect on the ways in which the transformation of a very complex and complicated PGME system has required many stakeholders to work together on multiple interventions simultaneously. Notwithstanding the challenges for the participating organizations, changes have been introduced and sustainability is being forged. Throughout this process, the consortium partners and other stakeholders have continued to address the social accountability role of all physicians with respect to the public they serve. PMID:26177532

  2. Regulation and oversight of independent health facilities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Pries, Charlene R; Vanin, Sharon; Cartagena, Rosario G

    2014-02-01

    Independent health facilities ("IHFs") are an important part of Canada's health care system existing at the interface of public and private care. They offer benefits to individual patients and the public at large, such as improved access to care, reduced wait times, improved choice in the delivery of care, and more efficient use of health care resources. They can also provide physicians greater autonomy, control of resources, and opportunity for profit compared to other practice settings, particularly because IHFs can deliver services outside of publicly-funded health care plans. IHFs also present challenges, particularly around quality of care and patient safety, and the potential to breach the principles of "Medicare" under the Canada Health Act. Various measures are in place to address these challenges, while still enabling the benefits IHFs can offer. IHFs are primarily regulated and overseen at the provincial level through legislation, regulations and provincial medical regulatory College by-laws. Health Canada is responsible for administering the overarching framework for "Medicare". Oversight and regulatory provisions vary across Canada, and are notably absent in the Maritime provinces and the territories. This article provides an overview of specific provisions related to IHFs across the country and how they can co-exist with the Canada Health Act. PMID:24696939

  3. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. Methods: This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Findings: Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Conclusions: Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. PMID:21676023

  4. Western United States and Southwestern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captures the beauty of the western United States and Canada. Data from 45 swaths from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free mosaic. The image extends from 48o N 128o W in the northwest, to 32oN, 104o W in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    The image area includes much of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, and extends southward to California, Arizona and New Mexico. The snow-capped Rocky Mountains are a prominent feature extending through British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Many major rivers originate in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The Colorado Plateau region is characterized by the vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert in Utah and Arizona, and in New Mexico, White Sands National Park is the large white feature in the Southeast corner of the image with the Malpais lava flow just to its North. The southwest is dominated by the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada, California's San Joaquin Valley, the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. The panels utilize data from blocks 45 to 65 within World Reference System-2 paths 31 to 53.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. MISR View of Georgian Bay, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the southeast portion of Georgian Bay in Ontario, Canada, acquired on March 6, 2000, during Terra orbit 1155. The color image is from the nadir (vertical) camera, and highlights a cloud to the southwest of Christian Island. In this view, the shadow cast by the cloud on the water is visible just north of the cloud itself. Bright areas in the image are either cloud or ice; an example of the latter is the frozen Lake Simcoe.

    The eight monochrome images are red band data from the off-nadir cameras. Starting with the one in the upper right and moving counterclockwise, the images progress from the most forward-viewing to the most aftward-viewing camera. Thus, the top (bottom) row of monochrome images are views acquired forward (aftward) of vertical. The apparent displacement of the cloud from south to north as the view progresses from forward to aftward is primarily a geometric parallax effect due to the cloud's elevation above the surface.

    In each image in the top row, a fainter feature with the same shape as the cloud is visible within Georgian Bay. The feature and the cloud itself approach one another as the view angle becomes less oblique. The feature is present only in the water, and disappears over the land surface of Christian Island. What is it?

    We are observing reflections of the cloud in the water. Their positions are dictated by the law of reflection, which states that the angle relative to the vertical of the reflected rays is the same as the angle of the incident rays. Therefore, the apparent location of a reflection relative to the cloud changes as a function of camera view angle. Unlike water, land does not act as a good mirror. Also, in the aftward views the reflections are less visible because they are blocked by the southern extension of the cloud. Reflections of this sort are not visible in conventional vertical imagery because in that case they lie directly underneath the cloud, and are consequently obscured.

    MISR was built

  6. Canada`s commercially oriented Radarsat returns SAR data for oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.E.

    1996-07-15

    Canada in November 1995 launched the world`s first commercially oriented remote sensing satellite to carry a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system. Radarsat provides the oil and gas industry with a unique variety of exploration and mapping capabilities not previously offered by an operational imaging satellite. Radarsat`s SAR data became commercially available in March 1996 at a cost ranging between 2{cents} to $1.60/sq km for most products--a fraction of the cost of airborne SAR imagery. The paper discusses the exploration and production benefits of SAR (all-weather imaging, varied orbits, and sensitivity to terrain) and Radarsat advantages variable incidence angle, multiple beam modes, onboard tape recorders, processing and delivery, and cost effectiveness.

  7. The Supreme Court of Canada Ruling on Physician-Assisted Death: Implications for Psychiatry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Olivia Anne

    2015-12-01

    On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the prohibition of physician-assisted death (PAD) was unconstitutional for a competent adult person who "clearly consents to the termination of life" and has a "grievous and irremediable (including an illness, disease, or disability) condition that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." The radically subjective nature of this ruling raises important questions about who will be involved and how this practice might be regulated. This paper aims to stimulate discussion about psychiatry's role in this heretofore illegal practice and to explore how psychiatry might become involved in end-of-life care in a meaningful, patient-centred way. First, I will review existing international legislation and professional regulatory standards regarding psychiatry and PAD. Second, I will discuss important challenges psychiatry might face regarding capacity assessment, the notion of rational suicide, and the assessment of suffering. PMID:26720829

  8. Identification of an isolate of Rickettsia canada from California.

    PubMed

    Philip, R N; Casper, E A; Anacker, R L; Peacock, M G; Hayes, S F; Lane, R S

    1982-11-01

    A strain of Rickettsia canada was recovered in 1980 an adult rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, taken from a black-tailed jack rabbit, Lepus californicus, in Mendocino County, California. In all examined biologic characteristics, this isolate, CA410, is indistinguishable from the prototype, strain 2678, isolated in Ontario, Canada, in 1963. These similarities include serologic and immunologic reactivity in laboratory mice and guinea pigs, cultural characteristics in Vero cells, chick embryo cells and embryonated eggs, low pathogenicity for mice, meadow voles and guinea pigs, unusual resistance to streptomycin, morphology by electron microscopy, and molar percentages of guanine plus cytosine of the deoxyribonucleic acids. Recovery of this second strain in the same species of tick, but far removed in time and place from the origin of the prototype, provides evidence that R. canada is an established, ecologically stable, rickettsia in North America. PMID:6756179

