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Sample records for abl fusion gene

  1. Tyrosine kinase fusion genes in pediatric BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Judith M.; Steeghs, Elisabeth M.P.; Marchante, João R.M.; Boeree, Aurélie; Beaudoin, James J.; Berna Beverloo, H.; Kuiper, Roland P.; Escherich, Gabriele; van der Velden, Vincent H.J.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Pieters, Rob; den Boer, Monique L.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 15% of pediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by gene expression similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive disease and unfavorable prognosis. This BCR-ABL1-like subtype shows a high frequency of B-cell development gene aberrations and tyrosine kinase-activating lesions. To evaluate the clinical significance of tyrosine kinase gene fusions in children with BCP-ALL, we studied the frequency of recently identified tyrosine kinase fusions, associated genetic features, and prognosis in a representative Dutch/German cohort. We identified 14 tyrosine kinase fusions among 77 BCR-ABL1-like cases (18%) and none among 76 non-BCR-ABL1-like B-other cases. Novel exon fusions were identified for RCSD1-ABL2 and TERF2-JAK2. JAK2 mutation was mutually exclusive with tyrosine kinase fusions and only occurred in cases with high CRLF2 expression. The non/late response rate and levels of minimal residual disease in the fusion-positive BCR-ABL1-like group were higher than in the non-BCR-ABL1-like B-others (p<0.01), and also higher, albeit not statistically significant, compared with the fusion-negative BCR-ABL1-like group. The 8-year cumulative incidence of relapse in the fusion-positive BCR-ABL1-like group (35%) was comparable with that in the fusion-negative BCR-ABL1-like group (35%), and worse than in the non-BCR-ABL1-like B-other group (17%, p=0.07). IKZF1 deletions, predominantly other than the dominant-negative isoform and full deletion, co-occurred with tyrosine kinase fusions. This study shows that tyrosine kinase fusion-positive cases are a high-risk subtype of BCP-ALL, which warrants further studies with specific kinase inhibitors to improve outcome. PMID:27894077

  2. Molecular detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene in Saudi acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    El-Sissy, Azza; El-Mashari, May; Bassuni, Wafaa; El-Swaayed, Aziza

    2006-06-01

    Molecular cytogenetics is becoming one of the most useful tools targeting some genes which are generally considered to lead to leukemic transformation (as well as for numerical abnormalities). A fraction of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases carry the translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11.2) which juxtaposes the ABL proto-oncogene to the BCR gene generating a chimeric gene, BCR/ABL. This aberration is more frequent in adult ALL (20%-40%) than in pediatric ALL (<5%), and predicts poor clinical outcome. AIM OF OUR WORK: Is to study BCR/ABL fusion gene in ALL cases using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Twenty newly diagnosed ALL patients, 16 adult and 4 paediatric cases, were included in the study, 11 cases (55%) were of precursor B phenotype, 8 cases (40%) belonged to T lineage, while one case was biphenotypic expressing mainly precursor B cell markers tether with CD13, CD33, CD117, Detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene was done using interphase FISH technique and was confirmed molecularly using the RT-PCR technique. BCR/ABL fusion gene was negative in all the examined cases, yet abnormality involving 9q34, ABL gene, either by addition or deletion was detected in three cases (15%). Two of these cases were associated with BCR gene extra copies (three and four copies, respectively). This may reflect the frequency of association of ABL gene and BCR gene abnormality in our cases, and that absence of fusion gene BCR/ABL does not exclude their role in the leukomogenic process, yet a larger study is required to confirm and detect the prevalence of these gene disturbances in ALL and their association.

  3. [Detection of bcr/abl fusion gene and its derivative chromosome 9 deletions in CML by using home-made bcr/abl extra-signal probe].

    PubMed

    Lai, Yue-Yun; Feng, Lin; Wang, Zheng; Lü, Shan; Dang, Hui; Shi, Yan; He, Qi; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to verify the efficacy of home-made LSI bcr/abl ES probe for detection of bcr/abl fusion gene and derivative chromosome 9 deletions in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out with dual color bcr/abl extra signal (ES) probe in 97 cases of CML based on morphology and cytogenetic karyotype and 129 cases of non-hematological malignancies/non-myeloproliferative diseases with normal cytogenetic karyotype. For the patients with signals of 1R1G1F indicating der(9) deletions, FISH were done using ASS DNA probe. The results showed that 91 cases with standard t(9;22) and 6 cases with variant translocation of t(9;22) were detected by conventional G banding technique. All of the 97 patients displayed bcr/abl fusion gene by ES-FISH, including 16 cases with signal patterns of 1R1G1F showing der(9) deletions. Among the 16 cases with der(9) deletions, 13 cases were detected to have deletions of ASS gene. Meanwhile, none of the 129 cases of negative control showed bcr/abl fusion gene by ES-FISH. It is concluded that home-made LSI bcr/abl ES probe is effective to identify the bcr/abl fusion gene and der(9) deletions in CML, and the ES-FISH results are consistent with conventional cytogenetic karyotype.

  4. Heterogeneous patterns of amplification of the NUP214-ABL1 fusion gene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Graux, C; Stevens-Kroef, M; Lafage, M; Dastugue, N; Harrison, C J; Mugneret, F; Bahloula, K; Struski, S; Grégoire, M J; Nadal, N; Lippert, E; Taviaux, S; Simons, A; Kuiper, R P; Moorman, A V; Barber, K; Bosly, A; Michaux, L; Vandenberghe, P; Lahortiga, I; De Keersmaecker, K; Wlodarska, I; Cools, J; Hagemeijer, A; Poirel, H A

    2009-01-01

    Episomes with the NUP214-ABL1 fusion gene have been observed in 6% of T-ALL. In this multicentric study we collected 27 cases of NUP214-ABL1-positive T-ALL. Median age was 15 years with male predominance. Outcome was poor in 12 patients. An associated abnormality involving TLX1 or TLX3 was found in all investigated cases. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a heterogeneous pattern of NUP214-ABL1 amplification. Multiple episomes carrying the fusion were detected in 24 patients. Episomes were observed in a significant number of nuclei in 18 cases, but in only 1-5% of nuclei in 6. In addition, intrachromosomal amplification (small hsr) was identified either as the only change or in association with episomes in four cases and two T-ALL cell lines (PEER and ALL-SIL). One case showed insertion of apparently non-amplified NUP214-ABL1 sequences at 14q12. The amplified sequences were analyzed using array-based CGH.These findings confirm that the NUP214-ABL1 gene requires amplification for oncogenicity; it is part of a multistep process of leukemogenesis; and it can be a late event present only in subpopulations. Data also provide in vivo evidence for a model of episome formation, amplification and optional reintegration into the genome. Implications for the use of kinase inhibitors are discussed.

  5. Biosensing of BCR/ABL fusion gene using an intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiangling; Huang, Yu; Bian, Xintong; Li, DanDan; Cheng, Quan; Ding, Shijia

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a custom-made intensity-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) system has been developed to directly detect a specific sequence of BCR/ABL fusion gene in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The variation in the reflected light intensity detected from the sensor chip composed of gold islands array is proportional to the change of refractive index due to the selective hybridization of surface-bound DNA probes with target ssDNA. SPRi measurements were performed with different concentrations of synthetic target DNA sequence. The calibration curve of synthetic target sequence shows a good relationship between the concentration of synthetic target and the change of reflected light intensity. The detection limit of this SPRi measurement could approach 10.29 nM. By comparing SPRi images, the target ssDNA and non-complementary DNA sequence are able to be distinguished. This SPRi system has been applied for assay of BCR/ABL fusion gene extracted from real samples. This nucleic acid-based SPRi biosensor therefore offers an alternative high-effective, high-throughput label-free tool for DNA detection in biomedical research and molecular diagnosis.

  6. Amplification of the BCR/ABL fusion gene clustered on a masked Philadelphia chromosome in a patient with myeloblastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gargallo, Patricia M; Cuello, Maria Teresa; Aranguren, Pedro Negri; Larripa, Irene B

    2003-06-01

    Although the chronic phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome creating a hybrid BCR/ABL gene, additional genetic changes involved in blast crisis are poorly understood. We report a 4-8-fold amplification by tandem duplication of the BCR/ABL fusion gene clustered on a masked Ph chromosome in a 61-year-old male patient with CML in myeloblastic crisis. Our finding suggests that the BCR/ABL amplification may play a role as a novel mechanism in the progression to an aggressive blast transformation in some cases of Ph-positive CML.

  7. Determination of cDNA encoding BCR/ABL fusion gene in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia using a novel FRET-based quantum dots-DNA nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Nasirian, Vahid; Barati, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Kashanian, Soheila

    2017-05-08

    In the present study, we developed a sensitive method based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the determination of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, which is used as a biomarker to confirm the clinical diagnosis of both chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). For this purpose, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were conjugated to amino-modified 18-mer oligonucleotide ((N)DNA) to form the QDs-(N)DNA nanosensor. In the presence of methylene blue (MB) as an intercalator, the hybridization of QDs-(N)DNA with the target BCR/ABL fusion gene (complementary DNA), brings the MB (acceptor) at close proximity of the QDs (donor), leading to FRET upon photoexcitation of the QDs. The enhancement in the emission intensity of MB was used to follow up the hybridization, which was linearly proportional to concentration of the target complementary DNA in a range from 1.0 × 10 -9 to 1.25 × 10 -7  M. The detection limit of the proposed method was obtained to be 1.5 × 10 -10  M. Finally, the feasibility and selectivity of the proposed nanosensor was evaluated by the analysis of derived nucleotides from both mismatched sequences and clinical samples of patients with leukemia as real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueping; Wang, Li; Sheng, Shangchun; Wang, Teng; Yang, Juan; Xie, Guoming; Feng, Wenli

    2015-08-19

    This article described a novel method by coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites (GS/PANI/AuNPs) for highly sensitive and specific detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene (bcr/abl) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DNA circuit known as catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) is enzyme-free and can be simply operated to achieve exponential amplification, which has been widely employed in biosensing. However, application of CHA has been hindered by the need of specially redesigned sequences for each single-stranded DNA input. Herein, a transducer hairpin (HP) was designed to obtain a universal DNA circuit with favorable signal-to-background ratio. To further improve signal amplification, GS/PANI/AuNPs with excellent conductivity and enlarged effective area were introduced into this DNA circuit. Consequently, by combining the advantages of CHA and GS/PANI/AuNPs, bcr/abl could be detected in a linear range from 10 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 1.05 pM. Moreover, this protocol showed excellent specificity, good stability and was successfully applied for the detection of real sample, which demonstrated its great potential in clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of leukemias with ETV6-ABL1 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zaliova, Marketa; Moorman, Anthony V.; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Stanulla, Martin; Harvey, Richard C.; Roberts, Kathryn G.; Heatley, Sue L.; Loh, Mignon L.; Konopleva, Marina; Chen, I-Ming; Zimmermannova, Olga; Schwab, Claire; Smith, Owen; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joelle; Chabannon, Christian; Kim, Myungshin; Frederik Falkenburg, J. H.; Norton, Alice; Marshall, Karen; Haas, Oskar A.; Starkova, Julia; Stuchly, Jan; Hunger, Stephen P.; White, Deborah; Mullighan, Charles G.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the incidence, clinical features and genetics of ETV6-ABL1 leukemias, representing targetable kinase-activating lesions, we analyzed 44 new and published cases of ETV6-ABL1-positive hematologic malignancies [22 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (13 children, 9 adults) and 22 myeloid malignancies (18 myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4 acute myeloid leukemias)]. The presence of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion was ascertained by cytogenetics, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Genomic and gene expression profiling was performed by single nucleotide polymorphism and expression arrays. Systematic screening of more than 4,500 cases revealed that in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ETV6-ABL1 is rare in childhood (0.17% cases) and slightly more common in adults (0.38%). There is no systematic screening of myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, the number of ETV6-ABL1-positive cases and the relative incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms suggest that in adulthood ETV6-ABL1 is more common in BCR-ABL1-negative chronic myeloid leukemia-like myeloproliferations than in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The genomic profile of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia resembled that of BCR-ABL1 and BCR-ABL1-like cases with 80% of patients having concurrent CDKN2A/B and IKZF1 deletions. In the gene expression profiling all the ETV6-ABL1-positive samples clustered in close vicinity to BCR-ABL1 cases. All but one of the cases of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia were classified as BCR-ABL1-like by a standardized assay. Over 60% of patients died, irrespectively of the disease or age subgroup examined. In conclusion, ETV6-ABL1 fusion occurs in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias; the genomic profile and clinical behavior resemble BCR-ABL1-positive malignancies, including the unfavorable prognosis, particularly of acute leukemias. The poor outcome suggests that treatment with

  10. Characterization of leukemias with ETV6-ABL1 fusion.

    PubMed

    Zaliova, Marketa; Moorman, Anthony V; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Stanulla, Martin; Harvey, Richard C; Roberts, Kathryn G; Heatley, Sue L; Loh, Mignon L; Konopleva, Marina; Chen, I-Ming; Zimmermannova, Olga; Schwab, Claire; Smith, Owen; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joelle; Chabannon, Christian; Kim, Myungshin; Frederik Falkenburg, J H; Norton, Alice; Marshall, Karen; Haas, Oskar A; Starkova, Julia; Stuchly, Jan; Hunger, Stephen P; White, Deborah; Mullighan, Charles G; Willman, Cheryl L; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the incidence, clinical features and genetics of ETV6-ABL1 leukemias, representing targetable kinase-activating lesions, we analyzed 44 new and published cases of ETV6-ABL1-positive hematologic malignancies [22 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (13 children, 9 adults) and 22 myeloid malignancies (18 myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4 acute myeloid leukemias)]. The presence of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion was ascertained by cytogenetics, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Genomic and gene expression profiling was performed by single nucleotide polymorphism and expression arrays. Systematic screening of more than 4,500 cases revealed that in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ETV6-ABL1 is rare in childhood (0.17% cases) and slightly more common in adults (0.38%). There is no systematic screening of myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, the number of ETV6-ABL1-positive cases and the relative incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms suggest that in adulthood ETV6-ABL1 is more common in BCR-ABL1-negative chronic myeloid leukemia-like myeloproliferations than in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The genomic profile of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia resembled that of BCR-ABL1 and BCR-ABL1-like cases with 80% of patients having concurrent CDKN2A/B and IKZF1 deletions. In the gene expression profiling all the ETV6-ABL1-positive samples clustered in close vicinity to BCR-ABL1 cases. All but one of the cases of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia were classified as BCR-ABL1-like by a standardized assay. Over 60% of patients died, irrespectively of the disease or age subgroup examined. In conclusion, ETV6-ABL1 fusion occurs in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias; the genomic profile and clinical behavior resemble BCR-ABL1-positive malignancies, including the unfavorable prognosis, particularly of acute leukemias. The poor outcome suggests that treatment with

  11. Attomolar electrochemical detection of the BCR/ABL fusion gene based on an amplifying self-signal metal nanoparticle-conducting polymer hybrid composite.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Karen Y P S; Frias, Isaac A M; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Gomes, Renan G; de Melo, Celso P; Oliveira, Maria D L; Andrade, César A S

    2016-12-01

    In the last ten years, conjugated polymers started to be used in the immobilization of nucleic acids via non-covalent interactions. In the present study, we describe the construction and use of an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a nanostructured polyaniline-gold composite, specifically developed for the detection of the BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene. This chromosome translocation is used as a biomarker to confirm the clinical diagnosis of both chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The working principle of the biosensor rests on measuring the conductivity resulting from the non-covalent interactions between the hybrid nanocomposite and the DNA probe. The nanostructured platform exhibits a large surface area that enhances the conductivity. Positive cases, which result from the hybridization between DNA probe and targeted gene, induce changes in the amperometric current and in the charge transfer resistance (R CT ) responses. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed changes in the genosensor surface after exposure to cDNA sample of patient with leukemia, evidencing the hybridization process. This new hybrid sensing-platform displayed high specificity and selectivity, and its detection limit is estimated to be as low as 69.4 aM. The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for the detection of the BCR/ABL oncogene in clinical samples of patients with leukemia. Hence, this electrochemical sensor appears as a simple and attractive tool for the molecular diagnosis of the BCR/ABL oncogene even in early-stage cases of leukemia and for the monitoring of minimum levels of residual disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PAX5 mutations occur frequently in adult B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and PAX5 haploinsufficiency is associated with BCR-ABL1 and TCF3-PBX1 fusion genes: a GRAALL study.

    PubMed

    Familiades, J; Bousquet, M; Lafage-Pochitaloff, M; Béné, M-C; Beldjord, K; De Vos, J; Dastugue, N; Coyaud, E; Struski, S; Quelen, C; Prade-Houdellier, N; Dobbelstein, S; Cayuela, J-M; Soulier, J; Grardel, N; Preudhomme, C; Cavé, H; Blanchet, O; Lhéritier, V; Delannoy, A; Chalandon, Y; Ifrah, N; Pigneux, A; Brousset, P; Macintyre, E A; Huguet, F; Dombret, H; Broccardo, C; Delabesse, E

    2009-11-01

    Adult and child B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) differ in terms of incidence and prognosis. These disparities are mainly due to the molecular abnormalities associated with these two clinical entities. A genome-wide analysis using oligo SNP arrays recently demonstrated that PAX5 (paired-box domain 5) is the main target of somatic mutations in childhood BCP-ALL being altered in 38.9% of the cases. We report here the most extensive analysis of alterations of PAX5 coding sequence in 117 adult BCP-ALL patients in the unique clinical protocol GRAALL-2003/GRAAPH-2003. Our study demonstrates that PAX5 is mutated in 34% of adult BCP-ALL, mutations being partial or complete deletion, partial or complete amplification, point mutation or fusion gene. PAX5 alterations are heterogeneous consisting in complete loss in 17%, focal deletions in 10%, point mutations in 7% and translocations in 1% of the cases. PAX5 complete loss and PAX5 point mutations differ. PAX5 complete loss seems to be a secondary event and is significantly associated with BCR-ABL1 or TCF3-PBX1 fusion genes and a lower white blood cell count.

  13. Expression of BCR-ABL1 oncogene relative to ABL1 gene changes overtime in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manu; Milani, Lili; Hermansson, Monica

    Using a quantitative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay we have investigated the changes in the expression of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene relative to the wild-type ABL1 and BCR alleles in cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients not responding to therapy. The results show a progressive increase in the BCR-ABL1 oncogene expression at the expense of decreased expression of the ABL1 allele, not involved in the fusion. No relative changes in the expression of the two BCR alleles were found. These results demonstrate that allele-specific changes in gene expression, with selective, progressive silencing of the wild-type ABL1 allele in favor ofmore » the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 allele occur in CML patients with therapy-resistant disease.« less

  14. Influence of BCR/ABL fusion proteins on the course of Ph leukemias.

    PubMed

    Telegeev, Gennady D; Dubrovska, Anna N; Dybkov, Mykhaylo V; Maliuta, Stanislav S

    2004-01-01

    The hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome as a result of the t(9;22) translocation. This gene rearrangement results in the production of a novel oncoprotein, BCR/ABL, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase. There is compelling evidence that the malignant transformation by BCR/ABL is critically dependent on its Abl tyrosine kinase activity. Also the bcr part of the hybrid gene takes part in realization of the malignant phenotype. We supposed that additional mutations accumulate in this region of the BCR/ABL oncogene during the development of the malignant blast crisis in CML patients. In ALL patients having p210 fusion protein the mutations were supposed to be preexisting. Sequencing of PCR product of the BCR/ABL gene (Dbl, PH region) showed that along with single-nucleotide substitutions other mutations, mostly deletions, had occurred. In an ALL patient a deletion of the 5th exon was detected. The size of the deletions varied from 36 to 220 amino acids. For one case of blast crisis of CML changes in the character of actin organization were observed. Taking into account the functional role of these domains in the cell an etiological role of such mutations on the disease phenotype and leukemia progression is plausible.

  15. Gene Fusion Markup Language: a prototype for exchanging gene fusion data.

    PubMed

    Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Shanmugam, Achiraman; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2012-10-16

    An avalanche of next generation sequencing (NGS) studies has generated an unprecedented amount of genomic structural variation data. These studies have also identified many novel gene fusion candidates with more detailed resolution than previously achieved. However, in the excitement and necessity of publishing the observations from this recently developed cutting-edge technology, no community standardization approach has arisen to organize and represent the data with the essential attributes in an interchangeable manner. As transcriptome studies have been widely used for gene fusion discoveries, the current non-standard mode of data representation could potentially impede data accessibility, critical analyses, and further discoveries in the near future. Here we propose a prototype, Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) as an initiative to provide a standard format for organizing and representing the significant features of gene fusion data. GFML will offer the advantage of representing the data in a machine-readable format to enable data exchange, automated analysis interpretation, and independent verification. As this database-independent exchange initiative evolves it will further facilitate the formation of related databases, repositories, and analysis tools. The GFML prototype is made available at http://code.google.com/p/gfml-prototype/. The Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) presented here could facilitate the development of a standard format for organizing, integrating and representing the significant features of gene fusion data in an inter-operable and query-able fashion that will enable biologically intuitive access to gene fusion findings and expedite functional characterization. A similar model is envisaged for other NGS data analyses.

  16. Gene Fusion Markup Language: a prototype for exchanging gene fusion data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An avalanche of next generation sequencing (NGS) studies has generated an unprecedented amount of genomic structural variation data. These studies have also identified many novel gene fusion candidates with more detailed resolution than previously achieved. However, in the excitement and necessity of publishing the observations from this recently developed cutting-edge technology, no community standardization approach has arisen to organize and represent the data with the essential attributes in an interchangeable manner. As transcriptome studies have been widely used for gene fusion discoveries, the current non-standard mode of data representation could potentially impede data accessibility, critical analyses, and further discoveries in the near future. Results Here we propose a prototype, Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) as an initiative to provide a standard format for organizing and representing the significant features of gene fusion data. GFML will offer the advantage of representing the data in a machine-readable format to enable data exchange, automated analysis interpretation, and independent verification. As this database-independent exchange initiative evolves it will further facilitate the formation of related databases, repositories, and analysis tools. The GFML prototype is made available at http://code.google.com/p/gfml-prototype/. Conclusion The Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) presented here could facilitate the development of a standard format for organizing, integrating and representing the significant features of gene fusion data in an inter-operable and query-able fashion that will enable biologically intuitive access to gene fusion findings and expedite functional characterization. A similar model is envisaged for other NGS data analyses. PMID:23072312

  17. RCSD1-ABL1 Translocation Associated with IKZF1 Gene Deletion in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Shawana; Raca, Gordana; Nazir, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The RCSD1 gene has recently been identified as a novel gene fusion partner of the ABL1 gene in cases of B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). The RCSD1 gene is located at 1q23 and ABL1 is located at 9q34, so that the RCSD1-ABL1 fusion typically arises through a rare reciprocal translocation t(1;9)(q23;q34). Only a small number of RCSD1-ABL1 positive cases of B-ALL have been described in the literature, and the full spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features associated with this genetic abnormality has not been defined. We describe extensive genetic characterization of a case of B-ALL with RCSD1-ABL1 fusion, by using conventional cytogenetic analysis, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies, and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). The use of CMA resulted in detection of an approximately 70 kb deletion at 7p12.2, which caused a disruption of the IKZF1 gene. Deletions and mutations of IKZF1 are recurring abnormalities in B-ALL and are associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings highlight the association of the deletion of IKZF1 gene with the t(1;9)(q24;q34) and illustrate the importance of comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular evaluation for accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with B-cell ALL.

  18. RCSD1-ABL1 Translocation Associated with IKZF1 Gene Deletion in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Shawana; Nazir, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The RCSD1 gene has recently been identified as a novel gene fusion partner of the ABL1 gene in cases of B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). The RCSD1 gene is located at 1q23 and ABL1 is located at 9q34, so that the RCSD1-ABL1 fusion typically arises through a rare reciprocal translocation t(1;9)(q23;q34). Only a small number of RCSD1-ABL1 positive cases of B-ALL have been described in the literature, and the full spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features associated with this genetic abnormality has not been defined. We describe extensive genetic characterization of a case of B-ALL with RCSD1-ABL1 fusion, by using conventional cytogenetic analysis, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies, and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). The use of CMA resulted in detection of an approximately 70 kb deletion at 7p12.2, which caused a disruption of the IKZF1 gene. Deletions and mutations of IKZF1 are recurring abnormalities in B-ALL and are associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings highlight the association of the deletion of IKZF1 gene with the t(1;9)(q24;q34) and illustrate the importance of comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular evaluation for accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with B-cell ALL. PMID:26600955

  19. The Functional Interplay Between the t(9;22)-Associated Fusion Proteins BCR/ABL and ABL/BCR in Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphatic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Anahita; Mian, Afsar Ali; Döring, Claudia; Metodieva, Anna; Oancea, Claudia; Thalheimer, Frederic B.; Hansmann, Martin Leo; Ottmann, Oliver Gerhard; Ruthardt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) leukemia is the BCR/ABL kinase, which is successfully targeted by selective ATP competitors. However, inhibition of BCR/ABL alone is unable to eradicate Ph+ leukemia. The t(9;22) is a reciprocal translocation which encodes not only for the der22 (Philadelphia chromosome) related BCR/ABL, but also for der9 related ABL/BCR fusion proteins, which can be detected in 65% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 100% of patients with Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL). ABL/BCRs are oncogenes able to influence the lineage commitment of hematopoietic progenitors. Aim of this study was to further disclose the role of p96ABL/BCR for the pathogenesis of Ph+ ALL. The co-expression of p96ABL/BCR enhanced the kinase activity and as a consequence, the transformation potential of p185BCR/ABL. Targeting p96ABL/BCR by RNAi inhibited growth of Ph+ ALL cell lines and Ph+ ALL patient-derived long-term cultures (PD-LTCs). Our in vitro and in vivo stem cell studies further revealed a functional hierarchy of p96ABL/BCR and p185BCR/ABL in hematopoietic stem cells. Co-expression of p96ABL/BCR abolished the capacity of p185BCR/ABL to induce a CML-like disease and led to the induction of ALL. Taken together our here presented data reveal an important role of p96ABL/BCR for the pathogenesis of Ph+ ALL. PMID:25919613

  20. Differential signaling through p190 and p210 BCR-ABL fusion proteins revealed by interactome and phosphoproteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Cutler, J A; Tahir, R; Sreenivasamurthy, S K; Mitchell, C; Renuse, S; Nirujogi, R S; Patil, A H; Heydarian, M; Wong, X; Wu, X; Huang, T-C; Kim, M-S; Reddy, K L; Pandey, A

    2017-07-01

    Two major types of leukemogenic BCR-ABL fusion proteins are p190 BCR-ABL and p210 BCR-ABL . Although the two fusion proteins are closely related, they can lead to different clinical outcomes. A thorough understanding of the signaling programs employed by these two fusion proteins is necessary to explain these clinical differences. We took an integrated approach by coupling protein-protein interaction analysis using biotinylation identification with global phosphorylation analysis to investigate the differences in signaling between these two fusion proteins. Our findings suggest that p190 BCR-ABL and p210 BCR-ABL differentially activate important signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, and engage with molecules that indicate interaction with different subcellular compartments. In the case of p210 BCR-ABL , we observed an increased engagement of molecules active proximal to the membrane and in the case of p190 BCR-ABL , an engagement of molecules of the cytoskeleton. These differences in signaling could underlie the distinct leukemogenic process induced by these two protein variants.

  1. BCR-ABL fusion regions as a source of multiple leukemia-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, J H; Bres-Vloemans, S A; van Veelen, P A; de Ru, A; Huijbers, I J G; Camps, M; Mulder, A; Offringa, R; Drijfhout, J W; Leeksma, O C; Ossendorp, F; Melief, C J M

    2006-10-01

    For immunotherapy of residual disease in patients with Philadelphia-positive leukemias, the BCR-ABL fusion regions are attractive disease-specific T-cell targets. We analyzed these regions for the prevalence of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes by an advanced reverse immunology procedure. Seventeen novel BCR-ABL fusion peptides were identified to bind efficiently to the human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A68, HLA-B51, HLA-B61 or HLA-Cw4 HLA class I molecules. Comprehensive enzymatic digestion analysis showed that 10 out of the 28 HLA class I binding fusion peptides were efficiently excised after their C-terminus by the proteasome, which is an essential requirement for efficient cell surface expression. Therefore, these peptides are prime vaccine candidates. The other peptides either completely lacked C-terminal liberation or were only inefficiently excised by the proteasome, rendering them inappropriate or less suitable for inclusion in a vaccine. CTL raised against the properly processed HLA-B61 epitope AEALQRPVA from the BCR-ABL e1a2 fusion region, expressed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), specifically recognized ALL tumor cells, proving cell surface presentation of this epitope, its applicability for immunotherapy and underlining the accuracy of our epitope identification strategy. Our study provides a reliable basis for the selection of optimal peptides to be included in immunotherapeutic BCR-ABL vaccines against leukemia.

  2. Exploration of the gene fusion landscape of glioblastoma using transcriptome sequencing and copy number data.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nameeta; Lankerovich, Michael; Lee, Hwahyung; Yoon, Jae-Geun; Schroeder, Brett; Foltz, Greg

    2013-11-22

    RNA-seq has spurred important gene fusion discoveries in a number of different cancers, including lung, prostate, breast, brain, thyroid and bladder carcinomas. Gene fusion discovery can potentially lead to the development of novel treatments that target the underlying genetic abnormalities. In this study, we provide comprehensive view of gene fusion landscape in 185 glioblastoma multiforme patients from two independent cohorts. Fusions occur in approximately 30-50% of GBM patient samples. In the Ivy Center cohort of 24 patients, 33% of samples harbored fusions that were validated by qPCR and Sanger sequencing. We were able to identify high-confidence gene fusions from RNA-seq data in 53% of the samples in a TCGA cohort of 161 patients. We identified 13 cases (8%) with fusions retaining a tyrosine kinase domain in the TCGA cohort and one case in the Ivy Center cohort. Ours is the first study to describe recurrent fusions involving non-coding genes. Genomic locations 7p11 and 12q14-15 harbor majority of the fusions. Fusions on 7p11 are formed in focally amplified EGFR locus whereas 12q14-15 fusions are formed by complex genomic rearrangements. All the fusions detected in this study can be further visualized and analyzed using our website: http://ivygap.swedish.org/fusions. Our study highlights the prevalence of gene fusions as one of the major genomic abnormalities in GBM. The majority of the fusions are private fusions, and a minority of these recur with low frequency. A small subset of patients with fusions of receptor tyrosine kinases can benefit from existing FDA approved drugs and drugs available in various clinical trials. Due to the low frequency and rarity of clinically relevant fusions, RNA-seq of GBM patient samples will be a vital tool for the identification of patient-specific fusions that can drive personalized therapy.

  3. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1–10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients. PMID:26111048

  4. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  5. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-10-15

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Engineering and Functional Characterization of Fusion Genes Identifies Novel Oncogenic Drivers of Cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Oncogenic gene fusions drive many human cancers, but tools to more quickly unravel their functional contributions are needed. Here we describe methodology permitting fusion gene construction for functional evaluation. Using this strategy, we engineered the known fusion oncogenes, BCR-ABL1, EML4-ALK, and ETV6-NTRK3, as well as 20 previously uncharacterized fusion genes identified in TCGA datasets.

  7. Gene Fusion: A Genome Wide Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Ping; Riley, Monica

    2001-01-01

    As a well known fact, organisms form larger and complex multimodular (composite or chimeric) and mostly multi-functional proteins through gene fusion of two or more individual genes which have independent evolution histories and functions. We call each of these components a module. The existence of multimodular proteins may improves the efficiency in gene regulation and in cellular functions, and thus may give the host organism advantages in adaptation to environments. Analysis of all gene fusions in present-day organisms should allow us to examine the patterns of gene fusion in context with cellular functions, to trace back the evolution processes from the ancient smaller and uni-functional proteins to the present-day larger and complex multi-functional proteins, and to estimate the minimal number of ancestor proteins that existed in the last common ancestor for all life on earth. Although many multimodular proteins have been experimentally known, identification of gene fusion events systematically at genome scale had not been possible until recently when large number of completed genome sequences have been becoming available. In addition, technical difficulties for such analysis also exist due to the complexity of this biological and evolutionary process. We report from this study a new strategy to computationally identify multimodular proteins using completed genome sequences and the results surveyed from 22 organisms with the data from over 40 organisms to be presented during the meeting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Identification of e6a2 BCR-ABL fusion in a Philadelphia-positive CML with marked basophilia: implications for treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Rohon, Peter; Divoka, Martina; Calabkova, Lenka; Mojzikova, Renata; Katrincsakova, Beata; Rusinakova, Zuzana; Lapcikova, Anna; Raida, Ludek; Faber, Edgar; Jarosova, Marie; Divoky, Vladimir; Indrak, Karel

    2011-06-01

    This is a case report of a 51 year old male with marked splenomegaly, basophilia, severe thrombocytopenia, anemia and high SFKL phosphorylation downstream of Bcr-Abl, investigated for association of the e6a2 BCR-ABL fusion gene and marked basophilia. The treatment strategy implications in patients with Philadelphia positive CML are described. RT-PCR and sequencing were carried out on the peripheral blood leukocytes to detect the type of BCR-ABL transcript. The BCR-ABL mutational status was assessed using sequencing of the RT-PCR products. The in vitro test of sensitivity to TKIs was based on detecting inhibited phosphorylation of the Crkl and Phospho-Src family kinases (SFK, Tyr416) using immunodetection. The cytogenetics revealed 90% of Ph+ (Philadelphia) cells in the bone marrow aspirate with no additional clonal chromosomal abnormalities at diagnosis. This correlated with an accelerated phase of the CML. Sequencing analysis of reverse transcribed and PCR amplified BCR-ABL transcript revealed a rare e6a2 fusion, with no evidence for Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutation. Western blot analysis showed high phosphorylation (activation) of Crkl and the Src family of kinases (P-SFK). In vitro test of sensitivity of the patients' leukemic cells to imatinib demonstrated sensitivity of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase to imatinib, as assessed by a decrease in phosphorylated Crkl and the disappearance of P-SFK, suggesting that P-Src reflects only the Bcr-Abl-dependent Src activity. The initial treatment strategy was reduced imatinib and search for an unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donor (according to the ELN recommendations). The patient was allografted with peripheral stem cells from an HLA- identical male donor but on day +70 graft failure occurred. He was allografted again with the peripheral stem cells from an HLA-identical female donor, engrafted on day +15 and showed 100% donor chimerism with no evidence of the e6a2 BCR-ABL fusion transcript on day +30. The clinical disease

  9. Engineering and Functional Characterization of Fusion Genes Identifies Novel Oncogenic Drivers of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hengyu; Villafane, Nicole; Dogruluk, Turgut; Grzeskowiak, Caitlin L; Kong, Kathleen; Tsang, Yiu Huen; Zagorodna, Oksana; Pantazi, Angeliki; Yang, Lixing; Neill, Nicholas J; Kim, Young Won; Creighton, Chad J; Verhaak, Roel G; Mills, Gordon B; Park, Peter J; Kucherlapati, Raju; Scott, Kenneth L

    2017-07-01

    Oncogenic gene fusions drive many human cancers, but tools to more quickly unravel their functional contributions are needed. Here we describe methodology permitting fusion gene construction for functional evaluation. Using this strategy, we engineered the known fusion oncogenes, BCR-ABL1, EML4-ALK , and ETV6-NTRK3, as well as 20 previously uncharacterized fusion genes identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. In addition to confirming oncogenic activity of the known fusion oncogenes engineered by our construction strategy, we validated five novel fusion genes involving MET, NTRK2 , and BRAF kinases that exhibited potent transforming activity and conferred sensitivity to FDA-approved kinase inhibitors. Our fusion construction strategy also enabled domain-function studies of BRAF fusion genes. Our results confirmed other reports that the transforming activity of BRAF fusions results from truncation-mediated loss of inhibitory domains within the N-terminus of the BRAF protein. BRAF mutations residing within this inhibitory region may provide a means for BRAF activation in cancer, therefore we leveraged the modular design of our fusion gene construction methodology to screen N-terminal domain mutations discovered in tumors that are wild-type at the BRAF mutation hotspot, V600. We identified an oncogenic mutation, F247L, whose expression robustly activated the MAPK pathway and sensitized cells to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. When applied broadly, these tools will facilitate rapid fusion gene construction for subsequent functional characterization and translation into personalized treatment strategies. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3502-12. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Activation of stress response gene SIRT1 by BCR-ABL promotes leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Ling; Zhang, Hao; Modi, Hardik; Horne, David

    2012-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib is highly effective in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but primary and acquired resistance of CML cells to the drug offset its efficacy. Molecular mechanisms for resistance of CML to tyrosine kinase inhibitors are not fully understood. In the present study, we show that BCR-ABL activates the expression of the mammalian stress response gene SIRT1 in hematopoietic progenitor cells and that this involves STAT5 signaling. SIRT1 activation promotes CML cell survival and proliferation associated with deacetylation of multiple SIRT1 substrates, including FOXO1, p53, and Ku70. Imatinib-mediated inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase activity partially reduces SIRT1 expression and SIRT1 inhibition further sensitizes CML cells to imatinib-induced apoptosis. Knockout of SIRT1 suppresses BCR-ABL transformation of mouse BM cells and the development of a CML-like myeloproliferative disease, and treatment of mice with the SIRT1 inhibitor tenovin-6 deters disease progression. The combination of SIRT1 gene knockout and imatinib treatment further extends the survival of CML mice. Our results suggest that SIRT1 is a novel survival pathway activated by BCR-ABL expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells, which promotes oncogenic transformation and leukemogenesis. Our findings suggest further exploration of SIRT1 as a therapeutic target for CML treatment to overcome resistance. PMID:22207735

  11. Statistical algorithms improve accuracy of gene fusion detection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Gillian; Bierman, Rob; Szabo, Linda; Lee, Alex Gia; Freeman, Donald E.; Watson, Nathaniel; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gene fusions are known to play critical roles in tumor pathogenesis. Yet, sensitive and specific algorithms to detect gene fusions in cancer do not currently exist. In this paper, we present a new statistical algorithm, MACHETE (Mismatched Alignment CHimEra Tracking Engine), which achieves highly sensitive and specific detection of gene fusions from RNA-Seq data, including the highest Positive Predictive Value (PPV) compared to the current state-of-the-art, as assessed in simulated data. We show that the best performing published algorithms either find large numbers of fusions in negative control data or suffer from low sensitivity detecting known driving fusions in gold standard settings, such as EWSR1-FLI1. As proof of principle that MACHETE discovers novel gene fusions with high accuracy in vivo, we mined public data to discover and subsequently PCR validate novel gene fusions missed by other algorithms in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3. These results highlight the gains in accuracy achieved by introducing statistical models into fusion detection, and pave the way for unbiased discovery of potentially driving and druggable gene fusions in primary tumors. PMID:28541529

  12. Investigation of fusion gene expression in HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Mengdie; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-12-01

    Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. A number of specific and sensitive biomarkers facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with colon cancer. Fusion genes are typically identified in cancer and a majority of the newly identified fusion genes are oncogenic in nature. Therefore, fusion genes are potential biomarkers and/or therapy targets in cancer. In the present study, the regulation of specific candidate fusion genes were investigated using Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line, which is a paralog of the fusion gene regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). The copy number of BORIS increased correspondingly to the progression of colorectal carcinoma from the M0 to the M1a stage. It was identified that EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e2) , EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e3) , PTPRK(e1)-RSPO3(e2) , PTPRK(e7)-RSPO3(e2), TADA2A-MEF2B and MED13L-CD4 are fusion transcripts present in the transcriptome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. CDC42SE2-KIAAO146 is a genomic fusion transcript, which originates from DNA arrangement in HCT116 cells. BORIS suppresses the expression of EIF3E , RSPO2 , PTPRK , RSPO3 , TADA2A and CD4 to inhibit the expression of fusion transcripts in HCT116 cells. It was hypothesized that the fusion transcripts investigated in the present study may not be oncogenic in HCT116 cells. As BORIS is not colorectal carcinoma-specific, the fusion genes investigated may be a biomarker assemblage for monitoring the progression of colorectal carcinoma.

  13. Investigation of fusion gene expression in HCT116 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanmei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Mengdie; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. A number of specific and sensitive biomarkers facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with colon cancer. Fusion genes are typically identified in cancer and a majority of the newly identified fusion genes are oncogenic in nature. Therefore, fusion genes are potential biomarkers and/or therapy targets in cancer. In the present study, the regulation of specific candidate fusion genes were investigated using Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line, which is a paralog of the fusion gene regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). The copy number of BORIS increased correspondingly to the progression of colorectal carcinoma from the M0 to the M1a stage. It was identified that EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e2), EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e3), PTPRK(e1)-RSPO3(e2), PTPRK(e7)-RSPO3(e2), TADA2A-MEF2B and MED13L-CD4 are fusion transcripts present in the transcriptome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. CDC42SE2-KIAAO146 is a genomic fusion transcript, which originates from DNA arrangement in HCT116 cells. BORIS suppresses the expression of EIF3E, RSPO2, PTPRK, RSPO3, TADA2A and CD4 to inhibit the expression of fusion transcripts in HCT116 cells. It was hypothesized that the fusion transcripts investigated in the present study may not be oncogenic in HCT116 cells. As BORIS is not colorectal carcinoma-specific, the fusion genes investigated may be a biomarker assemblage for monitoring the progression of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:29181107

  14. How is the relationship between TWIST-1 and BCR-ABL1 gene expressions in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients?

    PubMed

    Heidari, Nazanin; Vosoughi, Tina; Mohammadi Asl, Javad; Saki Malehi, Amal; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-01-12

    The activation and increased expression of BCR-ABL1 lead to malignant chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) cells, as well as the resistance to antitumour agents and apoptosis inducers. Moreover, TWIST-1 protein is a prognostic factor of leukemogenesis, and its level is raised in CML patients with cytogenetic resistance to imatinib. So, there is a likely relationship between BCR-ABL1 and TWIST-1 genes. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between TWIST-1 and BCR-ABL1 expressions. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 44 CML patients under treatment and also from ten healthy subjects as normal controls. The expression of TWIST-1 and BCR-ABL1 genes was measured using real-time PCR, and ABL1 was used as the reference gene. The gene expression was evaluated by REST software. The expression levels of TWIST-1 and BCR-ABL1 genes in CML patients was changed 40.23 ± 177.75-fold and 6 ± 18-fold, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between the expressions of TWIST-1 and BCR-ABL1 genes. All patients with TWIST-1 expression levels ≥100-fold had failure of response to treatment. The probability of the relationship between BCR-ABL1 and TWIST-1 is still debatable, and the average of TWIST-1 expression has been higher in patients without response to treatment. Definitive conclusion needs further investigations.

  15. Role of flow-cytometric immunophenotyping in prediction of BCR/ABL1 gene rearrangement in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Corrente, Francesco; Bellesi, Silvia; Metafuni, Elisabetta; Puggioni, Pier Luigi; Marietti, Sara; Ciminello, Angela Maria; Za, Tommaso; Sorà, Federica; Fianchi, Luana; Sica, Simona; De Stefano, Valerio; Chiusolo, Patrizia

    2018-05-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 88 adult patients with B-ALL diagnosed in our center by a flow-cytometric assessment. Immunophenotypic expression of leukemic cells was explored by simultaneous evaluation of positivity, percentage of expressing cells and median fluorescence intensity (MFI). BCR/ABL1 fusion transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR analysis and were identified in 36 patients (40.9%). CD10 and CD34 were positive in the totality of BCR/ABL1-positive cases. Patients with gene rearrangement had a greater frequency of CD66c, CD13 and CD33 positivity compared with BCR/ABL1-negative cases. Moreover, BCR/ABL1-positive cases exhibited a greater median percentage and MFI values of CD13, CD33, CD66c, CD10, CD34 and CD25 expressions, but a lower median percentage and MFI values of CD38 and CD22 expressions than patients without gene rearrangement. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CD10, CD38 and CD13 expressions were independent predictors for the presence of BCR/ABL1 rearrangement. Predictive probabilities of molecular occurrence based on these markers are proposed. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Co-expression of HoxA9 and bcr-abl genes in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Fabián A; Cardozo, Maria A; Valentini, Rosanna; Zalazar, Fabián E

    2010-05-01

    We have analyzed the co-expression of the bcr-abl and HoxA9 genes in the follow-up of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the present work we measured the HoxA9 and bcr-abl gene expression in sequential samples. In all patients, bcr-abl and HoxA9 were expressed at detectable levels in every sample. When the results were expressed in relation to abl, two different situations were found: (a) patients clinically stable at second sampling, with low relative risk at diagnosis (low Sokal's score), did not show significant differences in both bcr-abl and HoxA9 levels in the sequential samples analyzed, and (b) patients with poor prognosis (showing intermediate or high Sokal's score at diagnosis) had increased expression of bcr-abl as well as HoxA9 genes (p < 0.05). Since HoxA9 gene expression remains at relatively constant levels throughout adult life, our results could reflect actual changes in the expression rate of this gene associated with bcr-abl during the progression of CML.

  17. Kinase gene fusions in defined subsets of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jacqueline; Couts, Kasey; Sheren, Jamie; Saichaemchan, Siriwimon; Ariyawutyakorn, Witthawat; Avolio, Izabela; Cabral, Ethan; Glogowska, Magdelena; Amato, Carol; Robinson, Steven; Hintzsche, Jennifer; Applegate, Allison; Seelenfreund, Eric; Gonzalez, Rita; Wells, Keith; Bagby, Stacey; Tentler, John; Tan, Aik-Choon; Wisell, Joshua; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, William

    2017-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements resulting in activating kinase fusions have been increasingly described in a number of cancers including malignant melanoma, but their frequency in specific melanoma subtypes has not been reported. We used break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify genomic rearrangements in tissues from 59 patients with various types of malignant melanoma including acral lentiginous, mucosal, superficial spreading, and nodular. We identified four genomic rearrangements involving the genes BRAF, RET, and ROS1. Of these, three were confirmed by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) or sequencing and one was found to be an ARMC10-BRAF fusion that has not been previously reported in melanoma. These fusions occurred in different subtypes of melanoma but all in tumors lacking known driver mutations. Our data suggest gene fusions are more common than previously thought and should be further explored particularly in melanomas lacking known driver mutations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Kinase Gene Fusions in Defined Subsets of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jacqueline; Couts, Kasey; Sheren, Jamie; Saichaemchan, Siriwimon; Ariyawutyakorn, Witthawat; Avolio, Izabela; Cabral, Ethan; Glogowska, Magdelena; Amato, Carol; Robinson, Steven; Hintzsche, Jennifer; Applegate, Allison; Seelenfreund, Eric; Gonzalez, Rita; Wells, Keith; Bagby, Stacey; Tentler, John; Tan, Aik-Choon; Wisell, Joshua; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, William

    2017-01-01

    Summary Genomic rearrangements resulting in activating kinase fusions have been increasingly described in a number of cancers including malignant melanoma, but their frequency in specific melanoma subtypes has not been reported. We used break-apart fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to identify genomic rearrangements in tissues from 59 patients with various types of malignant melanoma including acral lentiginous, mucosal, superficial spreading, and nodular. We identified four genomic rearrangements involving the genes BRAF, RET, and ROS1. Of these, three were confirmed by IHC or sequencing and one was found to be an ARMC10-BRAF fusion that has not been previously reported in melanoma. These fusions occurred in different subtypes of melanoma but all in tumors lacking known driver mutations. Our data suggest gene fusions are more common than previously thought-and should be further explored particularly in melanomas lacking known driver mutations. PMID:27864876

  19. FusionHub: A unified web platform for annotation and visualization of gene fusion events in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Jere, Abhay; Anamika, Krishanpal

    2018-01-01

    Gene fusion is a chromosomal rearrangement event which plays a significant role in cancer due to the oncogenic potential of the chimeric protein generated through fusions. At present many databases are available in public domain which provides detailed information about known gene fusion events and their functional role. Existing gene fusion detection tools, based on analysis of transcriptomics data usually report a large number of fusion genes as potential candidates, which could be either known or novel or false positives. Manual annotation of these putative genes is indeed time-consuming. We have developed a web platform FusionHub, which acts as integrated search engine interfacing various fusion gene databases and simplifies large scale annotation of fusion genes in a seamless way. In addition, FusionHub provides three ways of visualizing fusion events: circular view, domain architecture view and network view. Design of potential siRNA molecules through ensemble method is another utility integrated in FusionHub that could aid in siRNA-based targeted therapy. FusionHub is freely available at https://fusionhub.persistent.co.in.

  20. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  1. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor harboring EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Sokai, Akihiko; Enaka, Makiko; Sokai, Risa; Mori, Shoichi; Mori, Shunsuke; Gunji, Masaharu; Fujino, Masahiko; Ito, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare tumor deriving from mesenchymal tissue. Approximately 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor an anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harboring tropomyosin3-anaplastic lymphoma kinase or protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type F polypeptide-interacting protein-binding protein 1-anaplastic lymphoma kinase have been reported previously. However, it has not been reported that inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene which is considered to be very specific to lung cancers. A few tumors harboring echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene other than lung cancers have been reported and the tumors were all carcinomas. A 67-year-old man had been followed up for a benign tumor for approximately 3 years before the tumor demonstrated malignant transformation. Lobectomy and autopsy revealed that an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor harboring echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene had transformed into an undifferentiated sarcoma. This case suggests that echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion is an oncogenic event in not only carcinomas but also sarcomas originating from stromal cells.

  2. Genetic analysis of Ikaros target genes and tumor suppressor function in BCR-ABL1+ pre–B ALL

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanirefah, Ali; McLaughlin, Jami; Cheng, Donghui; Geng, Huimin; Eggesbø, Linn M.; Smale, Stephen T.; Müschen, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Ikaros (IKZF1) is a hallmark of BCR-ABL1+ precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre–B ALL). However, the mechanisms by which Ikaros functions as a tumor suppressor in pre–B ALL remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed a mouse model of BCR-ABL1+ pre–B ALL together with a new model of inducible expression of wild-type Ikaros in IKZF1 mutant human BCR-ABL1+ pre–B ALL. We performed integrated genome-wide chromatin and expression analyses and identified Ikaros target genes in mouse and human BCR-ABL1+ pre–B ALL, revealing novel conserved gene pathways associated with Ikaros tumor suppressor function. Notably, genetic depletion of different Ikaros targets, including CTNND1 and the early hematopoietic cell surface marker CD34, resulted in reduced leukemic growth. Our results suggest that Ikaros mediates tumor suppressor function by enforcing proper developmental stage–specific expression of multiple genes through chromatin compaction at its target genes. PMID:28190001

  3. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps.

  4. Complementation between avirulent Newcastle disease virus and a fusion protein gene expressed from a retrovirus vector: requirements for membrane fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, T; McQuain, C; McGinnes, L

    1991-01-01

    The cDNA derived from the fusion gene of the virulent AV strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was expressed in chicken embryo cells by using a retrovirus vector. The fusion protein expressed in this system was transported to the cell surface and was efficiently cleaved into the disulfide-linked F1-F2 form found in infectious virions. The cells expressing the fusion gene grew normally and could be passaged many times. Monolayers of these cells would plaque, in the absence of trypsin, avirulent NDV strains (strains which encode a fusion protein which is not cleaved in tissue culture). Fusion protein-expressing cells would not fuse if mixed with uninfected cells or uninfected cells expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein. However, the fusion protein-expressing cells, if infected with avirulent strains of NDV, would fuse with uninfected cells, suggesting that fusion requires both the fusion protein and another viral protein expressed in the same cell. Fusion was also seen after transfection of the HN protein gene into fusion protein-expressing cells. Thus, the expressed fusion protein gene is capable of complementing the virus infection, providing an active cleaved fusion protein required for the spread of infection. However, the fusion protein does not mediate cell fusion unless the cell also expresses the HN protein. Fusion protein-expressing cells would not plaque influenza virus in the absence of trypsin, nor would influenza virus-infected fusion protein-expressing cells fuse with uninfected cells. Thus, the influenza virus HA protein will not substitute for the NDV HN protein in cell-to-cell fusion. Images PMID:1987376

  5. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  6. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  7. Repeated evolution of chimeric fusion genes in the β-globin gene family of laurasiatherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Michael J; Storz, Jay F; Butts, Gary Tyler; Campbell, Kevin L; Hoffmann, Federico G

    2014-05-09

    The evolutionary fate of chimeric fusion genes may be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin and the nature of functional divergence between the parental genes. In the β-globin gene family of placental mammals, the two postnatally expressed δ- and β-globin genes (HBD and HBB, respectively) have a propensity for recombinational exchange via gene conversion and unequal crossing-over. In the latter case, there are good reasons to expect differences in retention rates for the reciprocal HBB/HBD and HBD/HBB fusion genes due to thalassemia pathologies associated with the HBD/HBB "Lepore" deletion mutant in humans. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the mammalian β-globin gene cluster, which revealed that chimeric HBB/HBD fusion genes originated independently in four separate lineages of laurasiatherian mammals: Eulipotyphlans (shrews, moles, and hedgehogs), carnivores, microchiropteran bats, and cetaceans. In cases where an independently derived "anti-Lepore" duplication mutant has become fixed, the parental HBD and/or HBB genes have typically been inactivated or deleted, so that the newly created HBB/HBD fusion gene is primarily responsible for synthesizing the β-type subunits of adult and fetal hemoglobin (Hb). Contrary to conventional wisdom that the HBD gene is a vestigial relict that is typically inactivated or expressed at negligible levels, we show that HBD-like genes often encode a substantial fraction (20-100%) of β-chain Hbs in laurasiatherian taxa. Our results indicate that the ascendancy or resuscitation of genes with HBD-like coding sequence requires the secondary acquisition of HBB-like promoter sequence via unequal crossing-over or interparalog gene conversion. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. [Construction and expression of the targeting super-antigen EGF-SEA fusion gene].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Peng, Shaoping; Liao, Zhiying; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Xuemei; Chen, Weifeng

    2014-05-01

    To construct expression vector for the SEA-EGF fusion gene. Clone the SEA gene and the EGF gene segment with PCR and RT-PCR independently, and connect this two genes by the bridge PCR. Insert the fusion gene EGF-SEA into the expression vector PET-44. Induced the secretion of the fusion protein SEA-EGF by the antileptic. The gene fragment encoding EGF and SEA mature peptide was successfully cloned. The fusion gene EGF-SEA was successfully constructed and was inserted into expression vector. The new recombinant expression vector for fusion gene EGF-SEA is specific for head and neck cancer, laid the foundation for the further study of fusion protein SEA-EGF targeting immune therapy in head and neck tumors.

  9. Oncogenic activation of c-Abl in non-small cell lung cancer cells lacking FUS1 expression: inhibition of c-Abl by the tumor suppressor gene product Fus1.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Sun, T; Ji, L; Deng, W; Roth, J; Minna, J; Arlinghaus, R

    2007-10-25

    In lung cancer, frequent loss of one allele of chromosome 3p is seen in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), providing evidence of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in this chromosomal region. The mechanism of Fus1 tumor suppressor activity is unknown. We have found that a Fus1 peptide inhibits the Abl tyrosine kinase in vitro (IC(50) 35 microM). The inhibitory Fus1 sequence was derived from a region that was deleted in a mutant FUS1 gene (FUS1 (1-80)) detected in some lung cancer cell lines. Importantly, a stearic acid-modified form of this peptide was required for the inhibition, but stearic acid alone was not inhibitory. Two NSCLC cell lines, which lack expression of wild-type Fus1, contain activated c-Abl. Forced expression of an inducible FUS1 cDNA in H1299 NSCLC cells decreased levels of activated c-Abl and inhibited its tyrosine kinase activity. Similarly, treatment of c-Abl immune complexes with the inhibitory Fus1 peptide also reduced the level of c-Abl in these immune complexes. The size and number of colonies of the NSCLC cell line, H1,299, in soft agar was strongly inhibited by the Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate. Co-expression of FUS1 and c-ABL in COS1 cells blocked activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase. In contrast, co-expression of mutant FUS1 (1-80) with c-ABL had little inhibitory activity against c-Abl. These findings provide strong evidence that c-Abl is a possible target in NSCLC patients that have reduced expression of Fus1 in their tumor cells.

  10. Co-fuse: a new class discovery analysis tool to identify and prioritize recurrent fusion genes from RNA-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Quek, Kelly; Nievergall, Eva; Jabbour, Anissa; Zannettino, Andrew; Kok, Chung Hoow

    2018-06-07

    Recurrent oncogenic fusion genes play a critical role in the development of various cancers and diseases and provide, in some cases, excellent therapeutic targets. To date, analysis tools that can identify and compare recurrent fusion genes across multiple samples have not been available to researchers. To address this deficiency, we developed Co-occurrence Fusion (Co-fuse), a new and easy to use software tool that enables biologists to merge RNA-seq information, allowing them to identify recurrent fusion genes, without the need for exhaustive data processing. Notably, Co-fuse is based on pattern mining and statistical analysis which enables the identification of hidden patterns of recurrent fusion genes. In this report, we show that Co-fuse can be used to identify 2 distinct groups within a set of 49 leukemic cell lines based on their recurrent fusion genes: a multiple myeloma (MM) samples-enriched cluster and an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples-enriched cluster. Our experimental results further demonstrate that Co-fuse can identify known driver fusion genes (e.g., IGH-MYC, IGH-WHSC1) in MM, when compared to AML samples, indicating the potential of Co-fuse to aid the discovery of yet unknown driver fusion genes through cohort comparisons. Additionally, using a 272 primary glioma sample RNA-seq dataset, Co-fuse was able to validate recurrent fusion genes, further demonstrating the power of this analysis tool to identify recurrent fusion genes. Taken together, Co-fuse is a powerful new analysis tool that can be readily applied to large RNA-seq datasets, and may lead to the discovery of new disease subgroups and potentially new driver genes, for which, targeted therapies could be developed. The Co-fuse R source code is publicly available at https://github.com/sakrapee/co-fuse .

  11. [Prokaryotic expression of trigeminy artificial fusion gene of Leptospira interrogans and the immunogenicity of its products].

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong-jiao; Qiu, Xiao-feng; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Jin; Wang, Hai-bin; Zhou, Jin-cheng; Yan, Jie

    2008-11-01

    To construct lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene of Leptospira interrogans and its prokaryotic expression system, and to identify the immunogenicity of its products. PCR using linking primers was applied to construct lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene and a prokaryotic expression system of the fusion gene was then established using routine genetic engineering technique. SDS-PAGE was used to examine output of the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2. Double immunodiffusion and Western Blot assay were applied to identify immunogenicity of rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2. lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene with correct sequence and its prokaryotic expression system E.coli BL21DE3pET42a-lipL32/1-lipL21-ompL1/2 was obtained in this study. The output of rLipL32/1-LipL21- OmpL1/2 after optimisation was 37.78 mg/L. The immunodiffusion titer of rabbit antiserum against rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 was 1:4. The rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 antiserum was able to recognize rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2, rLipL32/1, rLipL21 and rOmpL1/2. Positive Western hybridization signals were found among rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 and rabbit antiserum against whole cell of strain 56601 and serum from patients infected with L.interrogans serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Autumnalis and Pomona. The fusion gene lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 and its prokaryotic expression system were successfully constructed in this study. The expressed fusion protein can be used as the antigen for developing universal genetic engineering vaccine and universal serological tests of leptospirosis.

  12. A Multiplexed Amplicon Approach for Detecting Gene Fusions by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Beadling, Carol; Wald, Abigail I; Warrick, Andrea; Neff, Tanaya L; Zhong, Shan; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Corless, Christopher L; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2016-03-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that result in oncogenic gene fusions are clinically important drivers of many cancer types. Rapid and sensitive methods are therefore needed to detect a broad range of gene fusions in clinical specimens that are often of limited quantity and quality. We describe a next-generation sequencing approach that uses a multiplex PCR-based amplicon panel to interrogate fusion transcripts that involve 19 driver genes and 94 partners implicated in solid tumors. The panel also includes control assays that evaluate the 3'/5' expression ratios of 12 oncogenic kinases, which might be used to infer gene fusion events when the partner is unknown or not included on the panel. There was good concordance between the solid tumor fusion gene panel and other methods, including fluorescence in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, Sanger sequencing, and other next-generation sequencing panels, because 40 specimens known to harbor gene fusions were correctly identified. No specific fusion reads were observed in 59 fusion-negative specimens. The 3'/5' expression ratio was informative for fusions that involved ALK, RET, and NTRK1 but not for BRAF or ROS1 fusions. However, among 37 ALK or RET fusion-negative specimens, four exhibited elevated 3'/5' expression ratios, indicating that fusions predicted solely by 3'/5' read ratios require confirmatory testing. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Discovering and understanding oncogenic gene fusions through data intensive computational approaches

    PubMed Central

    Latysheva, Natasha S.; Babu, M. Madan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although gene fusions have been recognized as important drivers of cancer for decades, our understanding of the prevalence and function of gene fusions has been revolutionized by the rise of next-generation sequencing, advances in bioinformatics theory and an increasing capacity for large-scale computational biology. The computational work on gene fusions has been vastly diverse, and the present state of the literature is fragmented. It will be fruitful to merge three camps of gene fusion bioinformatics that appear to rarely cross over: (i) data-intensive computational work characterizing the molecular biology of gene fusions; (ii) development research on fusion detection tools, candidate fusion prioritization algorithms and dedicated fusion databases and (iii) clinical research that seeks to either therapeutically target fusion transcripts and proteins or leverages advances in detection tools to perform large-scale surveys of gene fusion landscapes in specific cancer types. In this review, we unify these different—yet highly complementary and symbiotic—approaches with the view that increased synergy will catalyze advancements in gene fusion identification, characterization and significance evaluation. PMID:27105842

  14. Clonal Evolution and Blast Crisis Correlate with Enhanced Proteolytic Activity of Separase in BCR-ABL b3a2 Fusion Type CML under Imatinib Therapy.

    PubMed

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Weiß, Christel; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Martin C; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors

  15. A Search for Gene Fusions/Translocations in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    specific pseudogenes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gene fusions, sequencing, MAST,Notch 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 ...Figure 5B) as well as in in vivo intravasation and metastasis in chicken chorioallantoic mem- brane xenograft assay (Figure 5C). In contrast...m p h o b la st o id (n = 8) Pa n cr ea ti c B en ig n (n = 3) Pr o st at e B en ig n (n = 18 ) C an ce r S p ec ifi c Sample Frequency (%)0 100

  16. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in small cell carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Dancer, Jane Y; Wang, Yan; Aparicio, Ana; Navone, Nora M; Troncoso, Patricia; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that most prostate cancers carry the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Here we evaluated the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in small cell carcinoma of the prostate (n = 12) in comparison with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (n = 12) and lung (n = 11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated rearrangement of the ERG gene in 8 cases of prostatic small cell carcinoma (67%), and the rearrangement was associated with deletion of the 5' ERG gene in 7 cases, but rearrangement of the ERG gene was not present in any small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or lung. Next we evaluated the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in nude mouse xenografts that were derived from 2 prostatic small cell carcinomas carrying the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Two transcripts encoded by the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing demonstrated that the 2 transcripts were composed of fusions of exon 1 of the TMPRSS2 gene to exon 4 or 5 of the ERG gene. Our study demonstrates the specific presence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in prostatic small cell carcinoma, which may be helpful in distinguishing small cell carcinoma of prostatic origin from nonprostatic origins. The high prevalence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in prostatic small cell carcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma implies that small cell carcinoma may share a common pathogenic pathway with adenocarcinoma in the prostate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. confFuse: High-Confidence Fusion Gene Detection across Tumor Entities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiqin; Jones, David T W; Wu, Yonghe; Lichter, Peter; Zapatka, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fusion genes play an important role in the tumorigenesis of many cancers. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been successfully applied in fusion gene detection for the last several years, and a number of NGS-based tools have been developed for identifying fusion genes during this period. Most fusion gene detection tools based on RNA-seq data report a large number of candidates (mostly false positives), making it hard to prioritize candidates for experimental validation and further analysis. Selection of reliable fusion genes for downstream analysis becomes very important in cancer research. We therefore developed confFuse, a scoring algorithm to reliably select high-confidence fusion genes which are likely to be biologically relevant. Results: confFuse takes multiple parameters into account in order to assign each fusion candidate a confidence score, of which score ≥8 indicates high-confidence fusion gene predictions. These parameters were manually curated based on our experience and on certain structural motifs of fusion genes. Compared with alternative tools, based on 96 published RNA-seq samples from different tumor entities, our method can significantly reduce the number of fusion candidates (301 high-confidence from 8,083 total predicted fusion genes) and keep high detection accuracy (recovery rate 85.7%). Validation of 18 novel, high-confidence fusions detected in three breast tumor samples resulted in a 100% validation rate. Conclusions: confFuse is a novel downstream filtering method that allows selection of highly reliable fusion gene candidates for further downstream analysis and experimental validations. confFuse is available at https://github.com/Zhiqin-HUANG/confFuse.

  18. The Abl-related gene (Arg) requires its F-actin-microtubule cross-linking activity to regulate lamellipodial dynamics during fibroblast adhesion.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ann L; Wang, Yinxiang; Mooseker, Mark S; Koleske, Anthony J

    2004-05-10

    Microtubules (MTs) help establish and maintain cell polarity by promoting actin-dependent membrane protrusion at the leading edge of the cell, but the molecular mechanisms that mediate cross-talk between actin and MTs during this process are unclear. We demonstrate that the Abl-related gene (Arg) nonreceptor tyrosine kinase is required for dynamic lamellipodial protrusions after adhesion to fibronectin. arg-/- fibroblasts exhibit reduced lamellipodial dynamics as compared with wild-type fibroblasts, and this defect can be rescued by reexpression of an Arg-yellow fluorescent protein fusion. We show that Arg can bind MTs with high affinity and cross-link filamentous actin (F-actin) bundles and MTs in vitro. MTs concentrate and insert into Arg-induced F-actin-rich cell protrusions. Arg requires both its F-actin-binding domains and its MT-binding domain to rescue the defects in lamellipodial dynamics of arg-/- fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that Arg can mediate physical contact between F-actin and MTs at the cell periphery and that this cross-linking activity is required for Arg to regulate lamellipodial dynamics in fibroblasts. Copyright the Rockefeller University Press

  19. Fusion genes in solid tumors: an emerging target for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Parker, Brittany C; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Studies over the past decades have uncovered fusion genes, a class of oncogenes that provide immense diagnostic and therapeutic advantages because of their tumor-specific expression. Originally associated with hemotologic cancers, fusion genes have recently been discovered in a wide array of solid tumors, including sarcomas, carcinomas, and tumors of the central nervous system. Fusion genes are attractive as both therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools due to their inherent expression in tumor tissue alone. Therefore, the discovery and elucidation of fusion genes in various cancer types may provide more effective therapies in the future for cancer patients.

  20. Screening for diverse PDGFRA or PDGFRB fusion genes is facilitated by generic quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erben, Philipp; Gosenca, Darko; Müller, Martin C.; Reinhard, Jelena; Score, Joannah; del Valle, Francesco; Walz, Christoph; Mix, Jürgen; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Ernst, Thomas; Haferlach, Claudia; Cross, Nicholas C.P.; Hochhaus, Andreas; Reiter, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapid identification of diverse fusion genes with involvement of PDGFRA or PDGFRB in eosinophilia-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms is essential for adequate clinical management but is complicated by the multitude and heterogeneity of partner genes and breakpoints. Design and Methods We established a generic quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect overexpression of the 3′-regions of PDGFRA or PDGFRB as a possible indicator of an underlying fusion. Results At diagnosis, all patients with known fusion genes involving PDGFRA (n=5; 51 patients) or PDGFRB (n=5; 7 patients) showed significantly increased normalized expression levels compared to 191 patients with fusion gene-negative eosinophilia or healthy individuals (PDGFRA/ABL: 0.73 versus 0.0066 versus 0.0064, P<0.0001; PDGFRB/ABL: 196 versus 3.8 versus 5.85, P<0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of the activation screening test were, respectively, 100% and 88.4% for PDGFRA and 100% and 94% for PDGFRB. Furthermore, significant overexpression of PDGFRB was found in a patient with an eosinophilia-associated myeloproliferative neoplasm with uninformative cytogenetics and an excellent response to imatinib. Subsequently, a new SART3-PDGFRB fusion gene was identified by 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (5′-RACE-PCR). Conclusions Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis is a simple and useful adjunct to standard diagnostic assays to detect clinically significant overexpression of PDGFRA and PDGFRB in eosinophilia-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms or related disorders. PMID:20107158

  1. Systematic identification and analysis of frequent gene fusion events in metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Christopher S.; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Gerdes, Svetlana Y.

    Here, gene fusions are the most powerful type of in silico-derived functional associations. However, many fusion compilations were made when <100 genomes were available, and algorithms for identifying fusions need updating to handle the current avalanche of sequenced genomes. The availability of a large fusion dataset would help probe functional associations and enable systematic analysis of where and why fusion events occur. As a result, here we present a systematic analysis of fusions in prokaryotes. We manually generated two training sets: (i) 121 fusions in the model organism Escherichia coli; (ii) 131 fusions found in B vitamin metabolism. These setsmore » were used to develop a fusion prediction algorithm that captured the training set fusions with only 7 % false negatives and 50 % false positives, a substantial improvement over existing approaches. This algorithm was then applied to identify 3.8 million potential fusions across 11,473 genomes. The results of the analysis are available in a searchable database. A functional analysis identified 3,000 reactions associated with frequent fusion events and revealed areas of metabolism where fusions are particularly prevalent. In conclusion, customary definitions of fusions were shown to be ambiguous, and a stricter one was proposed. Exploring the genes participating in fusion events showed that they most commonly encode transporters, regulators, and metabolic enzymes. The major rationales for fusions between metabolic genes appear to be overcoming pathway bottlenecks, avoiding toxicity, controlling competing pathways, and facilitating expression and assembly of protein complexes. Finally, our fusion dataset provides powerful clues to decipher the biological activities of domains of unknown function.« less

  2. Systematic identification and analysis of frequent gene fusion events in metabolic pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Henry, Christopher S.; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Gerdes, Svetlana Y.; ...

    2016-06-24

    Here, gene fusions are the most powerful type of in silico-derived functional associations. However, many fusion compilations were made when <100 genomes were available, and algorithms for identifying fusions need updating to handle the current avalanche of sequenced genomes. The availability of a large fusion dataset would help probe functional associations and enable systematic analysis of where and why fusion events occur. As a result, here we present a systematic analysis of fusions in prokaryotes. We manually generated two training sets: (i) 121 fusions in the model organism Escherichia coli; (ii) 131 fusions found in B vitamin metabolism. These setsmore » were used to develop a fusion prediction algorithm that captured the training set fusions with only 7 % false negatives and 50 % false positives, a substantial improvement over existing approaches. This algorithm was then applied to identify 3.8 million potential fusions across 11,473 genomes. The results of the analysis are available in a searchable database. A functional analysis identified 3,000 reactions associated with frequent fusion events and revealed areas of metabolism where fusions are particularly prevalent. In conclusion, customary definitions of fusions were shown to be ambiguous, and a stricter one was proposed. Exploring the genes participating in fusion events showed that they most commonly encode transporters, regulators, and metabolic enzymes. The major rationales for fusions between metabolic genes appear to be overcoming pathway bottlenecks, avoiding toxicity, controlling competing pathways, and facilitating expression and assembly of protein complexes. Finally, our fusion dataset provides powerful clues to decipher the biological activities of domains of unknown function.« less

  3. MATRIX FACTORIZATION-BASED DATA FUSION FOR GENE FUNCTION PREDICTION IN BAKER’S YEAST AND SLIME MOLD

    PubMed Central

    ŽITNIK, MARINKA; ZUPAN, BLAŽ

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker’s yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps. PMID:24297565

  4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: emerging role of translocations and gene fusions

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Piotr T.; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Meir, Juliet; Ha, Patrick K.; Sidransky, David; Brait, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), the second most common salivary gland malignancy, is notorious for poor prognosis, which reflects the propensity of ACC to progress to clinically advanced metastatic disease. Due to high long-term mortality and lack of effective systemic treatment, the slow-growing but aggressive ACC poses a particular challenge in head and neck oncology. Despite the advancements in cancer genomics, up until recently relatively few genetic alterations critical to the ACC development have been recognized. Although the specific chromosomal translocations resulting in MYB-NFIB fusions provide insight into the ACC pathogenesis and represent attractive diagnostic and therapeutic targets, their clinical significance is unclear, and a substantial subset of ACCs do not harbor the MYB-NFIB translocation. Strategies based on detection of newly described genetic events (such as MYB activating super-enhancer translocations and alterations affecting another member of MYB transcription factor family-MYBL1) offer new hope for improved risk assessment, therapeutic intervention and tumor surveillance. However, the impact of these approaches is still limited by an incomplete understanding of the ACC biology, and the manner by which these alterations initiate and drive ACC remains to be delineated. This manuscript summarizes the current status of gene fusions and other driver genetic alterations in ACC pathogenesis and discusses new therapeutic strategies stemming from the current research. PMID:27533466

  5. Highly specific targeting of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene using liposomal nanovectors

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Longjiang; Tekedereli, Ibrahim; Wang, Jianghua; Yuca, Erkan; Tsang, Susan; Sood, Anil; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ozpolat, Bulent; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present in half of all prostate cancer (PCa) tumors. Fusion of the oncogenic ERG gene with the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene promoter results in expression of fusion mRNAs in PCa cells. The junction of theTMPRSS2 and ERG derived portions of the fusion mRNA constitutes a cancer specific target in cells containing the T/E fusion gene. Targeting the most common alternatively spliced fusion gene mRNA junctional isoforms in vivo using siRNAs in liposomal nanovectors may potentially be a novel, low toxicity treatment for PCa. Experimental Design We designed and optimized siRNAs targeting the two most common T/E fusion gene mRNA junctional isoforms (Type III or Type VI). Specificity of siRNAs was assessed by transient co-transfection in vitro. To test their ability to inhibit growth of PCa cells expressing these fusion gene isoforms in vivo, specific siRNAs in liposomal nanovectors were used to treat mice bearing orthotopic or subcutaneous xenograft tumors expressing the targeted fusion isoforms. Results The targeting siRNAs were both potent and highly specific in vitro. In vivo they significantly inhibited tumor growth. The degree of growth inhibition was variable and was correlated with the extent of fusion gene knockdown. The growth inhibition was associated with marked inhibition of angiogenesis and, to a lesser degree, proliferation and a marked increase in apoptosis of tumor cells. No toxicity was observed. Conclusions Targeting the T/E fusion junction in vivo with specific siRNAs delivered via liposomal nanovectors is a promising therapy for men with PCa. PMID:23052253

  6. Highly specific targeting of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene using liposomal nanovectors.

    PubMed

    Shao, Longjiang; Tekedereli, Ibrahim; Wang, Jianghua; Yuca, Erkan; Tsang, Susan; Sood, Anil; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ozpolat, Bulent; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-12-15

    The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present in half of all prostate cancer tumors. Fusion of the oncogenic ERG gene with the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene promoter results in expression of fusion mRNAs in prostate cancer cells. The junction of theTMPRSS2- and ERG-derived portions of the fusion mRNA constitutes a cancer-specific target in cells containing the T/E fusion gene. Targeting the most common alternatively spliced fusion gene mRNA junctional isoforms in vivo using siRNAs in liposomal nanovectors may potentially be a novel, low-toxicity treatment for prostate cancer. We designed and optimized siRNAs targeting the two most common T/E fusion gene mRNA junctional isoforms (type III or type VI). Specificity of siRNAs was assessed by transient co-transfection in vitro. To test their ability to inhibit growth of prostate cancer cells expressing these fusion gene isoforms in vivo, specific siRNAs in liposomal nanovectors were used to treat mice bearing orthotopic or subcutaneous xenograft tumors expressing the targeted fusion isoforms. The targeting siRNAs were both potent and highly specific in vitro. In vivo they significantly inhibited tumor growth. The degree of growth inhibition was variable and was correlated with the extent of fusion gene knockdown. The growth inhibition was associated with marked inhibition of angiogenesis and, to a lesser degree, proliferation and a marked increase in apoptosis of tumor cells. No toxicity was observed. Targeting the T/E fusion junction in vivo with specific siRNAs delivered via liposomal nanovectors is a promising therapy for men with prostate cancer. ©2012 AACR.

  7. Reanalysis of RNA-Sequencing Data Reveals Several Additional Fusion Genes with Multiple Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Edgren, Henrik; Nicorici, Daniel; Murumägi, Astrid; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2012-01-01

    RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60%) of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts. PMID:23119097

  8. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Edgren, Henrik; Nicorici, Daniel; Murumägi, Astrid; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2012-01-01

    RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60%) of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  9. Dominant positive and negative selection using a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Lupton, S D; Brunton, L L; Kalberg, V A; Overell, R W

    1991-06-01

    The hygromycin phosphotransferase gene was fused in-frame with the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene. The resulting fusion gene (termed HyTK) confers hygromycin B resistance for dominant positive selection and ganciclovir sensitivity for negative selection and provides a means by which these selectable phenotypes may be expressed and regulated as a single genetic entity.

  10. The EWS–Oct-4 fusion gene encodes a transforming gene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungwoon; Kim, Ja Young; Kang, In Young; Kim, Hye Kyoung; Han, Yong-Mahn; Kim, Jungho

    2007-01-01

    The t(6;22)(p21;q12) translocation associated with human bone and soft-tissue tumours results in a chimaeric molecule fusing the NTD (N-terminal domain) of the EWS (Ewing's sarcoma) gene to the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the Oct-4 (octamer-4) embryonic gene. Since the N-terminal domains of EWS and Oct-4 are structurally different, in the present study we have assessed the functional consequences of the EWS–Oct-4 fusion. We find that this chimaeric gene encodes a nuclear protein which binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as the parental Oct-4 protein. Comparison of the transactivation properties of EWS–Oct-4 and Oct-4 indicates that the former has higher transactivation activity for a known target reporter gene containing Oct-4 binding. Deletion analysis of the functional domains of EWS–Oct-4 indicates that the EWS (NTD), the POU domain and the CTD of EWS–Oct-4 are necessary for full transactivation potential. EWS–Oct-4 induced the expression of fgf-4 (fibroblast growth factor 4) and nanog, which are potent mitogens as well as Oct-4 downstream target genes whose promoters contain potential Oct-4-binding sites. Finally, ectopic expression of EWS–Oct-4 in Oct-4-null ZHBTc4 ES (embryonic stem) cells resulted in increased tumorigenic growth potential in nude mice. These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(6;22) translocation is due to the EWS–Oct-4 chimaeric protein and that fusion of the EWS NTD to the Oct-4 DNA-binding domain produces a transforming chimaeric product. PMID:17564582

  11. Inversion-mediated gene fusions involving NAB2-STAT6 in an unusual malignant meningioma.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Ling, C; Shi, L; Commins, D; Zada, G; Mack, W J; Wang, K

    2013-08-20

    Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumours, with ∼3% meeting current histopathologic criteria for malignancy. In this study, we explored the transcriptome of meningiomas using RNA-Seq. Inversion-mediated fusions between two adjacent genes, NAB2 and STAT6, were detected in one malignant tumour, creating two novel in-frame transcripts that were validated by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Gene fusions of NAB2-STAT6 were recently implicated in the pathogenesis of solitary fibrous tumours; our study suggested that similar fusions may also have a role in a malignant meningioma with unusual histopathologic features.

  12. Pleiotropic biological activities of alternatively spliced TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianghua; Cai, Yi; Yu, Wendong; Ren, Chengxi; Spencer, David M.; Ittmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    TMPRSS2/ERG gene fusions are found in the majority of prostate cancers; however, there is significant heterogeneity in the 5′ region of the alternatively spliced fusion gene transcripts. We have found that there is also significant heterogeneity within the coding exons as well. There is variable inclusion of a 72-bp exon and other novel alternatively spliced isoforms. To assess the biological significance of these alternatively spliced transcripts, we expressed various transcripts in primary prostatic epithelial cells and in an immortalized prostatic epithelial cell line, PNT1a. The fusion gene transcripts promoted proliferation, invasion and motility with variable activities that depended on the structure of the 5′ region encoding the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and the presence of the 72-bp exon. Cotransfection of different isoforms further enhanced biological activity, mimicking the situation in vivo, in which multiple isoforms are expressed. Finally, knockdown of the fusion gene in VCaP cells resulted in inhibition of proliferation in vitro and tumor progression in an in vivo orthotopic mice model. Our results indicate that TMPRSS2/ERG fusion isoforms have variable biological activities promoting tumor initiation and progression and are consistent with our previous clinical observations indicating that certain TMPRSS2/ERG fusion isoforms are significantly correlated with more aggressive disease. PMID:18922926

  13. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion status in minute (minimal) prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Toubaji, Antoun; Haffner, Michael; Isaacs, William B; A Platz, Elizabeth; Meeker, Alan K; Demarzo, Angelo M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-11-01

    Minute prostatic adenocarcinomas are considered to be of insufficient virulence. Given recent suggestions of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion association with aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma, we evaluated the incidence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute prostatic adenocarcinomas. A total of 45 consecutive prostatectomies with minute adenocarcinoma were used for tissue microarray construction. A total of 63 consecutive non-minimal, Gleason Score 6 tumors, from a separate PSA Era prostatectomy tissue microarray, were used for comparison. FISH was carried out using ERG break-apart probes. Tumors were assessed for fusion by deletion (Edel) or split (Esplit), duplicated fusions and low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus. Minute adenocarcinomas: Fusion was evaluable in 32/45 tumors (71%). Fifteen out of 32 (47%) tumors were positive for fusion. Six (19%) were of the Edel class and 7 (22%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT2): Fusion was identified in 20/30 tumors (67%). Four (13%) were of Edel class and 5 (17%) were combined Edel+Esplit. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 5 (16%) tumors. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT3): Fusion was identified in 19/33 (58%). Fusion was due to a deletion in 6 (18%) tumors. Seven tumors (21%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. One tumor showed Esplit alone. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 3 (9%) cases. The incidence of duplicated fusions was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas (13 vs 0%; P=0.03). A trend for higher incidence of low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus without fusion was noted in non-minute adenocarcinomas (10 vs 0%; P=0.07). We found a TMPRSS2-ERG fusion rate of 47% in minute adenocarcinomas. The latter is not significantly different from that of grade matched non-minute adenocarcinomas. The incidence of duplicated fusion was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas. Our finding of comparable rate of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute adenocarcinomas may argue

  14. Expression of Chlamydophila psittaci MOMP heat-labile toxin B subunit fusion gene in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuxiang; Yuan, Ziguo; Guo, Xuejun; Li, Jingwen; Li, Zhaonan; Wang, Qingyu

    2008-09-01

    A DNA fragment encoding the MOMP gene of Chlamydophila psittaci was fused to the heat-labile toxin B subunit gene (LTB-MOMP) and transferred into rice callus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The LTB-MOMP fusion gene was detected in genomic DNA from transformed rice leaves by Southern blot and RT-PCR amplification. Synthesis and assembly of the LTB-MOMP fusion protein into pentamers was detected in transformed leaf extracts by immunoblot analysis. Binding of the pentamers to intestinal epithelial cell membrane glycolipid receptors was quantified by GM1-ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA). The ELISA results indicated that LTB-MOMP fusion protein made up 0.0033-0.0054% of the total soluble leaf protein. Meanwhile, this suggested that the fusion protein retained both its native antigenicity and the ability to form pentamers.

  15. [Transformation of antimicrobial peptide fusion gene of cecropin B and rabbit NP-1 to Houttuynia cordata].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Yi, Lang; Lai, Huili; Zhang, Yaming; Zhou, Lian; Wang, Peixun

    2010-07-01

    To transform the antimicrobial peptide fusion gene of cecropin B and rabbit NP-1(CN) into Houttuynia cordata to improve its antimicrobic capability. The fusion gene of CN designed and synthesized artificially was recombined with expression vector pBI121. The recombined vector was transformed to Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, by which CN gene was transformed to the explants of H. cordata. The transgenic regeneration plantlets were selected by kanamycin and rapid screening PCR. The transgenic plants were identified by PCR-Southern of genomic DNA and RT-PCR. The disease resistances were detected by antibacterial zone trail of leaf extracts to E. coli K12 and infection by Rhizoctonia solani. Gene of interesting CN was inserted into genomic DNA and expressed in transformed H, cordata, whose resistance to E. coli K12 and Rh. solani was stronger than that of the non-transformed control. The fusion gene CN can improve antimicrobic capability of transformed H. cordata.

  16. Identification of a novel fusion gene HMGA2-EGFR in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Akiyoshi; Raja, Erna; Iwata, Caname; Soda, Manabu; Isogaya, Kazunobu; Yuki, Keiko; Ino, Yasushi; Morikawa, Masato; Todo, Tomoki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Ranjit, Melissa; Natsume, Atsushi; Mukasa, Akitake; Saito, Nobuhito; Okada, Hitoshi; Mano, Hiroyuki; Miyazono, Kohei; Koinuma, Daizo

    2018-04-15

    Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant forms of cancer, for which no effective targeted therapy has been found. Although The Cancer Genome Atlas has provided a list of fusion genes in glioblastoma, their role in progression of glioblastoma remains largely unknown. To search for novel fusion genes, we obtained RNA-seq data from TGS-01 human glioma-initiating cells, and identified a novel fusion gene (HMGA2-EGFR), encoding a protein comprising the N-terminal region of the high-mobility group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) fused to the C-terminal region of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which retained the transmembrane and kinase domains of the EGFR. This fusion gene product showed transforming potential and a high tumor-forming capacity in cell culture and in vivo. Mechanistically, HMGA2-EGFR constitutively induced a higher level of phosphorylated STAT5B than EGFRvIII, an in-frame exon deletion product of the EGFR gene that is commonly found in primary glioblastoma. Forced expression of HMGA2-EGFR enhanced orthotopic tumor formation of the U87MG human glioma cell line. Furthermore, the EGFR kinase inhibitor erlotinib blocked sphere formation of TGS-01 cells in culture and inhibited tumor formation in vivo. These findings suggest that, in addition to gene amplification and in-frame exon deletion, EGFR signaling can also be activated by gene fusion, suggesting a possible avenue for treatment of glioblastoma. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Drosophila and mammalian models uncover a role for the myoblast fusion gene TANC1 in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avirneni-Vadlamudi, Usha; Galindo, Kathleen A; Endicott, Tiana R; Paulson, Vera; Cameron, Scott; Galindo, Rene L

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignancy of muscle myoblasts, which fail to exit the cell cycle, resist terminal differentiation, and are blocked from fusing into syncytial skeletal muscle. In some patients, RMS is caused by a translocation that generates the fusion oncoprotein PAX-FOXO1, but the underlying RMS pathogenetic mechanisms that impede differentiation and promote neoplastic transformation remain unclear. Using a Drosophila model of PAX-FOXO1-mediated transformation, we show here that mutation in the myoblast fusion gene rolling pebbles (rols) dominantly suppresses PAX-FOXO1 lethality. Further analysis indicated that PAX-FOXO1 expression caused upregulation of rols, which suggests that Rols acts downstream of PAX-FOXO1. In mammalian myoblasts, gene silencing of Tanc1, an ortholog of rols, revealed that it is essential for myoblast fusion, but is dispensable for terminal differentiation. Misexpression of PAX-FOXO1 in myoblasts upregulated Tanc1 and blocked differentiation, whereas subsequent reduction of Tanc1 expression to native levels by RNAi restored both fusion and differentiation. Furthermore, decreasing human TANC1 gene expression caused RMS cancer cells to lose their neoplastic state, undergo fusion, and form differentiated syncytial muscle. Taken together, these findings identify misregulated myoblast fusion caused by ectopic TANC1 expression as a RMS neoplasia mechanism and suggest fusion molecules as candidates for targeted RMS therapy.

  18. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Tamara L; Toubaji, Antoun; Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Herawi, Mehsati; Meeker, Alan K; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-03-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an unusual subtype that may be associated with a more aggressive clinical course, and is less responsive to conventional therapies than the more common prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. However, given its frequent association with an acinar component at prostatectomy, some have challenged the concept of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. We studied the occurrence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, in 40 surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma cases, and in their associated acinar component using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A group of 38 'pure' acinar adenocarcinoma cases matched with the ductal adenocarcinoma group for pathological grade and stage was studied as a control. Compared with the matched acinar adenocarcinoma cases, the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was significantly less frequently observed in ductal adenocarcinoma (45 vs 11% of cases, P=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Here, of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases with the gene fusion, 75% were fused through deletion, and the remaining case was fused through translocation. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was also rare in the acinar component of mixed ductal-acinar tumors when compared with the pure acinar adenocarcinoma controls (5 vs 45%, P=0.001, Fisher's exact test). In 95% of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases in which a concurrent acinar component was analyzed, there was concordance for presence/absence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion between the different histologic subtypes. In the control group of pure acinar adenocarcinoma cases, 59% were fused through deletion and 41% were fused through translocation. The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in some cases of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma supports the concept that ductal adenocarcinoma and acinar adenocarcinoma may be related genetically. However, the significantly lower rate of the gene fusion in pure ductal adenocarcinoma cases underscores the fact that genetic and biologic

  19. Identification of EML4-ALK as an alternative fusion gene in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Tong, Han-Xing; Hou, Ying-Yong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Jing-Lei; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Jiong-Yuan; Lu, Wei-Qi

    2017-05-23

    Known as solid tumors of intermediate malignant potential, most inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are treatable as long as the tumor is en-bloc resected. However, in some cases, the tumors have recurred and grown rapidly after successful surgery. Some of these tumors were classified as an epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS). Most previously reported EIMSs have been caused by RANBP2-ALK fusion gene. We herein report an EIMS case caused by an EML4-ALK fusion gene. RNAseq was conducted to find out the new ALK fusion gene which could not be detected following previously reported RT-PCR methods for EIMS cases with RANBP2-ALK fusion gene. After that, RT-PCR was also conducted to further prove the newly found fusion gene. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test were applied to find out the unique morphological characters compared with the previous reported EIMS cases. We found an EIMS case who was suffering from a rapid recurrence after cytoreducyive surgery was done to relieve the exacerbating symptoms. The patient finally died for tumor lysis syndrome after the application of crizotinib. Distinctive ALK staining under the membrane and relatively weak ALK staining in the cytoplasm could also be observed. RNAseq and RT-PCR further revealed that the tumor harbored an EML4-ALK fusion gene. In conclusion, this is the first EIMS demonstrated to have been caused by the formation of an EML4-ALK fusion gene. This enriches the spectrum of EIMS and enlarges the horizon for the study of EIMS. The experience we shared in managing this kind of disease by discussing aspects of its success and failure could be of great value for surgeons and pathologists.

  20. The tumorigenic FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion escapes miR-99a regulation in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Brittany C.; Annala, Matti J.; Cogdell, David E.; Granberg, Kirsi J.; Sun, Yan; Ji, Ping; Li, Xia; Gumin, Joy; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Limei; Yli-Harja, Olli; Haapasalo, Hannu; Visakorpi, Tapio; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Sawaya, Raymond; Fuller, Gregory N.; Chen, Kexin; Lang, Frederick F.; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fusion genes are chromosomal aberrations that are found in many cancers and can be used as prognostic markers and drug targets in clinical practice. Fusions can lead to production of oncogenic fusion proteins or to enhanced expression of oncogenes. Several recent studies have reported that some fusion genes can escape microRNA regulation via 3′–untranslated region (3′-UTR) deletion. We performed whole transcriptome sequencing to identify fusion genes in glioma and discovered FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in 4 of 48 glioblastoma samples from patients both of mixed European and of Asian descent, but not in any of 43 low-grade glioma samples tested. The fusion, caused by tandem duplication on 4p16.3, led to the loss of the 3′-UTR of FGFR3, blocking gene regulation of miR-99a and enhancing expression of the fusion gene. The fusion gene was mutually exclusive with EGFR, PDGFR, or MET amplification. Using cultured glioblastoma cells and a mouse xenograft model, we found that fusion protein expression promoted cell proliferation and tumor progression, while WT FGFR3 protein was not tumorigenic, even under forced overexpression. These results demonstrated that the FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion is expressed in human cancer and generates an oncogenic protein that promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. PMID:23298836

  1. The tumorigenic FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion escapes miR-99a regulation in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Parker, Brittany C; Annala, Matti J; Cogdell, David E; Granberg, Kirsi J; Sun, Yan; Ji, Ping; Li, Xia; Gumin, Joy; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Limei; Yli-Harja, Olli; Haapasalo, Hannu; Visakorpi, Tapio; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-Gong; Sawaya, Raymond; Fuller, Gregory N; Chen, Kexin; Lang, Frederick F; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Fusion genes are chromosomal aberrations that are found in many cancers and can be used as prognostic markers and drug targets in clinical practice. Fusions can lead to production of oncogenic fusion proteins or to enhanced expression of oncogenes. Several recent studies have reported that some fusion genes can escape microRNA regulation via 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) deletion. We performed whole transcriptome sequencing to identify fusion genes in glioma and discovered FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in 4 of 48 glioblastoma samples from patients both of mixed European and of Asian descent, but not in any of 43 low-grade glioma samples tested. The fusion, caused by tandem duplication on 4p16.3, led to the loss of the 3'-UTR of FGFR3, blocking gene regulation of miR-99a and enhancing expression of the fusion gene. The fusion gene was mutually exclusive with EGFR, PDGFR, or MET amplification. Using cultured glioblastoma cells and a mouse xenograft model, we found that fusion protein expression promoted cell proliferation and tumor progression, while WT FGFR3 protein was not tumorigenic, even under forced overexpression. These results demonstrated that the FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion is expressed in human cancer and generates an oncogenic protein that promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastoma.

  2. Gene expression profiling and candidate gene resequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Rachel L; Harper, David P; Caudell, David; Slape, Christopher; Beachy, Sarah H; Aplan, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both preleukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 of 27 (30%) acquired an Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired an Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A protein disulfide isomerase gene fusion expression system that increases the extracellular productivity of Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Ohto, C; Muramatsu, M; Obata, S; Udaka, S; Yamada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system.

  4. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  5. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  6. Massive NGS Data Analysis Reveals Hundreds Of Potential Novel Gene Fusions in Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Gioiosa, Silvia; Bolis, Marco; Flati, Tiziano; Massini, Annalisa; Garattini, Enrico; Chillemi, Giovanni; Fratelli, Maddalena; Castrignanò, Tiziana

    2018-06-01

    Gene fusions derive from chromosomal rearrangements and the resulting chimeric transcripts are often endowed with oncogenic potential. Furthermore, they serve as diagnostic tools for the clinical classification of cancer subgroups with different prognosis and, in some cases, they can provide specific drug targets. So far, many efforts have been carried out to study gene fusion events occurring in tumor samples. In recent years, the availability of a comprehensive Next Generation Sequencing dataset for all the existing human tumor cell lines has provided the opportunity to further investigate these data in order to identify novel and still uncharacterized gene fusion events. In our work, we have extensively reanalyzed 935 paired-end RNA-seq experiments downloaded from "The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia" repository, aiming at addressing novel putative cell-line specific gene fusion events in human malignancies. The bioinformatics analysis has been performed by the execution of four different gene fusion detection algorithms. The results have been further prioritized by running a bayesian classifier which makes an in silico validation. The collection of fusion events supported by all of the predictive softwares results in a robust set of ∼ 1,700 in-silico predicted novel candidates suitable for downstream analyses. Given the huge amount of data and information produced, computational results have been systematized in a database named LiGeA. The database can be browsed through a dynamical and interactive web portal, further integrated with validated data from other well known repositories. Taking advantage of the intuitive query forms, the users can easily access, navigate, filter and select the putative gene fusions for further validations and studies. They can also find suitable experimental models for a given fusion of interest. We believe that the LiGeA resource can represent not only the first compendium of both known and putative novel gene fusion events in the

  7. A multicenter evaluation of comprehensive analysis of MLL translocations and fusion gene partners in acute leukemia using the MLL FusionChip device.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christine J; Griffiths, Mike; Moorman, Fìona; Schnittger, Susanne; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Shurtleff, Sheila; Gottardi, Enrico; Mitterbauer, Gerlinde; Colomer, Dolores; Delabesse, Eric; Castéras, Vincent; Maroc, Nicolas

    2007-02-01

    Rearrangements of the MLL gene are significant in acute leukemia. Among the most frequent translocations are t(4;11)(q21;q23) and t(9;11)(p22;q23), which give rise to the MLL-AFF1 and MLL-MLLT3 fusion genes (alias MLL-AF4 and MLL-AF9) in acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. Current evidence suggests that determining the MLL status of acute leukemia, including precise identification of the partner gene, is important in defining appropriate treatment. This underscores the need for accurate detection methods. A novel molecular diagnostic device, the MLL FusionChip, has been successfully used to identify MLL fusion gene translocations in acute leukemia, including the precise breakpoint location. This study evaluated the performance of the MLL FusionChip within a routine clinical environment, comprising nine centers worldwide, in the analysis of 21 control and 136 patient samples. It was shown that the assay allowed accurate detection of the MLL fusion gene, regardless of the breakpoint location, and confirmed that this multiplex approach was robust in a global multicenter trial. The MLL FusionChip was shown to be superior to other detection methods. The type of molecular information provided by MLL FusionChip gave an indication of the appropriate primers to design for disease monitoring of MLL patients following treatment.