  9. Canada's national initiative to advance access to electronic journals.

    PubMed

    Groen, F

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes a national experiment in the licensing of full text information in journals, primarily in the fields of science, technology and medicine. It discusses the initiative of the federal government of Canada through the creation of the Canada Foundation for Innovation as a new funding agency, with an objective of improving research and creativity in Canadian science. The successful efforts initiated by the Canadian Association of Research Libraries/Association des bibliothèques de recherche du Canada to create a funding opportunity to develop the 'information infrastructure' for Canadian researchers and the resulting Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP) progress is discussed. The evolution of a project governance structure to maintain the support of the 64 participating institutions is reviewed and the need to develop an appropriate exit strategy at the conclusion of the federal funding is also considered. PMID:11198324

  10. Comparing disability amongst immigrants and native-born in Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Simone, Dylan

    2015-11-01

    Given high levels of immigration into Canada and the associated requirement to understand the health needs of new arrivals, an extensive literature has developed over the past decade that has explored immigrant health issues, including the 'healthy immigrant effect'. Surprisingly, however, issues of disability within the immigrant population have received much less attention. Using data from Statistics Canada, 2006a, 2006b Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS), this paper examines disability and its covariates amongst immigrants relative to non-immigrants in Canada. Compared with their native-born counterparts, recent immigrant arrivals (within the past 10 years) were less likely to report disability and less likely to report a severe disability than the native-born. However, differences in the rates and covariates of disabilities between males and female immigrants were observed, which are partially explained by socioeconomic and sociodemographic effects. The conclusion explores potential reasons why differentials in disability rates are observed, and points to future research directions. PMID:26448165

  11. Economic gas resources remain in western Canada Triassic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.M.; Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Conn, R.F. )

    1994-12-12

    This article reviews the estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Triassic System of the interior plains region of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This work was recently released as Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin 483. It is the second in a series of multidisciplinary studies reviewing the petroleum geology, discovered and undiscovered gas resources, and economic potential of natural gas in the Western Canada basin. Economic potential measures the portion of the undiscovered resource which can be expected to provide economic investment opportunities over the long term. By taking costs and other economic constraints into account, a more realistic estimate of the resources of commercial interest to industry is provided. Estimates of economic potential are also relevant in supply/demand forecasting, in the resource management mandates of governments and regulatory bodies, and in the strategic planning of transportation systems.

  12. The changing age and seasonal profile of pertussis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Danuta M; De Serres, Gaston; MacDonald, Diane; Wu, Wrency; Shaw, Carol; Macnabb, Jane; Champagne, Sylvie; Patrick, David M; Halperin, Scott A

    2002-05-15

    During the postvaccine era in Canada, most cases of pertussis have been reported in children <5 years of age, with the highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality in infants <1 year old. Population-based data, with very high laboratory confirmation rates and hospital separation and mortality statistics, chronicle the changing age and seasonal profile associated with pertussis over recent successive outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada. A large outbreak during 2000 highlights 2 important changes to the postvaccine profile. For the first time in Canada, the incidence of pertussis among preteens and teens surpassed that of all other age groups. At the same time, a decreasing incidence of pertussis among infants and preschool children highlights reduced susceptibility in the very young. Recent changes in the childhood immunization program (including introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine), waning immunity, and changes in laboratory methods are considered in explaining these 2 simultaneous but divergent trends in the pertussis profile. PMID:11992280

  13. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  14. Drug policy in Canada--the way forward.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Thomas; O'Briain, Warren

    2002-07-01

    This article is one of a series commissioned to mark the tenth anniversary of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, discussing past developments and future directions in areas of policy and law related to HIV/AIDS. It takes a critical look at Canada's drug policy. Despite calls for a balanced approach focused on reducing drug-related harm, Canada's method of dealing with problems of illicit drug use has remained prohibitionist in nature, and by far the greatest part of federal funding is devoted to supply-reduction initiatives. Considerable changes in policy and law are needed to significantly reduce the harms associated with injection drug use in Canada. These include developing a comprehensive and integrated strategy, exploring alternative legal frameworks, piloting innovative approaches to reducing injection-related harms, and investing in broad social policies that address the determinants of injection drug use. PMID:14765475

  15. Endoscopy in Canada: Proceedings of the National Roundtable

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Noah; Dixon, Elijah; Tinmouth, Jill; Bradley, Nori; Vassiliou, Melina; Schwaitzberg, Steve; Gomes, Anthony; Ellsmere, James; de Gara, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This 2014 roundtable discussion, hosted by the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, brought together general surgeons and gastroenterologists with expertise in endoscopy from across Canada to discuss the state of endoscopy in Canada. The focus of the roundtable was the evaluation of the competence of general surgeons at endoscopy, reviewing quality assurance parameters for high-quality endoscopy, measuring and assessing surgical resident preparedness for endoscopy practice, evaluating credentialing programs for the endosuite and predicting the future of endoscopic services in Canada. The roundtable noted several important observations. There exist inadequacies in both resident training and the assessment of competency in endoscopy. From these observations, several collaborative recommendations were then stated. These included the need for a formal and standardized system of both accreditation and training endoscopists. PMID:25886520

  16. Study finds Devonian gas resources of western Canada attractive target

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J. )

    1993-09-13

    This report summarizes results of a recently completed study on the conventional natural gas resources estimated to be contained in Devonian strata of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This study is the first in a series dealing with conventional gas resources of the basin south of 62[degree] N. Lat. Estimates of regional resource potential have been prepared periodically by the Geological Survey of Canada, using systematic geological basin analysis and statistical resource evaluation methods. The major play groups in the western Canada gas project are Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Deformed Belt, Lower Cretaceous Mannville group, Middle Cretaceous Colorado group, and Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary. The Devonian assessment was undertaken first because of the existing comprehensive geological data base and because there is an upside potential for finding significant reserves in relatively large economic pools. The paper describes the assessment procedures andanalyzes mature plays and conceptual plays of gas.

  17. More potential Devonian economics outlined for Western Canada basin

    SciTech Connect

    Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Brackman, C.

    1995-06-12

    This article presents further details on the analysis of economic potential in the Devonian system of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. The previous study, published as Bulletin 452 by the Geological Survey of Canada, a sector of Natural Resources Canada, presented an analysis of the economic potential in the five cost regions of the Devonian system. This article gives estimates for all 25 mature plays comprising the cost regions of the Devonian system. Estimates of economic potential by play are analyzed for both the full-cycle and half-cycle cases at two representative plant gate prices of natural gas: $44.13/thousand cu m ($1.25/Mcf) and $88.25/thousand cu m ($2.50/Mcf). Before summarizing the previous study and describing the analytical extensions. The paper defines the terminology.

  18. Technical and economic models of a DBS system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, O. S.

    A comprehensive, multidisciplinary study program to develop information regarding the possible implementation of a direct broadcasting satellite system for Canada was completed in 1983. The program included market studies and technical and economic modeling of alternative DBS systems. Both 50 dBW and 54 dBW edge-of-coverage EIRP systems were modeled, with both 4 and 6 beam coverage. It is estimated that an eight to ten channel system for Canada would cost between $400 million and $650 million (1982 Canadian dollars). The main requirement for DBS television service is in rural Canada. Market forecasts are that up to 2-1/2 million households would purchase DBS home receivers. Allowing for a real rate of return of 6 percent, the monthly cost per household for delivery of all channels would range from $5 to $7.

  19. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  20. Direct effects of cattle on grassland birds in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bleho, Barbara I; Koper, Nicola; Machtans, Craig S

    2014-06-01

    Effects of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival directly through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to assess rates of nest destruction by cattle among 9 ecoregions and between seasonal and rotational grazing systems. Overall, few nests were destroyed by cattle (average 1.5% of 9132 nests). Nest destruction was positively correlated with grazing pressure (i.e., stocking rate or grazing intensity), but nest survival was higher in more heavily grazed areas for some species. Because rates of destruction of grassland bird nests by cattle are low in Canada, management efforts to reduce such destruction may not be of ecological or economic value in Canada. PMID:24617945

  1. Canada and the International Space Station Program: Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Savi

    2002-01-01

    The twelve months since IAC 2001 have been some of the most exciting and rewarding with regards to Canada's participation in the International Space Station Program. Canada's contribution to the ISS is the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the external robotic system that is key to the successful assembly of the Space Station, the maintenance of its external systems, astronaut EVA support, and the servicing of external science payloads. Between April and July 2001 the first flight-element,Canadarm2 (Space Station Remote Manipulator System), of Canada's contribution to the ISS was the successfully launched, checked out and then used for assembly of the Station's Airlock. In April 2002 the US supplied MSS Mobile Transporter was positioned on-orbit paving the way for the launch, in June, of the next element of Canada's Mobile Servicing System, the MSC Base System. During the June mission a roll wrist joint on Canadarm2 was also replaced - a first ever EVA repair of this type. The paper provides an overview of Canada's on-orbit and ground segment contributions to the International Space Station and describes the on-orbit assembly and operations to date of the flight elements. The MSS ground segment that supports MSS operations, training, sustaining engineering, and logistics activities has reached maturity. The ongoing activities involving the MSS ground segment as well as the Canadian Payloads Telescience Operations Center are outlined. The paper includes an account of the Canadian astronaut and utilization ISS activities. The paper concludes with Canada's views and participation in the NASA activities to bring its portion of the program back within budget. "Copyright 2002 by Graham Gibbs (Canadian Space Agency). Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. Released to IAF/IAA/AIAA to publish in all forms."

  2. Reformulating Lead-Based Paint as a Problem in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Amélie

    2011-01-01

    Leaded gasoline was officially removed from the Canadian market in December 1990. The removal of a major lead source and the subsequent decline in children's blood lead levels marked an important transition point and sparked the emergence of new discourse on lead in Canada. Today, childhood lead poisoning is viewed as a problem of the past or a problem of the United States. Sparse Canadian surveillance data supported this view. Moreover, tensions among federal agencies evolved into a power struggle, with Health Canada ultimately becoming the dominant authority, thereby relegating important research initiatives to obscurity and also shaping a vastly weaker regulatory response to lead than occurred in the United States. PMID:21836119

  3. Development of a transoral robotic surgery program in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Due to significant differences in healthcare structure between the United States and Canada, there are unique barriers to adopting new medical technology in Canada. In this article, we describe our experience developing a transoral robotic surgery (TORS) program at Western University. Specifically, we outline the steps that were necessary to obtain institutional and multidisciplinary team approval, financial support, as well as surgeon and allied healthcare personnel training. This experience can potentially be used as a roadmap for other Canadian institutions pursuing a TORS program. PMID:23663280

  4. Putting children first: An opportunity for Canada's new government.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    For more than 50 years, the importance of studying new medicines in childhood has been widely recognized. Nonetheless, Health Canada has eschewed policies requiring such evaluation, despite effective reforms elsewhere. In 2012, the Council of Canadian Academies convened an expert panel to assess Canada's research base for labelling of pediatric therapies. The September 2014 report has not yet resulted in action, but it deserves consideration by the new government with timely recognition of the high priority that evidence-based treatment of children deserves. PMID:26872802