  8. Development and Verification of an RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) Assay for the Detection of Gene Fusions in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Winters, Jennifer L; Davila, Jaime I; McDonald, Amber M; Nair, Asha A; Fadra, Numrah; Wehrs, Rebecca N; Thomas, Brittany C; Balcom, Jessica R; Jin, Long; Wu, Xianglin; Voss, Jesse S; Klee, Eric W; Oliver, Gavin R; Graham, Rondell P; Neff, Jadee L; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Aypar, Umut; Kipp, Benjamin R; Jenkins, Robert B; Jen, Jin; Halling, Kevin C

    2018-06-13

    We assessed the performance characteristics of an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) assay designed to detect gene fusions in 571 genes to help manage patients with cancer. Polyadenylated RNA was converted to cDNA, which was then used to prepare next-generation sequencing libraries that were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument and analyzed with an in-house developed bioinformatic pipeline. The assay identified 38 of 41 gene fusions detected by another method, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization or RT-PCR, for a sensitivity of 93%. No false-positive gene fusions were identified in 15 normal tissue specimens and 10 tumor specimens that were negative for fusions by RNA sequencing or Mate Pair NGS (100% specificity). The assay also identified 22 fusions in 17 tumor specimens that had not been detected by other methods. Eighteen of the 22 fusions had not previously been described. Good intra-assay and interassay reproducibility was observed with complete concordance for the presence or absence of gene fusions in replicates. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was tested by diluting RNA isolated from gene fusion-positive cases with fusion-negative RNA. Gene fusions were generally detectable down to 12.5% dilutions for most fusions and as little as 3% for some fusions. This assay can help identify fusions in patients with cancer; these patients may in turn benefit from both US Food and Drug Administration-approved and investigational targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RELATIVE EXPRESSION AND STABILITY OF A CHROMOSOMALLY INTEGRATED AND PLASMID-BORNE MARKER GENE FUSION IN ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPETENT BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A xyIE-iceC transcriptional fusion was created by ligating a DNA fragment harboring the cloned xyIE structural gene from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 into the cloned iceC gene of Pseudomonas syringae Cit7. This fusion construct was integrated into chromosome of Pseu...

  10. ChimerDB 3.0: an enhanced database for fusion genes from cancer transcriptome and literature data mining.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myunggyo; Lee, Kyubum; Yu, Namhee; Jang, Insu; Choi, Ikjung; Kim, Pora; Jang, Ye Eun; Kim, Byounggun; Kim, Sunkyu; Lee, Byungwook; Kang, Jaewoo; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2017-01-04

    Fusion gene is an important class of therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in cancer. ChimerDB is a comprehensive database of fusion genes encompassing analysis of deep sequencing data and manual curations. In this update, the database coverage was enhanced considerably by adding two new modules of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq analysis and PubMed abstract mining. ChimerDB 3.0 is composed of three modules of ChimerKB, ChimerPub and ChimerSeq. ChimerKB represents a knowledgebase including 1066 fusion genes with manual curation that were compiled from public resources of fusion genes with experimental evidences. ChimerPub includes 2767 fusion genes obtained from text mining of PubMed abstracts. ChimerSeq module is designed to archive the fusion candidates from deep sequencing data. Importantly, we have analyzed RNA-Seq data of the TCGA project covering 4569 patients in 23 cancer types using two reliable programs of FusionScan and TopHat-Fusion. The new user interface supports diverse search options and graphic representation of fusion gene structure. ChimerDB 3.0 is available at http://ercsb.ewha.ac.kr/fusiongene/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. The strategy of fusion genes construction determines efficient expression of introduced transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Adamus, Tomasz; Konieczny, Paweł; Sekuła, Małgorzata; Sułkowski, Maciej; Majka, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The main goal in gene therapy and biomedical research is an efficient transcription factors (TFs) delivery system. SNAIL, a zinc finger transcription factor, is strongly involved in tumor, what makes its signaling pathways an interesting research subject. The necessity of tracking activation of intracellular pathways has prompted fluorescent proteins usage as localization markers. Advanced molecular cloning techniques allow to generate fusion proteins from fluorescent markers and transcription factors. Depending on fusion strategy, the protein expression levels and nuclear transport ability are significantly different. The P2A self-cleavage motif through its cleavage ability allows two single proteins to be simultaneously expressed. The aim of this study was to compare two strategies for introducing a pair of genes using expression vector system. We have examined GFP and SNAI1 gene fusions by comprising common nucleotide polylinker (multiple cloning site) or P2A motif in between them, resulting in one fusion or two independent protein expressions respectively. In each case transgene expression levels and translation efficiency as well as nuclear localization of expressed protein have been analyzed. Our data showed that usage of P2A motif provides more effective nuclear transport of SNAIL transcription factor than conventional genes linker. At the same time the fluorescent marker spreads evenly in subcellular space.

  12. Molecular Evolution of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Gene, Canada, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Papenburg, Jesse; Carbonneau, Julie; Hamelin, Marie-Ève; Isabel, Sandra; Bouhy, Xavier; Ohoumanne, Najwa; Déry, Pierre; Paes, Bosco A.; Corbeil, Jacques; Bergeron, Michel G.; De Serres, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    To assess molecular evolution of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion gene, we analyzed RSV-positive specimens from 123 children in Canada who did or did not receive RSV immunoprophylaxis (palivizumab) during 2006–2010. Resistance-conferring mutations within the palivizumab binding site occurred in 8.7% of palivizumab recipients and none of the nonrecipients. PMID:22264682

  13. Investigation of PAX3/7-FKHR fusion genes and IGF2 gene expression in rhabdomyosarcoma tumors.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Robson Ramos; Oliveira, Indhira Dias; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Abib, Simone; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence of the PAX3/7-FKHR fusion genes and quantify the IGF2 gene expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) samples. Soft tissue sarcomas account 5% of childhood cancers and 50% of them are RMS. Morphological evaluation of pediatric RMS has defined two histological subtypes, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS). Chromosomal analyses have demonstrated two translocations associated with ARMS, resulting in the PAX3/7-FKHR rearrangements. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is extremely useful in the diagnosis of ARMS positive for these rearrangements. Additionally, several studies have shown a significant involvement of IGF pathway in the pathogenesis of RMS. The presence of PAX3/7-FKHR gene fusions was studied in 25 RMS samples from patients attending the IOP-GRAACC/UNIFESP and three RMS cell lines by RT-PCR. IGF2 gene expression was quantified by qPCR and related with clinic pathological parameters. Of the 25 samples, nine (36%) were ARMS and 16 (64%) were ERMS. PAX3/7-FKHR gene fusions expression was detected in 56% of ARMS tumor samples. IGF2 overexpression was observed in 80% of samples and could indicate an important role of this pathway in RMS biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fusion gene addiction: can tumours be forced to give up the habit?

    PubMed

    Selfe, Joanna L; Shipley, Janet

    2017-07-01

    Fusion of genes in tumours can have oncogenic roles in reprogramming cells through overexpression of oncogenes or the production of novel fusion proteins. A fundamental question in cancer biology is what genetic events are critical for initiation and whether these are also required for cancer progression. In recent work published in The Journal of Pathology, dependency on a fusion protein was addressed using a model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas - a sarcoma subtype with frequent fusion of PAX3 and FOXO1 genes that is associated with poor outcome. PAX3-FOXO1 encodes a potent transcription factor that together with MYCN alters the transcriptional landscape of cells. Building on previous work, an inducible model in human myoblast cells was used to show that PAX3-FOXO1 and MYCN can initiate rhabdomyosarcoma development but, contrary to current thinking, tumour recurrences occasionally arose independent of the fusion protein. Further work needs to identify the molecular nature of this independence and assess any relevance in human tumours. Such functional approaches are required together with computational modeling of molecular data to unravel spatial and temporal dependencies on specific genetic events. This may support molecular prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Phase I/II study of alectinib in lung cancer with RET fusion gene: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Murayama, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Kawakami, Takahiro; Takahara, Shizuko; Imai, Yasuhito; Kuribayashi, Yoshikazu; Nagase, Katsuhiko; Goto, Koichi; Nishio, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Satouchi, Miyako; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Seto, Takashi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The rearranged during transfection (RET) fusion gene was discovered as a driver oncogene in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Alectinib is an approved anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor that may also be effective for RET fusion-positive NSCLC. RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients treated with at least one regimen of chemotherapy are being recruited. In step 1, alectinib (600 or 450 mg, twice daily) will be administered following a 3+3 design. The primary endpoint is safety. In step 2, alectinib will be administered at the recommended dose (RD) defined by step 1. The primary endpoint is the response rate of RET inhibitor treatment-naïve patients. This is the first study to investigate the safety and preliminary efficacy of alectinib in RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients. If successful, alectinib treatment may lead to substantial and important changes in the management of NSCLC with RET fusion genes. J. Med. Invest. 64: 317-320, August, 2017.

  16. Multi-dimensional genomic analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma identifies prevalent oncogenic gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Martin G; Katabi, Nora; Persson, Marta; Lee, Ken-Wing; Makarov, Vladimir; Desrichard, Alexis; Walsh, Logan A; West, Lyndsay; Nadeem, Zaineb; Ramaswami, Deepa; Havel, Jonathan J; Kuo, Fengshen; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Nanjangud, Gouri J; Ganly, Ian; Riaz, Nadeem; Ho, Alan L; Antonescu, Cristina R; Ghossein, Ronald; Stenman, Göran; Chan, Timothy A; Morris, Luc G T

    2017-10-30

    Myoepithelial carcinoma (MECA) is an aggressive salivary gland cancer with largely unknown genetic features. Here we comprehensively analyze molecular alterations in 40 MECAs using integrated genomic analyses. We identify a low mutational load, and high prevalence (70%) of oncogenic gene fusions. Most fusions involve the PLAG1 oncogene, which is associated with PLAG1 overexpression. We find FGFR1-PLAG1 in seven (18%) cases, and the novel TGFBR3-PLAG1 fusion in six (15%) cases. TGFBR3-PLAG1 promotes a tumorigenic phenotype in vitro, and is absent in 723 other salivary gland tumors. Other novel PLAG1 fusions include ND4-PLAG1; a fusion between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. We also identify higher number of copy number alterations as a risk factor for recurrence, independent of tumor stage at diagnosis. Our findings indicate that MECA is a fusion-driven disease, nominate TGFBR3-PLAG1 as a hallmark of MECA, and provide a framework for future diagnostic and therapeutic research in this lethal cancer.

  17. Silencing of BCR/ABL Chimeric Gene in Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cell Line K562 by siRNA-Nuclear Export Signal Peptide Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kashihara, Shinichi; Minematsu, Go; Fujii, Hirofumi; Naemura, Madoka; Kotake, Yojiro; Morita, Yasutaka; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Fokina, Alesya A; Stetsenko, Dmitry A; Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Fujii, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    Herein we described the synthesis of siRNA-NES (nuclear export signal) peptide conjugates by solid phase fragment coupling and the application of them to silencing of bcr/abl chimeric gene in human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. Two types of siRNA-NES conjugates were prepared, and both sense strands at 5' ends were covalently linked to a NES peptide derived from TFIIIA and HIV-1 REV, respectively. Significant enhancement of silencing efficiency was observed for both of them. siRNA-TFIIIA NES conjugate suppressed the expression of BCR/ABL gene to 8.3% at 200 nM and 11.6% at 50 nM, and siRNA-HIV-1REV NES conjugate suppressed to 4.0% at 200 nM and 6.3% at 50 nM, whereas native siRNA suppressed to 36.3% at 200 nM and 30.2% at 50 nM. We could also show complex of siRNA-NES conjugate and designed amphiphilic peptide peptideβ7 could be taken up into cells with no cytotoxicity and showed excellent silencing efficiency. We believe that the complex siRNA-NES conjugate and peptideβ7 is a promising candidate for in vivo use and therapeutic applications.

  18. Effective enrichment strategy for EML4-ALK fusion gene screening in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Sakakibara, Tomohiro; Inoue, Akira; Fukuhara, Tatsuro; Sasano, Hironobu; Ichinose, Masakazu; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A novel fusion gene that comprises the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes was recently identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly in adenocarcinoma. A specific ALK inhibitor has been shown to exert anti-tumor effects in NSCLC with the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Previous reports suggested an EML4-ALK incidence of approximately 5% in a pan-NSCLC population, with an increased frequency in younger patients, but an appropriate strategy for further selecting patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene remains unknown. Patients, 55 years of age or younger, who were diagnosed with NSCLC without typical squamous cell carcinoma features at our institute were retrospectively evaluated. The tumor specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry for the EML4-ALK fusion gene and by polymerase chain reaction for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Between January 2004 and September 2011, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was detected in 19.6% (9/46) of patients. The fusion gene incidence increased to 31% (9/29) when patients with EGFR mutations were excluded. The EML4-ALK fusion gene was further detected in 2 cases of undifferentiated cell carcinoma. EML4-ALK fusion gene examinations could be more effectively performed by selecting young NSCLC patients without EGFR mutations, whereas selection on the basis of a non-smoking or adenocarcinoma history, as reported in previous studies, may not correctly identify the patient groups with potential EML4-ALK fusion gene. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fusion gene profile of biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma: an analysis of 44 cases.

    PubMed

    Fritchie, Karen J; Jin, Long; Wang, Xiaoke; Graham, Rondell P; Torbenson, Michael S; Lewis, Jean E; Rivera, Michael; Garcia, Joaquin J; Schembri-Wismayer, David J; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Chou, Margaret M; Dong, Jie; Oliveira, Andre M

    2016-12-01

    Biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma (SNS) is a locally aggressive tumour that occurs in the sinonasal region. PAX3-MAML3 has recently been identified as a recurrent fusion gene event in this entity; however, a subset of tumours harbour alternative PAX3 rearrangement without the involvement of MAML3. In this study we sought to characterize the molecular profile of a large series of cases, with a special emphasis on tumours with alternative fusions. Forty-four examples of SNS were screened by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to better characterize its molecular profile and identify potential novel fusion genes. Twenty-four were positive for PAX3-MAML3 (55%), 15 showed rearrangements of PAX3 without MAML3 involvement (34%), one showed rearrangement of MAML3 without PAX3 involvement, and four were negative for the involvement of either gene (9%). Among 15 cases with PAX3 involvement only, three were found to harbour PAX3-FOXO1. Two of these cases arose in the nasal cavities of female patients (aged 31 and 47 years), and one showed bilateral involvement of the nasal cavities of a 35-year-old male. A fourth case involved the skull base of a 47-year-old male, and was positive for PAX3-NCOA1. Patients with fusion-negative tumours were slightly older. More than half of the SNSs in this series were positive for PAX3-MAML3. However, a subset of tumours may harbour alternative PAX3 fusion genes or show no involvement of PAX3. Except for a possible weak association between age and molecular profile, the overall morphological and immunophenotypic features of all cases seem to be similar. Because of the rarity of these tumours, the impact of the molecular profile on the clinical course of these tumours remains to be determined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [ALK gene fusion associated non-small cell lung cancer: automated immunostainer detection and clinicopathologic perspectives].

    PubMed

    Shen, Qin; Pan, Yi; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shanshan; Liu, Biao; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanfen; Xia, Qiuyuan; Rao, Qiu; Lu, Zhenfeng; Shi, Qunli; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2015-03-01

    To explore the automated immunostainer screening anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusion non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and clinicopathological characteristics of the molecular subtype lung cancers. Methods Five hundred and sixty-six cases of NSCLC were collected over a 16 month period. The test for ALK was performed by Ventana automated immunostainer with anti-ALK D5F3. The histological features, treatment and outcome of patients were assessed. Results Thirty-eight cases (6.7%, 38/566) of NSCLC showed ALK gene fusion. The frequency of ALK gene fusion was higher in male (7.1%, 25/350) than that in female (6.0%, 13/216) patients, but not achieving statistical significance (chi2 = 0.270, P = 0.604). ALK + NSCLC was more significantly more frequent in patients < or = 60 years (9.9%, 28/282) than >60 years (3.5% , 10/284) of age. Histologically, the ALK + NSCLCs were mostly adenocarcinoma (81.6%, 31/38) , among which eighteen cases were solid predominant subtype with mucin production; nine cases were acinar predominant subtype; one case was papillary predominant subtype and three cases were invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. The ALK + non-adenocarcinoma included three cases of squamous cell carcinoma, three cases of adenosquamous carcinoma and one case of pleomorphic carcinoma. Among the ALK + NSCLC patients, the number of non/light cigarette smokers (86. 8% , 33/38) was more than that of heavy smokers. Twenty-nine cases were stages III and IV; twenty-nine cases showed lymph node metastasis; twenty cases showed metastases mostly to brain and bone; and one case showed EGFR gene mutation coexisting with ALK gene fusion. Twelve of fifteen patients received crizotinib therapy and remained stable. Conclusions NSCLC with ALK gene rearrangement shows distinctive clinical and histological features. Ventana-IHC may he a feasible and valid technique for detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC.

  1. Clinical Application of Prognostic Gene Expression Signature in Fusion Gene-Negative Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet; Anderson, James R; Triche, Timothy J; Delorenzi, Mauro; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Wing, Michele; Hawkins, Douglas S; Skapek, Stephen X

    2015-10-15

    Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has two common histologic subtypes: embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS). PAX-FOXO1 fusion gene status is a more reliable prognostic marker than alveolar histology, whereas fusion gene-negative (FN) ARMS patients are clinically similar to ERMS patients. A five-gene expression signature (MG5) previously identified two diverse risk groups within the fusion gene-negative RMS (FN-RMS) patients, but this has not been independently validated. The goal of this study was to test whether expression of the MG5 metagene, measured using a technical platform that can be applied to routine pathology material, would correlate with outcome in a new cohort of patients with FN-RMS. Cases were taken from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) D9803 study of children with intermediate-risk RMS, and gene expression profiling for the MG5 genes was performed using the nCounter assay. The MG5 score was correlated with clinical and pathologic characteristics as well as overall and event-free survival. MG5 standardized score showed no significant association with any of the available clinicopathologic variables. The MG5 signature score showed a significant correlation with overall (N = 57; HR, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.9-27.0; P = 0.003) and failure-free survival (N = 57; HR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.9-19.7; P = 0.002). This represents the first, validated molecular prognostic signature for children with FN-RMS who otherwise have intermediate-risk disease. The capacity to measure the expression of a small number of genes in routine pathology material and apply a simple mathematical formula to calculate the MG5 metagene score provides a clear path toward better risk stratification in future prospective clinical trials. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. The relationship of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion between primary and metastatic prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Li; Troncoso, Patricia; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have revealed the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in both primary and metastatic prostate cancers. However, the relationship between primary and corresponding metastatic prostate cancers with respect to the status of this gene fusion remains unclear. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we evaluated the rearrangement of the ERG gene in the radical prostatectomy specimens and corresponding lymph node metastases from 19 patients with prostate cancer. The mean age of the patients was 61 years, and the median Gleason score in the radical prostatectomy specimens was 7 (4 + 3). Prostate cancer was unifocal in 6 cases and multifocal in 13 cases, including 10 with 2 foci and 3 with 3 foci. In the primary prostate cancers, rearrangement of the ERG gene was observed in 13 cases and associated with deletion of the 5' ERG gene in 8 cases. In the metastases, the ERG rearrangement was present in 10 cases and associated with deletion of the 5' ERG gene in 6 cases. In unifocal prostate cancers, the status of the ERG rearrangement was concordant between the primary prostate cancer and metastasis in 5 of 6 cases. In multifocal prostate cancer, despite a significant interfocal discordance, the status of the ERG rearrangement was concordant between the index (largest) primary tumor focus and metastasis in all 13 cases. Our study demonstrates a close relationship of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion status between primary and metastatic prostate cancer. The concordance of the ERG gene rearrangement status between the index primary tumor focus and metastasis suggests that metastasis most likely arises from the index tumor focus in multifocal prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer.

    PubMed

    Frattini, Véronique; Pagnotta, Stefano M; Tala; Fan, Jerry J; Russo, Marco V; Lee, Sang Bae; Garofano, Luciano; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Peiguo; Lewis, Genevieve; Sanson, Heloise; Frederick, Vanessa; Castano, Angelica M; Cerulo, Luigi; Rolland, Delphine C M; Mall, Raghvendra; Mokhtari, Karima; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Sanson, Marc; Huang, Xi; Ceccarelli, Michele; Lasorella, Anna; Iavarone, Antonio

    2018-01-11

    Chromosomal translocations that generate in-frame oncogenic gene fusions are notable examples of the success of targeted cancer therapies. We have previously described gene fusions of FGFR3-TACC3 (F3-T3) in 3% of human glioblastoma cases. Subsequent studies have reported similar frequencies of F3-T3 in many other cancers, indicating that F3-T3 is a commonly occuring fusion across all tumour types. F3-T3 fusions are potent oncogenes that confer sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors, but the downstream oncogenic signalling pathways remain unknown. Here we show that human tumours with F3-T3 fusions cluster within transcriptional subgroups that are characterized by the activation of mitochondrial functions. F3-T3 activates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis and induces sensitivity to inhibitors of oxidative metabolism. Phosphorylation of the phosphopeptide PIN4 is an intermediate step in the signalling pathway of the activation of mitochondrial metabolism. The F3-T3-PIN4 axis triggers the biogenesis of peroxisomes and the synthesis of new proteins. The anabolic response converges on the PGC1α coactivator through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which enables mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth. These data illustrate the oncogenic circuit engaged by F3-T3 and show that F3-T3-positive tumours rely on mitochondrial respiration, highlighting this pathway as a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of tumours with F3-T3 fusions. We also provide insights into the genetic alterations that initiate the chain of metabolic responses that drive mitochondrial metabolism in cancer.

  4. SFM: A novel sequence-based fusion method for disease genes identification and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Abdulaziz; Moghadam Charkari, Nasrollah

    2015-10-21

    The identification of disease genes from human genome is of great importance to improve diagnosis and treatment of disease. Several machine learning methods have been introduced to identify disease genes. However, these methods mostly differ in the prior knowledge used to construct the feature vector for each instance (gene), the ways of selecting negative data (non-disease genes) where there is no investigational approach to find them and the classification methods used to make the final decision. In this work, a novel Sequence-based fusion method (SFM) is proposed to identify disease genes. In this regard, unlike existing methods, instead of using a noisy and incomplete prior-knowledge, the amino acid sequence of the proteins which is universal data has been carried out to present the genes (proteins) into four different feature vectors. To select more likely negative data from candidate genes, the intersection set of four negative sets which are generated using distance approach is considered. Then, Decision Tree (C4.5) has been applied as a fusion method to combine the results of four independent state-of the-art predictors based on support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, and to make the final decision. The experimental results of the proposed method have been evaluated by some standard measures. The results indicate the precision, recall and F-measure of 82.6%, 85.6% and 84, respectively. These results confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adenoviral-Mediated Imaging of Gene Transfer Using a Somatostatin Receptor-Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lears, Kimberly A.; Parry, Jesse J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Nguyen, Kim; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Rogers, Buck E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy due to the enzyme’s ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that the both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays, and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies, and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  6. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kazuo; Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggestmore » its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were

  7. Recurrent LRP1-SNRNP25 and KCNMB4-CCND3 fusion genes promote tumor cell motility in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jilong; Annala, Matti; Ji, Ping; Wang, Guowen; Zheng, Hong; Codgell, David; Du, Xiaoling; Fang, Zhiwei; Sun, Baocun; Nykter, Matti; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-10-10

    The identification of fusion genes such as SYT-SSX1/SSX2, PAX3-FOXO1, TPM3/TPM4-ALK and EWS-FLI1 in human sarcomas has provided important insight into the diagnosis and targeted therapy of sarcomas. No recurrent fusion has been reported in human osteosarcoma. Transcriptome sequencing was used to characterize the gene fusions and mutations in 11 human osteosarcomas. Nine of 11 samples were found to harbor genetic inactivating alterations in the TP53 pathway. Two recurrent fusion genes associated with the 12q locus, LRP1-SNRNP25 and KCNMB4-CCND3, were identified and validated by RT-PCR, Sanger sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization, and were found to be osteosarcoma specific in a validation cohort of 240 other sarcomas. Expression of LRP1-SNRNP25 fusion gene promoted SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Expression of KCNMB4-CCND3 fusion gene promoted SAOS-2 cell migration. Our study represents the first whole transcriptome analysis of untreated human osteosarcoma. Our discovery of two osteosarcoma specific fusion genes associated with osteosarcoma cellular motility highlights the heterogeneity of osteosarcoma and provides opportunities for new treatment modalities.

  8. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Trimpalis, Philip; Koumandou, Vassiliki Lila; Pliakou, Evangelia; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs), vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method) was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a) statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc.), (b) their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c) their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  9. [Mutations of EGFR gene and EML4-ALK fusion gene in superficial lymph node of non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wei, Lili; Li, Xingzhou; Yu, Zhonghe

    2015-07-14

    To explore the mutation status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) fusion gene and microtubule associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene in superficial lymph nodes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The technique of fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was employed for detecting the mutation rate of EGFR gene and EML4-ALK fusion gene for 40 cases of superficial lymph node tissue of NSCLC inpatients at General Military Hospital of Beijing PLA Command from February 2013 to November 2014. And then the correlations were analyzed between EMIA-ALK fusion gene and EGFR gene with clinical features and the clinical efficacies of targeted therapy. The mutation rate of EGFR gene was 35% (14/40) and 50% (10/20) in non-smokers and 46.7% (14/30) in adenocarcinoma patients. The mutation distribution was as follows: exon 18 (n = 1), exon 19 (n =8) and exon 21 (n =5). The mutation rate of EML4-ALK fusion gene was 2. 5% (1/40). EGFR gene mutation was predominantly present in non-smokers (P < 0. 05) and adenocarcinoma (P <0. 01) while no significant difference existed between gender, age or stage (P >0. 05). Those on a targeted therapy had a disease control rate of 93. 3%. Both EGFR gene and EMI4-ALK fusion gene may be detected in superficial lymph nodes of NSCLC patients. The mutation rate of EGFR gene is high in adenocarcinoma and non-smokers while EML4-ALK fusion gene has a low mutation rate.

  10. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and gene fusion pattern in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ja Hee; Park, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Cheol; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer is considered to be highly heterogeneous, with various morphologic features and biologic behaviors. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequently observed genetic aberration in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion status. ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in samples from 168 prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, and 40 cases showing ERG-positive IHC staining were selected for tissue microarray (TMA) construction. Two to six representative cores were selected from each tumor focus. In the cases with heterogeneous ERG IHC staining intensity, the areas showing different intensities were separately selected. Using the TMA blocks, IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were conducted to evaluate the heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and ERG fusion gene patterns, respectively, in a single tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was defined as the simultaneous presence of negative and positive cores in the same tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG FISH was defined by the presence of cores with positive and negative FISH signals or cores with break-apart and interstitial deletion FISH signals in the same tumor focus. A total of 202 TMA cores were isolated from 40 ERG-positive cases. Of the 202 total cores, 19 were negative for ERG IHC staining, and 46 showed 1+, 52 showed 2+, and 85 showed 3+ ERG staining intensity. Eleven cores were negative for ERG FISH signal, 119 cores showed ERG break-apart FISH signals, and the remaining 72 cores revealed interstitial deletion. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was found in 20% (8/40) of cases, and intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion pattern was found in 32.5% (13/40) of cases. In summary, this study showed significantly frequent intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression, gene fusion status and fusion pattern. This heterogeneity can be caused by the development

  11. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPM1 gene encoding dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase is able to complement a glycosylation-defective mammalian cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, P J; Orlean, P; Albright, C; Robbins, P W; Gething, M J; Sambrook, J F

    1990-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPM1 gene product, dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase, is involved in the coupled processes of synthesis and membrane translocation of Dol-P-Man. Dol-P-Man is the lipid-linked sugar donor of the last four mannose residues that are added to the core oligosaccharide transferred to protein during N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. We present evidence that the S. cerevisiae gene DPM1, when stably transfected into a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, B4-2-1, is able to correct the glycosylation defect of the cells. Evidence for complementation includes (i) fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of differential lectin binding to cell surface glycoproteins, (ii) restoration of Dol-P-Man synthase enzymatic activity in crude cell lysates, (iii) isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the lipid-linked oligosaccharides synthesized in the transfected and control cell lines, and (iv) the restoration of endoglycosidase H sensitivity to the oligosaccharides transferred to a specific glycoprotein synthesized in the DPM1 CHO transfectants. Indirect immunofluorescence with a primary antibody directed against the DPM1 protein shows a reticular staining pattern of protein localization in transfected hamster and monkey cell lines. Images PMID:2201896

  12. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma with TFE3 gene fusion: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiang; Quan, Jing; Zhao, Liwen; Li, Wenhua; Wei, Benlin; Yang, Shangqi; Lai, Yongqing

    2018-01-01

    Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene fusion is a rare tumor, and the prognosis of this tumor is poorer compared with that of other subtypes of RCC. The patient presented herein was a 70-year-old man who presented with a solid mass sized ~8.2×6.1 cm in the right kidney and underwent radical right nephrectomy. Following pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the patient was diagnosed with Xp11.2 translocation RCC with TFE3 gene fusion. These tumors are more commonly encountered in children rather than in adults, and adult Xp11.2 translocation RCC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with its pediatric counterpart. IHC assay and FISH are important diagnostic methods. However, there is currently no established effective treatment for Xp11.2 RCC. PMID:29399348

  13. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma with TFE3 gene fusion: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Quan, Jing; Zhao, Liwen; Li, Wenhua; Wei, Benlin; Yang, Shangqi; Lai, Yongqing

    2018-01-01

    Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene fusion is a rare tumor, and the prognosis of this tumor is poorer compared with that of other subtypes of RCC. The patient presented herein was a 70-year-old man who presented with a solid mass sized ~8.2×6.1 cm in the right kidney and underwent radical right nephrectomy. Following pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the patient was diagnosed with Xp11.2 translocation RCC with TFE3 gene fusion. These tumors are more commonly encountered in children rather than in adults, and adult Xp11.2 translocation RCC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with its pediatric counterpart. IHC assay and FISH are important diagnostic methods. However, there is currently no established effective treatment for Xp11.2 RCC.

  14. A new human lung adenocarcinoma cell line harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Hideko; Yasugi, Masayuki; Takigawa, Nagio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ichihara, Eiki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Toyooka, Shinichi; Hashida, Shinsuke; Sendo, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was identified in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. To the best of our knowledge, there are only three cell lines harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene, which have contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we tried to establish a new lung cancer cell line harboring EML4-ALK. A 61-year-old Japanese female presented with chest discomfort. She was diagnosed with left lung adenocarcinoma with T4N3M1 Stage IV. Although she was treated with chemotherapy, her disease progressed with massive pleural effusion. Because the EML4-ALK rearrangement was found in a biopsied specimen using fluorescence in situ hybridization, she was treated with crizotinib. She did well for 3 months. Tumor cells were obtained from the malignant pleural effusion before treatment with crizotinib. Cells continued to proliferate substantially for several weeks. The cell line was designated ABC-11. The EML4-ALK fusion protein and genes were identified in ABC-11 cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. ABC-11 cells were sensitive to crizotinib and next-generation ALK inhibitors (ceritinib and AP26113), as determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Phosphorylated ALK protein and its downstream signaling were suppressed by treatment with crizotinib in western blotting. Furthermore, we could transplant ABC-11 cells subcutaneously into BALB/c nu/nu mice. We successfully established a new lung adenocarcinoma cell line harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. This cell line could contribute to future research of EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer both in vivo and in vitro. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Colorimetric TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Detection in Prostate Cancer Urinary Samples via Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin M; Wee, Eugene J H; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    TMPRSS2 (Exon 1)-ERG (Exon 4) is the most frequent gene fusion event in prostate cancer (PC), and is highly PC-specific unlike the current serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) biomarker. However, TMPRSS2-ERG levels are currently measured with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) which is time-consuming and requires costly equipment, thus limiting its use in clinical diagnostics. Herein, we report a novel rapid, cost-efficient and minimal-equipment assay named "FusBLU" for detecting TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions from urine. TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA was amplified by isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA), magnetically-isolated, and detected through horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed colorimetric reaction. FusBLU was specific for TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA with a low visual detection limit of 10(5) copies. We also demonstrated assay readout versatility on 3 potentially useful platforms. The colorimetric readout was detectable by naked eye for a quick yes/no evaluation of gene fusion presence. On the other hand, a more quantitative TMPRSS2-ERG detection was achievable by absorbance/electrochemical measurements. FusBLU was successfully applied to 12 urinary samples and results were validated by gold-standard RT-qPCR. We also showed that sediment RNA was likely the main source of TMPRSS2-ERG mRNA in urinary samples. We believe that our assay is a potential clinical screening tool for PC and could also have wide applications for other disease-related fusion genes.

  16. Kinase impact assessment in the landscape of fusion genes that retain kinase domains: a pan-cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pora; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Assessing the impact of kinase in gene fusion is essential for both identifying driver fusion genes (FGs) and developing molecular targeted therapies. Kinase domain retention is a crucial factor in kinase fusion genes (KFGs), but such a systematic investigation has not been done yet. To this end, we analyzed kinase domain retention (KDR) status in chimeric protein sequences of 914 KFGs covering 312 kinases across 13 major cancer types. Based on 171 kinase domain-retained KFGs including 101 kinases, we studied their recurrence, kinase groups, fusion partners, exon-based expression depth, short DNA motifs around the break points and networks. Our results, such as more KDR than 5′-kinase fusion genes, combinatorial effects between 3′-KDR kinases and their 5′-partners and a signal transduction-specific DNA sequence motif in the break point intronic sequences, supported positive selection on 3′-kinase fusion genes in cancer. We introduced a degree-of-frequency (DoF) score to measure the possible number of KFGs of a kinase. Interestingly, kinases with high DoF scores tended to undergo strong gene expression alteration at the break points. Furthermore, our KDR gene fusion network analysis revealed six of the seven kinases with the highest DoF scores (ALK, BRAF, MET, NTRK1, NTRK3 and RET) were all observed in thyroid carcinoma. Finally, we summarized common features of ‘effective’ (highly recurrent) kinases in gene fusions such as expression alteration at break point, redundant usage in multiple cancer types and 3′-location tendency. Collectively, our findings are useful for prioritizing driver kinases and FGs and provided insights into KFGs’ clinical implications. PMID:28013235

  17. Deep RNA sequencing analysis of readthrough gene fusions in human prostate adenocarcinoma and reference samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Readthrough fusions across adjacent genes in the genome, or transcription-induced chimeras (TICs), have been estimated using expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries to involve 4-6% of all genes. Deep transcriptional sequencing (RNA-Seq) now makes it possible to study the occurrence and expression levels of TICs in individual samples across the genome. Methods We performed single-end RNA-Seq on three human prostate adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding normal tissues, as well as brain and universal reference samples. We developed two bioinformatics methods to specifically identify TIC events: a targeted alignment method using artificial exon-exon junctions within 200,000 bp from adjacent genes, and genomic alignment allowing splicing within individual reads. We performed further experimental verification and characterization of selected TIC and fusion events using quantitative RT-PCR and comparative genomic hybridization microarrays. Results Targeted alignment against artificial exon-exon junctions yielded 339 distinct TIC events, including 32 gene pairs with multiple isoforms. The false discovery rate was estimated to be 1.5%. Spliced alignment to the genome was less sensitive, finding only 18% of those found by targeted alignment in 33-nt reads and 59% of those in 50-nt reads. However, spliced alignment revealed 30 cases of TICs with intervening exons, in addition to distant inversions, scrambled genes, and translocations. Our findings increase the catalog of observed TIC gene pairs by 66%. We verified 6 of 6 predicted TICs in all prostate samples, and 2 of 5 predicted novel distant gene fusions, both private events among 54 prostate tumor samples tested. Expression of TICs correlates with that of the upstream gene, which can explain the prostate-specific pattern of some TIC events and the restriction of the SLC45A3-ELK4 e4-e2 TIC to ERG-negative prostate samples, as confirmed in 20 matched prostate tumor and normal samples and 9 lung cancer

  18. [Analysis of EML4-ALK gene fusion mutation in patients 
with non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuzhou; Chen, Weisheng; Yu, Yinghao

    2015-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main type of lung cancer, and the related locus mutation detection research has become a hot direction of molecular targeted therapy, studying on gene mutation status of echinodem microtubule associated protein like 4-Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), detecting the sensitivity of EML4-ALK gene fusion and gene mutation of EGFR. EML4-ALK gene fusion in 85 cases of paraffin embedded tumor tissue and adjacent lung tissue was detected with the application of immunohistochemistry (IHC), Scorpions amplification refractory mutation system (Scorpions ARMS) fluorescence quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology, and EGFR gene in 18, 19, 20 and 21 exon mutation status was detected with the application of ARMS method. In 115 cases of NSCLC, IHC showed 32 cases with ALK (D5F3) expression, the expression rate was 27.8%; ARMS showed 27 cases with EML4-ALK fusion gene mutation, the mutation detection rate was 23.5%; 53 cases were detected with EGFR mutation, the mutation rate was 46%. While FISH showed 23 cases with EML4-ALK fusion gene mutation, the detection rate was 20%, slightly lower than the ARMS detection results, suggesting that ARMS more sensitive. The application of IHC, ARMS fluorescence quantitative PCR and FISH technology can make a rapid and accurate evaluation of EML4-ALK gene fusion.

  19. [Construction and expression of HSV-2gD-Hsp70 fusion protein gene].

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Yong; Yang, Hui-Lan; Wang, Ying; Guan, Lei

    2006-11-01

    To construct and express Hsp70-HSV2gD fusion protein. Genes of Hsp70 and HSV-2gD were subcloned into vectors pGEX-4T-1 respectively. After confirmed by DNA sequence analysis, the recombinant plasmids pGEX-4T-HSP-gD was transformed into E. coli DH5alpha and induced to express with IPTG. The expressed protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot after purified. BALB/c mice were immunized with fusion proteins respectively via intra-m uscular injection. The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes, the level of y-IFN in culture and anti-HSV-2gD IgG antibody in serum was detected was detected. The expressed protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE after induced with IPTG, which showed a new band with an apparent molecular mass corresponding to the predicted size (118 kD). Western Blotting analysis demonstrates that the purified Hsp70-HSV2gD fusion protein had specific binding activity. The stimulation indexes of spleen lymphocytes, the level of gamma-IFN in culture and anti-HSV-2gD IgG antibody in serum of GST-Hsp70-gD group was obviously higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05 respectively). The successful expression of the Hsp70-HSV2gD fusion protein, which can induce immune responses, laid a solid foundation for its further research.

  20. [Detection of ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer patients and its clinicopathologic correlation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Haiping; Bai, Dongyu; Gao, Dehong; Zheng, Jie; Ding, Yi

    2015-09-01

    To study the prevalence of ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from samples of 302 patients with NSCLC were screened for ALK, ROS1, RET fusions by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All of the cases were validated by Sanger DNA sequencing. The relationship between ALK, ROS1, RET fusion genes and clinicopathologic features were analyzed. In the cohort of 302 NSCLC samples, 3.97% (12/302) were found to contain ALK fusion genes, including 3 cases with E13; A20 gene fusion, 3 cases with E6; A20 gene fusion and 3 cases with E20; A20 gene fusion. There was no statistically significant difference in patient's gender, age, smoking history and histologic type. Moreover, in the 302 NSCLC samples studied, 3.97% (12/302) were found to contain ROS1 fusion genes, with CD74-ROS1 fusion identified in 9 cases. There was no statistically significant difference in patients' gender, age, smoking history and histologic type. One non-smoking elderly female patient with pulmonary adenocarcinoma had RET gene fusion. None of the cases studied had concurrent ALK, ROS1 and RET mutations. The ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion gene mutation rates in NSCLC are low, they represent some specific molecular subtypes of NSCLC. Genetic testing has significant meaning to guide clinical targeted therapy.

  1. Clinicopathological features of younger (aged ≤ 50 years) lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Kometani, Takuro; Sugio, Kenji; Osoegawa, Atsushi; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2018-05-01

    The EML4-ALK fusion gene has recently been identified as a driver mutation in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers. In subsequent studies, EML4-ALK has been detected in a low percentage of patients, and was associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations, younger age, and adenocarcinoma with acinar histology. Cases with the EML4-ALK fusion gene were examined to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of young adenocarcinoma patients. Between December 1998 and May 2009, 85 patients aged ≤ 50 with lung adenocarcinoma were treated at our hospital. We examined 49 samples from adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy for the EML4-ALK gene. None of the patients received ALK inhibitors because these drugs had not been approved in Japan before 2012. EML4-ALK fusion genes were screened using multiplex reverse-transcription PCR assay, and were confirmed by direct sequencing. The EML4-ALK fusion gene was detected in five tumors (10.2%). One patient had stage IB disease, one had stage IIIA, and three had stage IV. Histologically, there was one solid adenocarcinoma, two acinar adenocarcinomas, and two papillary adenocarcinomas. EML4-ALK fusion genes were mutually exclusive to EGFR and KRAS mutations. The five-year survival rate was 59.4% in patients without EML4-ALK fusion and was not reached in patients with EML4-ALK fusion. The EML4-ALK fusion gene may be a strong oncogene in younger patients with lung adenocarcinoma. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Clinicopathological features of younger (aged ≤ 50 years) lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring the EML4‐ALK fusion gene

    PubMed Central

    Sugio, Kenji; Osoegawa, Atsushi; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2018-01-01

    Background The EML4‐ALK fusion gene has recently been identified as a driver mutation in a subset of non‐small cell lung cancers. In subsequent studies, EML4‐ALK has been detected in a low percentage of patients, and was associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations, younger age, and adenocarcinoma with acinar histology. Cases with the EML4‐ALK fusion gene were examined to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of young adenocarcinoma patients. Methods Between December 1998 and May 2009, 85 patients aged ≤ 50 with lung adenocarcinoma were treated at our hospital. We examined 49 samples from adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy for the EML4‐ALK gene. None of the patients received ALK inhibitors because these drugs had not been approved in Japan before 2012. EML4‐ALK fusion genes were screened using multiplex reverse‐transcription PCR assay, and were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The EML4‐ALK fusion gene was detected in five tumors (10.2%). One patient had stage IB disease, one had stage IIIA, and three had stage IV. Histologically, there was one solid adenocarcinoma, two acinar adenocarcinomas, and two papillary adenocarcinomas. EML4‐ALK fusion genes were mutually exclusive to EGFR and KRAS mutations. The five‐year survival rate was 59.4% in patients without EML4‐ALK fusion and was not reached in patients with EML4‐ALK fusion. Conclusion The EML4‐ALK fusion gene may be a strong oncogene in younger patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:29517858

  3. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from infants with MLL-AF4+ acute leukemia harbor and express the MLL-AF4 fusion gene

    PubMed Central

    Catalina, Purificación; Rodríguez, René; Melen, Gustavo J.; Bueno, Clara; Arriero, Mar; García-Sánchez, Félix; Lassaletta, Alvaro; García-Sanz, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    MLL-AF4 fusion is a hallmark genetic abnormality in infant B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) known to arise in utero. The cellular origin of leukemic fusion genes during human development is difficult to ascertain. The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several hematological malignances. BM mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) from 38 children diagnosed with cytogenetically different acute leukemias were screened for leukemic fusion genes. Fusion genes were absent in BM-MSCs of childhood leukemias carrying TEL-AML1, BCR-ABL, AML1-ETO, MLL-AF9, MLL-AF10, MLL-ENL or hyperdiploidy. However, MLL-AF4 was detected and expressed in BM-MSCs from all cases of MLL-AF4+ B-ALL. Unlike leukemic blasts, MLL-AF4+ BM-MSCs did not display monoclonal Ig gene rearrangements. Endogenous or ectopic expression of MLL-AF4 exerted no effect on MSC culture homeostasis. These findings suggest that MSCs may be in part tumor-related, highlighting an unrecognized role of the BM milieu on the pathogenesis of MLL-AF4+ B-ALL. MLL-AF4 itself is not sufficient for MSC transformation and the expression of MLL-AF4 in MSCs is compatible with a mesenchymal phenotype, suggesting a differential impact in the hematopoietic system and mesenchyme. The absence of monoclonal rearrangements in MLL-AF4+ BM-MSCs precludes the possibility of cellular plasticity or de-differentiation of B-ALL blasts and suggests that MLL-AF4 might arise in a population of prehematopoietic precursors. PMID:19995953

  4. Amplification of the Gp41 gene for detection of mutations conferring resistance to HIV-1 fusion inhibitors on genotypic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanumihardja, J.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    Fusion inhibitors have potential for future use in HIV control programs in Indonesia, so the capacity to test resistance to such drugs needs to be developed. Resistance-detection with a genotypic assay began with amplification of the target gene, gp41. Based on the sequence of the two most common HIV subtypes in Indonesia, AE and B, a primer pair was designed. Plasma samples containing both subtypes were extracted to obtain HIV RNA. Using PCR, the primer pair was used to produce the amplification product, the identity of which was checked based on length under electrophoresis. Eleven plasma samples were included in this study. One-step PCR using the primer pair was able to amplify gp41 from 54.5% of the samples, and an unspecific amplification product was seen in 1.1% of the samples. Amplification failed in 36.4% of the samples, which may be due to an inappropriate primer sequence. It was also found that the optimal annealing temperature for producing the single expected band was 57.2 °C. With one-step PCR, the designed primer pair amplified the HIV-1 gp41 gene from subtypes AE and B. However, further research should be done to determine the conditions that will increase the sensitivity and specificity of the amplification process.

  5. Protection against California 2002 NDV strain afforded by adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing Fusion or Hemagglutination-neuraminidase genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vectored vaccines expressing the combination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes generally have better clinical protection against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) than when either the F and HN genes are expressed alone. Interestingly, the protection induced by F is usually bet...