  5. Canada on course to introduce permissive assisted dying regime.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Canada's Supreme Court decided in February 2015 that the criminalisation of assisted dying in the country violates the country's citizens and residents constitutional rights. This paper reviews policy recommendations produced by a special expert advisory panel appointed by Canada's provinces and territories, where the responsibility for the provision of health care lies. It also reviews a similar document produced by a special federal parliamentary committee. Based on the review of these two milestone documents it is argued that a Canadian consensus seems to emerge that foreshadows a permissive regulatory regime in that country. PMID:27009981

  6. The Carriage of Death: What Kind Does Canada Have?

    PubMed

    Sweatman, Louise R; Sweatman, M Jasmine

    2016-02-01

    Using a carriage of death metaphor, based on Emily Dickinson's poem "Because I Could Not Stop for Death", the authors highlight the development of the last 40 years of the Canadian legal landscape and end-of-life decision making. Beginning with the Canadian Criminal Code, moving through the Rodriguez decision and ending with the recent 2015 Carter decision, they explore how the evolution of time has influenced Canada's highest court. The authors conclude with an exploration of advance care directives and what we may expect as Canada continues its travels down this road. PMID:27169199

  7. W. Canada's Devonian resource significant even at low gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Waghmare, R.R.; Dallaire, S.M.; Conn, R.F. )

    1993-11-29

    This article summarizes Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 452, entitled Devonian Gas Resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB). It provides supply curves and summary estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Devonian system of the WCSB. The methodology constructed to estimate the economic potential is also described, along with major assumptions with regard to engineering inputs and economic parameters. The report concludes that, in the long-term, significant economically recoverable resources remain to be discovered in the Devonian system.

  8. Three species of Plasmodium from Canada geese, Branta canadensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Studies on Canada geese at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan during the past few years have uncovered at least three species of Plasmodium: P circumflexum, P. relictum, and P. vaughani. Although rarely observed in direct blood smears from the wild hosts, isodiagnosis, using primarily domestic geese as recipients, revealed a prevalence of 60 percent in random samplings of the population. P. circumflexum is the most prevalent and mixed infections have been noted. In experimental infections, induced by blood inoculation, the malaria produced by P. circumflexum produces about a 70 percent mortality in Canada geese and about a 10 percent mortality in domestic geese.

  9. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  10. A harmonized immunization schedule for Canada: A call to action

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, NE; Bortolussi, R

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization systematically reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of new and old vaccines, and sets a ‘minimum’ recommended schedule. However, in contrast to other industrialized countries where single, harmonized countrywide immunization schedules are de rigeur, Canada has a confusing system, with each province and territory defining its own schedule – and none are the same. The time has come to rectify this decades-old patient equity and safety problem. The Canadian Paediatric Society calls for a harmonized schedule to improve the health and safety of Canadian children and youth. PMID:22211070

  11. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876

  12. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The image is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying radar remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of

  13. On improving the quality of precipitation data for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is a key variable for specifying the state of the climate system and of high impact potential on the society and environment. It is highly variable in both space and time. In the high latitudes like Canada, precipitation occurs in different forms (e.g., rainfall, snowfall…). Thus, measuring precipitation and quantifying its temporal and spatial distributions are especially challenging. This presentation will focus on our recent and on-going studies towards producing high quality precipitation data sets for Canada. This includes adjusting gauge data to improve its quality, and blending gauge data with satellite precipitation estimates (SPEs) to produce high quality gridded precipitation datasets on monthly and pentad time scales. Part I of the presentation is about the Adjusted Daily Rainfall and Snowfall (R&S) dataset. This dataset contains all Canadian stations (over 2100 stations) of daily rainfall and snowfall data in the period since 1840. The adjustments includes: (i) conversion of snowfall to its water equivalent using a previously developed snow-water-equivalent (SWE) ratio map for Canada; (ii) corrections for gauge related issues (undercatch and evaporation due to wind effects, gauge-specific wetting loss), and for trace precipitation amounts using previously developed procedures for Canada. Various data flags (e.g., accumulation flags) were also treated. The results show that the trace correction adds 5-20% of precipitation in northern Canada, but less than 5% in southern Canada. The gauge related corrections do not show an organized spatial pattern but add in 10-15% in a large number of stations across Canada. In total, the unadjusted/raw total precipitation data underestimate more than 25% of the total precipitation in northeastern Canada, and about 10%-15% in most of southern Canada. Such large underestimation makes the raw data unsuitable for water availability/balance studies or for numerical model validation, among many other

  14. Canada as an Immigrant Nation: Implications for Educators Excerpts from an Interview with John Ralston Saul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Ralston Saul, one of Canada's pre-eminent thinkers. In the interview, Mr. Saul shares his provocative and compelling thoughts on the state of Canada's public education systems.

  15. Canada/United States Air Quality Agreement: Progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report builds on the 1992 and 1994 Canada/United States Air Quality Agreement Progress Reports. The report reviews the acid rain control programs, emissions forecasts, and scientific research in both countries; discusses new areas of concern, such as ground-level ozone (smog) and air toxics; and includes the first five-year review of the Air Quality Agreement.

  16. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  17. Coal in Canada: raining on the king's parade

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.

    1982-02-01

    Use of coal as a fuel in homes in Canada is reviewed. It is pointed out that the greatest irritant in Canadian - USA relations is the belief by Canadians that acid rain (coming from coal-fired plants in the USA) is killing off lakes in Canada. As a result, the widespread belief that coal causes acid rain, coupled with the notion that coal is a dirty and old-fashioned fuel, has dampened enthusiasm for coal among many Canadians. In Toronto, Vancouver, and northern Alberta use of coal stoves is almost non existant. In other areas, particularly where coal stoves have been tried, use of coal is quite extensive (Cape Breton Islands is an example). It is pointed out that Canada has only one proven source of anthracite coal; over 95% of Canada's 50 billion ton coal reserve is low quality bituminous or lignite. Overall, it is estimated that only 18,000 households (0.2%) currently use coal. Changes from oil heating is usually to gas. It is emphasized, however, that the potential for coal use is great if the spectre of acid rain could be lifted. (MJJ)

  18. Multicultural Education Policies in Canada and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshee, Reva; Johnson, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    "Multicultural Education Policies in Canada and the United States" uses a dialogical approach to examine responses to increasing cultural and racial diversity in both countries. It compares and contrasts foundational myths and highlights the sociopolitical contexts that affect the conditions of citizenship, access to education, and inclusion of…

  19. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

  20. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  1. Postgraduate Medical Education for Rural Family Practice in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James T. B.