  6. Dramatic response to alectinib in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Masafumi; Ohyanagi, Fumiyoshi; Ariyasu, Ryo; Koyama, Junji; Sonoda, Tomoaki; Nishikawa, Shingo; Kitazono, Satoru; Yanagitani, Noriko; Horiike, Atsushi; Ninomiya, Hironori; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishio, Makoto

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasm characterized by the proliferaton of myofibroblasts with the infiltration of inflammatory cells. There is no standard treatment for patients with recurrent or metastatic IMT. We describe here a patient with hyper-progressive IMT with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene that dramatically responded to alectinib without adverse events. His dramatic and enduring response supports the observation that alectinib may be considered a good treatment option for rare aggressive ALK-positive tumors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nodular fasciitis: a novel model of transient neoplasia induced by MYH9-USP6 gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Erickson-Johnson, Michele R; Chou, Margaret M; Evers, Barbara R; Roth, Christopher W; Seys, Amber R; Jin, Long; Ye, Ying; Lau, Alan W; Wang, Xiaoke; Oliveira, Andre M

    2011-10-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a relatively common mass-forming and self-limited subcutaneous pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation of unknown pathogenesis. Due to its rapid growth and high mitotic activity, NF is often misdiagnosed as a sarcoma. While studying the USP6 biology in aneurysmal bone cyst and other mesenchymal tumors, we identified high expression levels of USP6 mRNA in two examples of NF. This finding led us to further examine the mechanisms underlying USP6 overexpression in these lesions. Upon subsequent investigation, genomic rearrangements of the USP6 locus were found in 92% (44 of 48) of NF. Rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends identified MYH9 as the translocation partner. RT-PCR and direct sequencing revealed the fusion of the MYH9 promoter region to the entire coding region of USP6. Control tumors and tissues were negative for this fusion. Xenografts of cells overexpressing USP6 in nude mice exhibited clinical and histological features similar to human NF. The identification of a sensitive and specific abnormality in NF holds the potential to be used diagnostically. Considering the self-limited nature of the lesion, NF may represent a model of 'transient neoplasia', as it is, to our knowledge, the first example of a self-limited human disease characterized by a recurrent somatic gene fusion event. © 2011 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved

  8. Fetal origins of the TEL-AML1 fusion gene in identical twins with leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Anthony M.; Bennett, Caroline A.; Price, Cathy M.; Bruin, M. C. A.; Van Wering, Elisabeth R.; Greaves, Mel

    1998-01-01

    The TEL (ETV6)−AML1 (CBFA2) gene fusion is the most common reciprocal chromosomal rearrangement in childhood cancer occurring in ≈25% of the most predominant subtype of leukemia— common acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The TEL-AML1 genomic sequence has been characterized in a pair of monozygotic twins diagnosed at ages 3 years, 6 months and 4 years, 10 months with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The twin leukemic DNA shared the same unique (or clonotypic) but nonconstitutive TEL-AML1 fusion sequence. The most plausible explanation for this finding is a single cell origin of the TEL-AML fusion in one fetus in utero, probably as a leukemia-initiating mutation, followed by intraplacental metastasis of clonal progeny to the other twin. Clonal identity is further supported by the finding that the leukemic cells in the two twins shared an identical rearranged IGH allele. These data have implications for the etiology and natural history of childhood leukemia. PMID:9539781

  9. Decoding of exon splicing patterns in the human RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Grinev, Vasily V; Migas, Alexandr A; Kirsanava, Aksana D; Mishkova, Olga A; Siomava, Natalia; Ramanouskaya, Tatiana V; Vaitsiankova, Alina V; Ilyushonak, Ilia M; Nazarov, Petr V; Vallar, Laurent; Aleinikova, Olga V

    2015-11-01

    The t(8;21) translocation is the most widespread genetic defect found in human acute myeloid leukemia. This translocation results in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene that produces a wide variety of alternative transcripts and influences the course of the disease. The rules of combinatorics and splicing of exons in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts are not known. To address this issue, we developed an exon graph model of the fusion gene organization and evaluated its local exon combinatorics by the exon combinatorial index (ECI). Here we show that the local exon combinatorics of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene follows a power-law behavior and (i) the vast majority of exons has a low ECI, (ii) only a small part is represented by "exons-hubs" of splicing with very high ECI values, and (iii) it is scale-free and very sensitive to targeted skipping of "exons-hubs". Stochasticity of the splicing machinery and preferred usage of exons in alternative splicing can explain such behavior of the system. Stochasticity may explain up to 12% of the ECI variance and results in a number of non-coding and unproductive transcripts that can be considered as a noise. Half-life of these transcripts is increased due to the deregulation of some key genes of the nonsense-mediated decay system in leukemia cells. On the other hand, preferred usage of exons may explain up to 75% of the ECI variability. Our analysis revealed a set of splicing-related cis-regulatory motifs that can explain "attractiveness" of exons in alternative splicing but only when they are considered together. Cis-regulatory motifs are guides for splicing trans-factors and we observed a leukemia-specific profile of expression of the splicing genes in t(8;21)-positive blasts. Altogether, our results show that alternative splicing of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts follows strict rules and that the power-law component of the fusion gene organization confers a high flexibility to this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Detection of 22 common leukemic fusion genes using a single-step multiplex qRT-PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, Lina; Chen, Zhenzhu; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Jieying; Fan, Ruihua; Song, Yongping

    2017-07-25

    Fusion genes generated from chromosomal translocation play an important role in hematological malignancies. Detection of fusion genes currently employ use of either conventional RT-PCR methods or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), where both methods involve tedious methodologies and require prior characterization of chromosomal translocation events as determined by cytogenetic analysis. In this study, we describe a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)-based multi-fusion gene screening method with the capacity to detect 22 fusion genes commonly found in leukemia. This method does not require pre-characterization of gene translocation events, thereby facilitating immediate diagnosis and therapeutic management. We performed fluorescent qRT-PCR (F-qRT-PCR) using a commercially-available multi-fusion gene detection kit on a patient cohort of 345 individuals comprising 108 cases diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for initial evaluation; remaining patients within the cohort were assayed for confirmatory diagnosis. Results obtained by F-qRT-PCR were compared alongside patient analysis by cytogenetic characterization. Gene translocations detected by F-qRT-PCR in AML cases were diagnosed in 69.4% of the patient cohort, which was comparatively similar to 68.5% as diagnosed by cytogenetic analysis, thereby demonstrating 99.1% concordance. Overall gene fusion was detected in 53.7% of the overall patient population by F-qRT-PCR, 52.9% by cytogenetic prediction in leukemia, and 9.1% in non-leukemia patients by both methods. The overall concordance rate was calculated to be 99.0%. Fusion genes were detected by F-qRT-PCR in 97.3% of patients with CML, followed by 69.4% with AML, 33.3% with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 9.1% with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and 0% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We describe the use of a F-qRT-PCR-based multi-fusion gene screening method as an efficient one-step diagnostic procedure as an

  11. Production of geranylgeraniol on overexpression of a prenyl diphosphate synthase fusion gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2010-07-01

    An acyclic diterpene alcohol, (E,E,E)-geranylgeraniol (GGOH), is one of the important compounds used as perfume and pharmacological agents. A deficiency of squalene (SQ) synthase activity allows yeasts to accumulate an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, (E,E)-farnesol, in their cells. Since sterols are essential for the growth of yeasts, a deficiency of SQ synthase activity makes the addition of supplemental sterols to the culture media necessary. To develop a GGOH production method not requiring any supplemental sterols, we overexpressed HMG1 encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and the genes of two prenyl diphosphate synthases, ERG20 and BTS1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A prototrophic diploid coexpressing HMG1 and the ERG20-BTS1 fusion accumulated GGOH with neither disruption of the SQ synthase gene nor the addition of any supplemental sterols. The GGOH content on the diploid cultivation in a 5-l jar fermenter reached 138.8 mg/l under optimal conditions.

  12. NUTM1 Gene Fusions Characterize a Subset of Undifferentiated Soft Tissue and Visceral Tumors.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brendan C; Sung, Yun-Shao; Rosenblum, Marc K; Reuter, Victor E; Harb, Mohammed; Wunder, Jay S; Swanson, David; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2018-05-01

    NUT midline carcinoma is an aggressive tumor that occurs mainly in the head and neck and, less frequently, the mediastinum and lung. Following identification of an index case of a NUTM1 fusion positive undifferentiated soft tissue tumor, we interrogated additional cases of primary undifferentiated soft tissue and visceral tumors for NUTM1 abnormalities. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and results validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes. Six patients were identified: mean age of 42 years (range, 3 to 71 y); equal sex distribution; and, tumors involved the extremity soft tissues (N=2), kidney (N=2), stomach, and brain. On systemic work-up at presentation all patients lacked a distant primary tumor. Morphologically, the tumors were heterogenous, with undifferentiated round-epithelioid-rhabdoid cells arranged in solid sheets, nests, and cords. Mitotic activity was generally brisk. Four cases expressed pancytokeratin, but in only 2 cases was this diffuse. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated the following fusions: BRD4-NUTM1 (3 cases), BRD3-NUTM1, MXD1-NUTM1, and BCORL1-NUTM1. Independent testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of NUTM1 and partner gene rearrangement. This study establishes that NUT-associated tumors transgress the midline and account for a subset of primitive neoplasms occurring in soft tissue and viscera. Tumors harboring NUTM1 gene fusions are presumably underrecognized, and the extent to which they account for undifferentiated mesenchymal, neuroendocrine, and/or epithelial neoplasms is unclear. Moreover, the relationship, if any, between NUT-associated tumors in soft tissue and/or viscera, and conventional NUT carcinoma, remains to be elucidated.

  13. Identification of a novel fusion gene, IRF2BP2-RARA, in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, C Cameron; Jain, Nitin; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Zhagn, Jianhua; Protopopov, Alexei; Zuo, Zhuang; Pemmaraju, Naveen; DiNardo, Courtney; Hirsch-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Wang, Sa A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Chin, Lynda; Patel, Keyur P; Ravandi, Farhad; Futreal, Andrew; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the fusion of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) or, rarely, other gene partners. This report presents a patient with APL with a novel fusion between RARA and the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) genes. A bone marrow examination in a 19-year-old woman who presented with ecchymoses and epistaxis showed morphologic and immunophenotypic features consistent with APL. PML oncogenic domain antibody was positive. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization, conventional cytogenetics, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and oligonucleotide microarray for PML-RARA and common APL variant translocations were negative. Next-generation RNA-sequencing analysis followed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing revealed distinct breakpoints within IRF2BP2 exon 2 and RARA intron 2. The patient received all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin, and achieved complete remission. However, the disease relapsed 10 months later, 2 months after consolidation therapy. This is the first report showing involvement of IRF2BP2 in APL, and it expands the list of novel RARA partners identified in APL. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  14. Melanotic Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma With a Novel ARID1B-TFE3 Gene Fusion.

    PubMed

    Antic, Tatjana; Taxy, Jerome B; Alikhan, Mir; Segal, Jeremy

    2017-11-01

    A 36-year-old male was found to have a 7.0 cm left upper pole renal mass on renal ultrasound. Following nephrectomy, the mass was grossly ill-demarcated, friable and red-brown, invading renal parenchyma, hilar fat and the renal vein. Microscopically, the tumor had a nested and papillary architecture. The cells demonstrated abundant clear and eosinophilic cytoplasm and focal intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. Nucleoli were prominent. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for TFE3; HMB-45 stained approximately 5% of tumor cells corresponding to the histologic melanin pigment, which was confirmed with Fontana-Masson stain with bleach. Immunostains for PAX8, CD10, MiTF, and CAIX were negative; keratins Cam 5.2 and AE1/AE3 were focally positive. Targeted next-generation sequencing revealed an ARID1B-TFE3 gene fusion. Melanotic Xp11 renal cell carcinoma is a rare, pigment containing translocation variant demonstrating overlapping features with melanoma and is usually associated with an SFPQ-TFE3 gene fusion. The patient is alive and without evidence of disease 7 years after his diagnosis. The combination of high grade histopathology, the presence of melanin, absent PAX8, keratin positivity, and relatively indolent clinical behavior with a unique translocation may warrant recognition as a distinct renal cell carcinoma translocation subtype.

  15. TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusions in Prostate Cancer of West African Men and a Meta-Analysis of Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Young, Denise; Yeboah, Edward D; Coburn, Sally B; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Niwa, Shelley; Truelove, Ann; Welsh, Judith; Mensah, James E; Hoover, Robert N; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Hsing, Ann W; Srivastava, Shiv; Cook, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of fusions of the transmembrane protease, serine 2, gene (TMPRSS2) with the erythroblast transformation-specific–related gene (ERG), or TMPRSS2:ERG, in prostate cancer varies by race. However, such somatic aberration and its association with prognostic factors have neither been studied in a West African population nor been systematically reviewed in the context of racial differences. We used immunohistochemistry to assess oncoprotein encoded by the ERG gene as the established surrogate of ERG fusion genes among 262 prostate cancer biopsies from the Ghana Prostate Study (2004–2006). Poisson regression with robust variance estimation provided prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ERG expression in relation to patient characteristics. We found that 47 of 262 (18%) prostate cancers were ERG-positive, and being negative for ERG staining was associated with higher Gleason score. We further conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in relation to race, Gleason score, and tumor stage, combining results from Ghana with 40 additional studies. Meta-analysis showed the prevalence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in prostate cancer to be highest in men of European descent (49%), followed by men of Asian (27%) and then African (25%) descent. The lower prevalence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in men of African descent implies that alternative genomic mechanisms might explain the disproportionately high prostate cancer burden in such populations. PMID:28633309

  16. Novel real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection of recurrent fusion genes in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Sandra; Barragán, Eva; Fuster, Óscar; Llop, Marta; Cervera, José; Such, Esperanza; De Juan, Inmaculada; Palanca, Sarai; Murria, Rosa; Bolufer, Pascual; Luna, Irene; Gómez, Inés; López, María; Ibáñez, Mariam; Sanz, Miguel A

    2013-09-01

    The recent World Health Organization classification recognizes different subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the presence of several recurrent genetic abnormalities. Detection of these abnormalities and other molecular changes is of increasing interest because it contributes to a refined diagnosis and prognostic assessment in AML and enables monitoring of minimal residual disease. These genetic abnormalities can be detected using single RT-PCR, although the screening is still labor intensive and costly. We have developed a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to simultaneously detect 15 AML-associated rearrangements that is a simple and easily applicable method for use in clinical diagnostic laboratories. This method showed 100% specificity and sensitivity (95% confidence interval, 91% to 100% and 92% to 100%, respectively). The procedure was validated in a series of 105 patients with AML. The method confirmed all translocations detected using standard cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization and some additional undetected rearrangements. Two patients demonstrated two molecular rearrangements simultaneously, with BCR-ABL1 implicated in both, in addition to RUNX1-MECOM in one patient and PML-RARA in another. In conclusion, this novel real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of multiple AML-associated fusion genes is a versatile and sensitive method for reliable screening of recurrent rearrangements in AML. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel gene fusion of PRCC-MITF defines a new member of MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathological analysis and detection of the gene fusion by RNA sequencing and FISH.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Ye, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xuan; Li, Rui; Shi, Shan-Shan; Fang, Ru; Zhang, Ru-Song; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Shen, Qin; Bao, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2018-04-01

    MITF, TFE3, TFEB and TFEC belong to the same microphthalmia-associated transcription factor family (MiT). Two transcription factors in this family have been identified in two unusual types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): Xp11 translocation RCC harbouring TFE3 gene fusions and t(6;11) RCC harbouring a MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion. The 2016 World Health Organisation classification of renal neoplasia grouped these two neoplasms together under the category of MiT family translocation RCC. RCCs associated with the other two MiT family members, MITF and TFEC, have rarely been reported. Herein, we identify a case of MITF translocation RCC with the novel PRCC-MITF gene fusion by RNA sequencing. Histological examination of the present tumour showed typical features of MiT family translocation RCCs, overlapping with Xp11 translocation RCC and t(6;11) RCC. However, this tumour showed negative results in TFE3 and TFEB immunochemistry and split fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) assays. The other MiT family members, MITF and TFEC, were tested further immunochemically and also showed negative results. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of a PRCC-MITF gene fusion: a fusion of PRCC exon 5 to MITF exon 4. We then developed FISH assays covering MITF break-apart probes and PRCC-MITF fusion probes to detect the MITF gene rearrangement. This study both proves the recurring existence of MITF translocation RCC and expands the genotype spectrum of MiT family translocation RCCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Frequency of ABL gene mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant to imatinib and results of treatment switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Marcé, Silvia; Zamora, Lurdes; Cabezón, Marta; Xicoy, Blanca; Boqué, Concha; Fernández, Cristalina; Grau, Javier; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Feliu, Evarist; Millá, Fuensanta

    2013-08-04

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have improved the management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, a significant proportion of patients do not achieve the optimal response or are resistant to TKI. ABL kinase domain mutations have been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of TKI resistance. Treatment with second-generation TKI has produced high rates of hematologic and cytogenetic responses in mutated ABL patients. The aim of this study was to determine the type and frequency of ABL mutations in patients who were resistant to imatinib or had lost the response, and to analyze the effect of second-generation TKI on their outcome. The presence of ABL mutations in 45 CML patients resistant to imatinib was evaluated by direct sequencing and was correlated with the results of the cytogenetic study (performed in 39 cases). The outcome of these patients after therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib was analyzed. ABL mutations were detected in 14 out of 45 resistant patients. Patients with clonal cytogenetic evolution tended to develop mutations more frequently than those without clonal evolution. Nine out of the 15 patients with ABL mutation responded to a treatment switch to nilotinib (n=4), dasatinib (n=2), interferon (n=1) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=2). The frequency of ABL mutations in CML patients resistant to imatinib is high and is more frequent among those with clonal cytogenetic evolution. The change to second-generation TKI can overcome imatinib resistance in most of the mutated patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of the MYB-NFIB gene fusion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma: Incidence, variability, and clinicopathologic significance.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Li, Jie; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Bell, Diana; Lippman, Scott M; Weber, Randal S; Caulin, Carlos; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of the MYB-NFIB fusion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), to establish the clinicopathologic significance of the fusion, and to analyze the expression of MYB in ACCs in the context of the MYB-NFIB fusion. We did an extensive analysis involving 123 cancers of the salivary gland, including primary and metastatic ACCs, and non-ACC salivary carcinomas. MYB-NFIB fusions were identified by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing of the RT-PCR products, and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. MYB RNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The MYB-NFIB fusion was detected in 28% primary and 35% metastatic ACCs, but not in any of the non-ACC salivary carcinomas analyzed. Different exons in both the MYB and NFIB genes were involved in the fusions, resulting in expression of multiple chimeric variants. Notably, MYB was overexpressed in the vast majority of the ACCs, although MYB expression was significantly higher in tumors carrying the MYB-NFIB fusion. The presence of the MYB-NFIB fusion was significantly associated (P = 0.03) with patients older than 50 years of age. No correlation with other clinicopathologic markers, factors, and survival was found. We conclude that the MYB-NFIB fusion characterizes a subset of ACCs and contributes to MYB overexpression. Additional mechanisms may be involved in MYB overexpression in ACCs lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion. These findings suggest that MYB may be a specific novel target for tumor intervention in patients with ACC. ©2010 AACR.

  20. Obesity and Prostate Cancer Risk According to Tumor TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusion Status

    PubMed Central

    Egbers, Lieke; Luedeke, Manuel; Rinckleb, Antje; Kolb, Suzanne; Wright, Jonathan L.; Maier, Christiane; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    The T2E gene fusion, formed by fusion of the transmembrane protease, serine 2, gene (TMPRSS2) with the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS)-related gene (ERG), is found in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and may characterize distinct molecular subtypes of prostate cancer with different etiologies. We investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) and prostate cancer risk by T2E status. Study participants were residents of King County, Washington, recruited for 2 population-based case-control studies conducted in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005. Tumor T2E status was determined for 563 prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Information on weight, height, and covariables was obtained through in-person interviews. We performed polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for T2E-positive and -negative prostate cancer. Comparing the highest BMI quartile with the lowest, inverse associations were observed between recent (≥29.7 vs. <24.5: odds ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.97) and maximum (≥31.8 vs. <25.9: odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 1.02) BMI and the risk of T2E-positive prostate cancer. No significant associations were seen for men with T2E-negative tumors. This study provides evidence that obesity is specifically associated with reduced risk of developing androgen-responsive T2E fusion–positive tumors. The altered steroid hormone profile in obese men may contribute to this inverse association. PMID:25852077

  1. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene and features associated with EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Miaomiao; Wang, Xuejiao; Sun, Ying; Xia, Jinghua; Fan, Liangbo; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) define specific molecular subsets of lung cancer with distinct clinical features. We aimed at revealing the clinical features of EML4-ALK fusion gene and EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods We enrolled 694 Chinese patients with NSCLC for analysis. EML4-ALK fusion gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and EGFR mutations were analyzed by amplified refractory mutation system. Results Among the 694 patients, 60 (8.65%) patients had EML4-ALK fusions. In continuity correction χ2 test analysis, EML4-ALK fusion gene was correlated with sex, age, smoking status, and histology, but no significant association was observed between EML4-ALK fusion gene and clinical stage. A total of 147 (21.18%) patients had EGFR mutations. In concordance with previous reports, EGFR mutation was correlated with age, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage, whereas patient age was not significantly associated with EGFR mutation. Meanwhile, to our surprise, six (0.86%) patients had coexisting EML4-ALK fusions and EGFR mutations. Conclusion EML4-ALK fusion gene defines a new molecular subset in patients with NSCLC. Six patients who harbored both EML4-ALK fusion genes and EGFR mutations were identified in our study. The EGFR mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion genes are coexistent. PMID:27103824

  2. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene and features associated with EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wen, Miaomiao; Wang, Xuejiao; Sun, Ying; Xia, Jinghua; Fan, Liangbo; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) define specific molecular subsets of lung cancer with distinct clinical features. We aimed at revealing the clinical features of EML4-ALK fusion gene and EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We enrolled 694 Chinese patients with NSCLC for analysis. EML4-ALK fusion gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and EGFR mutations were analyzed by amplified refractory mutation system. Among the 694 patients, 60 (8.65%) patients had EML4-ALK fusions. In continuity correction χ (2) test analysis, EML4-ALK fusion gene was correlated with sex, age, smoking status, and histology, but no significant association was observed between EML4-ALK fusion gene and clinical stage. A total of 147 (21.18%) patients had EGFR mutations. In concordance with previous reports, EGFR mutation was correlated with age, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage, whereas patient age was not significantly associated with EGFR mutation. Meanwhile, to our surprise, six (0.86%) patients had coexisting EML4-ALK fusions and EGFR mutations. EML4-ALK fusion gene defines a new molecular subset in patients with NSCLC. Six patients who harbored both EML4-ALK fusion genes and EGFR mutations were identified in our study. The EGFR mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion genes are coexistent.

  3. Gene trapping in differentiating cell lines: regulation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B in skeletal myoblast growth and fusion.

    PubMed

    Gogos, J A; Thompson, R; Lowry, W; Sloane, B F; Weintraub, H; Horwitz, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify genes regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation, we have infected mouse C2C12 myoblasts with retroviral gene trap vectors, containing a promoterless marker gene with a 5' splice acceptor signal. Integration of the vector adjacent to an actively transcribed gene places the marker under the transcriptional control of the endogenous gene, while the adjacent vector sequences facilitate cloning. The vector insertionally mutates the trapped locus and may also form fusion proteins with the endogenous gene product. We have screened several hundred clones, each containing a trapping vector integrated into a different endogenous gene. In agreement with previous estimates based on hybridization kinetics, we find that a large proportion of all genes expressed in myoblasts are regulated during differentiation. Many of these genes undergo unique temporal patterns of activation or repression during cell growth and myotube formation, and some show specific patterns of subcellular localization. The first gene we have identified with this strategy is the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B. Expression from the trapped allele is upregulated during early myoblast fusion and downregulated in myotubes. A direct role for cathepsin B in myoblast growth and fusion is suggested by the observation that the trapped cells deficient in cathepsin B activity have an unusual morphology and reduced survival in low-serum media and undergo differentiation with impaired cellular fusion. The phenotype is reproduced by antisense cathepsin B expression in parental C2C12 myoblasts. The cellular phenotype is similar to that observed in cultured myoblasts from patients with I cell disease, in which there is diminished accumulation of lysosomal enzymes. This suggests that a specific deficiency of cathepsin B could contribute to the myopathic component of this illness.

  4. Structure and Dynamic Regulation of Abl Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Panjarian, Shoghag; Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Shugui; Engen, John R.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    The c-abl proto-oncogene encodes a unique protein-tyrosine kinase (Abl) distinct from c-Src, c-Fes, and other cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. In normal cells, Abl plays prominent roles in cellular responses to genotoxic stress as well as in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Abl is also well known in the context of Bcr-Abl, the oncogenic fusion protein characteristic of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Selective inhibitors of Bcr-Abl, of which imatinib is the prototype, have had a tremendous impact on clinical outcomes in chronic myelogenous leukemia and revolutionized the field of targeted cancer therapy. In this minireview, we focus on the structural organization and dynamics of Abl kinases and how these features influence inhibitor sensitivity. PMID:23316053

  5. ETS Gene Fusions as Predictive Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    science   seminars,   hosted   by   the   Departments   Medicine,   and  Molecular   and  Cellular  Biology,  which  have  broadened  by   scientific... knowledge   within   my   field.   I   have   also   regularly   attended   Gene   Fusion   and   Cancer   Biology   Research   Meetings,  run  by...the  ASTRO  annual   meeting.    Finally,   I  have  met   regularly  with  my  mentors,  Drs.  Arul  Chinnaiyan,  Ted  Lawrence,   and  Tom   Carey

  6. Development of Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of the ERG Gene Fusion Product in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoju; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Asangani, Irfan A; Ateeq, Bushra; Poliakov, Anton; Cieślik, Marcin; Pitchiaya, Sethuramasundaram; Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Cao, Xuhong; Jing, Xiaojun; Wang, Cynthia X; Apel, Ingrid J; Wang, Rui; Tien, Jean Ching-Yi; Juckette, Kristin M; Yan, Wei; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Shaomeng; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2017-04-10

    Transcription factors play a key role in the development of diverse cancers, and therapeutically targeting them has remained a challenge. In prostate cancer, the gene encoding the transcription factor ERG is recurrently rearranged and plays a critical role in prostate oncogenesis. Here, we identified a series of peptides that interact specifically with the DNA binding domain of ERG. ERG inhibitory peptides (EIPs) and derived peptidomimetics bound ERG with high affinity and specificity, leading to proteolytic degradation of the ERG protein. The EIPs attenuated ERG-mediated transcription, chromatin recruitment, protein-protein interactions, cell invasion and proliferation, and tumor growth. Thus, peptidomimetic targeting of transcription factor fusion products may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer as well as other malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Species Based Synonymous Codon Usage in Fusion Protein Gene of Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandra Shekhar; Kumar, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease is highly pathogenic to poultry and many other avian species. However, the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has also been reported from many non-avian species. The NDV fusion protein (F) is a major determinant of its pathogenicity and virulence. The functionalities of F gene have been explored for the development of vaccine and diagnostics against NDV. Although the F protein is well studied but the codon usage and its nucleotide composition from NDV isolated from different species have not yet been explored. In present study, we have analyzed the factors responsible for the determination of codon usage in NDV isolated from four major avian host species. The F gene of NDV is analyzed for its base composition and its correlation with the bias in codon usage. Our result showed that random mutational pressure is responsible for codon usage bias in F protein of NDV isolates. Aromaticity, GC3s, and aliphatic index were not found responsible for species based synonymous codon usage bias in F gene of NDV. Moreover, the low amount of codon usage bias and expression level was further confirmed by a low CAI value. The phylogenetic analysis of isolates was found in corroboration with the relatedness of species based on codon usage bias. The relationship between the host species and the NDV isolates from the host does not represent a significant correlation in our study. The present study provides a basic understanding of the mechanism involved in codon usage among species. PMID:25479071

  8. Calcium channel blocker use and risk of prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion status

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; McCloskey, Karen D.; Mills, Ian G.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may affect prostate cancer (PCa) growth by various mechanisms including those related to androgens. The fusion of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the oncogene ERG (TMPRSS2:ERG or T2E) is common in PCa, and prostate tumors that harbor the gene fusion are believed to represent a distinct disease subtype. We studied the association of CCB use with the risk of PCa, and molecular subtypes of PCa defined by T2E status. Methods Participants were residents of King County, Washington, recruited for population-based case–control studies (1993–1996 or 2002–2005). Tumor T2E status was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization using tumor tissue specimens from radical prostatectomy. Detailed information on use of CCBs and other variables was obtained through in-person interviews. Binomial and polytomous logistic regression were used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The study includes 1,747 PCa patients and 1,635 age-matched controls. A subset of 563 patients treated with radical prostatectomy had T2E status determined, of which 295 were T2E positive (52%). Use of CCBs (ever vs. never) was not associated with overall PCa risk. However, among European-American men, users had a reduced risk of higher-grade PCa (Gleason scores ≥7: adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44–0.95). Further, use of CCBs was associated with a reduced risk of T2E positive PCa (adjusted OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.19–0.78), but was not associated with T2E negative PCa. Conclusions This study found suggestive evidence that use of CCBs is associated with reduced relative risks for higher Gleason score and T2E positive PCa. Future studies of PCa etiology should consider etiologic heterogeneity as PCa subtypes may develop through different causal pathways. PMID:27753122

  9. [Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinicopathologic correlation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Hai-ping; Zheng, Jie; Bai, Dong-yu; Fu, Li; Chen, Pei-qiong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the frequency of EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Real-time PCR was used to detect the presence of EML4-ALK fusion gene in 268 cases of NSCLCs using paraffin-embedded tissue samples(among which 164 samples were re-validated by Sanger sequencing). Related clinicopathological correlation was analyzed. EML4-ALK fusion gene was found in 4.1% (11/268) of the cases. One hundred and sixty four samples were verified by Sanger sequencing, and the overall coincidence of the results of two methods (Sanger sequencing and Real-time PCR) was 100%. Female patients (5.9%, 5/85), ≤ 60 years of age (4.3%, 6/140), non-smokers (6.8%, 8/118) and adenocarcinomas (7.6%, 10/132) had a higher mutation rate than that in male patients (3.3%, 6/183), > 60 years of age (4.0%, 5/124), smokers (1.6%, 2/132) and squamous cell carcinomas (1.3%, 1/79), although no statistical significance in age (P = 0.918), gender (P = 0.503), smoking history (P = 0.092) and histological type (P = 0.094). Chinese NSCLC patients have a 4.1% detection rate of EML4-ALK fusion gene in the tumor tissues. Female, non-smoker and adenocarcinoma histological subtype tend to be associated with a higher rate of EML4-ALK gene fusion.

  10. Identification of atypical ATRNL1 insertion to EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Robesova, Blanka; Bajerova, Monika; Hausnerova, Jitka; Skrickova, Jana; Tomiskova, Marcela; Dvorakova, Dana

    2015-03-01

    We herein present a rare case of an EML4-ALK positive patient. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with locoregional non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). No EGFR mutations were detected, and therefore the ALK rearrangement was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method for EML4-ALK. All methods showed a positive result and, therefore, the patient was treated with crizotinib with a good therapeutic response. However, a detailed RT-PCR analysis and sequencing revealed an unexpected 138 bp insertion of attractin-like 1 (ATRNL1) gene into the EML4-ALK fusion gene. In our case, the positive therapeutic response suggests that ATRNL1 insertion does not affect EML4-ALK's sensitivity to crizotinib. This case shows great EML4-ALK heterogeneity and also that basic detection methods (IHC, FISH) cannot fully specify ALK rearrangement but in many cases a full specification seems to be important for an effective TKI indication, and sequencing ALK variants might contribute to optimized patient selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression of streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus at elevated growth temperature: studies using gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Deeble, V J; Lindley, H K; Fazeli, M R; Cove, J H; Baumberg, S

    1995-10-01

    Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12475 fails to produce streptomycin when grown at 34 degrees C or above, although growth is appreciable up to at least 37 degrees C. This depression of streptomycin production at elevated growth temperature is manifest equally in liquid and on solid, and with complex and minimal, media. We report studies with gene fusions of the reporter genes aph or xyIE to restriction fragments containing the streptomycin biosynthesis promoter PstrB1. aph constructs were in high, and xyIE constructs in low, copy number vectors. Two strB1 promoter fragments were used, one requiring activation by the pathway-specific activator StrR of S. griseus, the other reportedly activator independent. PstrB1 expression in the aph constructs in S. griseus and in S. lividans was significantly reduced at 37 degrees C compared to 30 degrees C. Some of this reduction could be explained by lower plasmid copy number at the higher temperature, but strR-dependent expression was clearly temperature controlled. Using the xyIE reporter system, the temperature dependence of PstrB1 expression was confirmed but, surprisingly, the strR dependence of the two promoter fragments differed from that observed in the multicopy aph constructs. These data identify a temperature-dependent promoter which may contribute to the depressive effect of elevated growth temperature on streptomycin production.

  12. Establishment of cells to monitor Microprocessor through fusion genes of microRNA and GFP

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, Motomu; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Adachi, Koichi

    Microprocessor, the complex of Drosha and DGCR8, promotes the processing of primary microRNA to precursor microRNA, which is a crucial step for microRNA maturation. So far, no convenient assay systems have been developed for observing this step in vivo. Here we report the establishment of highly sensitive cellular systems where we can visually monitor the function of Microprocessor. During a series of screening of transfectants with fusion genes of the EGFP cDNA and primary microRNA genes, we have obtained certain cell lines where introduction of siRNA against DGCR8 or Drosha strikingly augments GFP signals. In contrast, these cells have notmore » responded to Dicer siRNA; thus they have a unique character that GFP signals should be negatively and specifically correlated to the action of Microprocessor among biogenesis of microRNA. These cell lines can be useful tools for real-time analysis of Microprocessor action in vivo and identifying its novel modulators.« less

  13. The oncogenic gene fusion TMPRSS2: ERG is not a diagnostic or prognostic marker for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lillian; Schauer, Isaiah G; Zhang, Jing; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Deavers, Michael T; Huang, Jiaoti; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    TMPRSS2:ERG is a gene fusion resulting from the chromosomal rearrangement of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene and the ETS transcription factor ERG, leading to the over-expression of the oncogenic molecule ERG. This gene rearrangement has been found in approximately half of all prostate cancers and ERG overexpression is considered as a novel diagnostic marker for prostate carcinoma. However, little is known about the role of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to test ERG expression in ovarian cancer and its potential as a diagnostic marker for ovarian carcinoma progression. A tissue microarray containing 180 ovarian cancer tissues of various pathological types and grades were examined by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of ERG. We also used 40 prostate carcinoma tissues and 40 normal tissues for comparison in parallel experiments. ERG-positive expression was detected in 40% of the prostate tumor cancer, as well as in internal positive control endothelial cells, confirming over-expression of ERG in prostate cancer at relatively the same rate observed by others. In contrast, all of the ovarian tumor patient tissues of varying histologic types were ERG-negative, despite some positivity in endothelial cells. These results suggest that the oncogenic gene fusion TMPRSS2:ERG does not occur in ovarian cancer relative to prostate cancer. Therefore, development of ERG expression profile would not be a useful diagnostic or prognostic marker for ovarian cancer patient screening. PMID:22076164

  14. The oncogenic gene fusion TMPRSS2: ERG is not a diagnostic or prognostic marker for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lillian; Schauer, Isaiah G; Zhang, Jing; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Deavers, Michael T; Huang, Jiaoti; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    TMPRSS2:ERG is a gene fusion resulting from the chromosomal rearrangement of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 gene and the ETS transcription factor ERG, leading to the over-expression of the oncogenic molecule ERG. This gene rearrangement has been found in approximately half of all prostate cancers and ERG overexpression is considered as a novel diagnostic marker for prostate carcinoma. However, little is known about the role of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to test ERG expression in ovarian cancer and its potential as a diagnostic marker for ovarian carcinoma progression. A tissue microarray containing 180 ovarian cancer tissues of various pathological types and grades were examined by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of ERG. We also used 40 prostate carcinoma tissues and 40 normal tissues for comparison in parallel experiments. ERG-positive expression was detected in 40% of the prostate tumor cancer, as well as in internal positive control endothelial cells, confirming over-expression of ERG in prostate cancer at relatively the same rate observed by others. In contrast, all of the ovarian tumor patient tissues of varying histologic types were ERG-negative, despite some positivity in endothelial cells. These results suggest that the oncogenic gene fusion TMPRSS2:ERG does not occur in ovarian cancer relative to prostate cancer. Therefore, development of ERG expression profile would not be a useful diagnostic or prognostic marker for ovarian cancer patient screening.

  15. Domain retention in transcription factor fusion genes and its biological and clinical implications: a pan-cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pora; Ballester, Leomar Y.; Zhao, Zhongming

    2017-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements involving transcription factors (TFs) can form fusion proteins resulting in either enhanced, weakened, or even loss of TF activity. Functional domain (FD) retention is a critical factor in the activity of transcription factor fusion genes (TFFGs). A systematic investigation of FD retention in TFFGs and their outcome (e.g. expression changes) in a pan-cancer study has not yet been completed. Here, we examined the FD retention status in 386 TFFGs across 13 major cancer types and identified 83 TFFGs involving 67 TFs that retained FDs. To measure the potential biological relevance of TFs in TFFGs, we introduced a Major Active Isofusion Index (MAII) and built a prioritized TFFG network using MAII scores and the observed frequency of fusion positive samples. Interestingly, the four TFFGs (PML-RARA, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, TMPRSS2-ERG, and SFPQ-TFE3) with the highest MAII scores showed 50 differentially expressed target genes (DETGs) in fusion-positive versus fusion-negative cancer samples. DETG analysis revealed that they were involved in tumorigenesis-related processes in each cancer type. PLAU, which encodes plasminogen activator urokinase and serves as a biomarker for tumor invasion, was found to be consistently activated in the samples with the highest MAII scores. Among the 50 DETGs, 21 were drug targetable genes. Fourteen of these 21 DETGs were expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. Accordingly, we constructed an AML-specific TFFG network, which included 38 DETGs in RUNX1-RUNX1T1 or PML-RARA positive samples. In summary, this study revealed several TFFGs and their potential target genes, and provided insights into the clinical implications of TFFGs. PMID:29299133

  16. Evidence that the lung Adenocarcinoma EML4-ALK fusion gene is not caused by exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bríd M; Wang, Yi; Jen, Jin; Yi, Eunhee S; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Yang, Ping; Harris, Curtis C

    2014-07-01

    The EML4-ALK fusion gene is more frequently found in younger, never smoking patients with lung cancer. Meanwhile, never smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) during childhood are diagnosed at a younger age compared with never smoking patients with lung cancer who are not exposed. We, therefore, hypothesized that SHS, which can induce DNA damage, is associated with the EML4-ALK fusion gene. We compared the frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene among 197 never smoker patients with lung cancer with and without a history of exposure to SHS during childhood at Mayo Clinic. The EML4-ALK fusion gene was detected in 33% of cases from never smokers with a history of SHS exposure during childhood, whereas 47% of never smoking lung cancer cases without a history of childhood SHS exposure tested positive for the fusion gene. The EML4-ALK fusion gene is not enriched in tumors from individuals exposed to SHS during childhood. These data suggest that childhood exposure to SHS is not a significant etiologic cause of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in lung cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Glioma stem cells targeted by oncolytic virus carrying endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene and the expression of its exogenous gene in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guidong; Su, Wei; Jin, Guishan; Xu, Fujian; Hao, Shuyu; Guan, Fangxia; Jia, William; Liu, Fusheng

    2011-05-16

    The development of the cancer stem cell (CSCs) niche theory has provided a new target for the treatment of gliomas. Gene therapy using oncolytic viral vectors has shown great potential for the therapeutic targeting of CSCs. To explore whether a viral vector carrying an exogenous Endo-Angio fusion gene (VAE) can infect and kill glioma stem cells (GSCs), as well as inhibit their vascular niche in vitro, we have collected surgical specimens of human high-grade glioma (world health organization, WHO Classes III-VI) from which we isolated and cultured GSCs under conditions originally designed for the selective expansion of neural stem cells. Our results demonstrate the following: (1) Four lines of GSCs (isolated from 20 surgical specimens) could grow in suspension, were multipotent, had the ability to self-renew and expressed the neural stem cell markers, CD133 and nestin. (2) VAE could infect GSCs and significantly inhibit their viability. (3) The Endo-Angio fusion gene was expressed in GSCs 48 h after VAE infection and could inhibit the proliferation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). (4) Residual viable cells lose the ability of self-renewal and adherent differentiation. In conclusion, VAE can significantly inhibit the activity of GSCs in vitro and the expression of exogenous Endo-Angio fusion gene can inhibit HBMEC proliferation. VAE can be used as a novel virus-gene therapy strategy for glioma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SAFE Software and FED Database to Uncover Protein-Protein Interactions using Gene Fusion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsagrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Danos, Vasilis; Kissa, Maria; Trimpalis, Philip; Koumandou, V Lila; Karagouni, Amalia D; Tsakalidis, Athanasios; Kossida, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Domain Fusion Analysis takes advantage of the fact that certain proteins in a given proteome A, are found to have statistically significant similarity with two separate proteins in another proteome B. In other words, the result of a fusion event between two separate proteins in proteome B is a specific full-length protein in proteome A. In such a case, it can be safely concluded that the protein pair has a common biological function or even interacts physically. In this paper, we present the Fusion Events Database (FED), a database for the maintenance and retrieval of fusion data both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and the Software for the Analysis of Fusion Events (SAFE), a computational platform implemented for the automated detection, filtering and visualization of fusion events (both available at: http://www.bioacademy.gr/bioinformatics/projects/ProteinFusion/index.htm). Finally, we analyze the proteomes of three microorganisms using these tools in order to demonstrate their functionality.

  19. SAFE Software and FED Database to Uncover Protein-Protein Interactions using Gene Fusion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsagrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Danos, Vasilis; Kissa, Maria; Trimpalis, Philip; Koumandou, V. Lila; Karagouni, Amalia D.; Tsakalidis, Athanasios; Kossida, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Domain Fusion Analysis takes advantage of the fact that certain proteins in a given proteome A, are found to have statistically significant similarity with two separate proteins in another proteome B. In other words, the result of a fusion event between two separate proteins in proteome B is a specific full-length protein in proteome A. In such a case, it can be safely concluded that the protein pair has a common biological function or even interacts physically. In this paper, we present the Fusion Events Database (FED), a database for the maintenance and retrieval of fusion data both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and the Software for the Analysis of Fusion Events (SAFE), a computational platform implemented for the automated detection, filtering and visualization of fusion events (both available at: http://www.bioacademy.gr/bioinformatics/projects/ProteinFusion/index.htm). Finally, we analyze the proteomes of three microorganisms using these tools in order to demonstrate their functionality. PMID:22267904

  20. [Construction and prokaryotic expression of recombinant gene EGFRvIII HBcAg and immunogenicity analysis of the fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-yi; Wang, Jian-sheng; Guo, You-min; Han, Jun-li; Wang, Quan-ying; Yang, Guang-xiao

    2007-01-01

    To construct recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a(+)/c-PEP-3-c and evaluate the immunogenicity of the fusion protein. cDNA fragment encoding PEP-3 was obtained from pGEM-T Easy/PEP-3 and inserted into recombinant plasmid pGEMEX/HBcAg. Then it was subcloned in prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3). The fusion protein was expressed by inducing IPTG and purified by Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with fusion protein and the antibody titre was determined by indirect ELISA. The recombinant gene was confirmed to be correct by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. After prokaryotic expression, fusion protein existed in sediment and accounted for 56% of all bacterial lysate. The purified product accounted for 92% of all protein and its concentration was 8 g/L. The antibody titre in blood serum reached 1:16 000 after the fourth immunization and reached 1:2.56x10(5) after the sixth immunization. The titre of anti-PEP-3 antibody reached 1:1.28x10(5) and the titre of anti-HBcAg antibody was less than 1:4x10(3). Fusion gene PEP-3-HBcAg is highly expressed in E.coli BL21. The expressed fusion protein can induce neutralizing antibody with high titer and specificity, which lays a foundation for the study of genetically engineering vaccine for malignant tumors with the high expression of EGFRvIII.

  1. A rapid and efficient newly established method to detect COL1A1-PDGFB gene fusion in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Shimizu, Akira; Okada, Etsuko

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed new method to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion in DFSP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New PCR method using a single primer pair detected COL1A1-PDGFB fusion in DFSP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first report of DFSP with a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. -- Abstract: The detection of fusion transcripts of the collagen type 1{alpha}1 (COL1A1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGFB) genes by genetic analysis has recognized as a reliable and valuable molecular tool for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). To detect the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, almost previous reports performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using multiplex forward primersmore » from COL1A1. However, it has possible technical difficulties with respect to the handling of multiple primers and reagents in the procedure. The objective of this study is to establish a rapid, easy, and efficient one-step method of PCR using only a single primer pair to detect the fusion transcripts of the COL1A1 and PDGFB in DFSP. To validate new method, we compared the results of RT-PCR in five patients of DFSP between the previous method using multiplex primers and our established one-step RT-PCR using a single primer pair. In all cases of DFSP, the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion was detected by both previous method and newly established one-step PCR. Importantly, we detected a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. The newly developed method is valuable to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts in DFSP.« less

  2. Fusion genes with ALK as recurrent partner in ependymoma-like gliomas: a new brain tumor entity?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Thale Kristin; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Meling, Torstein R.; Micci, Francesca; Gorunova, Ludmila; Thorsen, Jim; Due-Tønnessen, Bernt; Scheie, David; Lund-Iversen, Marius; Krossnes, Bård; Saxhaug, Cathrine; Heim, Sverre; Brandal, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Background We have previously characterized 19 ependymal tumors using Giemsa banding and high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. The aim of this study was to analyze these tumors searching for fusion genes. Methods RNA sequencing was performed in 12 samples. Potential fusion transcripts were assessed by seed count and structural chromosomal aberrations. Transcripts of interest were validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR followed by direct sequencing. Results RNA sequencing identified rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) in 2 samples. Both tumors harbored structural aberrations involving the ALK locus 2p23. Tumor 1 had an unbalanced t(2;14)(p23;q22) translocation which led to the fusion gene KTN1-ALK. Tumor 2 had an interstitial del(2)(p16p23) deletion causing the fusion of CCDC88A and ALK. In both samples, the breakpoint of ALK was located between exons 19 and 20. Both patients were infants and both tumors were supratentorial. The tumors were well demarcated from surrounding tissue and had both ependymal and astrocytic features but were diagnosed and treated as ependymomas. Conclusions By combining karyotyping and RNA sequencing, we identified the 2 first ever reported ALK rearrangements in CNS tumors. Such rearrangements may represent the hallmark of a new entity of pediatric glioma characterized by both ependymal and astrocytic features. Our findings are of particular importance because crizotinib, a selective ALK inhibitor, has demonstrated effect in patients with lung cancer harboring ALK rearrangements. Thus, ALK emerges as an interesting therapeutic target in patients with ependymal tumors carrying ALK fusions. PMID:25795305

  3. BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: From bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Boer, Judith M; den Boer, Monique L

    2017-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) occurs in approximately 1:1500 children and is less frequently found in adults. The most common immunophenotype of ALL is the B cell lineage and within B cell precursor ALL, specific genetic aberrations define subtypes with distinct biological and clinical characteristics. With more advanced genetic analysis methods such as whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, novel genetic subtypes have recently been discovered. One novel class of genetic aberrations comprises tyrosine kinase-activating lesions, including translocations and rearrangements of tyrosine kinase and cytokine receptor genes. These newly discovered genetic aberrations are harder to detect by standard diagnostic methods such as karyotyping, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because they are diverse and often cryptic. These lesions involve one of several tyrosine kinase genes (among others, v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 1 (ABL1), v-abl Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 2 (ABL2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide (PDGFRB)), each of which can be fused to up to 15 partner genes. Together, they compose 2-3% of B cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), which is similar in size to the well-known fusion gene BCR-ABL1 subtype. These so-called BCR-ABL1-like fusions are mutually exclusive with the sentinel translocations in BCP-ALL (BCR-ABL1, ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and KMT2A (MLL) rearrangements) and have the promising prospect to be sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors similar to BCR-ABL1. In this review, we discuss the types of tyrosine kinase-activating lesions discovered, and the preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of this novel subtype of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormally high digestive enzyme activity and gene expression explain the contemporary evolution of a Diabrotica biotype able to feed on soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Spencer, Joseph L; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2012-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) (WCR) depends on the continuous availability of corn. Broad adoption of annual crop rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) exploited WCR biology to provide excellent WCR control, but this practice dramatically reduced landscape heterogeneity in East-central Illinois and imposed intense selection pressure. This selection resulted in behavioral changes and “rotation-resistant” (RR) WCR adults. Although soybeans are well defended against Coleopteran insects by cysteine protease inhibitors, RR-WCR feed on soybean foliage and remain long enough to deposit eggs that will hatch the following spring and larvae will feed on roots of planted corn. Other than documenting changes in insect mobility and egg laying behavior, 15 years of research have failed to identify any diagnostic differences between wild-type (WT)- and RR-WCR or a mechanism that allows for prolonged RR-WCR feeding and survival in soybean fields. We documented differences in behavior, physiology, digestive protease activity (threefold to fourfold increases), and protease gene expression in the gut of RR-WCR adults. Our data suggest that higher constitutive activity levels of cathepsin L are part of the mechanism that enables populations of WCR to circumvent soybean defenses, and thus, crop rotation. These new insights into the mechanism of WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory transcend the issue of RR-WCR diagnostics and management to link changes in insect gut proteolytic activity and behavior with landscape heterogeneity. The RR-WCR illustrates how agro-ecological factors can affect the evolution of insects in human-altered ecosystems. PMID:22957201

  5. Patients with myeloid malignancies bearing PDGFRB fusion genes achieve durable long-term remissions with imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Chan Y.; Burbury, Kate; Apperley, Jane F.; Huguet, Francoise; Pitini, Vincenzo; Gardembas, Martine; Ross, David M.; Forrest, Donna; Genet, Philippe; Rousselot, Philippe; Patton, Nigel; Smith, Graeme; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Ito, Sawa; Aguiar, Ricardo C. T.; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Gimelfarb, Alla; Cross, Nicholas C. P.; Seymour, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid neoplasms and eosinophilia with rearrangements of PDGFRB are uncommon Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Patients are typically male, with morphologic features of a Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia. Reciprocal translocations involving PDGFRB result in fusion genes with constitutively activated receptor tyrosine kinase sensitive to inhibition with imatinib. We present an updated and expanded analysis of a cohort of 26 such patients treated with imatinib. After a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range, 1.8-17 years), the 10-year overall survival rate was 90% (95% confidence interval, 64%-97%); after median imatinib duration of 6.6 years (range, 0.1-12 years), the 6-year progression-free survival rate was 88% (95% confidence interval, 65%-96%). Of the patients, 96% responded; no patients who achieved a complete cytogenetic (n = 13) or molecular (n = 8) remission lost their response or progressed to blast crisis. Imatinib is well-tolerated and achieves excellent long-term responses in patients with PDGFRB rearrangements. PMID:24687085

  6. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Who Harbor EML4-ALK Fusion Gene: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fengzhi; Xu, Meng; Lei, Honcho; Zhou, Ziqi; Wang, Liang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Jianfu; Hu, Penghui

    2015-01-01

    Background A novel fusion gene of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been recently identified in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene demonstrate unique clinicopathological and physiological characteristics. Here we present a meta-analysis of large-scale studies to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC patients harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Methods Both English and Chinese databases were systematically used to search the materials of the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with NSCLC harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated with the fixed or random effect model. Publication bias and chi-square test were also calculated. Results 27 retrospective studies were included in our meta-analysis. These studies included a total of 6950 patients. The incidence rate of EML4-ALK fusion in NSCLC patients was found to be 6.8% (472/6950). The correlation of the EML4-ALK fusion gene and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC patients demonstrated a significant difference in smoking status, histological types, stage, and ethnic characteristics. The positive rate of the EML4-ALK fusion gene expression in females were slightly higher than that in males, but not significantly (P = 0.52). In addition, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was mutually exclusive of the EGFR and KRAS mutation genes (P = 0.00). Conclusion Our pooled analysis revealed that the EML4-ALK fusion gene was observed predominantly in adenocarcinoma, non-smoking and NSCLC patients, especially those diagnosed in the advanced clinical stage of NSCLC. Additionally, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was exclusive of the EGFR and KRAS mutation genes. We surmise that IHC assay is a valuable tool for the prescreening of patients with ALK fusion gene in clinical practice, and FISH assay can be performed as a

  7. Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who harbor EML4-ALK fusion gene: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fengzhi; Xu, Meng; Lei, Honcho; Zhou, Ziqi; Wang, Liang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Jianfu; Hu, Penghui

    2015-01-01

    A novel fusion gene of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been recently identified in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene demonstrate unique clinicopathological and physiological characteristics. Here we present a meta-analysis of large-scale studies to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC patients harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Both English and Chinese databases were systematically used to search the materials of the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with NSCLC harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated with the fixed or random effect model. Publication bias and chi-square test were also calculated. 27 retrospective studies were included in our meta-analysis. These studies included a total of 6950 patients. The incidence rate of EML4-ALK fusion in NSCLC patients was found to be 6.8% (472/6950). The correlation of the EML4-ALK fusion gene and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC patients demonstrated a significant difference in smoking status, histological types, stage, and ethnic characteristics. The positive rate of the EML4-ALK fusion gene expression in females were slightly higher than that in males, but not significantly (P = 0.52). In addition, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was mutually exclusive of the EGFR and KRAS mutation genes (P = 0.00). Our pooled analysis revealed that the EML4-ALK fusion gene was observed predominantly in adenocarcinoma, non-smoking and NSCLC patients, especially those diagnosed in the advanced clinical stage of NSCLC. Additionally, the EML4-ALK fusion gene was exclusive of the EGFR and KRAS mutation genes. We surmise that IHC assay is a valuable tool for the prescreening of patients with ALK fusion gene in clinical practice, and FISH assay can be performed as a confirmation method. These insights might

  8. Brief Report: A mass spectrometry assay to simultaneously analyze ROS1 and RET fusion gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Bepler, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Introduction ROS1 and RET gene fusions were recently discovered in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as potential therapeutic targets with small molecule kinase inhibitors. The conventional screening methods of these fusions are time consuming and require samples of high quality and quantity. Here, we describe a novel and efficient method by coupling the power of multiplexing PCR and the sensitivity of mass spectrometry. Methods The multiplex mass spectrometry platform simultaneously tests samples for the expression of nine ROS1 and six RET fusion genes. The assay incorporates detection of wild-type exon junctions immediately upstream and downstream of the fusion junction to exclude false negative results. To flag false positives, the system also comprises two independent assays for each fusion gene junction. Results The characteristic mass spectrometric peaks of the gene fusions were obtained using engineered plasmid constructs. Specific assays targeting the wild-type gene exon junctions were validated using cDNA from lung tissue of healthy individuals. The system was further validated using cDNA derived from NSCLC cell lines that express endogenous fusion genes. The expressed ROS1-SLC34A2 and CCDC6-RET gene fusions from the NSCLC cell lines HCC78 and LC-2/ad, respectively, were accurately detected by the novel assay. The assay is extremely sensitive, capable of detecting an event in test specimens containing 0.5% positive tumors. Conclusion The novel multiplexed assay is robustly capable of detecting 15 different clinically relevant RET and ROS1 fusion variants. The benefits of this detection method include exceptionally low sample input, high cost efficiency, flexibility, and rapid turnover. PMID:25384172

  9. Clinicopathological differences between variants of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene in solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges and extra-central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Satoko; Minato, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    Investigations on the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene in solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have increased since its discovery in 2013. Although several SFTs reported without NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis, we reviewed 546 SFTs/HPCs with NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis in this study and investigated differences between the gene variants. In total, 452 cases tested positive for the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, with more than 40 variants being detected. The most frequent of these were NAB2 exon 6-STAT6 exon 16/17/18 and NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 2/3, with the former occurring most frequently in SFTs in meninges, soft tissues, and head and neck; the latter predominated in SFTs in the pleura and lung. There was no difference between the histology of SFTs and fusion gene variants. A follow-up analysis of SFTs showed that 51 of 202 cases had a recurrence, with 18 of 53 meningeal SFTs having a local recurrence and/or metastasis within 0-19 years. In meninges and soft tissue, SFTs with the NAB2 exon 6-STAT6 exon 16/17/18 tended to recur more frequently than SFTs with the NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 2/3. Clinicopathological data, including yearly follow-ups, are required for meningeal SFTs/HPCs to define the correlation of variants of NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene.

  10. An extremely rare case of small-cell lung cancer harboring variant 2 of the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Gouji; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Kenichi; Toyozawa, Ryo; Inamasu, Eiko; Kojo, Miyako; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Morodomi, Yosuke; Takenaka, Tomoyoshi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Seto, Takashi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Ichinose, Yukito

    2013-09-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fuses echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) to acquire a transforming activity in lung adenocarcinomas. However, the presence of an EML4-ALK fusion gene in other lung cancer histologies is an extremely rare phenomenon. A 43-year-old female was referred to our department due to dyspnea on effort and left back pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large mass in the upper lobe of the left lung and a massive left pleural effusion, while a CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Surprisingly, the tumor was genetically considered to harbor the EML4-ALK fusion gene (variant 2). Although the patient underwent two regimens of cytotoxic chemotherapy for SCLC, she died approximately seven months after the administration of first-line chemotherapy. Our analysis of 30 consecutive patients with SCLC for EML4-ALK revealed that two patients, including the current patient and a patient we previously reported, harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A series of vectors to construct lacZ fusions for the study of gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, M J; Petit, T; Gancedo, C

    1997-12-22

    We have constructed a series of plasmids to facilitate the fusion of promoters with or without coding regions of genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. These vectors carry a multiple cloning region in which fission yeast DNA may be inserted in three different reading frames with respect to the coding region of lacZ. The plasmids were constructed with the ura4+ or the his3+ marker of S. pombe. Functionality of the plasmids was tested measuring in parallel the expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and beta-galactosidase under the control of the fbp1+ promoter in different conditions.

  12. TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recently, the landscape of single base mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was described. Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. Based on this cohort and a further 157 DLBCL cases analyzed by FISH, the incidence in de novo germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL is 5% (6 of 115).

  13. Association between EML4-ALK fusion gene and thymidylate synthase mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues

    PubMed Central

    XU, CHUN-WEI; WANG, GANG; WANG, WU-LONG; GAO, WEN-BIN; HAN, CHUAN-JUN; GAO, JING-SHAN; ZHANG, LI-YING; LI, YANG; WANG, LIN; ZHANG, YU-PING; TIAN, YU-WANG; QI, DONG-DONG

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of the mRNA expression of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene with that of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of EML4-ALK fusion gene and TYMS mRNA in 257 cases of NSCLC. The positive rate of EML4-ALK fusion gene was 4.28% in the NSCLC tissues (11/257), and was higher in nonsmokers than in smokers (P<0.05); TYMS mRNA expression was detected in 63.42% (163/257) of cases. An association of the EML4-ALK fusion gene with TYMS expression was detected; a low expression level of TYMS mRNA was observed more frequently when the EML4-ALK fusion gene was present than when it was not detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, patients positive for the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC tissues are likely to have a low expression level of TYMS, and may benefit from the first-line chemotherapy drug pemetrexed. PMID:26136951

  14. Association between EML4-ALK fusion gene and thymidylate synthase mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun-Wei; Wang, Gang; Wang, Wu-Long; Gao, Wen-Bin; Han, Chuan-Jun; Gao, Jing-Shan; Zhang, Li-Ying; Li, Yang; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Tian, Yu-Wang; Qi, Dong-Dong

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of the mRNA expression of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene with that of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of EML4-ALK fusion gene and TYMS mRNA in 257 cases of NSCLC. The positive rate of EML4-ALK fusion gene was 4.28% in the NSCLC tissues (11/257), and was higher in nonsmokers than in smokers (P<0.05); TYMS mRNA expression was detected in 63.42% (163/257) of cases. An association of the EML4-ALK fusion gene with TYMS expression was detected; a low expression level of TYMS mRNA was observed more frequently when the EML4-ALK fusion gene was present than when it was not detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, patients positive for the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC tissues are likely to have a low expression level of TYMS, and may benefit from the first-line chemotherapy drug pemetrexed.

  15. Suppression of bcr-abl synthesis by siRNAs or tyrosine kinase activity by Glivec alters different oncogenes, apoptotic/antiapoptotic genes and cell proliferation factors (microarray study).

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Bakalova, Rumiana; Ohba, Hideki; Ewis, Ashraf; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Yasuo; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2004-07-16

    Short 21-mer double-stranded/small-interfering RNAs (ds/siRNAs) were designed to target bcr-abl mRNA in chronic myelogenous leukemia. The ds/siRNAs were transfected into bcr-abl-positive K-562 (derived from blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia), using lipofectamine. Penetrating of ds/siRNAs into the cells was detected by fluorescent confocal microscopy, using fluorescein-labeled ds/siRNAs. The cells were treated with mix of three siRNA sequences (3 x 60 nM) during 6 days with three repetitive transfections. The siRNA-treatment was accompanied with significant reduction of bcr-abl mRNA, p210, protein tyrosine kinase activity and cell proliferation index. Treatment of cells with Glivec (during 8 days with four repetitive doses, 180 nM single dose) resulted in analogous reduction of cell proliferation activity, stronger suppression of protein tyrosine kinase activity, and very low reduction of p210. siRNA-mix and Glivec did not affect significantly the viability of normal lymphocytes. Microarray analysis of siRNA- and Glivec-treated K-562 cells demonstrated that both pathways of bcr-abl suppression were accompanied with overexpression and suppression of many different oncogenes, apoptotic/antiapoptotic and cell proliferation factors. The following genes of interest were found to decrease in relatively equal degree in both siRNA- and Glivec-treated cells: Bcd orf1 and orf2 proto-oncogene, chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT 140-kDa subunit mRNA, gene encoding splicing factor SF1, and mRNA for Tec protein tyrosine kinase. siRNA-mix and Glivec provoked overexpression of the following common genes: c-jun proto-oncogene, protein kinase C-alpha, pvt-1 oncogene homologue (myc activator), interleukin-6, 1-8D gene from interferon-inducible gene family, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (10b), and STAT-induced STAT inhibitor.

  16. [The Influence of New Medium with RGD on Cell Growth,Cell Fusion and Expression of Exogenous Gene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Wei, Da-Peng; Zhu, Tong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the influence of a new culture medium added with RGD on cell growth,cell fusion and expression of exogenous gene. A new medium was prepared by adding different concentrations of RGD to ordinary culture medium. The optimum concentration of RGD was determined by observation of the growth of human pancreatic epithelial cell line HPDE6-C7. After determining the optimum concentration of RGD,different concentrations of cells HPDE6-C7 (5×10 4 ,10 5 ,5×10 5 mL -1 ) were inoculated in the two mediums. The morphology,adherence,growth and density of the cells were observed by inverted microscope; The ratio of clone formation and the positive rate of cloning were compared between the two cultures after fusion; The fluorescence intensity after the transfection of plasmid with green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) and the protein expression after transfection of plasmid with KRAS were observed to campare the expression of exogenous genes between the new medium with ordinary medium. Firstly,the optimal concentration of RGD was 10 ng/mL. Compared with the normal medium,the cultured cells with RGD had better morphology,adhesion and faster proliferation. In addition,both of the number and positive rate of clones formed in the new medium were significantly higher than that in the ordinary medium ( P <0.05);The fluorescence intensity after transfection of exogenous gene GFP in the new medium was significantly higher than that in normal medium ( P <0.05); Expression level of exogenous gene KRAS of the new medium was also significantly higher than that in normal medium. The new culture medium has highlighted advantages in cell growth,cell fusion and expression of exogenous genes. RGD peptide has widely prospect and potential value in the cell culture. Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition).

  17. [Construction of eukaryotic recombinant vector and expression in COS7 cell of LipL32-HlyX fusion gene from Leptospira serovar Lai].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bi; Bao, Lang; Zhong, Qi; Zhang, Huidong; Zhang, Ying

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to construct eukaryotic recombinant vector of LipL32-HlyX fusion gene from Leptospira serovar Lai and express it in mammalian cell. Both of LipL32 gene and HlyX gene were amplified from Leptospira strain O17 genomic DNA by PCR. Then with the two genes as template, LipL32-HlyX fusion gene was obtained by SOE PCR (gene splicing by overlap extension PCR). The fusion gene was then cloned into pcDNA3.1 by restriction nuclease digestion. Having been transformed into E. coli DH5alpha, the recombiant plasmid was identified by restriction nuclease digestion, PCR analysis and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was then transfected into COS7 cell whose expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. RT-PCR amplified a fragment about 2000 bp and Western blotting analysis found a specific band about 75 KD which was consistent with the expected fusion protein size. In conclusion, the successful construction of eukaryotic recombinant vector containing LipL32-HlyX fusion gene and the effective expression in mammalian have laid a foundation for the application of Leptospira DNA vaccine.

  18. [Eukaryotic expression of Leptospira interrogans lipL32/1-ompL1/1 fusion gene encoding genus-specific protein antigens and the immunoreactivity of expression products].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Zhao, Shou-feng; Mao, Ya-fei; Ruan, Ping; Luo, Yi-hui; Li, Shu-ping; Li, Li-wei

    2005-01-01

    To construct the eukaryotic expression system of L.interrogans lipL32/1-ompL1/1 fusion gene and to identify the immunoreactivity of expression products. PCR with linking primer was used to construct the fusion gene lipL32/1-ompL1/1. The P.pastoris eukaryotic expression system of the fusion gene, pPIC9K-lipL32/1-ompL1/1-P. pastorisGS115, was constructed after the fusion gene was cloned and sequenced. Colony with phenotype His(+)Mut(+) was isolated by using MD and MM plates and His(+) Mut(+) transformant with high resistance to G418 was screened out by using YPD plate. Using lysate of His(+) Mut(+) colony with high copies of the target gene digested with yeast lyase as the template and 5'AOX1 and 3'AOX1 as the primers, the target fusion gene in chromosome DNA of the constructed P. pastoris engineering strain was detected by PCR. Methanol in BMMY medium was used to induce the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 expression. rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 in the medium supernatant was extracted by using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Output and immunoreactivity of rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 were measured by SDS-PAGE and Western blot methods, respectively. Amplification fragments of the obtained fusion gene lipL32/1-ompL1/1 was 1794 bp in size. The homogeneity of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences of the fusion gene were as high as 99.94 % and 100 %, respectively, compared with the sequences of original lipL32/1 and ompL1/1 genotypes. The constructed eukaryotic expression system was able to secrete rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 with an output of 10 % of the total proteins in the supernatant, which located the expected position after SDS-PAGE. The rabbit anti-rLipL32/1 and anti-rOmpL1/1 sera could combine the expressed rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1. An eukaryotic expression system with high efficiency in P.pastoris of L.interrogans lipL32/1-ompL1/1 fusion gene was successfully constructed in this study. The expressed fusion protein shows specific

  19. Monitoring of childhood ALL using BCR-ABL1 genomic breakpoints identifies a subgroup with CML-like biology.

    PubMed

    Hovorkova, Lenka; Zaliova, Marketa; Venn, Nicola C; Bleckmann, Kirsten; Trkova, Marie; Potuckova, Eliska; Vaskova, Martina; Linhartova, Jana; Machova Polakova, Katerina; Fronkova, Eva; Muskovic, Walter; Giles, Jodie E; Shaw, Peter J; Cario, Gunnar; Sutton, Rosemary; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2017-05-18

    We used the genomic breakpoint between BCR and ABL1 genes for the DNA-based monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in 48 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Comparing the results with standard MRD monitoring based on immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene rearrangements and with quantification of IKZF1 deletion, we observed very good correlation for the methods in a majority of patients; however, >20% of children (25% [8/32] with minor and 12.5% [1/8] with major- BCR-ABL1 variants in the consecutive cohorts) had significantly (>1 log) higher levels of BCR-ABL1 fusion than Ig/TCR rearrangements and/or IKZF1 deletion. We performed cell sorting of the diagnostic material and assessed the frequency of BCR-ABL1 -positive cells in various hematopoietic subpopulations; 12% to 83% of non-ALL B lymphocytes, T cells, and/or myeloid cells harbored the BCR-ABL1 fusion in patients with discrepant MRD results. The multilineage involvement of the BCR-ABL1 -positive clone demonstrates that in some patients diagnosed with BCR-ABL1 -positive ALL, a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor is affected by the BCR-ABL1 fusion. These patients have BCR-ABL1 -positive clonal hematopoiesis resembling a chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-like disease manifesting in "lymphoid blast crisis." The biological heterogeneity of BCR-ABL1 -positive ALL may impact the patient outcomes and optimal treatment (early stem cell transplantation vs long-term administration of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors) as well as on MRD testing. Therefore, we recommend further investigations on CML-like BCR-ABL1 -positive ALL. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Clinicopathologic features of patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Shumin; Xu, Shiguang; Qu, Jiaqi; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The frequencies of EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with different clinicopathologic features described by previous studies are inconsistent. The key demographic and pathologic features associated with EML4-ALK fusion gene have not been definitively established. This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in patients with different clinicopathologic features and to identify an enriched population of patients with NSCLC harboring EML4-ALK fusion gene. The Pubmed and Embase databases for all studies on EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC patients were searched up to July 2014. A criteria list and exclusion criteria were established to screen the studies. The frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene and the clinicopathologic features, including smoking status, pathologic type, gender, and EGFR status were abstracted. Seventeen articles consisting of 4511 NSCLC cases were included in this meta-analysis. A significant lower EML4-ALK fusion gene positive rate was associated with smokers (pooled OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.30-0.54, P<0.00001). A significantly higher EML4-ALK fusion gene positivity rate was associated with adenocarcinomas (pooled OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.66-3.86, P<0.0001) and female (pooled OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41-0.90, P = 0.01). We found that a significantly lower EML4-ALK fusion gene positivity rate was associated with EGFR mutation (pooled OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.03-0.19, P<0.00001). No publication bias was observed in any meta-analysis (all P value of Egger's test >0.05); however, because of the small sample size, no results were in the meta-analysis regarding EGFR gene status. This meta-analysis revealed that the EML4-ALK fusion gene is highly correlated with a never/light smoking history, female and the pathologic type of adenocarcinoma, and is largely mutually exclusive of EGFR.

  1. Clinicopathologic Features of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Harboring the EML4-ALK Fusion Gene: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shumin; Xu, Shiguang; Qu, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequencies of EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with different clinicopathologic features described by previous studies are inconsistent. The key demographic and pathologic features associated with EML4-ALK fusion gene have not been definitively established. This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in patients with different clinicopathologic features and to identify an enriched population of patients with NSCLC harboring EML4-ALK fusion gene. Methods The Pubmed and Embase databases for all studies on EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC patients were searched up to July 2014. A criteria list and exclusion criteria were established to screen the studies. The frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene and the clinicopathologic features, including smoking status, pathologic type, gender, and EGFR status were abstracted. Results Seventeen articles consisting of 4511 NSCLC cases were included in this meta-analysis. A significant lower EML4-ALK fusion gene positive rate was associated with smokers (pooled OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.30–0.54, P<0.00001). A significantly higher EML4-ALK fusion gene positivity rate was associated with adenocarcinomas (pooled OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.66–3.86, P<0.0001) and female (pooled OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41–0.90, P = 0.01). We found that a significantly lower EML4-ALK fusion gene positivity rate was associated with EGFR mutation (pooled OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.03–0.19, P<0.00001). No publication bias was observed in any meta-analysis (all P value of Egger's test >0.05); however, because of the small sample size, no results were in the meta-analysis regarding EGFR gene status. Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that the EML4-ALK fusion gene is highly correlated with a never/light smoking history, female and the pathologic type of adenocarcinoma, and is largely mutually exclusive of EGFR. PMID:25360721

  2. The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin assembly protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyling, M H; Martinez-Climent, J A; Zheng, M; Mao, J; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1996-01-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14) is a recurring chromosomal abnormality that has been observed in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia. We have recently reported that the monocytic cell line U937 has a t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation. Using a combination of positional cloning and candidate gene approach, we cloned the breakpoint and were able to show that AF10 is fused to a novel gene that we named CALM (Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene) located at 11q14. AF10, a putative transcription factor, had recently been cloned as one of the fusion partners of MLL. CALM has a very high homology in its N-terminal third to the murine ap-3 gene which is one of the clathrin assembly proteins. The N-terminal region of ap-3 has been shown to bind to clathrin and to have a high-affinity binding site for phosphoinositols. The identification of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene in the widely used U937 cell line will contribute to our understanding of the malignant phenotype of this line. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8643484

  3. Non-small cell lung cancer patients with EML4-ALK fusion gene are insensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Morodomi, Yosuke; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Inamasu, Eiko; Toyozawa, Ryo; Kojo, Miyako; Toyokawa, Gouji; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Takenaka, Tomoyoshi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Seto, Takashi; Sugio, Kenji; Ichinose, Yukito

    2014-07-01

    Although patients with the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (EML4-ALK) re-arrangement and epidermal growth factor gene EGFR mutations have proven sensitive to specific inhibitors, there is currently no consensus regarding the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with such mutations to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The responses to first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy were retrospectively compared between advanced or postoperative recurrent patients with non-squamous NSCLC who harbor the EML4-ALK fusion gene (ALK+), EGFR mutation (EGFR+), or neither abnormality (wild-type). Data for 22 ALK+, 30 EGFR+, and 60 wild-type patients were analyzed. The ALK+ group had a significantly lower response rate than the other two groups. Progression-free survival was significantly shorter in the ALK+ cohort compared to the EGFR+ (p<0.001) and wild-type cohorts (p=0.0121). NSCLC patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene might be relatively insensitivite to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. A system for the measurement of gene targeting efficiency in human cell lines using an antibiotic resistance-GFP fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuko; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Takahashi, Miyuki; Ota, Akinobu; Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Gene targeting in a broad range of human somatic cell lines has been hampered by inefficient homologous recombination. To improve this technology and facilitate its widespread application, it is critical to first have a robust and efficient research system for measuring gene targeting efficiency. Here, using a fusion gene consisting of hygromycin B phosphotransferase and 3'-truncated enhanced GFP (HygR-5' EGFP) as a reporter gene, we created a molecular system monitoring the ratio of homologous to random integration (H/R ratio) of targeting vectors into the genome. Cell clones transduced with a reporter vector containing HygR-5' EGFP were efficiently established from two human somatic cell lines. Established HygR-5' EGFP reporter clones retained their capacity to monitor gene targeting efficiency for a longer duration than a conventional reporter system using an unfused 5' EGFP gene. With the HygR-5' EGFP reporter system, we reproduced previous findings of gene targeting frequency being up-regulated by the use of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) backbone, a promoter-trap system, or a longer homology arm in a targeting vector, suggesting that this system accurately monitors H/R ratio. Thus, our HygR-5' EGFP reporter system will assist in the development of an efficient AAV-based gene targeting technology.

  5. Expanding the molecular signature of ossifying fibromyxoid tumors with two novel gene fusions: CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2017-01-01

    Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain differentiation and intermediate malignant potential. Recurrent gene fusions involving either PHF1 or BCOR have been found in 85% of OFMT, including typical and malignant examples. As a subset of OFMT still lack known genetic abnormalities, we identified two OFMTs negative for PHF1 and BCOR rearrangements, which were subjected to transcriptome analysis for fusion discovery. The RNA sequencing found a novel CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion candidate in an axillary mass of a 51 year-old male and a KDM2A-WWTR1 in a thigh mass of a 36 year-old male. The gene fusions were validated by RT-PCR and FISH in the index cases and then screened by FISH on 4 additional OFMTs lacking known fusions. An identical CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion was found in an elbow tumor from a 30 year-old male. Both OFMTs with CREBBP-BCORL1 fusions had areas of typical OFMT morphology, exhibiting uniform round to epithelioid cells arranged in cords or nesting pattern in a fibromyxoid stroma. The OFMT with KDM2A-WWTR1 fusion involved dermis and superficial subcutis, being composed of ovoid cells in a fibromyxoid background with hyalinized giant rosettes. The S100 immunoreactivity ranged from very focal to absent. Similar to other known fusion genes in OFMT, BCORL1, CREBBP and KDM2A are also involved in histone modification. In summary, we expand the spectrum of molecular abnormalities in OFMT with 2 novel fusions, CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1, further implicating the epigenetic deregulation as the leading pathogenetic mechanism in OFMT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Expanding the Molecular Signature of Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumors with 2 Novel Gene Fusions: CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2017-01-01

    Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain differentiation and intermediate malignant potential. Recurrent gene fusions involving either PHF1 or BCOR have been found in 85% of OFMT, including typical and malignant examples. As a subset of OFMT still lack known genetic abnormalities, we identified two OFMTs negative for PHF1 and BCOR rearrangements, which were subjected to transcriptome analysis for fusion discovery. The RNA sequencing found a novel CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion candidate in an axillary mass of a 51 year-old male and a KDM2A-WWTR1 in a thigh mass of a 36 year-old male. The gene fusions were validated by RT-PCR and FISH in the index cases and then screened by FISH on 4 additional OFMTs lacking known fusions. An identical CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion was found in an elbow tumor from a 30 year-old male. Both OFMTs with CREBBP-BCORL1 fusions had areas of typical OFMT morphology, exhibiting uniform round to epithelioid cells arranged in cords or nesting pattern in a fibromyxoid stroma. The OFMT with KDM2A-WWTR1 fusion involved dermis and superficial subcutis, being composed of ovoid cells in a fibromyxoid background with hyalinized giant rosettes. The S100 immunoreactivity ranged from very focal to absent. Similar to other known fusion genes in OFMT, BCORL1, CREBBP and KDM2A are also involved in histone modification. In summary, we expand the spectrum of molecular abnormalities in OFMT with 2 novel fusions, CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1, further implicating the epigenetic deregulation as the leading pathogenetic mechanism in OFMT. PMID:27537276

  7. Secondary RNA structure and its role in RNA interference to silence the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Vig, Komal; Lewis, Nuruddeen; Moore, Eddie G; Pillai, Shreekumar; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2009-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional, gene silencing mechanism which uses small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA) for gene silencing. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an important respiratory pathogen of medical significance that causes high mortality in infants. The fusion (F) protein of RSV is a good target for therapeutic purposes as it is primarily responsible for penetration of the virus into host cells and subsequent syncytium formation during infection. In the present study, four siRNAs were designed and used individually as well as a mixture, to silence the RSV F gene. The relationship between siRNA design, target RNA structure, and their thermodynamics was also investigated. Silencing of F gene was observed using indirect immunofluorescence, western blot, reverse transcription PCR, and progeny viral titers. Our results show F gene silencing by all the four siRNAs individually and collectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed a decrease in mRNA level which corresponded to decreased F protein expression. siRNAs also inhibited RSV progeny as shown by viral titer estimation on infected HEp-2 cells. The present study demonstrates the silencing of the F gene using siRNA. Thermodynamic characteristics of the target RSV mRNA and siRNA seem to play an important role in siRNA gene silencing efficiency.

  8. Gene Amplification by PCR and Subcloning into a GFP-Fusion Plasmid Expression Vector as a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornhorst, Joshua A.; Deibel, Michael A.; Mulnix, Amy B.

    2004-01-01

    A novel experimental sequence for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course has been developed at Earlham College. Utilizing recent improvements in molecular techniques for a time-sensitive environment, undergraduates were able to create a chimera of a selected gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a bacterial expression plasmid over the…

  9. MYBL1 rearrangements and MYB amplification in breast adenoid cystic carcinomas lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisun; Geyer, Felipe C; Martelotto, Luciano G; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Lim, Raymond S; Selenica, Pier; Li, Anqi; Pareja, Fresia; Fusco, Nicola; Edelweiss, Marcia; Kumar, Rahul; Gularte-Merida, Rodrigo; Forbes, Andre N; Khurana, Ekta; Mariani, Odette; Badve, Sunil; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Norton, Larry; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2018-02-01

    Breast adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), a rare type of triple-negative breast cancer, has been shown to be driven by MYB pathway activation, most often underpinned by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Alternative genetic mechanisms, such as MYBL1 rearrangements, have been reported in MYB-NFIB-negative salivary gland AdCCs. Here we report on the molecular characterization by massively parallel sequencing of four breast AdCCs lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. In two cases, we identified MYBL1 rearrangements (MYBL1-ACTN1 and MYBL1-NFIB), which were associated with MYBL1 overexpression. A third AdCC harboured a high-level MYB amplification, which resulted in MYB overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels. RNA-sequencing and whole-genome sequencing revealed no definite alternative driver in the fourth AdCC studied, despite high levels of MYB expression and the activation of pathways similar to those activated in MYB-NFIB-positive AdCCs. In this case, a deletion encompassing the last intron and part of exon 15 of MYB, including the binding site of ERG-1, a transcription factor that may downregulate MYB, and the exon 15 splice site, was detected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MYBL1 rearrangements and MYB amplification probably constitute alternative genetic drivers of breast AdCCs, functioning through MYBL1 or MYB overexpression. These observations emphasize that breast AdCCs probably constitute a convergent phenotype, whereby activation of MYB and MYBL1 and their downstream targets can be driven by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene, MYBL1 rearrangements, MYB amplification, or other yet to be identified mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Construction of a β-galactosidase-gene-based fusion is convenient for screening candidate genes involved in regulation of pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wangtai; Miao, Jing; Feng, Zhibin; Lu, Ruiyang; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Baoshen; Ding, Weiqiu; Lu, Yang; Wang, Yanhua; Chi, Xiaoyan; Ge, Yihe

    2018-05-28

    In our recent work, we found that pyrrolnitrin, and not phenazines, pyrrolnitrin contributed to the suppression of the mycelia growth of Fusarium graminearum that causes heavy Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. However, pyrrolnitrin production of Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05 in King's B medium was very low. Although a few regulatory genes mediating the prnABCD (the prn operon, pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic locus) expression have been identified, it is not enough for us to enhance pyrrolnitrin production by systematically constructing a genetically-engineered strain. To obtain new candidate genes involved in regulation of the prn operon expression, we successfully constructed a fusion mutant G05ΔphzΔprn::lacZ, in which most of the coding regions of the prn operon and the phzABCDEFG (the phz operon, phenazine biosynthetic locus) were deleted, and the promoter region plus the first thirty condons of the prnA was in-frame fused with the truncated lacZ gene on its chromosome. The expression of the fused lacZ reporter gene driven by the promoter of the prn operon made it easy for us to detect the level of the prn expression in terms of the color variation of colonies on LB agar plates supplemented with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal). With this fusion mutant as a recipient strain, mini-Tn5-based random insertional mutagenesis was then conducted. By picking up colonies with color change, it is possible for us to screen and identify new candidate genes involved in regulation of the prn expression. Identification of additional regulatory genes in further work could reasonably be expected to increase pyrrolnitrin production in G05 and to improve its biological control function.

  11. Heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammad; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement or Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is derived from a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between ABL gene on chromosome 9 and BCR gene on chromosome 22. This chimeric protein has various sizes and therefore different clinical behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with Ph+CML in Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify various BCR-ABL transcripts. Results: All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangements. Out of these, 24 (96%) patients expressed p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements i.e. 60% (n=15) had b3a2 and 32% (n=8) had b2a2 rearrangements. Co-expression of b3a2 /b2a2 rearrangement and p190 (e1a3) rearrangement was also identified in two patients. Conclusion: It is apparent that majority of the patients had p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements. Frequency of co-expression and rare fusion transcripts was very low. PMID:25097530

  12. Heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammad; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2014-07-01

    Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement or Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is derived from a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between ABL gene on chromosome 9 and BCR gene on chromosome 22. This chimeric protein has various sizes and therefore different clinical behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with Ph(+)CML in Pakistan. The study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify various BCR-ABL transcripts. All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangements. Out of these, 24 (96%) patients expressed p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements i.e. 60% (n=15) had b3a2 and 32% (n=8) had b2a2 rearrangements. Co-expression of b3a2 /b2a2 rearrangement and p190 (e1a3) rearrangement was also identified in two patients. It is apparent that majority of the patients had p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements. Frequency of co-expression and rare fusion transcripts was very low.

  13. [Retroviral-mediated transfer of a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene into human bladder carcinoma cell].

    PubMed

    Ye, C; Chen, S; Pei, X; Li, L; Feng, K

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of retroviral-mediated hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene (HyTK)/GCV on human bladder carcinoma cell. A retroviral expression vector pL (HyTK) SN was constructed. By using FuGENE 6-mediated transfection and "ping-pong effect" technique, high-titer of retroviral supernatant was obtained and HyTK gene was transferred into EJ cells. A retroviral vector encoding, enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP was used to rapidly detect the transduction efficiency. Antitumor effects were observed after GCV treatment. In vitro experiments demonstrated the EJ cells transferred by HyTK gene were killed in the GCV treatment. Non-transduced parental cells were not sensitive to GCV, but they were dead by the bystander killing of neighboring cells when mixed with EJ/HyTK cells at various ratios. In addition, this not only affect wild-type EJ cells but also cells from different bladder carcinoma cell lines. Retroviral-mediated HyTK/GCV systems were a promising suicide gene therapy for bladder carcinoma. EGFP may act as a convenient and rapid reporter to monitor retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression in bladder carcinoma cells.

  14. Studies on the expression of an H-2K/human growth hormone fusion gene in giant transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Morello, D; Moore, G; Salmon, A M; Yaniv, M; Babinet, C

    1986-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying the H-2K/human growth hormone (hGH) fusion gene were produced by microinjecting into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs DNA molecules containing 2 kb of the 5' flanking sequences (including promoter) of the class I H-2Kb gene joined to the coding sequences of the hGH gene. Thirteen transgenic mice were obtained which all contained detectable levels of hGH hormone in their blood. Nine grew larger than their control litter-mates. Endogenous H-2Kb and exogenous hGH mRNA levels were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion experiments. hGH transcripts were found in all the tissues examined and the pattern of expression paralleled that of endogenous H-2K gene expression, being high in liver and lymphoid organs and low in muscle and brain. Thus 2 kb of the 5' promoter/regulatory region of the H-2K gene are sufficient to ensure regulated expression of hGH in transgenic mice. This promoter may therefore be of use to target the expression of different exogenous genes in most tissues of transgenic mice and to study the biological role of the corresponding proteins in different cellular environments. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3019667

  15. Combining Random Gene Fission and Rational Gene Fusion To Discover Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein Fragments That Report on Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein–protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein–protein interactions within whole animals. PMID:25265085

  16. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals.

  17. Recurrent NTRK1 Gene Fusions Define a Novel Subset of Locally Aggressive Lipofibromatosis-like Neural Tumors.

    PubMed

    Agaram, Narasimhan P; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Chung, Catherine T; Antonescu, Cristina R; Fletcher, Christopher Dm

    2016-10-01

    The family of pediatric fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferations encompasses a wide spectrum of pathologic entities with overlapping morphologies and ill-defined genetic abnormalities. Among the superficial lesions, lipofibromatosis (LPF), composed of an admixture of adipose tissue and fibroblastic elements, in the past has been variously classified as infantile fibromatosis or fibrous hamartoma of infancy. In this regard, we have encountered a group of superficial soft tissue tumors occurring in children and young adults, with a notably infiltrative growth pattern reminiscent of LPF, variable cytologic atypia, and a distinct immunoprofile of S100 protein and CD34 reactivity, suggestive of neural differentiation. SOX10 and melanocytic markers were negative in all cases tested. In contrast, a control group of classic LPF displayed bland, monomorphic histology and lacked S100 protein immunoreactivity. To define the pathogenetic abnormalities in these seemingly distinctive groups, we performed RNA sequencing for fusion gene discovery in 2 cases each, followed by screening for any novel alterations identified in a larger cohort representing both entities. The 2 index LPF-like neural tumors (LPF-NT) showed TPR-NTRK1 and TPM3-NTRK1 gene fusions, which were further validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequent FISH screening of 14 LPF-NT identified recurrent NTRK1 gene rearrangements in 10 (71%) cases. Of the NTRK1-negative LPF-NT cases, 1 case each showed ROS1 and ALK gene rearrangements. In contrast, none of the 25 classic LPFs showed NTRK1 gene rearrangements, although regional abnormalities were noted in the 1q21-22 region by FISH in a majority of cases. Furthermore, NTRK1 immunostaining was positive only in NTRK1-rearranged S100-positive LPF-NT but negative in classic LPF. These results suggest that NTRK1 oncogenic activation through gene fusion defines a novel and distinct subset of soft

  18. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma with NONO-TFE3 gene fusion: morphology, prognosis, and potential pitfall in detecting TFE3 gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Ni; Gan, Hua-Lei; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Shi, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xuan; Wei, Xue; Ye, Sheng-Bing; Li, Rui; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas are characterized by several different translocations involving the TFE3 gene. Tumors with different specific gene fusions may have different clinicopathological manifestations. Fewer than 10 renal cell carcinoma cases with NONO-TFE3 have been described. Here we examined eight additional cases of this rare tumor using clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. The male-to-female ratio of our study cohort was 1:1, and the median age was 30 years. The most distinctive feature of the tumors was that they exhibited glandular/tubular or papillary architecture that was lined with small-to-medium cuboidal to high columnar cells with indistinct cell borders and an abundantly clear or flocculent eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nuclei were oriented toward the luminal surface and were round and uniform in shape, which resulted in the appearance of secretory endometrioid subnuclear vacuolization. The distinct glandular/tubular or papillary architecture was often accompanied by sheets of epithelial cells that presented a biphasic pattern. Immunohistochemically, all eight cases demonstrated moderate (2+) or strong (3+) positive staining for TFE3, CD10, RCC marker, and PAX-8. None of the tumors were immunoreactive for CK7, Cathepsin K, Melan-A, HMB45, Ksp-cadherin, Vimentin, CA9, 34βE12 or CD117. NONO-TFE3 fusion transcripts were identified in six cases by RT-PCR. All eight cases showed equivocal split signals with a distance of nearly 2 signal diameters and sometimes had false-negative results. Furthermore, we developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool for the detection of the NONO-TFE3 fusion gene and used this method to detect the fusion gene in all eight cases. Long-term follow-up (range, 10-102 months) was available for 7 patients. All 7 patients were alive with no evidence of recurrent disease or disease progression after their initial resection. This report

  19. NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis in two cases of meningeal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma with late distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Satoko; Minato, Hiroshi; Takegami, Tsutomu; Kurose, Nozomu; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masako; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Akai, Takuya; Kato, Takashi; Yamamoto, Norio; Nojima, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    We present two cases of meningeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma (HPC) with immunohistochemistry of STAT6 and analysis of NAB2-STAT6 fusion genes. Case 1 was a 37-year-old male with a left middle fossa tumor; case 2 was a 68-year-old female with a cerebellar tumor. They showed late metastasis to the lung or bone 8 or 13 years, respectively, after the first surgery. Histology of both primary and metastatic tumors showed a cellular hemangiopericytomatous pattern with nuclear atypia. The primary tumors showed nuclear staining of STAT6, but both metastatic tumors showed nuclear and cytoplasmic STAT6. DNA sequencing revealed two kinds of NAB2-STAT6 fusion genes. One consisted of exon 6 of NAB2, intron 6 of NAB2, and the middle of exon 17 of STAT6 (observed in the primary and metastatic tumors of case 1); the other consisted of exon 6 of NAB2 and the beginning of exon 17 of STAT6 (observed in the metastatic tumor of case 2). The primary tumor of case 2 had both fusion genes. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene analysis in primary and metastatic meningeal SFT/HPCs and a case showed different fusion gene status in the metastatic tumor.

  20. Analysis of a MULE-cyanide hydratase gene fusion in Verticillium dahliae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae encodes numerous Class II “cut-and-paste” transposable elements, including those of a small group of MULE transposons. We have previously identified a fusion event between a MULE transposon sequence and sequence encoding a cyanide hydrata...

  1. A PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liang, Tingyu; Yang, Fan; Wang, Haoyuan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Wen; Xu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Ding, Yaozhong

    2017-10-17

    Collagen XVII expression has recently been demonstrated to be correlated with the tumor malignance. While Collagen XVII is known to be widely distributed in neurons of the human brain, its precise role in pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene in GMB using transcriptome sequencing. Although fusion gene did not result in measurable fusion protein production, its presence is accompanied with high levels of COL17A1 expression, revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Collagen XVII expression by PTEN-COL17A1 gene fusion. Knocked down Collagen XVII expression in glioma cell lines resulted in decreased tumor invasiveness, along with significant reduction of MMP9 expression, while increased Collagen XVII expression promotes invasive activities of glioma cells and associated with GBM recurrences. Together, our results uncovered a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance, and demonstrated that COL17A1 could serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for GBM.

  2. Renilla luciferase- Aequorea GFP (Ruc-GFP) fusion protein, a novel dual reporter for real-time imaging of gene expression in cell cultures and in live animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yu, Y A; Shabahang, S; Wang, G; Szalay, A A

    2002-10-01

    Light-emitting reporter proteins play an increasing role in the study of gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Here we present a ruc-gfp fusion gene construct generated by fusing a cDNA for Renilla luciferase (ruc) in-frame with a cDNA encoding the "humanized" GFP (gfp) from Aequorea. A plasmid containing the fusion gene construct was successfully transformed into, and expressed in, mammalian cells. The transformed cells exhibited both Renilla luciferase activity in the presence of coelenterazine and GFP fluorescence upon excitation with UV light. Spectrofluorometry of cells containing the Ruc-GFP fusion protein, in the absence of wavelengths capable of exciting GFP fluorescence but in the presence of the luciferase substrate, coelenterazine, showed an emission spectrum with two peaks at 475 nm and 508 nm. These two peaks correspond to the emission maximum of Renilla luciferase at 475 nm and that of GFP at 508 nm. The peak at 508 nm generated in the presence of coelenterazine alone (without UV excitation) is the result of intramolecular energy transfer from Renilla luciferase to Aequorea GFP. Southern analysis of genomic DNA purified from transformed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosomes confirmed the integration of the ruc-gfp fusion gene on a single chromosome. The bifunctional Ruc-GFP fusion protein allows the detection of gene expression at the single-cell level based on green fluorescence, and in a group of cells based on luminescence emission. Furthermore, animal experiments revealed that light emission from the Ruc-GFP fusion protein can be detected externally in the organs or tissues of live animals bearing the gene construct.

  3. The "grep" command but not FusionMap, FusionFinder or ChimeraScan captures the CIC-DUX4 fusion gene from whole transcriptome sequencing data on a small round cell tumor with t(4;19)(q35;q13).

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to study a small round cell tumor in which a t(4;19)(q35;q13) was part of the complex karyotype but where the initial reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) examination did not detect a CIC-DUX4 fusion transcript previously described as the crucial gene-level outcome of this specific translocation. The RNA sequencing data were analysed using the FusionMap, FusionFinder, and ChimeraScan programs which are specifically designed to identify fusion genes. FusionMap, FusionFinder, and ChimeraScan identified 1017, 102, and 101 fusion transcripts, respectively, but CIC-DUX4 was not among them. Since the RNA sequencing data are in the fastq text-based format, we searched the files using the "grep" command-line utility. The "grep" command searches the text for specific expressions and displays, by default, the lines where matches occur. The "specific expression" was a sequence of 20 nucleotides from the coding part of the last exon 20 of CIC (Reference Sequence: NM_015125.3) chosen since all the so far reported CIC breakpoints have occurred here. Fifteen chimeric CIC-DUX4 cDNA sequences were captured and the fusion between the CIC and DUX4 genes was mapped precisely. New primer combinations were constructed based on these findings and were used together with a polymerase suitable for amplification of GC-rich DNA templates to amplify CIC-DUX4 cDNA fragments which had the same fusion point found with "grep". In conclusion, FusionMap, FusionFinder, and ChimeraScan generated a plethora of fusion transcripts but did not detect the biologically important CIC-DUX4 chimeric transcript; they are generally useful but evidently suffer from imperfect both sensitivity and specificity. The "grep" command is an excellent tool to capture chimeric transcripts from RNA sequencing data when the pathological and/or cytogenetic information strongly indicates the presence of a specific fusion gene.

  4. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels before initial treatment are associated with EGFR mutations and EML4- ALK fusion gene in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Tao; Li, Yin; Ma, Jie; Chen, Xiao-Bing; Qin, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) define specific molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinomas with distinct clinical features. Our purpose was to analyze clinical features and prognostic value of EGFR gene mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion gene in lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR gene mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion gene were detected in 92 lung adenocarcinoma patients in China. Tumor marker levels before first treatment were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. EGFR mutations were found in 40.2% (37/92) of lung adenocarcinoma patients, being identified at high frequencies in never-smokers (48.3% vs. 26.5% in smokers; P=0.040) and in patients with abnormal serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels before the initial treatment (58.3% vs. 28.6%, P=0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that a higher serum CEA level before the initial treatment was independently associated with EGFR gene mutations (95%CI: 1.476~11.343, P=0.007). We also identified 8 patients who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene (8.7%, 8/92). In concordance with previous reports, younger age was a clinical feature for these (P=0.008). Seven of the positive cases were never smokers, and no coexistence with EGFR mutation was discovered. In addition, the frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene among patients with a serum CEA concentration below 5 ng/ml seemed to be higher than patients with a concentration over 5 ng/ml (P=0.021). No significant difference was observed for time to progression and overall survival between EML4-ALK-positive group and EML4-ALK-negative group or between patients with and without an EGFR mutation. The serum CEA level before the initial treatment may be helpful in screening population for EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusion gene presence in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  5. ETS Gene Fusions as Predictive Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    confocal microscopy to characterize the timing, location, and order of recruitment of the ERG-DNAPK interaction in relation to radiation delivery. In the...DNAPK linked to different fluorescent proteins, and Subtask #5B was to overexpress these constructs in the VCaP cell line and perform real-time...first half of year 3, we generated fusion constructs of ERG to various fluorescent proteins [green fluorescent protein (GFP), yellow fluorescent

  6. Oncogenic Gene Fusion FGFR3-TACC3 Is Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katelyn N; Meyer, April N; Siari, Asma; Campos, Alexandre R; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Donoghue, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. Mutation and/or translocation of FGFRs lead to aberrant signaling that often results in developmental syndromes or cancer growth. As sequencing of human tumors becomes more frequent, so does the detection of FGFR translocations and fusion proteins. The research conducted in this article examines a frequently identified fusion protein between FGFR3 and transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 3 (TACC3), frequently identified in glioblastoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, oral cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and cervical cancer. Using titanium dioxide-based phosphopeptide enrichment (TiO2)-liquid chromatography (LC)-high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), it was demonstrated that the fused coiled-coil TACC3 domain results in constitutive phosphorylation of key activating FGFR3 tyrosine residues. The presence of the TACC coiled-coil domain leads to increased and altered levels of FGFR3 activation, fusion protein phosphorylation, MAPK pathway activation, nuclear localization, cellular transformation, and IL3-independent proliferation. Introduction of K508R FGFR3 kinase-dead mutation abrogates these effects, except for nuclear localization which is due solely to the TACC3 domain. These results demonstrate that FGFR3 kinase activity is essential for the oncogenic effects of the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion protein and could serve as a therapeutic target, but that phosphorylated tyrosine residues within the TACC3-derived portion are not critical for activity. Mol Cancer Res; 14(5); 458-69. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Transcriptomic Profiling and Functional Characterization of Fusion Genes in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    the enhanced malignancy observed in recurrent disease. In the first year of this proposal we have assembled a cohort of 18 patient matched pairs of...significance and biologic function of prioritized RNA fusion events. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 ...cellularity. 19 cases were identified (Table 1) but one was removed for quality control issues thus leaving a total of 18 cases. Table 1 shows the clinical

  8. Retrovirus-mediated transfer of a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene into human CD34+ bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Y; Emi, N; Kato, H; Abe, A; Tanimoto, M; Lupton, S D; Saito, H

    1994-12-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into human hematopoietic stem cells has been proposed as a means of therapy for various inherited diseases and as a method of gene marking. The transduction efficiency of an amphotropic retroviral vector (PA317/HyTK) containing a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene was examined with human CD34+ bone marrow cells in the presence of interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and stem cell factor. Transduction efficiencies determined from the ability of transduced granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) to grow in hygromycin B and from polymerase chain reaction analysis of individual transduced CFU-GM growing in the presence of hygromycin B were 0.3-3.0% (mean +/- S.D., 1.1 +/- 0.9%) and 0.1-1.2% (mean +/- S.D., 0.5 +/- 0.4%), respectively. Ganciclovir at a dose of approximately 1 microM reduced the number of CFU-GM derived from vector-infected CD34+ cells by 50%. These findings demonstrate that human hematopoietic stem cells infected with this retroviral vector are susceptible to ganciclovir, offering the potential to control transduced gene expression in vivo.