    2000-01-01

    To produce more rural physicians, the College of Family Physicians of Canada recommends providing earlier and more extensive rural medicine experience for all undergraduate medical students, developing rural postgraduate training programs, providing third-year optional special and advanced rural family-medicine skills training, and making advanced…

  2. "The Freedom to Choose": Neoliberalism, Feminism, and Childcare in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Emma

    2015-01-01

    In the second-wave women's movement in Canada (1965-1985), the rhetoric of ''freedom'' and ''choice'' occupied a prominent position in public discourses. Waged as rallying points to resist entrenched forms of gender inequality in all areas of social, economic, and political culture, this language…

  3. Identity and Knowledge in Indigenous Young Children's Experiences in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In Canada, as around the world, large numbers of Indigenous children encounter culturally dissonant learning environments in preschools and schools. Many of these children experience serious challenges, in part because of a striking mismatch between their early learning experiences in the family and community, and the expectations, perceptions,…

  4. Drama and Theatre Education in Canada: A Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mindy R.

    2014-01-01

    This "Note from the Field" provides an overview of what is happening in Kindergarten to University drama and theatre education across Canada. In addition to this snapshot I offer some considerations for extending this discipline and its potential impact on curriculum, policy and practice.

  5. Situating Nunavut Education with Indigenous Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Heather Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that educational change in Nunavut has not been extensively documented, this article provides an entry point for considering how Nunavut can be better understood and situated with scholarship on Indigenous education in Canada. Comparing the history of education in Nunavut with key turning points in First Nations education, the article…

  6. Storied Understandings: Bringing Aboriginal Voices to Canada's Multicultural Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…

  7. A Preliminary Evaluation of the "Birds in Canada" Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Marya; Wolff, Lee

    This study of the Birds in Canada exhibit (National Museum of Natural Sciences) examines the effectiveness of traditional and modern displays and the visitors' use of identification labels, text, map, and film. Over 700 museum visitors comprised the random sample. Evaluation methods included observation, interview, and cognitive testing, using…

  8. Geographic Dimensions of Aging in Canada, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eric G.; Pacey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although population aging on a national scale has received much attention in Canada, its geographical dimensions have not. This paper examines the demographic processes that underlie population aging at the provincial and metropolitan scales for the periods 1991 to 1996 and 1996 to 2001. We differentiate between the effects of aging-in-place and…

  9. Canada and the United States. Perspective. Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The similarities and differences of Canada and the United States are explored in this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Ten learning objectives are given which encourage students to examine: 1) the misconceptions Americans and Canadians have about each other and their ways of life; 2) the effect and influence of French and English exploration and…

  10. Economic toll of AIDS put at $10 billion in Canada.

    PubMed

    1996-11-29

    John McCallum, Chief economist at the Royal Bank of Canada, announced that AIDS has cost the nation's economy $10 billion since 1981. These calculations included losses in both direct medical care and human capital. This monetary figure is expected to rise to $36 billion by 2010. An estimated 42,500 to 45,000 Canadians are infected with HIV. PMID:11364044

  11. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of…

  12. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  13. Canada's Voluntary ARET Program: Limited Success Despite Industry Cosponsorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antweiler, Werner; Harrison, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxins (ARET) Challenge was a voluntary program initiated in 1994 by the Government of Canada. Unlike the U.S. 33/50 Program, ARET involved industry partners in negotiation and cosponsorship of the program, with the intention that early involvement would yield stronger commitment to voluntary reductions. We…

  14. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  15. Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Lyons

    This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…

  16. The Audioconference: Delivering Continuing Education for Addictions Workers in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, E. J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used audio conferencing for continuing education of Francophone and Anglophone addictions workers across Canada. Evaluation revealed that program design enabled cost-effective, real-time linking of local groups of professionals with their peers and with external expert colleagues. Found that such contact promoted social goals of networking and…

  17. Character Development and Critical Democratic Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario, Canada's new character education policy is analyzed to determine how it supports and undermines critical democratic commitments to diversity, dialogue, equity, critical mindedness, and social justice. While policies are always open to interpretation, recent reform policies requiring evidence of continual improvement in students' academic…

  18. Teacher Supply and Demand: Issues in Northern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchenham, Andrew; Chasteauneuf, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This two-year study (2007-2009), which examined teacher supply and demand issues in northern Canada--Fort Nelson School District (BC), the Fort Vermilion School Division (AB), the Yukon Department of Education (YK), and the Yellowknife School District (NWT)--comprised three research objectives: (a) to ascertain in which subject areas acute and…

  19. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  20. Special Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodder, Clive

    The paper reviews the history and present status of special education in Canada (with particular emphasis on the province of Ontario) and identifies recommended future directions. The legislative authority for special education and current policies are summarized in sections on the following provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan,…

  1. Notes from the Grassroots: Online Lobbying in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerxa, Shawn W.; Moll, Marita

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Canada's Public Advisory Council on Information Highway Policy (PACIHP) project, including attempts to involve the online community in policy making, the techniques used, the response, and the impact; and the Canadian regulatory and political environment. Thoughts are presented on the future of computer mediated communication and its…

  2. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., conditions contained in 50 CFR part 13, and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. (c) How... are subject to the general conditions in 50 CFR part 13, the conditions elsewhere in this section, and... requested annual take of resident Canada geese, including eggs and nests; (4) A statement indicating...

  3. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., conditions contained in 50 CFR part 13, and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. (c) How... are subject to the general conditions in 50 CFR part 13, the conditions elsewhere in this section, and... requested annual take of resident Canada geese, including eggs and nests; (4) A statement indicating...