  9. Analysis of clinicopathological features of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like-4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene in Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Tao; Shi, Yuan-Kai; Hao, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Lin; Li, Jun-Ling; Han, Xiao-Hong; Li, Dan; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Tang, Le

    2014-01-01

    Background The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like-4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene defines a novel molecular subset of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the clinicopathological features of patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene have not been defined completely. Methods Clinicopathological data of 200 Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively to explore their possible correlations with EML4-ALK fusions. Results The EML4-ALK fusion gene was detected in 56 (28.0%) of the 200 NSCLC patients, and undetected in 22 (11.0%) patients because of an insufficient amount of pathological tissue. The median age of the patients with positive and negative EML4-ALK was 48 and 55 years, respectively. Patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene were significantly younger (P< 0.001). The detection rate of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in patients who received primary tumor or metastatic lymph node resection was significantly higher than in patients who received fine-needle biopsy (P= 0.003). The detection rate of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in patients with a time lag from obtainment of the pathological tissue to EML4-ALK fusion gene detection ≤48 months was significantly higher than in patients >48 months (P= 0.020). The occurrence of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in patients with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was significantly higher than in patients with mutant-type EGFR (42.5% [37/87] vs. 6.3% [1/16], P= 0.005). Conclusions Younger age and wild-type EGFR were identified as clinicopathological characteristics of patients with advanced NSCLC who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene. The optimal time lag from the obtainment of the pathological tissue to the time of EML4-ALK fusion gene detection is ≤48 months. PMID:26767009

  10. Diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in the thigh using EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Sekita, Tetsuya; Susa, Michiro; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Aya; Kameyama, Kaori; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo

    2016-11-10

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that has unusual ultrastructural and molecular features. However, unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, it does not have specific clinical symptoms or radiological features, which can make its diagnosis difficult. Nevertheless, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma has a rare gene fusion (EWSR1-NR4A3) that is useful for making a differential diagnosis. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a soft tissue mass in his right thigh. A physical examination and radiography revealed a large soft tissue mass. During magnetic resonance imaging, the mass exhibited isointensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images, as well as gadolinium enhancement at the side edge of the partition structure. Thus, we considered a possible diagnosis of a malignant myxoid soft tissue tumor, such as myxoid liposarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, or metastatic carcinomas, including myoepithelial tumor and neuroendocrine tumor, and performed an incisional biopsy to make a definitive diagnosis. The pathological findings revealed a lobulated tumor with a myxoid structure and atypical spindle-shaped cells that created eosinophilic cord-like forms. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor was positive for S-100 and negative for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and pan keratin (AE1/AE3). The percentage of Ki-67 was 10 % in the hot spot area. Based on these clinicopathological findings, we initially considered the possibility of a myxoid liposarcoma, although we did not observe any lipoblasts. Therefore, we considered the possibility of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. As this tumor is very rare, we searched for the EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization, which confirmed the diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography did not identify any obvious metastases, and we performed radical resection of our patient's vastus medialis and

  11. Celastrol suppresses tumor cell growth through targeting an AR-ERG-NF-κB pathway in TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene expressing prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Longjiang; Zhou, Zhansong; Cai, Yi; Castro, Patricia; Dakhov, Olga; Shi, Ping; Bai, Yaoxia; Ji, Huixiang; Shen, Wenhao; Wang, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present in the majority of all prostate cancers (PCa). We have shown previously that NF-kB signaling is highly activated in these T/E fusion expressing cells via phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 Ser536 (p536). We therefore hypothesize that targeting NF-kB signaling may be an efficacious approach for the subgroup of PCas that carry T/E fusions. Celastrol is a well known NF-kB inhibitor, and thus may inhibit T/E fusion expressing PCa cell growth. We therefore evaluated Celastrol's effects in vitro and in vivo in VCaP cells, which express the T/E fusion gene. VCaP cells were treated with different concentrations of Celastrol and growth inhibition and target expression were evaluated. To test its ability to inhibit growth in vivo, 0.5 mg/kg Celastrol was used to treat mice bearing subcutaneous VCaP xenograft tumors. Our results show Celastrol can significantly inhibit the growth of T/E fusion expressing PCa cells both in vitro and in vivo through targeting three critical signaling pathways: AR, ERG and NF-kB in these cells. When mice received 0.5 mg/kg Celastrol for 4 times/week, significant growth inhibition was seen with no obvious toxicity or significant weight loss. Therefore, Celastrol is a promising candidate drug for T/E fusion expressing PCa. Our findings provide a novel strategy for the targeted therapy which may benefit the more than half of PCa patients who have T/E fusion expressing PCas.

  12. Molecular characterization of partial fusion gene and C-terminus extension length of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of recently isolated Newcastle disease virus isolates in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious disease of birds and has been one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. Despite routine vaccination programs, sporadic cases have occasionally occurred in the country and remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Hence, the present study was aimed to characterize NDV isolates obtained from clinical cases in various locations of Malaysia between 2004 and 2007 based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial F gene and C-terminus extension length of HN gene. Results The coding region of eleven NDV isolates fusion (F) gene and carboxyl terminal region of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene including extensions were amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR and directly sequenced. All the isolates have shown to have non-synonymous to synonymous base substitution rate ranging between 0.081 - 0.264 demonstrating presence of negative selection. Analysis based on F gene showed the characterized isolates possess three different types of protease cleavage site motifs; namely 112RRQKRF117, 112RRRKRF117 and 112GRQGRL117 and appear to show maximum identities with isolates in the region such as cockatoo/14698/90 (Indonesia), Ch/2000 (China), local isolate AF2240 indicating the high similarity of isolates circulating in the South East Asian countries. Meanwhile, one of the isolates resembles commonly used lentogenic vaccine strains. On further characterization of the HN gene, Malaysian isolates had C-terminus extensions of 0, 6 and 11 amino acids. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree revealed that the existence of three genetic groups; namely, genotype II, VII and VIII. Conclusions The study concluded that the occurrence of three types of NDV genotypes and presence of varied carboxyl terminus extension lengths among Malaysian isolates incriminated for sporadic cases. PMID:20691110

  13. Molecular characterization of partial fusion gene and C-terminus extension length of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of recently isolated Newcastle disease virus isolates in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Ayalew; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul R; Bejo, Mohd Hair

    2010-08-08

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious disease of birds and has been one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. Despite routine vaccination programs, sporadic cases have occasionally occurred in the country and remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Hence, the present study was aimed to characterize NDV isolates obtained from clinical cases in various locations of Malaysia between 2004 and 2007 based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial F gene and C-terminus extension length of HN gene. The coding region of eleven NDV isolates fusion (F) gene and carboxyl terminal region of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene including extensions were amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR and directly sequenced. All the isolates have shown to have non-synonymous to synonymous base substitution rate ranging between 0.081 - 0.264 demonstrating presence of negative selection. Analysis based on F gene showed the characterized isolates possess three different types of protease cleavage site motifs; namely 112RRQKRF117, 112RRRKRF117 and 112GRQGRL117 and appear to show maximum identities with isolates in the region such as cockatoo/14698/90 (Indonesia), Ch/2000 (China), local isolate AF2240 indicating the high similarity of isolates circulating in the South East Asian countries. Meanwhile, one of the isolates resembles commonly used lentogenic vaccine strains. On further characterization of the HN gene, Malaysian isolates had C-terminus extensions of 0, 6 and 11 amino acids. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree revealed that the existence of three genetic groups; namely, genotype II, VII and VIII. The study concluded that the occurrence of three types of NDV genotypes and presence of varied carboxyl terminus extension lengths among Malaysian isolates incriminated for sporadic cases.

  14. A case of PSF-TFE3 gene fusion in Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma with melanotic features.

    PubMed

    Zhan, He-Qin; Chen, Hong; Wang, Chao-Fu; Zhu, Xiong-Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 RCC) with PSF-TFE3 gene fusion is a rare neoplasm. Only 22 cases of Xp11.2 RCCs with PSF-TFE3 have been reported to date. We describe an additional case of Xp11.2 RCC with PSF-TFE3 showing melanotic features. Microscopically, the histologic features mimic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. However, the dark-brown pigments were identified and could be demonstrated as melanins. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were widely positive for CD10, human melanoma black 45, and TFE3 but negative for cytokeratins, vimentin, Melan-A, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. Genetically, we demonstrated PSF-TFE3 fusion between exon 9 of PSF and exon 5 of TFE3. The patient was free of disease with 50 months of follow-up. The prognosis of this type of tumor requires more cases because of limited number of cases and follow-up period. Xp11.2 RCC with PSF-TFE3 inevitably requires differentiation from other kidney neoplasms. Immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analyses are essential for accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Significance of EML4-ALK Fusion Gene and Association with EGFR and KRAS Gene Mutations in 208 Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sen; Wang, Jing; Wang, Min; Wang, Yuli; Zhou, Qinghua; Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The EML4-ALK fusion gene has been recently identified in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who respond positively to ALK inhibitors. The characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese patients with NSCLC are poorly understood. Here, we report on the prevalence of EML4-ALK, EGFR status and KRAS mutations in 208 Chinese patients with NSCLC. EGFR mutations were found in 24.5% (51/208) of patients. In concordance with previous reports, these mutations were identified at high frequencies in females (47.5% vs 15.0% in males; P<0.05); never-smokers (42.3% vs 13.9% in smokers; P<0.05), and adenocarcinoma patients (44.2% vs 8.0% in non-adenocarcinoma patients; P<0.05). There were only 2.88% (6/208) patients with KRAS mutations in our study group. We identified 7 patients who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene (3.37%, 7/208), including 4 cases with variant 3 (57.1%), 2 with variant 1, and 1 with variant 2. All positive cases corresponded to female patients (11.5%, 7/61). Six of the positive cases were non-smokers (7.69%, 6/78). The incidence of EML4-ALK translocation in female, non-smoking adenocarcinoma patients was as high as 15.2% (5/33). No EGFR/KRAS mutations were detected among the EML4-ALK positive patients. Pathological analysis showed no difference between solid signet-ring cell pattern (4/7) and mucinous cribriform pattern (3/7) in ALK-positive patients. Immunostaining showed intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in primary carcinomas and 50% (3/6) of metastatic tumors with ALK-negative staining. Meta-analysis demonstrated that EML4-ALK translocation occurred in 4.84% (125/2580) of unselected patients with NSCLC, and was also predominant in non-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma. Taken together, EML4-ALK translocations were infrequent in the entire NSCLC patient population, but were frequent in the NSCLC subgroup of female, non-smoker, adenocarcinoma patients. There was intratumor heterogeneity of ALK rearrangement in

  16. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion: radiological findings mimicking papillary subtype.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Miwa, Kousei; Horie, Kengo; Deguchi, Takashi; Hirose, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of an 18-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with the Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene fusion (Xp11 translocation carcinoma). The lesion was hyperdense on unenhanced CT, hypovascular on contrast-enhanced studies, hypointense on T2-weighted MR images, and hemosiderin deposition was suspected on phase-shift gradient-echo MR images. Histopathological specimens revealed pathological findings resembling papillary RCC predominantly and exhibited immunoreactivity for TFE3. Because there is often considerable morphological overlap between this carcinoma and papillary RCC, the imaging findings of Xp11 translocation carcinoma may be similar to those of the papillary subtype. Therefore, Xp11 translocation carcinoma should be considered, particularly in young patients when radiologic images demonstrate a renal tumor mimicking the papillary subtype. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Characterization of the telomere complex, TERF1 and TERF2 genes in muntjac species with fusion karyotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Nils; Scherthan, Harry

    The telomere binding proteins TRF1 and TRF2 maintain and protect chromosome ends and confer karyotypic stability. Chromosome evolution in the genus Muntiacus is characterized by numerous tandem (end-to-end) fusions. To study TRF1 and TRF2 telomere binding proteins in Muntiacus species, we isolated and characterized the TERF1 and -2 genes from Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis; 2n = 6 female) and from Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reveesi; 2n = 46). Expression analysis revealed that both genes are ubiquitously expressed and sequence analysis identified several transcript variants of both TERF genes. Control experiments disclosed a novel testis-specific splice variant of TERF1 in humanmore » testes. Amino acid sequence comparisons demonstrate that Muntiacus TRF1 and in particular TRF2 are highly conserved between muntjac and human. In vivo TRF2-GFP and immuno-staining studies in muntjac cell lines revealed telomeric TRF2 localization, while deletion of the DNA binding domain abrogated this localization, suggesting muntjac TRF2 represents a functional telomere protein. Finally, expression analysis of a set of telomere-related genes revealed their presence in muntjac fibroblasts and testis tissue, which suggests the presence of a conserved telomere complex in muntjacs. However, a deviation from the common theme was noted for the TERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase; TERT expression could not be detected in Indian or Chinese muntjac cDNA or genomic DNA using a series of conserved primers, while TRAP assay revealed functional telomerase in Chinese muntjac testis tissues. This suggests muntjacs may harbor a diverged telomerase sequence.« less

  18. [Cloning and sequence analysis of recombinant fusion gene of Escherichia coli heat-liable enterotoxin B subunit and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbria associative protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Sun, Hong-chen; Guo, Xue-jun; Feng, Shu-zhang

    2005-02-01

    To clone the recombinant fusion gene of Escherichia coli heat-liable enterotoxin B subunit (Ltb) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbria associative protein (Fap). Two couples of primers were designed for PCR according to the known sequence of ltb and fap. The ltb and fap gene were obtained by amplification PCR technique from plasmid EWD299 of Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans 310 DNA respectively, and fused them by PCR. The fusion gene ltb-fap were cloning into plasmid pET28a(+). The recombined plasmid pET28a ltb-fap was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5alpha. The recombinant was screened and identified by restriction enzyme and PCR. The cloned gene was sequenced. The ltb-fap about 531bp in size was obtained successfully, and identified by PCR, restrictive enzyme and sequence analysis. The vector of pET28a ltb-fap was obtained.

  19. TALE-PvuII fusion proteins--novel tools for gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity.

  20. TALE-PvuII Fusion Proteins – Novel Tools for Gene Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24349308

  1. A novel CIC-FOXO4 gene fusion in undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma: a genetically distinct variant of Ewing-like sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Shintaro; Arai, Yasuhito; Tonooka, Akiko; Hama, Natsuko; Totoki, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoki; Aoyama, Tomoyuki; Asanuma, Hiroko; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kaya, Mitsunori; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas (SRCSs) grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) can be a challenging situation for pathologists. Recent studies have revealed that some groups of Ewing-like sarcoma show typical ESFT morphology but lack any EWSR1-ETS gene fusions. Here we identified a novel gene fusion, CIC-FOXO4, in a case of Ewing-like sarcoma with a t(X;19)(q13;q13.3) translocation. The patient was a 63-year-old man who had an asymptomatic, 30-mm, well-demarcated, intramuscular mass in his right posterior neck, and imaging findings suggested a diagnosis of high-grade sarcoma. He was treated with complete resection and subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. He was alive without local recurrence or distant metastasis 6 months after the operation. Histologic examination revealed SRCS with abundant desmoplastic fibrous stroma suggesting a desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed weak to moderate and partial staining for MIC2 (CD99) and WT1, respectively. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing revealed a gene fusion, and the genomic rearrangement between the CIC and FOXO4 genes was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Aside from the desmoplastic stroma, the CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma showed morphologic and immunohistochemical similarity to ESFT and Ewing-like sarcomas, including the recently described CIC-DUX4 fusion sarcoma. Although clinicopathologic analysis with additional cases is necessary, we conclude that CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma is a new type of Ewing-like sarcoma that has a specific genetic signature. These findings have important implications for the differential diagnosis of SRCS.

  2. FusionAnalyser: a new graphical, event-driven tool for fusion rearrangements discovery

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Rocco; Pirola, Alessandra; Spinelli, Roberta; Valletta, Simona; Redaelli, Sara; Magistroni, Vera; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Gene fusions are common driver events in leukaemias and solid tumours; here we present FusionAnalyser, a tool dedicated to the identification of driver fusion rearrangements in human cancer through the analysis of paired-end high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data. We initially tested FusionAnalyser by using a set of in silico randomly generated sequencing data from 20 known human translocations occurring in cancer and subsequently using transcriptome data from three chronic and three acute myeloid leukaemia samples. in all the cases our tool was invariably able to detect the presence of the correct driver fusion event(s) with high specificity. In one of the acute myeloid leukaemia samples, FusionAnalyser identified a novel, cryptic, in-frame ETS2–ERG fusion. A fully event-driven graphical interface and a flexible filtering system allow complex analyses to be run in the absence of any a priori programming or scripting knowledge. Therefore, we propose FusionAnalyser as an efficient and robust graphical tool for the identification of functional rearrangements in the context of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data. PMID:22570408

  3. FusionAnalyser: a new graphical, event-driven tool for fusion rearrangements discovery.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rocco; Pirola, Alessandra; Spinelli, Roberta; Valletta, Simona; Redaelli, Sara; Magistroni, Vera; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Gene fusions are common driver events in leukaemias and solid tumours; here we present FusionAnalyser, a tool dedicated to the identification of driver fusion rearrangements in human cancer through the analysis of paired-end high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data. We initially tested FusionAnalyser by using a set of in silico randomly generated sequencing data from 20 known human translocations occurring in cancer and subsequently using transcriptome data from three chronic and three acute myeloid leukaemia samples. in all the cases our tool was invariably able to detect the presence of the correct driver fusion event(s) with high specificity. In one of the acute myeloid leukaemia samples, FusionAnalyser identified a novel, cryptic, in-frame ETS2-ERG fusion. A fully event-driven graphical interface and a flexible filtering system allow complex analyses to be run in the absence of any a priori programming or scripting knowledge. Therefore, we propose FusionAnalyser as an efficient and robust graphical tool for the identification of functional rearrangements in the context of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data.

  4. State-of-the-Art Fusion-Finder Algorithms Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Matteo; Beccuti, Marco; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Cavallo, Federica; Cordero, Francesca; Donatelli, Susanna; Calogero, Raffaele A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Gene fusions arising from chromosomal translocations have been implicated in cancer. RNA-seq has the potential to discover such rearrangements generating functional proteins (chimera/fusion). Recently, many methods for chimeras detection have been published. However, specificity and sensitivity of those tools were not extensively investigated in a comparative way. Results. We tested eight fusion-detection tools (FusionHunter, FusionMap, FusionFinder, MapSplice, deFuse, Bellerophontes, ChimeraScan, and TopHat-fusion) to detect fusion events using synthetic and real datasets encompassing chimeras. The comparison analysis run only on synthetic data could generate misleading results since we found no counterpart on real dataset. Furthermore, most tools report a very high number of false positive chimeras. In particular, the most sensitive tool, ChimeraScan, reports a large number of false positives that we were able to significantly reduce by devising and applying two filters to remove fusions not supported by fusion junction-spanning reads or encompassing large intronic regions. Conclusions. The discordant results obtained using synthetic and real datasets suggest that synthetic datasets encompassing fusion events may not fully catch the complexity of RNA-seq experiment. Moreover, fusion detection tools are still limited in sensitivity or specificity; thus, there is space for further improvement in the fusion-finder algorithms. PMID:23555082

  5. A novel type of EWS-CHOP fusion gene in myxoid liposarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Yoshito; Ueda, Takafumi; Kubo, Takahiro

    2006-09-22

    The cytogenetic hallmark of myxoid type and round cell type liposarcoma consists of reciprocal translocation of t(12;16)(q13;p11) and t(12;22)(q13;q12), which results in fusion of TLS/FUS and CHOP, and EWS and CHOP, respectively. Nine structural variations of the TLS/FUS-CHOP chimeric transcript have been reported, however, only two types of EWS-CHOP have been described. We describe here a case of myxoid liposarcoma containing a novel EWS-CHOP chimeric transcript and identified the breakpoint occurring in intron 13 of EWS. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence showed that exon 13 of EWS was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. Genomic analysis revealedmore » that the breaks were located in intron 13 of EWS and intron 1 of CHOP.« less

  6. Overcoming resistance to single-agent therapy for oncogenic BRAF gene fusions via combinatorial targeting of MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Payal; Silva, Amanda; Han, Harry J.; Lang, Shih-Shan; Zhu, Yuankun; Boucher, Katie; Smith, Tiffany E.; Vakil, Aesha; Diviney, Patrick; Choudhari, Namrata; Raman, Pichai; Busch, Christine M.; Delaney, Tim; Yang, Xiaodong; Olow, Aleksandra K.; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fox, Elizabeth; Storm, Phillip B.; Resnick, Adam C.; Waanders, Angela J.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are frequently associated with activating BRAF gene fusions, such as KIAA1549-BRAF, that aberrantly drive the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Although RAF inhibitors (RAFi) have been proven effective in BRAF-V600E mutant tumors, we have previously shown how the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion can be paradoxically activated by RAFi. While newer classes of RAFi, such as PLX8394, have now been shown to inhibit MAPK activation by KIAA1549-BRAF, we sought to identify alternative MAPK pathway targeting strategies using clinically relevant MEK inhibitors (MEKi), along with potential escape mechanisms of acquired resistance to single-agent MAPK pathway therapies. We demonstrate effectiveness of multiple MEKi against diverse BRAF-fusions with novel N-terminal partners, with trametinib being the most potent. However, resistance to MEKi or PLX8394 develops via increased RTK expression causing activation of PI3K/mTOR pathway in BRAF-fusion expressing resistant clones. To circumvent acquired resistance, we show potency of combinatorial targeting with trametinib and everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor (mTORi) against multiple BRAF-fusions. While single-agent mTORi and MEKi PLGG clinical trials are underway, our study provides preclinical rationales for using MEKi and mTORi combinatorial therapy to stave off or prevent emergent drug-resistance in BRAF-fusion driven PLGGs. PMID:29156677

  7. Inferences on the evolutionary history of the Drosophila americana polymorphic X/4 fusion from patterns of polymorphism at the X-linked paralytic and elav genes.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Cristina P; Coelho, Paula A; Vieira, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    In Drosophila there is limited evidence on the nature of evolutionary forces affecting chromosomal arrangements other than inversions. The study of the X/4 fusion polymorphism of Drosophila americana is thus of interest. Polymorphism patterns at the paralytic (para) gene, located at the base of the X chromosome, suggest that there is suppressed crossing over in this region between fusion and nonfusion chromosomes but not within fusion and nonfusion chromosomes. These data are thus compatible with previous claims that within fusion chromosomes the amino acid clines found at fused1 (also located at the base of the X chromosome) are likely maintained by local selection. The para data set also suggests a young age of the X/4 fusion. Polymorphism data on para and elav (located at the middle region of the X chromosome) suggest that there is no population structure other than that caused by the X/4 fusion itself. These findings are therefore compatible with previous claims that selection maintains the strong association observed between the methionine/threonine variants at fused1 and the status of the X chromosome as fused or unfused to the fourth chromosome. PMID:12930752

  8. Fusion of the Human Gene for the Polyubiquitination Coeffector UEV1 with Kua, a Newly Identified Gene

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Timothy M.; Lozano, Juan José; Loukili, Noureddine; Carrió, Roberto; Serras, Florenci; Cormand, Bru; Valeri, Marta; Díaz, Víctor M.; Abril, Josep; Burset, Moisés; Merino, Jesús; Macaya, Alfons; Corominas, Montserrat; Guigó, Roderic

    2000-01-01

    UEV proteins are enzymatically inactive variants of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that regulate noncanonical elongation of ubiquitin chains. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UEV is part of the RAD6-mediated error-free DNA repair pathway. In mammalian cells, UEV proteins can modulate c-FOS transcription and the G2-M transition of the cell cycle. Here we show that the UEV genes from phylogenetically distant organisms present a remarkable conservation in their exon–intron structure. We also show that the human UEV1 gene is fused with the previously unknown gene Kua. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, Kua and UEV are in separated loci, and are expressed as independent transcripts and proteins. In humans, Kua and UEV1 are adjacent genes, expressed either as separate transcripts encoding independent Kua and UEV1 proteins, or as a hybrid Kua–UEV transcript, encoding a two-domain protein. Kua proteins represent a novel class of conserved proteins with juxtamembrane histidine-rich motifs. Experiments with epitope-tagged proteins show that UEV1A is a nuclear protein, whereas both Kua and Kua–UEV localize to cytoplasmic structures, indicating that the Kua domain determines the cytoplasmic localization of Kua–UEV. Therefore, the addition of a Kua domain to UEV in the fused Kua–UEV protein confers new biological properties to this regulator of variant polyubiquitination. [Kua cDNAs isolated by RT-PCR and described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library under accession nos. AF1155120 (H. sapiens) and AF152361 (D. melanogaster). Genomic clones containing UEV genes: S. cerevisiae, YGL087c (accession no. Z72609); S. pombe, c338 (accession no. AL023781); P. falciparum, MAL3P2 (accession no. AL034558); A. thaliana, F26F24 (accession no. AC005292); C. elegans, F39B2 (accession no. Z92834); D. melanogaster, AC014908; and H. sapiens, 1185N5 (accession no. AL034423). Accession numbers for Kua cDNAs in GenBank dbEST: M. musculus, AA

  9. Identifying Growth Conditions for Nicotiana benthimiana Resulting in Predictable Gene Expression of Promoter-Gus Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, V.; Barton, K.; Longhurst, A.

    2012-12-01

    Revoluta (Rev) is a transcription factor that establishes leaf polarity inArabidopsis thaliana. Through previous work in Dr. Barton's Lab, it is known that Revoluta binds to the ZPR3 promoter, thus activating the ZPR3 gene product inArabidopsis thaliana. Using this knowledge, two separate DNA constructs were made, one carrying revgene and in the other, the ZPR3 promoter fussed with the GUS gene. When inoculated in Nicotiana benthimiana (tobacco), the pMDC32 plasmid produces the Rev protein. Rev binds to the ZPR3 promoter thereby activating the transcription of the GUS gene, which can only be expressed in the presence of Rev. When GUS protein comes in contact with X-Gluc it produce the blue stain seen (See Figure 1). In the past, variability has been seen of GUS expression on tobacco therefore we hypothesized that changing the growing conditions and leaf age might improve how well it's expressed.

  10. A Novel Fission Yeast Gene, tht1 +, Is Required for the Fusion of Nuclear Envelopes during Karyogamy

    PubMed Central

    Tange, Yoshie; Horio, Tetsuya; Shimanuki, Mizuki; Ding, Da-Qiao; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Niwa, Osami

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated a fission yeast karyogamy mutant, tht1, in which nuclear congression and the association of two spindle pole bodies occurs but the subsequent fusion of nuclear envelopes is blocked. The tht1 mutation does not prevent meiosis, so cells execute meiosis with two unfused nuclei, leading to the production of aberrant asci. The tht1 + gene was cloned and sequenced. Predicted amino acid sequence has no significant homology to previously known proteins but strongly suggests that it is a type I membrane protein. The tht1 + gene is dispensable for vegetative growth and expressed only in conjugating cells. Tht1p is a glycoprotein susceptible to endoglycosilase H digestion. Site- directed mutagenesis showed that the N-glycosylation site, as well as the COOH-terminal region of Tht1p, is essential for its function. A protease protection assay indicated that the COOH terminus is cytoplasmic. Immunocytological analysis using a HA-tagged Tht1p suggested that the protein is localized in nuclear envelopes and in the ER during karyogamy and that its levels are reduced in cells containing fused nuclei. PMID:9442101

  11. A dual function fusion protein of Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and firefly luciferase for noninvasive in vivo imaging of gene therapy in malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Söling, Ariane; Theiss, Christian; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Rainov, Nikolai G

    2004-08-04

    BACKGROUND: Suicide gene therapy employing the prodrug activating system Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ ganciclovir (GCV) has proven to be effective in killing experimental brain tumors. In contrast, glioma patients treated with HSV-TK/ GCV did not show significant treatment benefit, most likely due to insufficient transgene delivery to tumor cells. Therefore, this study aimed at developing a strategy for real-time noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the activity of a therapeutic gene in brain tumor cells. METHODS: The HSV-TK gene was fused to the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene and the fusion construct HSV-TK-Luc was expressed in U87MG human malignant glioma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous gliomas stably expressing HSV-TK-Luc were subjected to GCV treatment and tumor response to therapy was monitored in vivo by serial bioluminescence imaging. Bioluminescent signals over time were compared with tumor volumes determined by caliper. RESULTS: Transient and stable expression of the HSV-TK-Luc fusion protein in U87MG glioma cells demonstrated close correlation of both enzyme activities. Serial optical imaging of tumor bearing mice detected in all cases GCV induced death of tumor cells expressing the fusion protein and proved that bioluminescence can be reliably used for repetitive and noninvasive quantification of HSV-TK/ GCV mediated cell kill in vivo. CONCLUSION: This approach may represent a valuable tool for the in vivo evaluation of gene therapy strategies for treatment of malignant disease.

  12. Small Molecule Disrupts Abnormal Gene Fusion Associated with Leukemia | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Rare chromosomal abnormalities, called chromosomal translocations, in which part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome, can result in the generation of chimeric proteins. These aberrant proteins have unpredictable, and sometimes harmful, functions, including uncontrolled cell growth that can lead to cancer. One type of translocation, in which a portion of the gene encoding nucleoporin 98 (NUP98)—one of about 50 proteins comprising the nuclear pore complex through which proteins are shuttled into and out of the nucleus—fuses with another gene, has been shown to result in improper histone modifications. These abnormalities alter the gene expression patterns of certain types of hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells, resulting primarily in overexpression of the Hoxa7, Hoxa9,and Hoxa10 genes. NUP98 chromosomal translocations have been associated with many types of leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (CML-bc), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

  13. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and hypereosinophilic syndrome with FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene effectively treated with imatinib: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayo; Ikuta, Katsuya; Toki, Yasumichi; Hatayama, Mayumi; Shindo, Motohiro; Torimoto, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-09-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder characterized by hypereosinophilia and organ damage. Some cases of HES are caused by the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene and respond to imatinib. FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive HES occasionally evolves into chronic eosinophilic leukemia or into another form of myeloproliferative neoplasm; however, the development of a malignant lymphoma is very rare. We present a rare case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and HES with the FIP1L1/PDGFRA gene rearrangement. A man in his 30s presented to our hospital with fever, hypereosinophilia, widespread lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. Laboratory tests showed hypereosinophilia, increased soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and increased vitamin B12. Positron-emission tomography with F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed positive FDG uptake in multiple enlarged lymph nodes throughout the body and the red bone marrow. A bone-marrow biopsy showed hypereosinophilia without dysplasia and an increased number of blasts. The FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene was positive upon fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the peripheral blood. Furthermore, biopsy of a lymph node from the neck revealed restiform hyperplasia of capillary vessels, with small lymphoma cells arranged around the capillaries. Lymphoma cells were positive for CD3, CD4, and CD10, and negative for CD20. Lymphoma cells were also positive for the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene by FISH analysis. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed with HES and AITL with FIP1L1/PDGFRA. After the diagnosis, corticosteroid was administered but was ineffective. Imatinib was then administered. Imatinib was very effective for treating HES and AITL, and complete remission was achieved in both. This report presents the first case in which the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene was positive both in peripheral blood and lymph nodes, implying the possibility that the tumor cells acquired the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene in the early stage of hematopoietic

  14. Novel BCOR-MAML3 and ZC3H7B-BCOR Gene Fusions in Undifferentiated Small Blue Round Cell Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Katja; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Nucci, Marisa; Dry, Sarah; Vaiyapuri, Sumathi; Richter, Gunther HS; Fletcher, Christopher DM; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-01-01

    Small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) are a heterogenous group of tumors that are difficult to diagnose due to overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical and clinical features. About two-thirds of EWSR1-negative SBRCTs are associated with CIC-DUX4 related fusions, while another small subset shows BCOR-CCNB3 X-chromosomal paracentric inversion. Applying paired-end RNA sequencing to an SBRCT index case of a 44 year-old male, we identified a novel BCOR-MAML3 chimeric fusion, which was validated by RT-PCR and FISH techniques. We then screened a total of 75 SBRCTs lacking EWSR1, FUS, SYT, CIC and BCOR-CCNB3 abnormalities, for BCOR break-apart probes by FISH to detect potential recurrent BCOR gene rearrangements, outside the typical X-chromosomal inversion. Indeed, 8/75 (11%) SBRCTs showed distinct BCOR gene rearrangements, with 2 cases each showing either a BCOR-MAML3 or the alternative ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, while no fusion partner was detected in the remaining 4 cases. Gene expression of the BCOR-MAML3 positive index case showed a distinct transcriptional profile with upregulation of HOX-gene signature, compared to classic Ewing sarcoma or CIC-DUX4-positive SBRCTs. The clinicopathologic features of the SRBCTs with alternative BCOR rearrangements were also compared with a group of BCOR-CCNB3 inversion positive cases, combining 11 from our files with a meta-analysis of 42 published cases. The BCOR-CCNB3-positive tumors occurred preferentially in children and in bone, in contrast to alternative BCOR-rearranged SBRCTs which presented in young adults, with a variable anatomic distribution. Furthermore BCOR-rearranged tumors often displayed spindle cell areas, either well-defined in intersecting fascicles or blending with the round cell component, which appears distinct from most other fusion-positive SBRCTs and shares histologic overlap with poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma. PMID:26752546

  15. Novel cancer gene variants and gene fusions of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) reveal their molecular diversity conserved in the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeyun; Jang, Kiwon; Ju, Jung Min; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Sae Byul; Ko, Beom Seok; Son, Byung Ho; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei Yeon; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Singh, Shree Ram; Chang, Suhwan

    2018-08-01

    Despite the improved 5-year survival rate of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenge due to lack of effective targeted therapy and higher recurrence and metastasis than other subtypes. To identify novel druggable targets and to understand its unique biology, we tried to implement 24 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of TNBC. The overall success rate of PDX implantation was 45%, much higher than estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed conserved ER/PR/Her2 negativity (with two exceptions) between the original and PDX tumors. Genomic analysis of 10 primary tumor-PDX pairs with Ion AmpliSeq CCP revealed high degree of variant conservation (85.0%-96.9%) between primary and PDXs. Further analysis showed 44 rare variants with a predicted high impact in 36 genes including Trp53, Pten, Notch1, and Col1a1. Among them, we confirmed frequent Notch1 variant. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of 24 PDXs revealed 594 gene fusions, of which 163 were in-frame, including AZGP1-GJC3 and NF1-AARSD1. Finally, western blot analysis of oncogenic signaling proteins supporting molecular diversity of TNBC PDXs. Overall, our report provides a molecular basis for the usefulness of the TNBC PDX model in preclinical study. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Winarti, Ni Wayan; Argani, Pedram; De Marzo, Angelo M; Hicks, Jessica; Mulyadi, Ketut

    2008-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in children and young adults is rare and pathologically problematic. RCC can be either hereditary or sporadic and has a guarded prognosis because appropriate management has not been established. A case of RCC in an 11-year-old is reported. The clinical presentation was a right abdominal mass, hematuria, urinary tract infection, and wasting. Radio-logically, the mass was found within the right kidney with calcification and paraaortic lymphadenopathy. The postsurgical diagnosis was Wilms' tumor stage T4N2M0. On gross inspection, the tumor was ill defined, extending across Gerota's fascia and into the ureter lumina. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of malignant epithelial cells with clear and eosinophilic cytoplasm in nested, papillary, and alveolar configuration. Hyaline nodules, psammoma bodies, vascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension into the ureter were also found. Immunohistochemically, the cells showed strong nuclear immunoreactivity for TFE3. We concluded that this case was an RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 fusion, Fuhrman grade 3, stage IV.

  17. Identification of a novel HLA-A*02:01-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope derived from the EML4-ALK fusion gene

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIMURA, MAYUKO; TADA, YOSHITAKA; OFUZI, KAZUYA; YAMAMOTO, MASAKAZU; NAKATSURA, TETSUYA

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a promising new approach to cancer treatment. It has been demonstrated that a high number of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) is associated with increased disease-specific survival in lung cancer patients. Identification of superior CTL epitopes from tumor antigens is essential for the development of immunotherapy for malignant tumors. The EML4-ALK fusion gene was recently identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In this study we searched for HLA-A*02:01- and HLA-A*24:02-restricted epitopes derived from EML4-ALK by screening predicted EML4-ALK-derived candidate peptides for the induction of tumor-reactive CTLs. Nine EML4-ALK-derived peptides were selected by a computer algorithm based on a permissive HLA-A*02:01 or HLA-A*24:02 binding motif. One of the nine peptides induced peptide-specific CTLs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We were able to generate a peptide-specific CTL clone. This CTL clone specifically recognized peptide-pulsed T2 cells and H2228 cells expressing HLA-A*02:01 and EML4-ALK that had been treated with IFN-γ 48 h prior to examination. CTL activity was inhibited by an anti-HLA-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32), consistent with a class I-restricted mechanism of cytotoxicity. These results suggest that this peptide (RLSALESRV) is a novel HLA-A*02:01-restricted CTL epitope and that it may be a new target for antigen-specific immunotherapy against EML4-ALK-positive cancers. PMID:24842630

  18. Identification of a novel HLA-A 02:01-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope derived from the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mayuko; Tada, Yoshitaka; Ofuzi, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2014-07-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a promising new approach to cancer treatment. It has been demonstrated that a high number of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) is associated with increased disease-specific survival in lung cancer patients. Identification of superior CTL epitopes from tumor antigens is essential for the development of immunotherapy for malignant tumors. The EML4-ALK fusion gene was recently identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In this study we searched for HLA-A 02:01- and HLA-A 24:02‑restricted epitopes derived from EML4-ALK by screening predicted EML4-ALK‑derived candidate peptides for the induction of tumor‑reactive CTLs. Nine EML4-ALK‑derived peptides were selected by a computer algorithm based on a permissive HLA-A 02:01 or HLA-A 24:02 binding motif. One of the nine peptides induced peptide-specific CTLs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We were able to generate a peptide‑specific CTL clone. This CTL clone specifically recognized peptide‑pulsed T2 cells and H2228 cells expressing HLA-A 02:01 and EML4-ALK that had been treated with IFN-γ 48 h prior to examination. CTL activity was inhibited by an anti-HLA‑class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32), consistent with a class I-restricted mechanism of cytotoxicity. These results suggest that this peptide (RLSALESRV) is a novel HLA-A 02:01-restricted CTL epitope and that it may be a new target for antigen-specific immunotherapy against EML4‑ALK-positive cancers.

  19. Functional Impact and Evolution of a Novel Human Polymorphic Inversion That Disrupts a Gene and Creates a Fusion Transcript

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Marta; Castellano, David; Pantano, Lorena; Giner-Delgado, Carla; Izquierdo, David; Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Lucas-Lledó, José Ignacio; Esko, Tõnu; Terao, Chikashi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Cáceres, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of study into inversions, very little is known about their functional consequences, especially in humans. A common hypothesis is that the selective value of inversions stems in part from their effects on nearby genes, although evidence of this in natural populations is almost nonexistent. Here we present a global analysis of a new 415-kb polymorphic inversion that is among the longest ones found in humans and is the first with clear position effects. This inversion is located in chromosome 19 and has been generated by non-homologous end joining between blocks of transposable elements with low identity. PCR genotyping in 541 individuals from eight different human populations allowed the detection of tag SNPs and inversion genotyping in multiple populations worldwide, showing that the inverted allele is mainly found in East Asia with an average frequency of 4.7%. Interestingly, one of the breakpoints disrupts the transcription factor gene ZNF257, causing a significant reduction in the total expression level of this gene in lymphoblastoid cell lines. RNA-Seq analysis of the effects of this expression change in standard homozygotes and inversion heterozygotes revealed distinct expression patterns that were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, we have found a new fusion transcript that is generated exclusively from inverted chromosomes around one of the breakpoints. Finally, by the analysis of the associated nucleotide variation, we have estimated that the inversion was generated ~40,000–50,000 years ago and, while a neutral evolution cannot be ruled out, its current frequencies are more consistent with those expected for a deleterious variant, although no significant association with phenotypic traits has been found so far. PMID:26427027

  20. Functional Impact and Evolution of a Novel Human Polymorphic Inversion That Disrupts a Gene and Creates a Fusion Transcript.

    PubMed

    Puig, Marta; Castellano, David; Pantano, Lorena; Giner-Delgado, Carla; Izquierdo, David; Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Lucas-Lledó, José Ignacio; Esko, Tõnu; Terao, Chikashi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Cáceres, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Despite many years of study into inversions, very little is known about their functional consequences, especially in humans. A common hypothesis is that the selective value of inversions stems in part from their effects on nearby genes, although evidence of this in natural populations is almost nonexistent. Here we present a global analysis of a new 415-kb polymorphic inversion that is among the longest ones found in humans and is the first with clear position effects. This inversion is located in chromosome 19 and has been generated by non-homologous end joining between blocks of transposable elements with low identity. PCR genotyping in 541 individuals from eight different human populations allowed the detection of tag SNPs and inversion genotyping in multiple populations worldwide, showing that the inverted allele is mainly found in East Asia with an average frequency of 4.7%. Interestingly, one of the breakpoints disrupts the transcription factor gene ZNF257, causing a significant reduction in the total expression level of this gene in lymphoblastoid cell lines. RNA-Seq analysis of the effects of this expression change in standard homozygotes and inversion heterozygotes revealed distinct expression patterns that were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, we have found a new fusion transcript that is generated exclusively from inverted chromosomes around one of the breakpoints. Finally, by the analysis of the associated nucleotide variation, we have estimated that the inversion was generated ~40,000-50,000 years ago and, while a neutral evolution cannot be ruled out, its current frequencies are more consistent with those expected for a deleterious variant, although no significant association with phenotypic traits has been found so far.

  1. Efficient Knock-in of a Point Mutation in Porcine Fibroblasts Using the CRISPR/Cas9-GMNN Fusion Gene.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Max; Kraft, Theresia; Brenner, Bernhard; Petersen, Björn; Niemann, Heiner; Montag, Judith

    2018-06-13

    During CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing, site-specific double strand breaks are introduced and repaired either unspecific by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or sequence dependent by homology directed repair (HDR). Whereas NHEJ-based generation of gene knock-out is widely performed, the HDR-based knock-in of specific mutations remains a bottleneck. Especially in primary cell lines that are essential for the generation of cell culture and animal models of inherited human diseases, knock-in efficacy is insufficient and needs significant improvement. Here, we tested two different approaches to increase the knock-in frequency of a specific point mutation into the MYH7 -gene in porcine fetal fibroblasts. We added a small molecule inhibitor of NHEJ, SCR7 (5,6-bis((E)-benzylideneamino)-2-mercaptopyrimidin-4-ol), during genome editing and screened cell cultures for the point mutation. However, this approach did not yield increased knock-in rates. In an alternative approach, we fused humanized Cas9 (hCas9) to the N-terminal peptide of the Geminin gene ( GMNN ). The fusion protein is degraded in NHEJ-dominated cell cycle phases, which should increase HDR-rates. Using hCas9- GMNN and point mutation-specific real time PCR screening, we found a two-fold increase in genome edited cell cultures. This increase of HDR by hCas9- GMNN provides a promising way to enrich specific knock-in in porcine fibroblast cultures for somatic cloning approaches.

  2. A case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring exon 19 EGFR deletion and EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Qiong; Li, Xuefei; Zhou, Caicun

    2013-08-01

    We report a man with advanced adenocarcinoma who harboring exon 19 (E746-A750del) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) deletion and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) gene translocation in the re-biospy specimen. The patient was treated with erlotinib with a stable disease but progressed slowly, while crizotinib showed a complete response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological study of EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK fusion genes among Indian patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Doval, Dc; Prabhash, K; Patil, S; Chaturvedi, H; Goswami, C; Vaid, Ak; Desai, S; Dutt, S; Veldore, Vh; Jambhekar, N; Mehta, A; Hazarika, D; Azam, S; Gawande, S; Gupta, S

    2015-01-01

    Mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a common feature observed in lung adenocarcinoma. A fusion gene between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and the intracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), named EML4-ALK, has been identified in a subset of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK fusions in Indian patients with NSCLC (adenocarcinoma) as well as evaluate their clinical characteristics. Patients with NSCLC, adenocarcinoma histology, whose tumors had been tested for EGFR mutational status, were considered for this study. ALK gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the Vysis ALK Break Apart Rearrangement Probe Kit. ALK mutation was tested in samples that were negative for EGFR mutation. A total of 500 NSCLC adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled across six centers. There were 337 (67.4%) men and 163 (32.6%) women with a median age of 58 years. One hundred and sixty-four (32.8%) blocks were positive for EGFR mutations, whereas 336 (67.2%) were EGFR wild-type. Of the 336 EGFR-negative blocks, EML4-ALK fusion gene was present in 15 (4.5%) patients, whereas 321 (95.5%) tumors were EML4-ALK negative. The overall incidence of EML4-ALK fusion gene was 3% (15/500). The incidence of EGFR mutations (33%) in this Indian population is close to the reported incidence in Asian patients. EML4-ALK gene fusions are present in lung adenocarcinomas from Indian patients, and the 3% incidence of EML4-ALK gene fusion in EGFR mutation-negative cases is similar to what has been observed in other Western and Asian populations. The mutual exclusivity of EML4-ALK and EGFR mutations suggests implementation of biomarker testing for tumors harboring ALK rearrangements in order to identify patients that can benefit from newer targeted therapies.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions: clinical experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Chen, Xiancheng; Gan, Weidong; Zhu, Bin; Fan, Xiangshan; Guo, Hongqian; Jia, Ruipeng

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinicopathological features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2 RCC) in our institution. We screened 983 RCC specimens. TFE3 immunohistochemical staining and FISH assay confirmed 22 Xp11.2 RCCs out of 65 suspicious cases. Clinicopathological and treatment outcomes of 22 patients were retrospectively analyzed. In total, 22 patients included 13 females and nine males with a mean age of 27 years. Ten patients showed gross hematuria. Treatments included surgeries, immunotherapy and molecular-targeted therapy. Seven cases were at stage III/IV and four cases had tumor thrombosis or distant metastasis. During a median follow-up of 34 months, 19 patients were alive while three died of distant metastasis. Xp11.2 RCC is rare and FISH proved a useful diagnostic tool. Surgical resection achieved favorable outcome for early disease. Adult patients at advanced stage had poorer outcomes even with postoperative adjuvant therapy.

  5. Postoperative recurrence of adult renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Liu, Ning; Gan, Weidong; Li, Xiaogong; Zhang, Gutian; Li, Dongmei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-08-01

    Objective To analyze the postoperative recurrence of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 tRCC). Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and performed in accordance with the ethical standards established by the institution. Demographic, clinical, pathological, and follow-up data were compiled for the study cohort. Results During a mean follow-up of 41.3 months (range, 3-104 months), 8 of 34 patients with Xp11.2 tRCC were confirmed to have recurrence. Three of these patients died with poor outcomes due to a vena cava tumor embolus, and one died of distant metastasis 48 months after the initial nephrectomy during which lymph node metastasis was found. Three patients survived after cytoreduction surgery. One patient was diagnosed with lung metastasis 11 months postoperatively. Conclusions The TNM classification provides significant prognostic information for Xp11.2 tRCC. A relatively active surveillance algorithm is recommended, and cytoreduction surgery is an effective approach for recurrent Xp11.2 tRCC. Larger studies are required to more extensively investigate the recurrence of these potentially aggressive tumors.