  4. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., conditions contained in 50 CFR part 13, and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. (c) How... are subject to the general conditions in 50 CFR part 13, the conditions elsewhere in this section, and... requested annual take of resident Canada geese, including eggs and nests; (4) A statement indicating...

  5. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., conditions contained in 50 CFR part 13, and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. (c) How... are subject to the general conditions in 50 CFR part 13, the conditions elsewhere in this section, and... requested annual take of resident Canada geese, including eggs and nests; (4) A statement indicating...

  6. When Women Are Equal: The Canada Research Chair Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Karen R.; Drakich, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the gendered nature of elite academic careers. Of interest is how similar or different the experiences are of women and men who have been appointed to Canada Research Chairs (CRCs). In particular, we examine the impacts of holding a CRC position and consider the factors that shape that experience for women and men. Based on…

  7. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John

    2016-01-01

    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  8. Beyond the Stereotypes: An Inside Look at Canada's Emerging Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibby, Reginald W.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about teenagers typically result in negative views of young people and contribute to the age-old idea that every new generation of teenagers is somehow inferior to previous ones. One of the reasons for the prevalence of inaccurate stereotypes about teenagers in Canada is that people have not been having very many national conversations…

  9. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  10. Oh Canada! Too Many Children in Poverty for Too Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Laurel

    2007-01-01

    Canada faces steep, yet surmountable challenges in its efforts to significantly reduce child and family poverty. Most recent data indicate that more than one million Canadian children and their families live in low-income households. Although the House of Commons unanimously resolved to "seek to achieve the goal of eliminating poverty among…

  11. Library Cataloguing Project of the Ukranian Museum of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canevari de Paredes, Donna; Kishchuk, Marie

    1991-01-01

    Describes a library cataloging project at the Ukranian Museum of Canada in Saskatoon. Topics discussed include the initial collection assessment, preliminary planning, funding, staffing, objectives during the first and second years, copy cataloging using the UTLAS system, original cataloging, distribution of the museum's catalog, and future needs.…

  12. ON RUSSIAN IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF WESTERN CANADA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARSHENIN, ALEX P.

    ALTHOUGH THE ENROLLMENT IN COURSES IN UKRANIAN IN WESTERN CANADA'S SECONDARY SCHOOLS CONTINUES TO INCREASE NORMALLY, THE DEMAND FOR RUSSIAN DECLINES PROGRESSIVELY. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ENROLLMENT TRENDS ARE (1) THE UNDERSTANDABLE PREFERENCE OF THE PREDOMINANTLY UKRANIAN POPULATION OF THE PRAIRIE STATES TO STUDY THEIR PARENT TONGUE, (2) THE LOCAL…

  13. Environmental Scan: Literacy Work in Canada. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    During the fall of 2007, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) conducted an environmental scan of the Anglophone literacy field in Canada. Data was gathered through the use of key informant interviews (19) and a literature review. A cross-national working group guided the development of the scan. Interviews with key informants for the scan revealed…

  14. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  15. The Ideological Limits of Linguistic Diversity in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the political, or ideological, use of official languages (English and French) data in Canada. A more pragmatic use of official languages data would enable policy actors to better address the unequal relations between English and French. Specific suggestions are made in order to move the debate in that direction. (Contains 7…

  16. Penitentiary Education in Canada: The Role for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.

    Although prison inmates in Canada can choose education as a regular activity during their incarceration, only about 20% of the 9,500 inmates in federal penitentiaries are enrolled in educational programs. This may be due to the variation in the types and quality of programs available; problems of security, transfer policies, variations of…

  17. Social Science Research on Southeast Asian Refugee Settlement in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indra, Doreen Marie

    Surveyed in this paper is the social science research on Southeast Asian refugee settlement in Canada. According to the survey, the body of literature on Indochinese immigrants is substantially larger than those on other ethnocultural Canadian populations of comparable size. Policy analysis is well developed, and there now exists sufficient…

  18. Into Africa: Telemedicine Links Canada with Nairobi and Kampala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, M.; MacLeod, S.

    During the past decade teleconferencing systems have gained a substantial role in continuing medical education in Canada through maintenance of contact between physicians in remote and urban areas, medical education, group consultation, and administration. A group of Canadian physicians at Memorial University of Newfoundland and their Kenyan and…

  19. Learning about Labour in Canada. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Winston; Briton, Derek; Spencer, Bruce

    The questions of what and how working people learn about labor organization and activity in Canada were explored through a review of available literature and face-to-face interviews with more than 30 education officers and union leaders. Unions continue to be the principal source of labor education. Of the many courses and educational experiences…

  20. Rushing Roulette: The State of Canada's Ambulance Services.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, L

    1976-02-01

    In a Canada-wide survey, CANADIAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN found a startling divergence in provincial standards for ambulance crews and vehicles.While some provinces had developed a well-integrated ambulance system with central dispatching, rigorous standards for attendants and advanced paramedical training programs, in some the ambulances are run almost entirely by local undertakers. PMID:21308032

  1. Introductory Courses in Social Work Research in Canada: Some Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of Schools of Social Work, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Various approaches to introductory courses in social work research in Canada are described. Objectives of the report are to promote informational exchange among instructors in schools of social work, to provide data on common practices employed in the instruction of introductory research, to encourage innovation and experimentation, and to aid in…

  2. No End of Grief: Indian Residential Schools in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    This book documents and comments on what is known about the Indian residential school era in Canada. The aftermath of this era has exacted a huge toll, both in the human suffering of First Nations and on Canadian society in general, but understanding the impact of residential schools can aid the healing process. Chapters are: (1) "Examining the…

  3. Toward a Development Strategy for Canada. Fourth Report and Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Rural Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Rural development in Canada is discussed in terms of finding a rural development strategy in this report. The prerequisites for a rural development strategy are enumerated; these prerequisites include (1) the development of an agency at the Federal level with the responsibility for defining national strategy, (2) the formulation and implementation…

  4. Environmental Quality: Outline for a National Index for Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhaber, H.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an approach to constructing an Environmental Quality Index for Canada. The index is divided into air, water, land and miscellaneous sections. By looking at individual subindices, it is possible to see how environmental conditions vary across the country. By combining subindices, a crude gauge of the broad state of the environment may be…

  5. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  6. Less State, More Market: University Reform in Canada and Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.; Bruneau, William

    2004-01-01

    Political, economic, and social explanations of higher education reform, and the very definition of "reform," are the main departure points of this volume. The introduction uses the examples of Canada, Austria, Germany, and Japan to show that in all these countries, reform has meant reduced state funding and control and increased reliance on…

  7. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  8. Governmental Policy and Languages for Specific Purposes in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery-Gorrie, Rose

    A review of Canada's policy for languages for special purposes looks at (1) federal language policy as reflected in the Official Languages Act and the watchdog office of the Commissioner of Official Languages; (2) the policies of the provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario; and (3) the impact of governmental policy, and presents three case…

  9. Inclusion in French Immersion in Canada: One Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Arnett, Katy

    2009-01-01

    Through an examination of one mother's journals about her son's academic struggles to navigate the French immersion (FI) program in Canada, this article explores the tensions that exist when the construct of "inclusion" is juxtaposed against that particular second language-learning context. The analysis of the mother's journals revealed three…

  10. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark T; Brown, Justin D; Goekjian, Virginia H; Luttrell, M Page; Poulson, Rebecca L; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2010-07-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine the role of Canada Geese in the ecology of AI, we re-evaluated existing literature related to AI virus in this species and tested breeding populations of Canada Geese from three states (Georgia, West Virginia, and Minnesota, USA) by virus isolation and serology. The ability of AI virus to persist in goose feces under experimental conditions also was evaluated as an additional measure of the potential for this species to serve as an AI virus reservoir. Virus was not isolated from 1,668 cloacal swabs and type-specific antibody prevalence was low (4/335, 1.2%). Finally, under experimental conditions, AI virus persistence in goose feces and in water contaminated with goose feces was limited as compared to published estimates from duck feces and water. Our results are consistent with historic reports of a low prevalence of AI virus infection in this species, and we suggest that Canada Geese play a minor, if any, role as a reservoir for low pathogenic AI viruses that naturally circulate in wild bird populations. PMID:20688710

  11. Prevalence of Gendered Views of Reading in Thailand and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Recent large-scale testing of reading achievement indicates significant gender differences favoring girls in all countries tested, a situation that some researchers believe is the result of boys viewing reading as a feminine activity. Given that Canada has one of the world's smallest gender gaps in reading whereas Thailand has one of the largest,…

  12. Dare to Dream: Discovery Children's Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatz, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This article features Discovery Children's Centre, one of the highest quality centres in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Discovery Children's Centre believes that children, who may have little or no voice in a democratic society, can be heard if some adult will speak on their behalf. Even as it has grown from 35 to 230 children, quality has…

  13. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients’ workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  14. Creative Curriculum Integration in Atlantic Canada: A "MindShift"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Alan; de Vreede, Cate

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum integration through block programs has not taken hold in Atlantic Canada, but another approach has blossomed in Nova Scotia that is achieving some of the key benefits--interdisciplinary, holistic and problem-based learning, student engagement, community building, collaborative relationships, and real-world experiences. If block programs…

  15. Parental Cognitive Impairment and Child Maltreatment in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, David; Feldman, Maurice; Aunos, Marjorie; Prasad, Narasimha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of parental cognitive impairment in cases opened for child maltreatment investigation in Canada, and to examine the relationship between parental cognitive impairment and maltreatment investigation outcomes including substantiation, case disposition and court application. Methods:…

  16. Probing the Future of Mandatory Retirement in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibbott, Peter; Kerr, Don; Beaujot, Roderic

    2006-01-01

    The future of mandatory retirement is at least partly driven by changing demographics. In Canada, these demographics include slowing population growth, rapid aging, declining rates of labour force participation, and slowing labour force growth. After reviewing the demographic trends and considering alternate scenarios in labour force…

  17. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Keith J.

    The document was prepared persuant to the Man in the North Conference (Inuvik, November 1970), where northern Indian participants identified a history of the native peoples of Canada as a most important priority. Since existing books on Canadian history are essentially European in nature, this classroom text endeavored to provide a history of the…

  18. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  19. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  1. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  2. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  3. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  4. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  5. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Picard-Masson, Marianne; Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-07-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients' workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  6. Academic Experiences of War-Zone Students in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; Elgie, Susan; Clarke, Allyson; Dunlap, Hester

    2012-01-01

    This research examined educational outcomes and experiences of late adolescent immigrant students who entered the Canadian educational system following residence in global war-zone regions or areas of extreme civil unrest. Data from a Statistics Canada data-set of 18- to 20-year-old respondents (N = 658) were used to compare the academic…

  7. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Canada. Country Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document analyzes main issues concerning adult learning and policy responses in Canada. Section 1 introduces a background report (available separately), discussions with stakeholders, and site visits. Section 2 addresses the general context of adult education (AE). Sections 3-6 cover four themes that structure the Thematic Review of Adult…

  8. Toward a Geography of Rural Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The field of rural education has not been significantly developed in Canada and the marginal status of the rural itself has contributed to this peripheral status. The emergence of geography and spatial thinking generally in social theory and in educational thought represents an opportunity to re-evaluate the importance of space and place in…

  9. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  10. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  11. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  13. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  14. Entrepreneurship Education and Training in Canada: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes providers of entrepreneurship education in Canada: universities, small business centers, banks, nongovernmental organizations, and federal and provincial governments. Presents a conceptual model for entrepreneurship education and training that identifies traits and skills of entrepreneurs, addresses whether these are predictable, and…

  15. Strawberry Virus Survey in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  16. Virus Survey in Strawberry in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  17. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  18. Brood ecology of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.