  6. Ultrasonographic Findings of Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wenwu; Ma, Xuelei; Luo, Yan; Chen, Linyan; Wang, Huiyao; Wang, Xiaoling; Chen, Ni; Zeng, Hao; Li, Yongzhong; Cai, Diming

    2017-01-01

    This study was to investigate the features of renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2-RCC) on conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). US and CEUS features of twenty-two cases with histopathologically proven Xp11.2-RCC were retrospectively reviewed. 22 patients (11 males, 11 females) were included in this study, with a mean age of 28.3 ± 20.4 years. Eight tumors (36.3%, 8/22) were in left kidney, and 14 tumors (63.7%, 14/22) were in right kidney. All tumors (100%, 22/22) were mixed echogenicity type. 13 tumors (59.1%, 13/22) presented small dotted calcifications. The boundary of 14 tumors (63.6%, 14/22) was sharp and the other 8 tumors' (36.4%, 8/22) boundary was blurry. By CEUS, in early phase, the solid element of all tumors showed obvious enhancement. In delayed phase, 13 tumors showed hypoenhancement, seven tumors showed isoenhancement, and 2 tumors showed hyperenhancement. There were irregular nonenhancement areas in all tumors inside. By US and CEUS, when children and adolescents were found to have hyperechoic mixed tumor in kidney with sharp margin and calcification, and the tumors showed obvious enhancement and hypoenhancement with irregular nonenhancement areas in the tumor in early phase and delayed phase, respectively, Xp11.2-RCC should be suspected.

  7. Ultrasonographic Findings of Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the features of renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2-RCC) on conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Methods US and CEUS features of twenty-two cases with histopathologically proven Xp11.2-RCC were retrospectively reviewed. Results 22 patients (11 males, 11 females) were included in this study, with a mean age of 28.3 ± 20.4 years. Eight tumors (36.3%, 8/22) were in left kidney, and 14 tumors (63.7%, 14/22) were in right kidney. All tumors (100%, 22/22) were mixed echogenicity type. 13 tumors (59.1%, 13/22) presented small dotted calcifications. The boundary of 14 tumors (63.6%, 14/22) was sharp and the other 8 tumors' (36.4%, 8/22) boundary was blurry. By CEUS, in early phase, the solid element of all tumors showed obvious enhancement. In delayed phase, 13 tumors showed hypoenhancement, seven tumors showed isoenhancement, and 2 tumors showed hyperenhancement. There were irregular nonenhancement areas in all tumors inside. Conclusions By US and CEUS, when children and adolescents were found to have hyperechoic mixed tumor in kidney with sharp margin and calcification, and the tumors showed obvious enhancement and hypoenhancement with irregular nonenhancement areas in the tumor in early phase and delayed phase, respectively, Xp11.2-RCC should be suspected. PMID:29333109

  8. Postoperative recurrence of adult renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Liu, Ning; Li, Xiaogong; Zhang, Gutian; Li, Dongmei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To analyze the postoperative recurrence of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 tRCC). Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and performed in accordance with the ethical standards established by the institution. Demographic, clinical, pathological, and follow-up data were compiled for the study cohort. Results During a mean follow-up of 41.3 months (range, 3–104 months), 8 of 34 patients with Xp11.2 tRCC were confirmed to have recurrence. Three of these patients died with poor outcomes due to a vena cava tumor embolus, and one died of distant metastasis 48 months after the initial nephrectomy during which lymph node metastasis was found. Three patients survived after cytoreduction surgery. One patient was diagnosed with lung metastasis 11 months postoperatively. Conclusions The TNM classification provides significant prognostic information for Xp11.2 tRCC. A relatively active surveillance algorithm is recommended, and cytoreduction surgery is an effective approach for recurrent Xp11.2 tRCC. Larger studies are required to more extensively investigate the recurrence of these potentially aggressive tumors. PMID:28587544

  9. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated With Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene-fusion: A Long Response to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rua Fernández, Oliver R; Escala Cornejo, Roberto; Navarro Martín, Miguel; García Muñoz, María; Antunez Plaza, Patricia; García Dominguez, Aracely Rocío; Cruz Hernández, Juan J

    2018-04-24

    To demonstrate that patients with Xp11.2/TFE3 gene-fusion translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), despite having an aggressive course in young adults, could have valid treatment options such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors with good outcomes. Furthermore, to explain possible mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibitors in this type of RCC. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who has been treated with everolimus for a Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene-fusion RCC after 2 previous failed treatments with tyrosine kinase inhibitor. During the follow-up, we evaluated type and duration of response with everolimus. The patient obtained a long-lasting response of disease of 25 months with everolimus without any symptom. We believe that mTOR inhibitors could be a good line option treatment to consider for this type of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new microcolumn-type microchip for examining the expression of chimeric fusion genes using a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Michihiro; Sasaki, Naoyuki; Kishimoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Shuki; Kishii, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Akio

    2014-11-01

    We report a new type of microcolumn installed in a microchip. The architecture allows use of a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique to detect a messenger RNA (mRNA) chain as a target. Data are presented that demonstrate that the expression of a chimeric fusion gene can be detected. The microcolumn was filled with semi-transparent microbeads made of agarose gel that acted as carriers, allowing increased efficiency of the optical detection of fluorescence from the microcolumn. The hybrid between the target trapped on the microbeads and a probe DNA labeled with a fluorescent dye was detected by measuring the intensity of the fluorescence from the microcolumn directly. These results demonstrate an easy and simple method for determining the expression of chimeric fusion genes with no preamplification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical framework for next generation sequencing based analysis of treatment predictive mutations and multiplexed gene fusion detection in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Levéen, Per; Brunnström, Hans; Reuterswärd, Christel; Holm, Karolina; Jönsson, Mats; Annersten, Karin; Rosengren, Frida; Jirström, Karin; Kosieradzki, Jaroslaw; Ek, Lars; Borg, Åke; Planck, Maria; Jönsson, Göran; Staaf, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine requires accurate multi-gene clinical diagnostics. We describe the implementation of an Illumina TruSight Tumor (TST) clinical NGS diagnostic framework and parallel validation of a NanoString RNA-based ALK, RET, and ROS1 gene fusion assay for combined analysis of treatment predictive alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a regional healthcare region of Sweden (Scandinavia). The TST panel was clinically validated in 81 tumors (99% hotspot mutation concordance), after which 533 consecutive NSCLCs were collected during one-year of routine clinical analysis in the healthcare region (˜90% advanced stage patients). The NanoString assay was evaluated in 169 of 533 cases. In the 533-sample cohort 79% had 1-2 variants, 12% >2 variants and 9% no detected variants. Ten gene fusions (five ALK, three RET, two ROS1) were detected in 135 successfully analyzed cases (80% analysis success rate). No ALK or ROS1 FISH fusion positive case was missed by the NanoString assay. Stratification of the 533-sample cohort based on actionable alterations in 11 oncogenes revealed that 66% of adenocarcinomas, 13% of squamous carcinoma (SqCC) and 56% of NSCLC not otherwise specified harbored ≥1 alteration. In adenocarcinoma, 10.6% of patients (50.3% if including KRAS) could potentially be eligible for emerging therapeutics, in addition to the 15.3% of patients eligible for standard EGFR or ALK inhibitors. For squamous carcinoma corresponding proportions were 4.4% (11.1% with KRAS) vs 2.2%. In conclusion, multiplexed NGS and gene fusion analyses are feasible in NSCLC for clinical diagnostics, identifying notable proportions of patients potentially eligible for emerging molecular therapeutics. PMID:28415793

  12. Germline mutations in ABL1 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Charng, Wu-Lin; Chen, Chun-An; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Al Shamsi, Aisha; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; McGuire, Marianne; Mew, Nicholas Ah; Arnold, Georgianne L; Qu, Chunjing; Ding, Yan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Xia, Fan; Plon, Sharon E; Lupski, James R; Schaaf, Christian P; Yang, Yaping

    2017-04-01

    ABL1 is a proto-oncogene well known as part of the fusion gene BCR-ABL1 in the Philadelphia chromosome of leukemia cancer cells. Inherited germline ABL1 changes have not been associated with genetic disorders. Here we report ABL1 germline variants cosegregating with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, skeletal abnormalities, and failure to thrive. The variant c.734A>G (p.Tyr245Cys) was found to occur de novo or cosegregate with disease in five individuals (families 1-3). Additionally, a de novo c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr) variant was identified in a sixth individual (family 4). We overexpressed the mutant constructs in HEK 293T cells and observed increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting increased ABL1 kinase activities associated with both the p.Tyr245Cys and p.Ala356Thr substitutions. Our clinical and experimental findings, together with previously reported teratogenic effects of selective BCR-ABL inhibitors in humans and developmental defects in Abl1 knockout mice, suggest that ABL1 has an important role during organismal development.

  13. Diagnostic pitfall on the histological spectrum of adult-onset renal carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Katto, Kazunobu; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamaguchi, Tadanori; Inoue, Kaori; Ohara, Masahiko; Mizuno, Keiko; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion recently has been found. In this article, we demonstrate an unusual features of such a case. A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with macroscopic hematuria. The imaging examinations disclosed the renal tumor. Histological examination showed the finding of ASPL-TFE3 RCC, which was characterized by papillary, alveolar, or solid growth of voluminous cell with clear and eosinophilic cells, and stromal psammoma body and hyaline nodules. Additionally, shrunken nuclei, thick cell border, and perinuclear clearing characteristic of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma were observed in the alveolar growth area and the transitional zone between stromal hyalinization, and osseous metaplasia was identified. Immunohistochemically, nuclei of tumorous cell were diffusely positive for TFE3. A RT-PCR study revealed the ASPL-TFE3 chimeric transcript. Finally, pathologists should recognize that the histology of RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion may focally resemble that of chromophobe RCC, but TFE3 immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic study may be helpful in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, osseous metaplasia as well as psammoma bodies should be added to the histological spectrum of the stromal change in RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions.

  14. Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusion with smooth muscle stroma and abnormal vessels.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Tamura, Masato; Tanaka, Yukichi; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Inoue, Kaori; Ohara, Masahiko; Mizuno, Keiko; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2009-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion has been recently identified. Herein is presented a case of RCC with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions with unusual histological findings. A 68-year-old Japanese woman was incidentally found to have a renal mass on CT. Histological examination showed clear cell neoplasm with alveolar and papillary growth patterns. The nuclear atypia corresponded to Fuhrman grade 3. Additionally, smooth muscle stroma was observed and abnormal vessels showing a heterogeniety in thickness were also identified. On immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and Melan A, and focally positive for CD10 and RCC marker. The smooth muscle stroma was positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and h-caldesmon, but reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the tumor using frozen material could not detect any previously reported chimeric transcripts including ASPL-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, CLTC-TFE3, PSF-TFE3 or NoNo-TFE3. G-band karyotype was unsuccessful. Pathologists should pay attention to the afore-described unusual stromal reaction of adult-onset RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions.

  15. Superficial EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion: a new variant of Ewing-like tumors with locoregional lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; Cruz, Julia; Lavernia, Javier; Rubio, Luis; Campos, Jorge; Barrios, María; Grison, Camille; Chene, Virginie; Pierron, Gaelle; Delattre, Olivier; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The present study describes a new case of EWSR1-negative undifferentiated sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion. This case is similar to tumors described as primitive undifferentiated round cell sarcomas that occur mainly in the trunk and display an aggressive behavior. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a tumor presenting locoregional lymph node metastasis. In view of previous studies that prove the existence of a particular variant of undifferentiated sarcoma with Ewing-like morphology and CIC/DUX-4 gene fusion, a search for this gene fusion in all undifferentiated round cell sarcomas should be considered if a conclusive diagnosis cannot be reached following other conventional studies. Although additional cases with more extensive follow-up studies are needed, we believe that EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion should be added to the list of new sarcoma variants with the possibility of lymph node metastasis.

  16. Development of protein degradation inducers of oncogenic BCR-ABL protein by conjugation of ABL kinase inhibitors and IAP ligands.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Norihito; Miyamoto, Naoki; Nagai, Katsunori; Shimokawa, Kenichiro; Sameshima, Tomoya; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Hattori, Takayuki; Imaeda, Yasuhiro; Nara, Hiroshi; Cho, Nobuo; Naito, Mikihiko

    2017-08-01

    Chromosomal translocation occurs in some cancer cells, which results in the expression of aberrant oncogenic fusion proteins that include BCR-ABL in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Inhibitors of ABL tyrosine kinase, such as imatinib and dasatinib, exhibit remarkable therapeutic effects, although emergence of drug resistance hampers the therapy during long-term treatment. An alternative approach to treat CML is to downregulate the BCR-ABL protein. We have devised a protein knockdown system by hybrid molecules named Specific and Non-genetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent Protein Erasers (SNIPER), which is designed to induce IAP-mediated ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of target proteins, and a couple of SNIPER(ABL) against BCR-ABL protein have been developed recently. In this study, we tested various combinations of ABL inhibitors and IAP ligands, and the linker was optimized for protein knockdown activity of SNIPER(ABL). The resulting SNIPER(ABL)-39, in which dasatinib is conjugated to an IAP ligand LCL161 derivative by polyethylene glycol (PEG) × 3 linker, shows a potent activity to degrade the BCR-ABL protein. Mechanistic analysis suggested that both cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) play a role in the degradation of BCR-ABL protein. Consistent with the degradation of BCR-ABL protein, the SNIPER(ABL)-39 inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and Crk like proto-oncogene (CrkL), and suppressed the growth of BCR-ABL-positive CML cells. These results suggest that SNIPER(ABL)-39 could be a candidate for a degradation-based novel anti-cancer drug against BCR-ABL-positive CML. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer by using a sensitive quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sha; Wang, Fang; Shao, Qiong; Zhang, Xu; Duan, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shao, Jian-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is present in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcinoma. Clinical trials on ALK inhibitor phase I to III have shown an interesting disease control rate and acceptable tolerability in ALK rearrangement patients. In clinical application, the precise diagnostic strategy for identifying ALK rearrangements remains to be determined. In this study, ALK rearrangement was screened by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), direct sequencing, 2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and immunohistochemistry in 173 lung adenocarcinomas. We identified 18 cases (10.4%) with EML4-ALK fusion-positive by qRT-PCR, and all were positive for EML4-ALK fusion gene validated by direct sequencing. The result was consistent with that of other methods. Furthermore, of the 18 EML4-ALK fusion-positive cases, 16 (9.2%) were positive by using EML4-ALK fusion probe FISH, and 15 (8.7%) were positive by using ALK break-apart probe FISH and immunohistochemistry staining. Of the 18 ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas, 8 cases (44.4%) were histologically diagnosed as subtypes of cribriform adenocarcinoma, 7 cases (38.9%) as cribriform adenocarcinoma mixed with papillary and/or mucinous pattern, 2 cases (11.1%) as papillary adenocarcinoma, and 1 case (5.6%) as mucinous adenocarcinoma. In the present study, the ALK rearrangement frequency detected by qRT-PCR in Chinese NSCLC patients was higher than that in the western populations. QRT-PCR is a rapid, sensitive technology that could be used as a screening tool for identifying EML4-ALK fusion-positive NSCLC patients who would be sensitive for receiving ALK inhibitor therapy.

  18. The ABLE ACE wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Robert R.

    1997-08-01

    A low noise, high resolution Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was included in the ABLE-ACE instrument suite to obtain direct high resolution phase measurements of the 0.53 micrometers pulsed laser beam propagated through high altitude atmospheric turbulence. The wavefront sensor employed a Fired geometry using a lenslet array which provided approximately 17 sub-apertures across the pupil. The lenslets focused the light in each sub-aperture onto a 21 by 21 array of pixels in the camera focal plane with 8 pixels in the camera focal plane with 8 pixels across the central lobe of the diffraction limited spot. The goal of the experiment was to measure the effects of the turbulence in the free atmosphere on propagation, but the wavefront sensor also detected the aberrations induced by the aircraft boundary layer and the receiver aircraft internal beam path. Data analysis methods used to extract the desired atmospheric contribution to the phase measurements from the data corrupted by non-atmospheric aberrations are described. Approaches which were used included a reconstruction of the phase as a linear combination of Zernike polynomials coupled with optical estimator sand computation of structure functions of the sub-aperture slopes. The theoretical basis for the data analysis techniques is presented. Results are described, and comparisons with theory and simulations are shown. Estimates of average turbulence strength along the propagation path from the wavefront sensor showed good agreement with other sensor. The Zernike spectra calculated from the wavefront sensor data were consistent with the standard Kolmogorov model of turbulence.

  19. [Construction and application of prokaryotic expression system of Leptospira interrogans lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene].

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong-jiao; Yan, Jie; Mao, Ya-fei; Li, Shu-ping; Luo, Yi-hui; Li, Li-wei

    2005-01-01

    To construct lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene and its prokaryotic expression system and to determine frequencies of carrying and expression of lipL32 and lipL41 genes in L.interrogans wild strains and specific antibody levels in sera from leptospirosis patients. lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene was constructed using linking primer PCR method and the prokaryotic expression system of the fusion gene done with routine techniques. SDS-PAGE was used to examine expression of the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1. Immunogenicity of rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1 was identified by Western blot. PCR and MAT were performed to detect carrying and expression of lipL32 and lipL41 genes in 97 wild L.interrogans strains. Antibodies against products of lipL32 and lipL41 genes in serum samples from 228 leptospirosis patients were detected by ELISA method. The homogeneity of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequence of lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene were 99.9 % and 99.8 % in comparison with the reported sequences. Expression output of the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1, mainly present in inclusion body, accounted for 10 % of the total bacterial proteins. Both the rabbit antisera against rLipL32/1 and rLipL41/1 could combine to rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1. 97.9 % and 87.6 % of the L.interrogans wild strains had lipL32 and lipL41 genes, respectively. 95.9 % and 84.5 % of the wild strains were positive for MAT with titers of 1:4 - 1:128 using rabbit anti-rLipL32s or anti-rLipL41s sera, respectively. 94.7 % - 97.4 % of the patients'serum samples were positive for rLipL32s antibodies, while 78.5 % - 84.6 % of them were rLipL41s antibodies detectable. lipL32/1-jlipL41/1 fusion gene and its prokaryotic expression system were successfully constructed. The expressed fusion protein had qualified immunogenicity. Both the lipL32 and lipL41 genes are extensively carried and frequently expressed by different serogroups of L.interrogans, and their expression products exhibit cross-antigenicity.

  20. Paediatric and adult soft tissue sarcomas with NTRK1 gene fusions: a subset of spindle cell sarcomas unified by a prominent myopericytic/haemangiopericytic pattern.

    PubMed

    Haller, Florian; Knopf, Jasmin; Ackermann, Anne; Bieg, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Schlesner, Matthias; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Will, Rainer; Satir, Ali Abdel; Abdelmagid, Ibtihalat E; Giedl, Johannes; Carbon, Roman; Rompel, Oliver; Hartmann, Arndt; Wiemann, Stefan; Metzler, Markus; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Neoplasms with a myopericytomatous pattern represent a morphological spectrum of lesions encompassing myopericytoma of the skin and soft tissue, angioleiomyoma, myofibromatosis/infantile haemangiopericytoma and putative neoplasms reported as malignant myopericytoma. Lack of reproducible phenotypic and genetic features of malignant myopericytic neoplasms have prevented the establishment of myopericytic sarcoma as an acceptable diagnostic category. Following detection of a LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion in an index case of paediatric haemangiopericytoma-like sarcoma by combined whole-genome and RNA sequencing, we identified three additional sarcomas harbouring NTRK1 gene fusions, termed 'spindle cell sarcoma, NOS with myo/haemangiopericytic growth pattern'. The patients were two children aged 11 months and 2 years and two adults aged 51 and 80 years. While the tumours of the adults were strikingly myopericytoma-like, but with clear-cut atypical features, the paediatric cases were more akin to infantile myofibromatosis/haemangiopericytoma. All cases contained numerous thick-walled dysplastic-like vessels with segmental or diffuse nodular myxohyaline myo-intimal proliferations of smooth muscle actin-positive cells, occasionally associated with thrombosis. Immunohistochemistry showed variable expression of smooth muscle actin and CD34, but other mesenchymal markers, including STAT6, were negative. This study showed a novel variant of myo/haemangiopericytic sarcoma with recurrent NTRK1 gene fusions. Given the recent introduction of a novel therapeutic approach targeting NTRK fusion-positive neoplasms, recognition of this rare but likely under-reported sarcoma variant is strongly encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Characterization of a reference material for BCR-ABL (M-BCR) mRNA quantitation by real-time amplification assays: towards new standards for gene expression measurements.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J; Silvy, M; Beaufils, N; Arlinghaus, R; Barbany, G; Branford, S; Cayuela, J-M; Cazzaniga, G; Gonzalez, M; Grimwade, D; Kairisto, V; Miyamura, K; Lawler, M; Lion, T; Macintyre, E; Mahon, F-X; Muller, M C; Ostergaard, M; Pfeifer, H; Saglio, G; Sawyers, C; Spinelli, O; van der Velden, V H J; Wang, J Q; Zoi, K; Patel, V; Phillips, P; Matejtschuk, P; Gabert, J

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring of BCR-ABL transcripts has become established practice in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, nucleic acid amplification techniques are prone to variations which limit the reliability of real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) for clinical decision making, highlighting the need for standardization of assays and reporting of minimal residual disease (MRD) data. We evaluated a lyophilized preparation of a leukemic cell line (K562) as a potential quality control reagent. This was found to be relatively stable, yielding comparable respective levels of ABL, GUS and BCR-ABL transcripts as determined by RQ-PCR before and after accelerated degradation experiments as well as following 5 years storage at -20 degrees C. Vials of freeze-dried cells were sent at ambient temperature to 22 laboratories on four continents, with RQ-PCR analyses detecting BCR-ABL transcripts at levels comparable to those observed in primary patient samples. Our results suggest that freeze-dried cells can be used as quality control reagents with a range of analytical instrumentations and could enable the development of urgently needed international standards simulating clinically relevant levels of MRD.

  2. Biodegradable charged polyester-based vectors (BCPVs) as an efficient non-viral transfection nanoagent for gene knockdown of the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengbin; Panwar, Nishtha; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Butian; Liu, Maixian; Toh, Huiting; Yoon, Ho Sup; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Chong, Peter Han Joo; Law, Wing-Cheung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-04-01

    First-line therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has always involved the use of BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase inhibitors which is associated with an abnormal chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome. Although the overall survival rate has been improved by the current therapeutic regime, the presence of resistance has resulted in limited efficacy. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic regime is proposed with the aim to knockdown the BCR-ABL hybrid oncogene using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The siRNA transfection rates have usually been limited due to the declining contact probability among polyplexes and the non-adherent nature of leukemic cells. Our work aims at addressing this limitation by using a biodegradable charged polyester-based vector (BCPV) as a nanocarrier for the delivery of BCR-ABL-specific siRNA to the suspension culture of a K562 CML cell line. BCR-ABL siRNAs were encapsulated in the BCPVs by electrostatic force. Cell internalization was facilitated by the BCPV and assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The regulation of the BCR-ABL level in K562 cells as a result of RNAi was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed that BCPV was able to form stable nanoplexes with siRNA molecules, even in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and successfully assisted in vitro siRNA transfection in the non-adherent K562 cells. As a consequence of downregulation of BCR-ABL, BCPV-siRNA nanoplexes inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. All results were compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine2000™, which served as a positive control. More importantly, this class of non-viral vector exhibits biodegradable features and negligible cytotoxicity, thus providing a versatile platform to deliver siRNA to non-adherent leukemia cells with high transfection efficiency by effectively overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers. Due to the excellent in vitro

  3. [Construction, expression and characterization of the fusion gene of super-antigen SEA and single chain Fv of the ND-1 monoclonal antibody against human colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Li, Li; Fang, Jin

    2012-04-01

    To construct and express the recombinant ND-1-scFv/SEA, a fusion protein of superantigen (staphylococcal enterotoxinA, SEA) and single-chain variable fragment of monoclonal antibody ND-1 against human clolorectal carcinoma, and to enhance the targeted killing effect of SEA. The expression of the fusion protein was induced in E.coli M15 by IPTG. Ni-NTA resin affinity chromatography was used to separate and purify the expressed product. The specific binding activity of the purified ND-1-scFv/SEA protein was examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay and the targeted-cytotoxicity was determined using MTT assay. The expressing vector of fusion gene ND-1scFv/SEA was constructed successfully. ND-1-scFv/SEA protein retained a high binding affinity to antigen-positive human colorectal cancer cell CCL-187 and had a stronger capability to activate PBMC and kill the target cells compared to SEA alone, with a killing rate of 91% at 4 μg/mL. ND-1-scFv/SEA fusion protein could specifically target colorectal cancer cell, enhance the activity of kill tumor cell and has potential applications in the targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion: imaging findings in 21 patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Qingqiang; Li, Baoxin; Cui, Wenjing; Zhou, Hao; Duan, Na; Liu, Yongkang; Kundra, Vikas; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2017-02-01

    To characterize imaging features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion. Twenty-one patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumour location, size, density, cystic or solid appearance, calcification, capsule sign, enhancement pattern and metastases were assessed. Fourteen women and seven men were identified with 12 being 25 years old or younger. Tumours were solitary and cystic-solid (76.2 %) masses with a capsule (76.2 %); 90.5 % were located in the medulla. Calcifications and lymph node metastases were each observed in 24 %. On unenhanced CT, tumour attenuation was greater than in normal renal parenchyma (85.7 %). Tumour enhancement was less than in normal renal cortex on all enhanced phases, greater than in normal renal medulla on cortical and medullary phases, but less than in normal renal medulla on delayed phase. On MR, the tumours were isointense on T1WI, heterogeneously hypointense on T2WI and slightly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging. Xp11.2/TFE RCC usually occurs in young women. It is a cystic-solid, hyperdense mass with a capsule. It arises from the renal medulla with enhancement less than in the cortex but greater than in the medulla in all phases except the delayed phase, when it is lower than in the medulla. • Xp11.2/TFE RCC was more prevalent in young women. • On unenhanced CT, Xp11.2/TFE RCC attenuation was greater than in renal parenchyma. • Xp111/2TFE RCC arises primarily from the renal medulla. • Xp11.2/TFE RCC enhancement was less than in the cortex on all phases. • Enhancement was greater than in the medulla in arterial and corticomedullary phase.

  5. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A

    2003-08-01

    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  6. Novel BCOR-MAML3 and ZC3H7B-BCOR Gene Fusions in Undifferentiated Small Blue Round Cell Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Specht, Katja; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Nucci, Marisa; Dry, Sarah; Vaiyapuri, Sumathi; Richter, Gunther H S; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-04-01

    Small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) are a heterogenous group of tumors that are difficult to diagnose because of overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical features. About two-thirds of EWSR1-negative SBRCTs are associated with CIC-DUX4-related fusions, whereas another small subset shows BCOR-CCNB3 X-chromosomal paracentric inversion. Applying paired-end RNA sequencing to an SBRCT index case of a 44-year-old man, we identified a novel BCOR-MAML3 chimeric fusion, which was validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. We then screened a total of 75 SBRCTs lacking EWSR1, FUS, SYT, CIC, and BCOR-CCNB3 abnormalities for BCOR break-apart probes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect potential recurrent BCOR gene rearrangements outside the typical X-chromosomal inversion. Indeed, 8/75 (11%) SBRCTs showed distinct BCOR gene rearrangements, with 2 cases each showing either a BCOR-MAML3 or the alternative ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, whereas no fusion partner was detected in the remaining 4 cases. Gene expression of the BCOR-MAML3-positive index case showed a distinct transcriptional profile with upregulation of HOX-gene signature, compared with classic Ewing's sarcoma or CIC-DUX4-positive SBRCTs. The clinicopathologic features of the SBRCTs with alternative BCOR rearrangements were also compared with a group of BCOR-CCNB3 inversion-positive cases, combining 11 from our files with a meta-analysis of 42 published cases. The BCOR-CCNB3-positive tumors occurred preferentially in children and in bone, in contrast to alternative BCOR-rearranged SBRCTs, which presented in young adults, with a variable anatomic distribution. Furthermore, BCOR-rearranged tumors often displayed spindle cell areas, either well defined in intersecting fascicles or blending with the round cell component, which appears distinct from most other fusion-positive SBRCTs and shares histologic overlap with poorly

  7. Differential transactivation by orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 and its fusion gene product EWS/NOR1: possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase I, PARP-1.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Naganari; Nagamura, Yuko; Tsukada, Toshihiko

    2008-10-15

    In extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, a chromosomal translocation creates a gene fusion between EWS and an orphan nuclear receptor, NOR1. The resulting fusion protein EWS/NOR1 has been believed to lead to malignant transformation by functioning as a transactivator for NOR1-target genes. By comparing the gene expression profiles of NOR1- and EWS/NOR1-overexpressing cells, we found that they largely shared up-regulated genes, but no significant correlation was observed with respect to the transactivation levels of each gene. In addition, the proteins associated with NOR1 and EWS/NOR1 were mostly the same in these cells. The results suggest that these proteins differentially transactivate overlapping target genes through a similar transcriptional machinery. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional divergence between NOR1 and EWS/NOR1, we searched for alternatively associated proteins, and identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase I (PARP-1) as an NOR1-specific binding protein. Consistent with its binding properties, PARP-1 acted as a transcriptional repressor of NOR1, but not EWS/NOR1, in a luciferase reporter assay employing PARP-1(-/-) fibroblasts. Interestingly, suppressive activity of PARP-1 was observed in a DNA response element-specific manner, and in a subtype-specific manner toward the NR4A family (Nur77, Nurr1, and NOR1), suggesting that PARP-1 plays a role in the diversity of transcriptional regulation mediated by the NR4A family in normal cells. Altogether, our findings suggest that NOR1 and EWS/NOR1 regulate overlapping target genes differently by utilizing associated proteins, including PARP-1; and that EWS/NOR1 may acquire oncogenic activities by avoiding (or gaining) transcription factor-specific modulation by the associated proteins. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Expression of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-beta fusion toxin gene in E. coli and its immunologic studies in mouse.

    PubMed

    Pilehchian Langroudi, Reza; Shamsara, Mehdi; Aghaiypour, Khosrow

    2013-07-11

    Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic spore-forming, pathogenic bacterium that is responsible for severe diseases in humans and livestock. In the present study, an epsilon-beta fusion toxin was expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli and the recombinant cell lysate was used for immunization studies in mouse. Potency of the toxin (as an antigen) induced 6 and 10IU/ml of epsilon and beta anti-toxin in rabbit, respectively. These titers were higher than the minimum level required by the European Pharmacopoeia for epsilon and beta toxins. Experimental challenge with the recombinant fusion toxoid revealed that it could protect mice against C. perfringens epsilon and beta toxins. Toxicity of the fusion toxin was studied by histopathological findings, which were the same as the native toxins. In conclusion, E. coli is a suitable expression host for immunogenic epsilon-beta fusion toxin of C. perfringens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Echinoderm Microtubule Associated Protein Like 4-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Fusion Genes in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Clinical Samples by a Real-time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Jin-Yin; Chen, Zhi-Xia; Zhong, Wei; Li, Long-Yun; Liu, Li-Cheng; Hu, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Wei-Jun; Wang, Meng-Zhao

    2016-12-20

    Objective To establish a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods The specific primers for the four variants of EML4-ALK fusion genes (V1, V2, V3a, and V3b) and Taqman fluorescence probes for the detection of the target sequences were carefully designed by the Primer Premier 5.0 software. Then, using pseudovirus containing EML4-ALK fusion genes variants (V1, V2, V3a, and V3b) as the study objects, we further analyzed the lower limit, sensitivity, and specificity of this method. Finally, 50 clinical samples, including 3 ALK-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positive specimens, were collected and used to detect EML4-ALK fusion genes using this method. Results The lower limit of this method for the detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes was 10 copies/μl if no interference of background RNA existed. Regarding the method's sensitivity, the detection resolution was as high as 1% and 0.5% in the background of 500 and 5000 copies/μl wild-type ALK gene, respectively. Regarding the method's specificity, no non-specific amplification was found when it was used to detect EML4-ALK fusion genes in leukocyte and plasma RNA samples from healthy volunteers. Among the 50 clinical samples, 47 ALK-FISH negative samples were also negative. Among 3 ALK-FISH positive samples, 2 cases were detected positive using this method, but another was not detected because of the failure of RNA extraction. Conclusion The proposed qRT-PCR assay for the detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes is rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific, which is deserved to be validated and widely used in clinical settings.

  10. Characterization of a Cellulomonas fimi exoglucanase/xylanase-endoglucanase gene fusion which improves microbial degradation of cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Duedu, Kwabena O; French, Christopher E

    2016-11-01

    Effective degradation of cellulose requires multiple classes of enzyme working together. However, naturally occurring cellulases with multiple catalytic domains seem to be rather rare in known cellulose-degrading organisms. A fusion protein made from Cellulomonas fimi exo- and endo- glucanases, Cex and CenA which improves breakdown of cellulose is described. A homologous carbohydrate binding module (CBM-2) present in both glucanases was fused to give a fusion protein CxnA. CxnA or unfused constructs (Cex+CenA, Cex, or CenA) were expressed in Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii. The latter recombinant strains were cultured at the expense of cellulose filter paper. The expressed CxnA had both exo- and endo- glucanase activities. It was also exported to the supernatant as were the non-fused proteins. In addition, the hybrid CBM from the fusion could bind to microcrystalline cellulose. Growth of C. freundii expressing CxnA was superior to that of cells expressing the unfused proteins. Physical degradation of filter paper was also faster with the cells expressing fusion protein than the other constructs. Our results show that fusion proteins with multiple catalytic domains can improve the efficiency of cellulose degradation. Such fusion proteins could potentially substitute cloning of multiple enzymes as well as improving product yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single delivery of an adeno-associated viral construct to transfer the CASQ2 gene to knock-in mice affected by catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is able to cure the disease from birth to advanced age.

    PubMed

    Denegri, Marco; Bongianino, Rossana; Lodola, Francesco; Boncompagni, Simona; De Giusti, Verónica C; Avelino-Cruz, José E; Liu, Nian; Persampieri, Simone; Curcio, Antonio; Esposito, Francesca; Pietrangelo, Laura; Marty, Isabelle; Villani, Laura; Moyaho, Alejandro; Baiardi, Paola; Auricchio, Alberto; Protasi, Feliciano; Napolitano, Carlo; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-06-24

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is an inherited arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by sudden cardiac death in children. Drug therapy is still insufficient to provide full protection against cardiac arrest, and the use of implantable defibrillators in the pediatric population is limited by side effects. There is therefore a need to explore the curative potential of gene therapy for this disease. We investigated the efficacy and durability of viral gene transfer of the calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) wild-type gene in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia knock-in mouse model carrying the CASQ2(R33Q/R33Q) (R33Q) mutation. We engineered an adeno-associated viral vector serotype 9 (AAV9) containing cDNA of CASQ2 wild-type (AAV9-CASQ2) plus the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to infect newborn R33Q mice studied by in vivo and in vitro protocols at 6, 9, and 12 months to investigate the ability of the infection to prevent the disease and adult R33Q mice studied after 2 months to assess whether the AAV9-CASQ2 delivery could revert the catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia phenotype. In both protocols, we observed the restoration of physiological expression and interaction of CASQ2, junctin, and triadin; the rescue of electrophysiological and ultrastructural abnormalities in calcium release units present in R33Q mice; and the lack of life-threatening arrhythmias. Our data demonstrate that viral gene transfer of wild-type CASQ2 into the heart of R33Q mice prevents and reverts severe manifestations of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and that this curative effect lasts for 1 year after a single injection of the vector, thus posing the rationale for the design of a clinical trial. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Developing a Novel Gene-Delivery Vector System Using the Recombinant Fusion Protein of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A and Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Histone HPhA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Li, Zehong; Wu, GuangMou; Yue, Yuhuan; Li, Gensong; Cao, Yu; Zhu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery system with many advantages has a great potential for the future of gene therapy. One inherent obstacle of such approach is the uptake by endocytosis into vesicular compartments. Receptor-mediated gene delivery method holds promise to overcome this obstacle. In this study, we developed a receptor-mediated gene delivery system based on a combination of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), which has a receptor binding and membrane translocation domain, and the hyperthermophilic archaeal histone (HPhA), which has the DNA binding ability. First, we constructed and expressed the rPE-HPhA fusion protein. We then examined the cytotoxicity and the DNA binding ability of rPE-HPhA. We further assessed the efficiency of transfection of the pEGF-C1 plasmid DNA to CHO cells by the rPE-HPhA system, in comparison to the cationic liposome method. The results showed that the transfection efficiency of rPE-HPhA was higher than that of cationic liposomes. In addition, the rPE-HPhA gene delivery system is non-specific to DNA sequence, topology or targeted cell type. Thus, the rPE-HPhA system can be used for delivering genes of interest into mammalian cells and has great potential to be applied for gene therapy. PMID:26556098

  13. CDKN2D-WDFY2 is a cancer-specific fusion gene recurrent in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kalpana; Coarfa, Cristian; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hawkins, Shannon M; Matzuk, Martin M; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Yen, Laising

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women. Almost 70% of ovarian cancer deaths are due to the high-grade serous subtype, which is typically detected only after it has metastasized. Characterization of high-grade serous cancer is further complicated by the significant heterogeneity and genome instability displayed by this cancer. Other than mutations in TP53, which is common to many cancers, highly recurrent recombinant events specific to this cancer have yet to be identified. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of seven patient samples combined with experimental validation at DNA, RNA and protein levels, we identified a cancer-specific and inter-chromosomal fusion gene CDKN2D-WDFY2 that occurs at a frequency of 20% among sixty high-grade serous cancer samples but is absent in non-cancerous ovary and fallopian tube samples. This is the most frequent recombinant event identified so far in high-grade serous cancer implying a major cellular lineage in this highly heterogeneous cancer. In addition, the same fusion transcript was also detected in OV-90, an established high-grade serous type cell line. The genomic breakpoint was identified in intron 1 of CDKN2D and intron 2 of WDFY2 in patient tumor, providing direct evidence that this is a fusion gene. The parental gene, CDKN2D, is a cell-cycle modulator that is also involved in DNA repair, while WDFY2 is known to modulate AKT interactions with its substrates. Transfection of cloned fusion construct led to loss of wildtype CDKN2D and wildtype WDFY2 protein expression, and a gain of a short WDFY2 protein isoform that is presumably under the control of the CDKN2D promoter. The expression of short WDFY2 protein in transfected cells appears to alter the PI3K/AKT pathway that is known to play a role in oncogenesis. CDKN2D-WDFY2 fusion could be an important molecular signature for understanding and classifying sub-lineages among heterogeneous high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

  14. [MRI findings of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Y; Wang, H Y; Chen, X; Guo, A T; Ma, L; Wang, Y W; Ye, H Y

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To analyze MRI findings of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation-TFE gene fusion(Xp11.2 RCC). Methods: MR imaging features of eleven patients with pathologically-proved Xp11.2 RCC were retrospectively analyzed from December 2008 to December 2015. The following MRI features of the lesions were analyzed in the study: location, maximal diameter, signal intensity, hemorrhage, necrosis, cystic change, enhancement features and metastasis. The data was analyzed by using t test. Results: Four men and seven women (mean age, 35.2 years; age range, 15-49 years) were included. Tumors occurred in the right kidney in 5 cases and the left kidney in 6 cases. On T 1 WI tumors showed heterogeneously hypo-intensity and iso-intensity, hyper-intensity in 10 cases, 1 cases, respectively. On T 2 WI tumors showed heterogeneously slight hypo-intensity, heterogeneously slight hyper-intensity and hyper-intensity in 6 cases, 4 cases, 1 case, respectively. On DWI tumors showed hyper-intensity and heterogeneously slight hype-intensity in 2 cases, 9 cases, respectively. ADC value of the tumors were statistically significant lower than that of renal cortex(×10 -3 mm 2 /s)(1.35±0.20 vs 2.09±0.11, P <0.05). Imaging findings were suggestive of hemorrhage( n =4) or necrosis ( n =1) or cystic change ( n =6) or lipid( n =1) in the tumors. On dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, tumors showed lower signal intensity change (96%±93%, 110%±86% and 103%±46%, respectively) than did renal cortex (285%±109%, 254%±97% and 225%±90%, respectively) ( P <0.05). Tumor capsule showed in 7 cases. Enlarged lymph node was found in renal hilum in one case. Conclusion: MRI findings may show characteristic features of Xp11.2 RCC combined with patients' age and assist in preoperative correct diagnosis.

  15. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusions: Clinical Features, Treatments and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Zhen; Gan, Weidong; Xiong, Lei; Miao, Baolei; Chen, Xiancheng; Guo, Hongqian; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatments and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2 tRCC), the epidemiological features and treatment results of 34 cases of Xp11.2 tRCC, which were diagnosed by immunohistochemistry staining of TFE3 and fluorescence in situ hybridization at our center, were retrospectively reviewed. The 34 patients included 21 females and 13 males aged 3 to 64 years (median age: 27 years). Four patients were children or adolescents (<18 years of age), and 26 patients were young or middle-aged adults (18-45 years). Radical nephrectomy was performed on 25 patients. Laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery was performed on 9 patients who presented with an isolated mass with a small diameter (<7 cm) and well-defined boundary on computed tomography imaging. Postoperative staging showed that 25 cases (73.53%) were at stage I/II, while 9 cases (26.47%) were at stage III/IV. All stage I/II patients received a favorable prognosis with a three-year overall survival rate of 100%, including the patients who underwent laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. With the exception of 2 children, the other 7 stage III/IV patients died or developed recurrence with a median follow-up of 29 months. On univariate analysis, maximum diameter, adjuvant treatment, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis and tumor boundary were identified as statistically significant factors impacting survival (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that TNM stage and inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis were independent prognostic factors (P<0.05). In conclusion, Xp11.2 tRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma that mainly occurs in young females. Nephron-sparing surgery was confirmed effective preliminarily in the treatment of small Xp11.2 tRCCs with clear rims. Advanced TNM stage and inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis were associated with poor prognosis.

  16. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusions: Clinical Features, Treatments and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Weidong; Xiong, Lei; Miao, Baolei; Chen, Xiancheng; Guo, Hongqian; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatments and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2 tRCC), the epidemiological features and treatment results of 34 cases of Xp11.2 tRCC, which were diagnosed by immunohistochemistry staining of TFE3 and fluorescence in situ hybridization at our center, were retrospectively reviewed. The 34 patients included 21 females and 13 males aged 3 to 64 years (median age: 27 years). Four patients were children or adolescents (<18 years of age), and 26 patients were young or middle-aged adults (18–45 years). Radical nephrectomy was performed on 25 patients. Laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery was performed on 9 patients who presented with an isolated mass with a small diameter (<7 cm) and well-defined boundary on computed tomography imaging. Postoperative staging showed that 25 cases (73.53%) were at stage I/II, while 9 cases (26.47%) were at stage III/IV. All stage I/II patients received a favorable prognosis with a three-year overall survival rate of 100%, including the patients who underwent laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. With the exception of 2 children, the other 7 stage III/IV patients died or developed recurrence with a median follow-up of 29 months. On univariate analysis, maximum diameter, adjuvant treatment, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis and tumor boundary were identified as statistically significant factors impacting survival (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that TNM stage and inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis were independent prognostic factors (P<0.05). In conclusion, Xp11.2 tRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma that mainly occurs in young females. Nephron-sparing surgery was confirmed effective preliminarily in the treatment of small Xp11.2 tRCCs with clear rims. Advanced TNM stage and inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis were associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27893792

  17. An activating mutation of GNB1 is associated with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in ETV6-ABL1-positive leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermannova, O; Doktorova, E; Stuchly, J; Kanderova, V; Kuzilkova, D; Strnad, H; Starkova, J; Alberich-Jorda, M; Falkenburg, J H F; Trka, J; Petrak, J; Zuna, J; Zaliova, M

    2017-01-01

    Leukemias harboring the ETV6-ABL1 fusion represent a rare subset of hematological malignancies with unfavorable outcomes. The constitutively active chimeric Etv6-Abl1 tyrosine kinase can be specifically inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Although TKIs represent an important therapeutic tool, so far, the mechanism underlying the potential TKI resistance in ETV6-ABL1-positive malignancies has not been studied in detail. To address this issue, we established a TKI-resistant ETV6-ABL1-positive leukemic cell line through long-term exposure to imatinib. ETV6-ABL1-dependent mechanisms (including fusion gene/protein mutation, amplification, enhanced expression or phosphorylation) and increased TKI efflux were excluded as potential causes of resistance. We showed that TKI effectively inhibited the Etv6-Abl1 kinase activity in resistant cells, and using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing, we confirmed that the resistant cells became independent from the ETV6-ABL1 oncogene. Through analysis of the genomic and proteomic profiles of resistant cells, we identified an acquired mutation in the GNB1 gene, K89M, as the most likely cause of the resistance. We showed that cells harboring mutated GNB1 were capable of restoring signaling through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, whose activation is inhibited by TKI. This alternative GNB1K89M-mediated pro-survival signaling rendered ETV6-ABL1-positive leukemic cells resistant to TKI therapy. The mechanism of TKI resistance is independent of the targeted chimeric kinase and thus is potentially relevant not only to ETV6-ABL1-positive leukemias but also to a wider spectrum of malignancies treated by kinase inhibitors. PMID:28650474

  18. Temsirolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion proteins: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Jigarkumar; Coleman, Teresa; Messias, Nidia; Brown, James

    2009-12-28

    Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCCs) are a rare family of tumors newly recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2004. These tumors result in the fusion of partner genes to the TFE3 gene located on Xp11.2. They are most common in the pediatric population, but have been recently implicated in adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presenting at an early age. TFE3-mediated direct transcriptional upregulation of the Met tyrosine kinase receptor triggers dramatic activation of downstream signaling pathways including the protein kinase B (Akt)/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, a component of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the growth and proliferation of malignant cells. Here we present a case of a 22-year old female who has been treated with temsirolimus for her Xp11.2/TFE3 gene fusion RCC.

  19. Temsirolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion proteins: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jigarkumar; Coleman, Teresa; Messias, Nidia; Brown, James

    2009-01-01

    Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCCs) are a rare family of tumors newly recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2004. These tumors result in the fusion of partner genes to the TFE3 gene located on Xp11.2. They are most common in the pediatric population, but have been recently implicated in adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presenting at an early age. TFE3-mediated direct transcriptional upregulation of the Met tyrosine kinase receptor triggers dramatic activation of downstream signaling pathways including the protein kinase B (Akt)/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, a component of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the growth and proliferation of malignant cells. Here we present a case of a 22-year old female who has been treated with temsirolimus for her Xp11.2/TFE3 gene fusion RCC. PMID:21139932

  20. [Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions: a study of 11 cases and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Rao, Qiu; Zhou, Xiao-jun; Wu, Bo; Ma, Heng-hui; Zhou, Hang-bo; Liu, Xiao-hong; Chen, Jie-yu

    2007-04-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features, differential diagnosis and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions. The histopathologic findings and immunophenotype of 11 cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions were studied. Follow-up data (ranged from 10 to 112 months) were also analyzed. There were a total of 7 females and 4 males. The age of patients ranged from 8 to 26 years (mean = 16.3 years). The diameter of the tumors varied from 2.5 to 6.0 cm. Histologically, two morphologic patterns were seen. The first pattern consisted of alveolar, papillary or nested architecture. The tumor cells contained voluminous, clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, distinct cell borders, vesicular chromatin, and prominent nucleoli. Psammoma bodies were frequently found and could be abundant. In contrast, the second pattern was composed of nested and compact architecture. The tumor cells possessed less abundant cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. Few psammoma bodies were detected. Immunohistochemical study showed that all cases strongly expressed TFE3, CD10 and P504s. Variable positivity for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin was also noted. None of them expressed CK7, Ksp-cadherin and CD117. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions is a newly described but rarely encountered subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Pathologic diagnosis can be established when taken age of the patients, histopathologic findings and immunoreactivity for TFE3 protein into consideration.