    1983-12-01

    The objective was to examine the ecology of broods of the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in southcentral Washington. Broods were captured and equipped with radio transmitters and their movements tracked. Major brood rearing areas were identified. 5 references, 2 tables. (ACR)

  19. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  20. The Media Construction of an Adult Literacy Agenda in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith; Rubenson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of media in shaping adult literacy discourse and policy in Canada. The authors show how journalists, newspapers and other media personalities have directly and indirectly influenced (1) government and public perception of adult literacy and (2) the creation of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  1. Commentary on "A Review of e-Learning in Canada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    In this commentary, Richard Schwier draws observations of what he believes are key issues in e-learning that come directly out of "A Review of e-Learning in Canada." However, much of the commentary is consumed by topics that haven't yet generated the volume or type of research necessary to allow the kind of compressed scrutiny that this…

  2. First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie, Ed.; Barman, Jean, Ed.

    This collection of 15 writings by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators examines the issues and dilemmas of First Nations education in Canada 25 years after the beginnings of First Nations control of education. Organized around the concept of the Sacred Circle, the essays are grouped into four sections: reconceptualizing First Nations education,…

  3. Child Care in Canada: Provinces and Territories 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

    Drawing from existing data and a survey of each provincial or territorial child care office in Canada, this report provides a profile of child care services in each province and territory, and in the country as a whole. Each provincial profile includes information on: (1) relevant legislation; (2) the name and address of the provincial official…

  4. Child Care in Canada: Provinces and Territories 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

    This report presents provincial/territorial and national data on child care in Canada. Data collection methods included document examination for nation-wide statistics, and questionnaires sent to each provincial/territorial child care office, followed by telephone interviews with an official from each jurisdiction to update or clarify data. The…

  5. Citizenship Education: Canada Dabbles while the World Plays On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Andrew S.; Sears, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The summer of 2006 saw the eyes of the world, including those of Canadians, transfixed on Germany as 32 teams from across the globe competed for the World Cup of football--but due to the lack of capacity to support the development of world class Canadian players and teams, Canada perennially cannot mount a team able to qualify for World Cup…

  6. The National Library of Canada's Digital Library Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Doug; Lunau, Carrol D.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporated in the National Library of Canada's (NLC) digital library initiatives are projects relating to digitization, collecting Canadian networked electronic publications, development of virtual catalogs, metadata creation, and preservation of digital resources. Issues relating to collaboration, access to digital collections and databases,…

  7. Checklist of the Coleoptera of New Brunswick, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174

  8. No Child Left Thinking: Democracy at Risk in Canada's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The author titled this article "No Child Left Thinking" because for the past 10 years he has been studying the effects of education initiatives such as the U.S. "No Child Left Behind Act" or the various provincial testing and accountability policies in Canada and their impact on teachers' ability to teach critical thinking and students' ability to…

  9. Identity, Good Language Learning, and Adult Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervatiuc, Andreea

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the process of linguistic-and-cultural-identity formation as experienced by adult immigrants to Canada who consider themselves professionally successful and highly proficient in the target language. It addresses the characteristics of "good language learners" by determining how they negotiated their marginal standing in…

  10. Canada: A Source Book for Orientation, Language and Settlement Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Immigration Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An information guide for people who help newcomers to Canada, this book helps second language teachers plan the content of their courses, and makes it easier for settlement agency workers to respond to newcomers' needs. The method it advocates is question and answer, with the newcomer asking the questions. The ultimate goal of the book is to…

  11. Supporting Low-Performing Schools in Ontario, Canada. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Don; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the school turnaround programs underway as of summer 2009 in Ontario, Canada. In particular, it focuses on the policies and efforts of the Ontario Ministry of Education (MOE) and an MOE department, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat (LNS), to support low-performing schools across the province. The report begins with a…

  12. From Zero Tolerance to Student Success in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, Ontario, Canada's high school graduation rates have increased 13% while suspensions and expulsion rates have simultaneously decreased. This article examines relationships between the province's safe school policy and Student Success/Learning to 18 (SS/L18), a policy designed to increase graduation rates. Analyses of teachers'…

  13. A Taxonomy of Voluntary Associations in Atlantic Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    A study isolated and examined the words most frequently used by voluntary organizations in Atlantic Canada to describe their goals (what), learning objectives and activities (how), and conditions (who/for whom). Research methodology involved (1) administering a questionnaire for identification of goals, learning objectives and activities, and…

  14. Valuing the Knowledge, Skills and Experience of Canada's Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…

  15. The Very Essentials of Fitness for Trial Assessment in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Diana; Faltin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Fitness for trial constitutes the most frequent referral to forensic assessment services. Several approaches to this evaluation exist in Canada, including the Fitness Interview Test and Basic Fitness for Trial Test. The following article presents a review of the issues and a method for basic fitness for trial evaluation.

  16. The International Quest for Educational Excellence: Understanding Canada's High Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy; Shirley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, when the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's (OECD) released its 2009 PISA results, the big story was that eight of the top ten performing systems were Asian. Almost everyone overlooked the strong performance of Canada: sixth overall and the highest English-speaking and French-speaking nation in the world. The four…

  17. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  18. State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Two years ago, the then North American Council for Online Learning released the initial "Snapshot State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada" report. This study was the first systematic examination of K-12 distance education policies and activities in each of the thirteen Canadian provinces and territories. One year ago, the International…

  19. Race and Language Learning in Multicultural Canada: Towards Critical Antiracism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2015-01-01

    Issues of race constitute an emerging area of inquiry in language education. Yet, race, racialisation and racism are still stigmatised topics of discussion in everyday and professional contexts in multiracial and multiethnic countries. Canada is especially an interesting context in this regard due to its official policy of multiculturalism that…

  20. Canada geese and the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are numerous, highly visible, and widely distributed in both migratory and resident populations in North America; as a member of the Order Anseriformes, they are often suggested as a potential reservoir and source for avian influenza (AI) viruses. To further examine...