  1. Recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma after an interval of 15 years revealed by demonstration of the same type of EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Kanamori, Kiyonobu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Mikami, Koji; Ieki, Ryuji; Nakano, Takashi; Kajimoto, Kazuyoshi; Hirota, Seiichi

    2014-12-01

    We carried out an experiment on a 58-year-old man with multiple left lung tumors and swelling of multiple lymph nodes. For clinical staging and therapeutic purposes, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and lung biopsy were performed. The biopsy specimen revealed the left lower lung mass to be immunohistochemically ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive adenocarcinoma. Using the BAL specimen from the left lower lung, EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4)-ALK variant 1 fusion gene was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). His past history showed that he had undergone an operation for lung adenocarcinoma of the right lower lobe 15 years before, and the pathological specimen at that time revealed that the lung adenocarcinoma with pleural invasion and single metastasis of mediastinal lymph node showed a mucinous cribriform pattern and/or signet-ring cell pattern. The typical histology led us to examine the ALK rearrangement in the primary lung cancer and mediastinal metastatic tumor. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ALK was positive, and ALK break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a positive result. Moreover, RT-PCR using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from the right lung cancer also demonstrated EML4-ALK variant 1 fusion gene. Although there is a possibility that the left lung cancer is de novo one with multiple metastases, detection of the same fusion gene of the very rare EML4-ALK variant 1 in both tumors suggests that the left cancer is a recurrence of the right lung cancer after an interval of 15 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular drug targets in myeloproliferative neoplasms: mutant ABL1, JAK2, MPL, KIT, PDGFRA, PDGFRB and FGFR1

    PubMed Central

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Therapeutically validated oncoproteins in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include BCR-ABL1 and rearranged PDGFR proteins. The latter are products of intra- (e.g. FIP1L1-PDGFRA) or inter-chromosomal (e.g.ETV6-PDGFRB) gene fusions. BCR-ABL1 is associated with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and mutant PDGFR with an MPN phenotype characterized by eosinophilia and in addition, in case of FIP1L1-PDGFRA, bone marrow mastocytosis. These genotype-phenotype associations have been effectively exploited in the development of highly accurate diagnostic assays and molecular targeted therapy. It is hoped that the same will happen in other MPN with specific genetic alterations: polycythemia vera (JAK2V617F and other JAK2 mutations), essential thrombocythemia (JAK2V617F and MPL515 mutations), primary myelofibrosis (JAK2V617F and MPL515 mutations), systemic mastocytosis (KITD816V and other KIT mutations) and stem cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ZNF198-FGFR1 and other FGFR1 fusion genes). The current review discusses the above-listed mutant molecules in the context of their value as drug targets. PMID:19175693

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 Engineering of Adult Mouse Liver Demonstrates That the Dnajb1-Prkaca Gene Fusion Is Sufficient to Induce Tumors Resembling Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Engelholm, Lars H; Riaz, Anjum; Serra, Denise; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Johansen, Jens V; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Hansen, Steen H; Niola, Francesco; Frödin, Morten

    2017-12-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a primary liver cancer that predominantly affects children and young adults with no underlying liver disease. A somatic, 400 Kb deletion on chromosome 19 that fuses part of the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 gene (DNAJB1) to the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha gene (PRKACA) has been repeatedly identified in patients with FL-HCC. However, the DNAJB1-PRKACA gene fusion has not been shown to induce liver tumorigenesis. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to delete in mice the syntenic region on chromosome 8 to create a Dnajb1-Prkaca fusion and monitored the mice for liver tumor development. We delivered CRISPR/Cas9 vectors designed to juxtapose exon 1 of Dnajb1 with exon 2 of Prkaca to create the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion associated with FL-HCC, or control Cas9 vector, via hydrodynamic tail vein injection to livers of 8-week-old female FVB/N mice. These mice did not have any other engineered genetic alterations and were not exposed to liver toxins or carcinogens. Liver tissues were collected 14 months after delivery; genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR to detect the Dnajb1-Prkaca fusion, and tissues were characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, RNA sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing. Livers from 12 of the 15 mice given the vectors to induce the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion, but none of the 11 mice given the control vector, developed neoplasms. The tumors contained the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion and had histologic and cytologic features of human FL-HCCs: large polygonal cells with granular, eosinophilic, and mitochondria-rich cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, and markers of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In comparing expression levels of genes between the mouse tumor and non-tumor liver cells, we identified changes similar to those detected in human FL-HCC, which included genes that affect cell cycle and mitosis regulation. Genomic analysis of mouse neoplasms induced by

  4. Imprint cytologic features in renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion in an adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tadanori; Kuroda, Naoto; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Hes, Ondrej; Kawada, Takako; Nakayama, Keizou

    2009-01-01

    Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion is a very rare tumor. To date, there are no reports on immunocytochemical study of the primary tumor. We describe such a case that we diagnosed by immunocytochemistry of imprint cytology material. A 46-year-old man was found to have a mass in the lower pole of the right kidney. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted images showed a hypointense area in the tumor, and papillary RCC was suspected. Imprint cytology showed tumor cells that were isolated or arranged in large or small papillary clusters. Irregularly shaped large oval nuclei, finely granular chromatin and a single large nucleolus were noted. Cytoplasm was abundant and admixed with clear and granular eosinophilic patterns and scattered large vacuolated cells. Almost all tumor cells diffusely expressed immunocytochemical reactivity to TFE3 protein. Hyaline nodules were observed in the stroma. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells contained rhomboid crystals identical to those of alveolar soft part sarcoma. The immunocytochemistry of TFE3 protein may be a powerful tool for accurate diagnosis when RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion is suspected by imprint cytology even in adult-onset cases, and cytotechnologists should accurately recognize cytologic findings of this tumor.

  5. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Puneet; Nair, Balagopal; Kumar, Ginil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3) that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Puneet; Nair, Balagopal; Kumar, Ginil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3) that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain. PMID:24455396

  7. Dynamic Computed Tomographic Features of Adult Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated With Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusions: Comparison With Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Gan, Weidong; Liu, Song; Zhou, Kefeng; Zhang, Gutian; Guo, Hongqian; Zhu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) characteristics of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) by comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT images and clinical and pathological records of 20 adult patients with Xp11.2 RCC confirmed by TFE3 immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization assay were retrospectively analyzed and compared with the findings of 21 contemporary CCRCCs. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE gene fusions often occurred in young (30.6 ± 8.6 years) patients with hematuria (9/20). They presented as well-defined (17/20) cystic-solid (17/20) mass with hemorrhage (8/20) and circular/rim calcifications (6/20). Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT showed heterogeneous moderate prolonged enhancement. A tumor-to-cortex attenuation ratio in corticomedullary phase less than 0.62 gave a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 92.9% in differentiating Xp11.2 RCC from CCRCC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.957, P < 0.001). Computed tomographic characteristics and dynamic contrast-enhanced patterns and index can differentiate Xp11.2 RCC from CCRCC.

  8. Pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Ose, Naoko; Kawai, Teruka; Ishida, Daisuke; Kobori, Yuko; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Senba, Hidetoshi

    2016-11-01

    A pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (PLELC) is similar to a lymphoepithelioma, a subtype of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection which is a rare tumour and classified in the group of "other and unclassified carcinoma" in the latest 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Some reports of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) have noted an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, whereas none have noted a mutation of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene. This is the first reported case of PLELC with ALK rearrangement. A 76-year-old woman underwent a right lower lobectomy and complicated partial resection of the upper lobe with lymph node dissection under complete thoracoscopic approach. A histopathological diagnosis of PLELC was made and the stage was classified as T1aN1(#12l) M0, pl0, G2, Ly1, V1. The results of both ALK immunohistochemistry and EML4-ALK fusion gene on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) examinations were positive; however, EGFR mutational analysis results showed wild-type mutation.

  9. An enzyme-free and label-free surface plasmon resonance biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of fusion gene based on DNA self-assembly hydrogel with streptavidin encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Wen, Bo; Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Duan, Xiaolei; Zhao, Min; Xia, Qianfeng; Ding, Shijia

    2018-07-30

    In this research, an enzyme-free and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing strategy has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of fusion gene based on the heterogeneous target-triggered DNA self-assembly aptamer-based hydrogel with streptavidin (SA) encapsulation. In the presence of target, the capture probes (Cp) immobilized on the chip surface can capture the PML/RARα, forming a Cp-PML/RARα duplex. After that, the aptamer-based network hydrogel nanostructure is formed on the gold surface via target-triggered self-assembly of X shaped polymers. Subsequently, the SA can be encapsulated into hydrogel by the specific binding of SA aptamer, forming the complex with super molecular weight. Thus, the developed strategy achieves dramatic enhancement of the SPR signal. Using PML/RARα "S" subtype as model analyte, the developed biosensing method can detect target down to 45.22 fM with a wide linear range from 100 fM to 10 nM. Moreover, the high efficiency biosensing method shows excellent practical ability to identify the clinical PCR products of PML/RARα. Thus, this proposed strategy presents a powerful platform for ultrasensitive detection of fusion gene and early diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas associated with CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusion genes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichi; Kuda, Masaaki; Kohashi, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Takemoto, Junkichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Bekki, Hirofumi; Ito, Takamichi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Honda, Yumi; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Inoue, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Nishida, Atsushi; Yamashita, Kyoko; Ito, Ichiro; Komune, Shizuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-04-01

    CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusion-gene-associated small round cell sarcomas account for a proportion of pediatric small round cell sarcomas, but their pathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. We reviewed a large number of soft tissue tumors registered at our institution, retrieved the cases of unclassified tumors with a small round cell component, and subjected them to histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene profile analysis. We reviewed 164 cases of unclassified tumors with a small round cell component and analyzed them by RT-PCR and FISH. Tumors positive for a specific fusion-gene were also subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. We identified 16 cases of BCOR-CCNB3/CIC-associated (CIC-DUX4 or CIC gene rearrangement-positive) sarcomas. These included seven BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas and nine CIC-associated sarcomas. Heterogeneous elements included a myxoid spindle cell component in three BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas and an epithelioid cell component in two CIC-associated sarcomas (one CIC-DUX4-positive and one CIC-DUX4-negative sarcomas). Mitotic activity was low in both heterogeneous components. By immunohistochemistry, in seven BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas expression of EMA was positive in two cases, of p63 in three, of CD56 in six, of TLE1 in seven, of NKX2.2 in two, of CCNB3 in seven, and of BCOR in six cases (one case could not be tested for BCOR). In nine cases of CIC-associated sarcoma, CD56 was expressed in five, alpha-smooth muscle actin in one, ERG in three, and CD99, WT1 and TLE1 each in eight cases. Both sarcoma types showed not only a small round cell component, but also a myxoid/epithelioid component with low mitotic activity.

  11. A heterologous hormone response element enhances expression of rat beta-casein promoter-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, N M; Reding, T V; Duffy, T; Rosen, J M

    1991-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the entire rat beta-casein (R beta C) gene and a -524/+490 R beta C fragment-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene are expressed preferentially in the mammary gland of transgenic mice in a developmentally regulated fashion. However, transgene expression was infrequent, less than 1% of that observed for the endogenous gene, and varied as much as 500-fold, presumably due to the site of chromosomal integration. To determine whether a heterologous hormone-responsive enhancer could be used to increase both the level and frequency of expression in the mammary gland, a fragment derived from the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat containing four hormone response elements (HREs) was inserted into the R beta C promoter at a site not known to contain transcriptional regulatory elements. Transgenic mice generated which carried HRE-enhanced R beta C-CAT fusion genes expressed CAT activity in the mammary glands of all founder lines examined at levels that were on average 13-fold greater than for lines generated with similar constructs not carrying HREs. In the highest expressing line, the level of HRE-enhanced transgene expression was found to be developmentally regulated, increasing 14-fold in the mammary gland from virgin to day 10 of lactation. In this line, expression was also observed in the thymus and spleen; however, the level of CAT activity was 4-fold lower than in the mammary gland and was not developmentally regulated. In adrenalectomized mice, the administration of dexamethasone stimulated CAT expression in the mammary gland but not in the thymus and spleen. These studies demonstrate that in the context of the R beta C promoter, the HRE functions in the mammary gland to increase both the frequency and level of transgene expression.

  12. Beyond ALK-RET, ROS1 and other oncogene fusions in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoku, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusions of the RET and ROS1 protein tyrosine kinase oncogenes with several partner genes were recently identified as new targetable genetic aberrations in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacking activating EGFR, KRAS, ALK, BRAF, or HER2 oncogene aberrations. RET and ROS1 fusion-positive tumors are mainly observed in young, female, and/or never smoking patients. Studies based on in vitro and in vivo (i.e., mouse) models and studies of several fusion-positive patients indicate that inhibiting the kinase activity of the RET and ROS1 fusion proteins is a promising therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, there are several ongoing clinical trials aimed at examining the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against RET and ROS1 proteins in patients with fusion-positive lung cancer. Other gene fusions (NTRK1, NRG1, and FGFR1/2/3) that are targetable by existing TKIs have also been identified in NSCLCs. Options for personalized lung cancer therapy will be increased with the help of multiplex diagnosis systems able to detect multiple druggable gene fusions. PMID:25870798

  13. A novel atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated hybrid CFHR1/CFH gene encoding a fusion protein that antagonizes factor H-dependent complement regulation.

    PubMed

    Valoti, Elisabetta; Alberti, Marta; Tortajada, Agustin; Garcia-Fernandez, Jesus; Gastoldi, Sara; Besso, Luca; Bresin, Elena; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Noris, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Genomic aberrations affecting the genes encoding factor H (FH) and the five FH-related proteins (FHRs) have been described in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), a rare condition characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and ARF. These genomic rearrangements occur through nonallelic homologous recombinations caused by the presence of repeated homologous sequences in CFH and CFHR1-R5 genes. In this study, we found heterozygous genomic rearrangements among CFH and CFHR genes in 4.5% of patients with aHUS. CFH/CFHR rearrangements were associated with poor clinical prognosis and high risk of post-transplant recurrence. Five patients carried known CFH/CFHR1 genes, but we found a duplication leading to a novel CFHR1/CFH hybrid gene in a family with two affected subjects. The resulting fusion protein contains the first four short consensus repeats of FHR1 and the terminal short consensus repeat 20 of FH. In an FH-dependent hemolysis assay, we showed that the hybrid protein causes sheep erythrocyte lysis. Functional analysis of the FHR1 fraction purified from serum of heterozygous carriers of the CFHR1/CFH hybrid gene indicated that the FHR1/FH hybrid protein acts as a competitive antagonist of FH. Furthermore, sera from carriers of the hybrid CFHR1/CFH gene induced more C5b-9 deposition on endothelial cells than control serum. These results suggest that this novel genomic hybrid mediates disease pathogenesis through dysregulation of complement at the endothelial cell surface. We recommend that genetic screening of aHUS includes analysis of CFH and CFHR rearrangements, particularly before a kidney transplant. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Computational study of molecular electrostatic potential, docking and dynamics simulations of gallic acid derivatives as ABL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Raghi, K R; Sherin, D R; Saumya, M J; Arun, P S; Sobha, V N; Manojkumar, T K

    2018-04-05

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a hematological malignancy arises due to the spontaneous fusion of the BCR and ABL gene, resulting in a constitutively active tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL). Pharmacological activity of Gallic acid and 1,3,4-Oxadiazole as potential inhibitors of ABL kinase has already been reported. Objective of this study is to evaluate the ABL kinase inhibitory activity of derivatives of Gallic acid fused with 1,3,4-Oxadiazole moieties. Attempts have been made to identify the key structural features responsible for drug likeness of the Gallic acid and the 1,3,4-Oxadiazole ring using molecular electrostatic potential maps (MESP). To investigate the inhibitory activity of Gallic acid derivatives towards the ABL receptor, we have applied molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approaches. A comparative study was performed using Bosutinib as the standard which is an approved CML drug acting on the same receptor. Furthermore, the novel compounds designed and reported here in were evaluated for ADME properties and the results indicate that they show acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Accordingly these compounds are predicted to be drug like with low toxicity potential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced synergistic anti-Lewis lung carcinoma effect of a DNA vaccine harboring a MUC1-VEGFR2 fusion gene used with GM-CSF as an adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Junzhong; Duan, Yong; Li, Fugen; Wang, Zitong

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a synergistic effect on anti-tumour and anti-angiogenesis activity, we designed and constructed a DNA vaccine that expresses MUC1and VEGFR2 in the same reading frame. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumour activity of this DNA vaccine. Furthermore, we also investigated the enhanced synergistic anti-Lewis lung carcinoma effect of this DNA vaccine by using GM-CSF as an adjuvant. A series of DNA plasmids encoding MUC1, VEGFR2, GM-CSF, and their conjugates were constructed and injected into mice intramuscularly (i.m.) followed by an electric pulse. The humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumour efficacy of these plasmids, murine models with MUC1-expressing tumours were generated. After injection into the tumour-bearing mouse model, the plasmid carrying the fusion gene of MUC1 and VEGFR2 showed stronger inhibition of tumour growth than the plasmid expressing MUC1 or VEGFR2 alone, which indicated that MUC1 and VEGFR2 could exert a synergistic anti-tumour effect. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with the combination of the GM-CSF expressing plasmid and the plasmid carrying the fusion gene of MUC1 and VEGFR2 showed an increased inhibition in the growth of MUC1-expressing tumours and prolonged mouse survival. These observations emphasize the potential of the synergistic anti-tumour and anti-angiogenesis strategy used in DNA vaccines, and the potential of the GM-CSF gene as an adjuvant for DNA vaccines, which could represent a promising approach for tumour immunotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Induced Immune Responses Following Intramuscular Immunization with Fusion and Cocktail of LeIF, LACK and TSA Genes Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Maspi, Nahid; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Zohreh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Dayer, Mohammad Saaid

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluated induced immune responses following DNA vaccine containing cocktail or fusion of LeIF, LACK and TSA genes or each gene alone. Mice were injected with 100 µg of each plasmid containing the gene of insert, plasmid DNA alone as the first control group or phosphate buffer saline as the second control group. Then, cellular and humoral responses, lesion size were measured for all groups. All vaccinated mice induced Th1 immune responses against Leishmania characterized by higher IFN-γ and IgG2a levels compared with control groups (p < 0.05). In addition, IFN-γ levels increased in groups immunized with fusion and cocktail vaccines in comparison with LACK (p < 0.001) and LeIF (p < 0.01) groups after challenge. In addition, fusion and cocktail groups produced higher IgG2a values than groups vaccinated with a gene alone (p < 0.05). Lesion progression delayed for all immunized groups compared with control groups from 5th week post-infection (p < 0.05). Mean lesion size decreased in immunized mice with fusion DNA than three groups vaccinated with one gene alone (p < 0.05). While, lesion size decreased significantly in cocktail recipient group than LeIF recipient group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in lesion size between fusion and cocktail groups. Overall, immunized mice with cocktail and fusion vaccines showed stronger Th1 response by production of higher IFN-γ and IgG2a and showed smaller mean lesion size. Therefore, use of multiple antigens can improve induced immune responses by DNA vaccination.

  17. SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study emphasizing extended morphology and reviewing the differences between SFPQ-TFE3 RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm despite an identical gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Tong; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Ni, Hao; Ye, Sheng-Bing; Li, Rui; Wang, Xuan; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2017-05-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion is a rare epithelial tumor. Of note, the appearance of the gene fusion does not necessarily mean that it is renal cell carcinoma. The corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation, TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer, can also harbor the identical gene fusion. However, the differences between Xp11 translocation RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm have only recently been described. Herein, we examined 5 additional cases of SFPQ-TFE3 RCCs using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. One tumor had the typical morphologic features of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, whereas other 3 cases demonstrated the unusual morphologic features associated with pseudorosettes formation or clusters of smaller cells, mimicking TFEB RCC. The remaining one showed branching tubules and papillary structure composed of clear and eosinophilic tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, all 5 cases demonstrated moderate (2+) or strong (3+) positive staining for TFE3, PAX-8 and CD10, whereas no cases demonstrated TFEB, Cathepsin K, CA-IX, CK7, Melan-A, or HMB-45 expression. Genetically, the fusion transcripts were identified in 3 cases by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On the basis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, all the cases were detected with SFPQ-TFE3 gene fusion. Clinical follow-up data were available for all the patients, and no one developed tumor recurrence, progression, or metastasis. We also review the differences between SFPQ-TFE3 RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm despite the identical gene fusion. The presence of pseudorosettes also expands the known histological features of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8(+) T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  1. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  2. Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid rho 1 and rho 1 Delta 450 as gene fusions with the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torres, A; Miledi, R

    2001-02-13

    The functional characteristics and cellular localization of the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) rho 1 receptor and its nonfunctional isoform rho 1 Delta 450 were investigated by expressing them as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Oocytes injected with rho 1-GFP had receptors that gated chloride channels when activated by GABA. The functional characteristics of these receptors were the same as for those of wild-type rho 1 receptors. Fluorescence, because of the chimeric receptors expressed, was over the whole oocyte but was more intense near the cell surface and more abundant in the animal hemisphere. Similar to the wild type, rho 1 Delta 450-GFP did not lead to the expression of functional GABA receptors, and injected oocytes failed to generate currents even after exposure to high concentrations of GABA. Nonetheless, the fluorescence displayed by oocytes expressing rho 1 Delta 450-GFP was distributed similarly to that of rho 1-GFP. Mammalian cells transfected with the rho 1-GFP or rho 1 Delta 450-GFP constructs showed mostly intracellularly distributed fluorescence in confocal microscope images. A sparse localization of fluorescence was observed in the plasma membrane regardless of the cell line used. We conclude that rho 1 Delta 450 is expressed and transported close to, and perhaps incorporated into, the plasma membrane. Thus, rho 1- and rho 1 Delta 450-GFP fusions provide a powerful tool to visualize the traffic of GABA type C receptors.

  3. Expression of γ-aminobutyric acid ρ1 and ρ1Δ450 as gene fusions with the green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The functional characteristics and cellular localization of the γaminobutyric acid (GABA) ρ1 receptor and its nonfunctional isoform ρ1Δ450 were investigated by expressing them as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Oocytes injected with ρ1-GFP had receptors that gated chloride channels when activated by GABA. The functional characteristics of these receptors were the same as for those of wild-type ρ1 receptors. Fluorescence, because of the chimeric receptors expressed, was over the whole oocyte but was more intense near the cell surface and more abundant in the animal hemisphere. Similar to the wild type, ρ1Δ450-GFP did not lead to the expression of functional GABA receptors, and injected oocytes failed to generate currents even after exposure to high concentrations of GABA. Nonetheless, the fluorescence displayed by oocytes expressing ρ1Δ450-GFP was distributed similarly to that of ρ1-GFP. Mammalian cells transfected with the ρ1-GFP or ρ1Δ450-GFP constructs showed mostly intracellularly distributed fluorescence in confocal microscope images. A sparse localization of fluorescence was observed in the plasma membrane regardless of the cell line used. We conclude that ρ1Δ450 is expressed and transported close to, and perhaps incorporated into, the plasma membrane. Thus, ρ1- and ρ1Δ450-GFP fusions provide a powerful tool to visualize the traffic of GABA type C receptors. PMID:11172056

  4. Primary undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma of the deep abdominal wall with a novel variant of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Futani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kihara, Takako; Matsuo, Shohei; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-10-01

    We experienced a 38-year-old Japanese male with t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 -positive undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma in the deep abdominal wall. Three months before his first visit to our hospital, he noticed a mass in his right abdominal wall. Computed tomography on admission revealed a solid abdominal tumor 70×53mm in size and multiple small tumors in both lungs. The biopsy of the abdominal tumor revealed undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma, suggestive of Ewing sarcoma. Under the clinical diagnosis of Ewing-like sarcoma of the abdominal wall with multiple lung metastases, several cycles of ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide) therapy were performed. After the chemotherapy, the lung metastases disappeared, while the primary lesion rapidly grew. Additional VDC (vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) therapy was carried out without apparent effect. Although the surgical removal of the primary lesion was done, peritoneal dissemination and a huge metastatic liver tumor appeared thereafter. The patient died of disease progression two months after the surgery. The total clinical course was approximately one year, showing that the tumor was extremely aggressive. The tumor cells of the surgical specimen were positive for CD99, WT1, calretinin, INI1, ERG and Fli1 by immunohistochemistry. Fusion gene analyses using the frozen surgical material revealed negativity for EWSR1-Fli1, EWSR1-ERG and t(4;19) CIC-DUX4 fusions, but positivity for t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 fusion. Thus, we made a final pathological diagnosis of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4-positive undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the 13th case of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with precise clinicopathological information. Especially in our case, two types of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 fusion transcripts were observed, both of which are in-frame and novel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. An MSC2 Promoter-lacZ Fusion Gene Reveals Zinc-Responsive Changes in Sites of Transcription Initiation That Occur across the Yeast Genome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Taggart, Janet; Song, Pamela Xiyao; MacDiarmid, Colin; Eide, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The Msc2 and Zrg17 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a complex to transport zinc into the endoplasmic reticulum. ZRG17 is transcriptionally induced in zinc-limited cells by the Zap1 transcription factor. In this report, we show that MSC2 mRNA also increases (~1.5 fold) in zinc-limited cells. The MSC2 gene has two in-frame ATG codons at its 5’ end, ATG1 and ATG2; ATG2 is the predicted initiation codon. When the MSC2 promoter was fused at ATG2 to the lacZ gene, we found that unlike the chromosomal gene this reporter showed a 4-fold decrease in lacZ mRNA in zinc-limited cells. Surprisingly, β-galactosidase activity generated by this fusion gene increased ~7 fold during zinc deficiency suggesting the influence of post-transcriptional factors. Transcription of MSC2ATG2-lacZ was found to start upstream of ATG1 in zinc-replete cells. In zinc-limited cells, transcription initiation shifted to sites just upstream of ATG2. From the results of mutational and polysome profile analyses, we propose the following explanation for these effects. In zinc-replete cells, MSC2ATG2-lacZ mRNA with long 5’ UTRs fold into secondary structures that inhibit translation. In zinc-limited cells, transcripts with shorter unstructured 5’ UTRs are generated that are more efficiently translated. Surprisingly, chromosomal MSC2 did not show start site shifts in response to zinc status and only shorter 5’ UTRs were observed. However, the shifts that occur in the MSC2ATG2-lacZ construct led us to identify significant transcription start site changes affecting the expression of ~3% of all genes. Therefore, zinc status can profoundly alter transcription initiation across the yeast genome. PMID:27657924

  6. Dicentric breakage at telomere fusions

    PubMed Central

    Pobiega, Sabrina; Marcand, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) inhibition at telomeres ensures that native chromosome ends do not fuse together. But the occurrence and consequences of rare telomere fusions are not well understood. It is notably unclear whether a telomere fusion could be processed to restore telomere ends. Here we address the behavior of individual dicentrics formed by telomere fusion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our approach was to first stabilize and amplify fusions between two chromosomes by temporarily inactivating one centromere. Next we analyzed dicentric breakage following centromere reactivation. Unexpectedly, dicentrics often break at the telomere fusions during progression through mitosis, a process that restores the parental chromosomes. This unforeseen result suggests a rescue pathway able to process telomere fusions and to back up NHEJ inhibition at telomeres. PMID:20360388

  7. c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates cardiac growth and development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaozhu; Cang, Yong; Goff, Stephen P

    2010-01-19

    The c-Abl protein is a ubiquitously expressed nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in the development and function of many mammalian organ systems, including the immune system and bone. Here we show that homozygous Abl mutant embryos and newborns on the C57BL/6J background, but not on other backgrounds, display dramatically enlarged hearts and die perinatally. The heart defects can be largely rescued by cardiomyocyte-specific restoration of the full-length c-Abl protein. The cardiac hyperplasia phenotype is not caused by decreased apoptosis, but rather by abnormally increased cardiomyocyte proliferation during later stages of embryogenesis. Genes involved in cardiac stress and remodeling and cell cycle regulation are also up-regulated in the mutant hearts. These findings reveal an essential role for c-Abl in mammalian heart growth and development.

  8. c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates cardiac growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhaozhu; Cang, Yong; Goff, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    The c-Abl protein is a ubiquitously expressed nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in the development and function of many mammalian organ systems, including the immune system and bone. Here we show that homozygous Abl mutant embryos and newborns on the C57BL/6J background, but not on other backgrounds, display dramatically enlarged hearts and die perinatally. The heart defects can be largely rescued by cardiomyocyte-specific restoration of the full-length c-Abl protein. The cardiac hyperplasia phenotype is not caused by decreased apoptosis, but rather by abnormally increased cardiomyocyte proliferation during later stages of embryogenesis. Genes involved in cardiac stress and remodeling and cell cycle regulation are also up-regulated in the mutant hearts. These findings reveal an essential role for c-Abl in mammalian heart growth and development. PMID:20080568

  9. 46 CFR 15.840 - Able seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Able seamen. 15.840 Section 15.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.840 Able seamen. (a) With certain exceptions, 46 U.S.C. 8702 applies to all vessels of at least 100...

  10. 46 CFR 15.840 - Able seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Able seamen. 15.840 Section 15.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.840 Able seamen. (a) With certain exceptions, 46 U.S.C. 8702 applies to all vessels of at least 100...

  11. 46 CFR 15.840 - Able seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Able seamen. 15.840 Section 15.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.840 Able seamen. (a) With certain exceptions, 46 U.S.C. 8702 applies to all vessels of at least 100...

  12. 46 CFR 15.840 - Able seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Able seamen. 15.840 Section 15.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.840 Able seamen. (a) With certain exceptions, 46 U.S.C. 8702 applies to all vessels of at least 100...

  13. 46 CFR 15.840 - Able seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Able seamen. 15.840 Section 15.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.840 Able seamen. (a) With certain exceptions, 46 U.S.C. 8702 applies to all vessels of at least 100...

  14. Molecular analysis of the BCR-ABL1 kinase domain in chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in practice: study by the Nagasaki CML Study Group.

    PubMed

    Itonaga, Hidehiro; Tsushima, Hideki; Imanishi, Daisuke; Hata, Tomoko; Doi, Yuko; Mori, Sayaka; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Matsuo, Emi; Nakashima, Jun; Kato, Takeharu; Horai, Makiko; Taguchi, Masataka; Matsuo, Masatoshi; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Makiyama, Junnya; Sato, Shinya; Horio, Kensuke; Ando, Koji; Moriwaki, Yuji; Sawayama, Yasushi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Reishi; Takasaki, Yumi; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Taguchi, Jun; Kawaguchi, Yasuhisa; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Joh, Tatsuro; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Nonaka, Hiroaki; Soda, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takuya; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Kamihira, Shimeru; Tomonaga, Masao; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    An appropriate trigger for BCR-ABL1 mutation analysis has not yet been established in unselected cohorts of chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. We examined 92 patients after 12 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Univariate analysis revealed that significant factors associated with not attaining a major molecular response (MMR) were the presence of the minor BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, a low daily dose of TKI, and the emergence of BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations conferring resistance to imatinib. Factors associated with the loss of sustained MMR were a low daily dose of TKI and the emergence of alternatively spliced BCR-ABL1 mRNA with a 35-nucleotide insertion. Taken together, our results suggest that the search for BCR-ABL1 mutations should be initiated if patients have not achieved MMR following 12 months of TKI treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  16. Role of Abl kinase and the Wave2 signaling complex in HIV-1 entry at a post-hemifusion step.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brooke; Campbell, Nancy; Ratner, Lee

    2010-06-17

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commences with binding of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the receptor CD4, and one of two coreceptors, CXCR4 or CCR5. Env-mediated signaling through coreceptor results in Galphaq-mediated Rac activation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements necessary for fusion. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate Rac and regulate its downstream protein effectors. In this study we show that Env-induced Rac activation is mediated by the Rac GEF Tiam-1, which associates with the adaptor protein IRSp53 to link Rac to the Wave2 complex. Rac and the tyrosine kinase Abl then activate the Wave2 complex and promote Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization. Env-mediated cell-cell fusion, virus-cell fusion and HIV-1 infection are dependent on Tiam-1, Abl, IRSp53, Wave2, and Arp3 as shown by attenuation of fusion and infection in cells expressing siRNA targeted to these signaling components. HIV-1 Env-dependent cell-cell fusion, virus-cell fusion and infection were also inhibited by Abl kinase inhibitors, imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. Treatment of cells with Abl kinase inhibitors did not affect cell viability or surface expression of CD4 and CCR5. Similar results with inhibitors and siRNAs were obtained when Env-dependent cell-cell fusion, virus-cell fusion or infection was measured, and when cell lines or primary cells were the target. Using membrane curving agents and fluorescence microscopy, we showed that inhibition of Abl kinase activity arrests fusion at the hemifusion (lipid mixing) step, suggesting a role for Abl-mediated actin remodeling in pore formation and expansion. These results suggest a potential utility of Abl kinase inhibitors to treat HIV-1 infected patients.

  17. Review of renal carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions with focus on pathobiological aspect.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Mikami, Shuji; Pan, Chin-Chen; Cohen, Ronald J; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Nagashima, Yoji; Tanaka, Yukichi; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2012-02-01

    The concept of Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was recently established as a tumor affecting 15% of RCC patients <45 years. Many patients present with advanced stage with frequent lymph node metastases. Histologically, Xp11.2 RCC is characterized by mixed papillary nested/alveolar growth pattern and tumor cells with clear and/or eosinophilic, voluminous cytoplasm. Neoplastic cells show intense nuclear immunoreactivity to TFE3, while focal immunostaining for melanocytic markers, including melanosome-associated antigen or Melan A in some cases, are also noted. Alpha smooth muscle actin and TFEB are consistently negative. Ultrastructurally, the ASPL-TFE3 RCC variant contains rhomboid crystals in the cytoplasm, similar to that observed in alveolar soft part sarcoma. The fusion of the TFE3 gene with several different genes, including ASPL(17q25), PRCC(1q21), PSF(1q34), NonO (Xq12) and CLTC (17q23) have been identified to date. The behavior of Xp11.2 RCC in children and young adults is considered as indolent even when diagnosed at advanced stage, including lymph node metastasis. However, Xp11.2 RCC in older patients behaves in a more aggressive fashion. Therapy includes nephrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy. There may be a role for new protease inhibitors in advanced inoperable disease. Further research is required to correlate clinical behavior with the expanding genetic spectrum of this tumor, and to establish standard therapy protocols for primary and metastatic lesions.

  18. Frizzled 1 and frizzled 2 genes function in palate, ventricular septum and neural tube closure: general implications for tissue fusion processes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huimin; Smallwood, Philip M.; Wang, Yanshu; Vidaltamayo, Roman; Reed, Randall; Nathans, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The closure of an open anatomical structure by the directed growth and fusion of two tissue masses is a recurrent theme in mammalian embryology, and this process plays an integral role in the development of the palate, ventricular septum, neural tube, urethra, diaphragm and eye. In mice, targeted mutations of the genes encoding frizzled 1 (Fz1) and frizzled 2 (Fz2) show that these highly homologous integral membrane receptors play an essential and partially redundant role in closure of the palate and ventricular septum, and in the correct positioning of the cardiac outflow tract. When combined with a mutant allele of the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 (Vangl2Lp), Fz1 and/or Fz2 mutations also cause defects in neural tube closure and misorientation of inner ear sensory hair cells. These observations indicate that frizzled signaling is involved in diverse tissue closure processes, defects in which account for some of the most common congenital anomalies in humans. PMID:20940229

  19. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states.more » The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level.« less

  20. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outlinemore » specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.« less

  1. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outlinemore » specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.« less

  2. Round cell sarcoma with CIC-DUX4 gene fusion: Discussion of the distinctive cytomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features in the differential diagnosis of round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Chebib, Ivan; Jo, Vickie Y

    2016-05-01

    Undifferentiated round cell sarcomas are a heterogeneous group, and include tumors that resemble the Ewing sarcoma family. Although a subset defined by recurrent CIC-DUX4 gene fusion has been recently characterized, data regarding the cytomorphologic features are currently limited. Two recent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases prompted review of the spectrum of round cell tumors in the differential diagnosis to determine distinctive diagnostic features. Two genetically confirmed FNA cases were identified. Cytomorphologic features were evaluated on FNA smears and hematoxylin and eosin-stained cell block and concurrent needle biopsy sections, and immunohistochemical studies performed on cell block and biopsy sections were reviewed. The 2 patients were a 24-year-old man with a posterior mediastinal mass and a 69-year-old woman with a gluteal mass. FNA smears were cellular with tumor cells present in large groups and singly dispersed. Tumor cells had large, round-to-ovoid, hyperchromatic nuclei with irregular membranes, frequent large nucleoli, and a moderate amount of vacuolated cytoplasm. Both cases demonstrated necrosis, and one case had prominent myxoid stroma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated focal-to-multifocal CD99 positivity and diffuse nuclear staining for WT1; staining for cytokeratin, desmin, S-100, CD34, CD45, and TdT were negative. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated CIC-DUX4 fusion in both cases. CIC-DUX4 round cell sarcoma differs from Ewing sarcoma in that it has more atypical cytologic features and lacks the diffuse membranous CD99 staining pattern characteristic of Ewing sarcoma. The differential diagnosis is broad, and requires the judicious use of ancillary studies. Focal-to-multifocal CD99 immunoreactivity and diffuse nuclear WT1 positivity is characteristic of CIC-DUX4 sarcoma, and should prompt molecular testing. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:350-61. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. The t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia produces a novel fusion gene, NPM-MLF1.

    PubMed

    Yoneda-Kato, N; Look, A T; Kirstein, M N; Valentine, M B; Raimondi, S C; Cohen, K J; Carroll, A J; Morris, S W

    1996-01-18

    A t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) chromosomal translocation associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was found to rearrange part of the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on chromosome 5 with sequences from a novel gene on chromosome 3. Chimeric transcripts expressed by these cells contain 5' NPM coding sequences fused in-frame to those of the new gene, which we named myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1). RNA-based polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed identical NPM-MLF1 mRNA fusions in each of the three t(3;5)-positive cases of AML examined. The predicted MLF1 amino acid sequence lacked homology to previously characterized proteins and did not contain known functional motifs. Normal MLF1 transcripts were expressed in a variety of tissues, most abundantly in testis, ovary, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and colon. Anti-MLF1 antibodies detected the wild-type 31 kDa protein in K562 and HEL erythroleukemia cell lines, but not in HL-60, U937 or KG-1 myeloid leukemia lines. By contrast, t(3;5)-positive leukemia cells expressed a 54 kDa NPM-MLF1 protein, but not normal MLF1. Immunostaining experiments indicated that MLF1 is normally located in the cytoplasm, whereas NPM-MLF1 is targeted to the nucleus, with highest levels in the nucleolus. The nuclear/nucleolar localization of NPM-MLF1 mirrors that of NPM, indicating that NPM trafficking signals direct MLF1 to an inappropriate cellular compartment in myeloid leukemia cells.

  4. Development of Novel Prime-Boost Strategies Based on a Tri-Gene Fusion Recombinant L. tarentolae Vaccine against Experimental Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahereh; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Taslimi, Yasaman; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Bolhassani, Azam; Doroud, Delaram; Azizi, Hiva; Heidari, Kazem; Vasei, Mohammad; Namvar Asl, Nabiollah; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Rafati, Sima

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and domestic animals that constitutes a serious public health problem in many countries. Although many antigens have been examined so far as protein- or DNA-based vaccines, none of them conferred complete long-term protection. The use of the lizard non-pathogenic to humans Leishmania (L.) tarentolae species as a live vaccine vector to deliver specific Leishmania antigens is a recent approach that needs to be explored further. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of live vaccination in protecting BALB/c mice against L. infantum infection using prime-boost regimens, namely Live/Live and DNA/Live. As a live vaccine, we used recombinant L. tarentolae expressing the L. donovani A2 antigen along with cysteine proteinases (CPA and CPB without its unusual C-terminal extension (CPB-CTE)) as a tri-fusion gene. For DNA priming, the tri-fusion gene was encoded in pcDNA formulated with cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) acting as an adjuvant. At different time points post-challenge, parasite burden and histopathological changes as well as humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. Our results showed that immunization with both prime-boost A2-CPA-CPB-CTE-recombinant L. tarentolae protects BALB/c mice against L. infantum challenge. This protective immunity is associated with a Th1-type immune response due to high levels of IFN-γ production prior and after challenge and with lower levels of IL-10 production after challenge, leading to a significantly higher IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio compared to the control groups. Moreover, this immunization elicited high IgG1 and IgG2a humoral immune responses. Protection in mice was also correlated with a high nitric oxide production and low parasite burden. Altogether, these results indicate the promise of the A2-CPA-CPB-CTE-recombinant L. tarentolae as a safe live vaccine candidate against VL. PMID:23638195

  5. ABL and BAM Friction Analysis Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; ...

    2014-12-29

    Here, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here is a comparison of the Alleghany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) friction data and Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM) friction data for 19 HEM and military standard explosives.

  6. Adding Family Numeracy to ABLE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Action Southwest, Waynesburg, PA.

    This document consists of a brief final report and a handbook from a project conducted to develop family numeracy activities and incorporate them into adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) classes in two Pennsylvania counties. The 10 activities, which were designed to help adult learners foster the development of numeracy concepts/skills in…

  7. Matching Educational Opportunities with the Able Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Scott A.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides a framework, or typology, from which to examine the range of educational options that is available to the older person and provides an analysis of the potential size of the older learner student market. It includes a discussion of a demonstration program that has been well received by the able older learner. (CT)

  8. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  9. Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene: an oncolytic virus superior to dl1520 (ONYX-015) for human head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Tysome, James R; Wang, Pengju; Alusi, Ghassan; Briat, Arnaud; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Wang, Jiwei; Bhakta, Vipul; Fodor, Istvan; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2011-09-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents a promising strategy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with dl1520 (ONYX-015) the most widely used oncolytic adenovirus in clinical trials. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus as well as a vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene (VVhEA) as a novel therapy for HNSCC and to compare them with dl1520. The potency and replication of the Lister strain and VVhEA and the expression and function of the fusion protein were determined in human HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of VVhEA was compared with dl1520 in vivo in a human HNSCC model. The Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was more effective than the adenovirus against all HNSCC cell lines tested in vitro. Although the potency of VVhEA was attenuated in vitro, the expression and function of the endostatin-angiostatin fusion protein was confirmed in HNSCC models both in vitro and in vivo. This novel vaccinia virus (VVhEA) demonstrated superior antitumor potency in vivo compared with both dl1520 and the control vaccinia virus. This study suggests that the Lister strain vaccinia virus armed with an endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene may be a potential therapeutic agent for HNSCC.

  10. Differential roles of SS18-SSX fusion gene and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in synovial sarcoma cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Toernkvist, Maria; Natalishvili, Natalia; Xie Yuntao

    2008-04-11

    Recently we demonstrated that the synovial sarcoma specific fusion gene SS18-SSX is crucial for cyclin D1 expression and is linked to cell proliferation. In this report we explore the role of SS18-SSX and IGF-1R for their potential functions in cellular proliferation and survival in cultured synovial sarcoma cells. We found that targeting of SS18-SSX mRNA by antisense oligonucleotide treatment drastically and rapidly decreased cell proliferation but caused only a slight increase of apoptosis. The synovial sarcoma cells were confirmed to express IGF-1R, and treatment with an IGF-1R inhibitor resulted in substantially reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in these cells.more » Conversely, inhibition of the IGF-1R resulted only in a slight to moderate decrease in DNA synthesis. In conclusion, SS18-SSX and IGF-1R seem to play important but different roles in maintaining malignant growth of synovial sarcoma cells. Whereas SS18-SSX maintains cyclin D1 and cell proliferation, IGF-1R protects from apoptosis.« less

  11. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  12. Genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission network of human metapneumovirus: identification of a unique sub-lineage of the fusion and attachment genes

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor’E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November–April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion and attachment genes identified the co-circulation of three known HMPV sub-lineages, A2b and B1 (30.2% each, 26/86) and B2 (20.9%, 18/86), with genotype shift from sub-lineage B1 to A2b observed in 2013. Interestingly, a previously unrecognized sub-lineage of A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080

  13. Discovery of ALK-PTPN3 gene fusion from human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line using next generation RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yeonjoo; Kim, Pora; Jung, Yeonhwa; Keum, Juhee; Kim, Soon-Nam; Choi, Yong Soo; Do, In-Gu; Lee, Jinseon; Choi, So-Jung; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jhingook; Lee, Sanghyuk; Kim, Jaesang

    2012-06-01

    An increasing number of chromosomal aberrations is being identified in solid tumors providing novel biomarkers for various types of cancer and new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We applied next generation sequencing technique to analyze the transcriptome of the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line H2228 and discovered a fusion transcript composed of multiple exons of ALK (anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase) and PTPN3 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor Type 3). Detailed analysis of the genomic structure revealed that a portion of genomic region encompassing Exons 10 and 11 of ALK has been translocated into the intronic region between Exons 2 and 3 of PTPN3. The key net result appears to be the null mutation of one allele of PTPN3, a gene with tumor suppressor activity. Consistently, ectopic expression of PTPN3 in NSCLC cell lines led to inhibition of colony formation. Our study confirms the utility of next generation sequencing as a tool for the discovery of somatic mutations and has led to the identification of a novel mutation in NSCLC that may be of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic importance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Silencing of the PiAvr3a effector-encoding gene from Phytophthora infestans by transcriptional fusion to a short interspersed element.

    PubMed

    Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Tian, Zhendong; Avrova, Anna O; Savenkov, Eugene I; Dixelius, Christina; Whisson, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the notorious oomycete causing late blight of potato and tomato. A large proportion of the P. infestans genome is composed of transposable elements, the activity of which may be controlled by RNA silencing. Accumulation of small RNAs is one of the hallmarks of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate the presence of small RNAs corresponding to the sequence of a short interspersed retrotransposable element (SINE) suggesting that small RNAs might be involved in silencing of SINEs in P. infestans. This notion was exploited to develop novel tools for gene silencing in P. infestans by engineering transcriptional fusions of the PiAvr3a gene, encoding an RXLR avirulence effector, to the infSINEm retroelement. Transgenic P. infestans lines expressing either 5'-infSINEm::PiAvr3a-3' or 5'-PiAvr3a::SINEm-3' chimeric transcripts initially exhibited partial silencing of PiAvr3a. Over time, PiAvr3a either recovered wild type transcript levels in some lines, or became fully silenced in others. Introduction of an inverted repeat construct was also successful in yielding P. infestans transgenic lines silenced for PiAvr3a. In contrast, constructs expressing antisense or aberrant RNA transcripts failed to initiate silencing of PiAvr3a. Lines exhibiting the most effective silencing of PiAvr3a were either weakly or non-pathogenic on susceptible potato cv. Bintje. This study expands the repertoire of reverse genetics tools available for P. infestans research, and provides insights into a possible mode of variation in effector expression through spread of silencing from adjacent retroelements. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org; Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral sidemore » of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.« less

  16. Cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted surgery for the treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma with a tumor thrombus within the inferior vena cava: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanchen; Qiu, Xuefeng; Chen, Xianchen; Liu, Guangxiang; Zhang, Gutian; Gan, Weidong; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 85-90% of kidney cancers, which in turn account for 2-3% of all malignant tumors in adults. Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC is currently classified as a distinct type of RCC. RCC is capable of invading the renal vein and inferior vena cava to form a tumor thrombus. The incidence of RCC with tumor thrombi within the renal vein or inferior vena cava is 7-10% in China. In the present case report, the patient underwent radical resection of the renal tumor and removal of the tumor thrombus, assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass, for the treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC. The patient was followed-up for 12 months subsequent to treatment. The patient's renal function remained within the normal range, and computed tomography examination revealed no evidence of disease recurrence or metastases. The present case report aimed to provide a reference for the development of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC.

  17. Cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted surgery for the treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma with a tumor thrombus within the inferior vena cava: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, GUANCHEN; QIU, XUEFENG; CHEN, XIANCHEN; LIU, GUANGXIANG; ZHANG, GUTIAN; GAN, WEIDONG; GUO, HONGQIAN

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 85–90% of kidney cancers, which in turn account for 2–3% of all malignant tumors in adults. Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC is currently classified as a distinct type of RCC. RCC is capable of invading the renal vein and inferior vena cava to form a tumor thrombus. The incidence of RCC with tumor thrombi within the renal vein or inferior vena cava is 7–10% in China. In the present case report, the patient underwent radical resection of the renal tumor and removal of the tumor thrombus, assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass, for the treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC. The patient was followed-up for 12 months subsequent to treatment. The patient's renal function remained within the normal range, and computed tomography examination revealed no evidence of disease recurrence or metastases. The present case report aimed to provide a reference for the development of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC. PMID:26788164

  18. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    PubMed

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... of another Abnormal curvatures, such as those from scoliosis or kyphosis Arthritis in the spine, such as ... Spine surgery - discharge Surgical wound care - open Images Scoliosis Spinal fusion - series References Bennett EE, Hwang L, ...

  20. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Characterization of Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusions versus Papillary Renal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    He, Jian; Zhou, Kefeng; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Gutian; Li, Xiaogong; Guo, Hongqian; Gan, Weidong; Zhou, Zhengyang; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the differences of CT characteristics between renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2 RCCs) and papillary cell renal cell carcinomas (PRCCs). Methods. CT images and clinical records of 64 patients (25 Xp11.2 RCCs, 15 type 1 and 24 type 2 PRCCs) were analyzed and compared retrospectively. Results. Xp11.2 RCC more frequently affected young (30.7 ± 8.7 years) women (16/25, 64%) with gross hematuria (12/25, 48%), while PRCC more frequently involved middle-aged (54.8 ± 11.1 years) men (28/39, 71.8%) asymptomatically. Xp11.2 RCC tended to be heterogeneous density with some showing circular calcification. Lesion sizes of Xp11.2 RCC (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) and type 2 PRCC (5.7 ± 2.5 cm) were significantly larger than that of type 1 PRCC (3.8 ± 1.8 cm). Xp11.2 RCC contained more cystic components (22/25, 88%) than type 1 PRCC (all solid) and type 2 PRCC (9/24, 36.0%). Type 1 PRCC (13/15, 86.7%) and Xp11.2 RCC (21/25, 84.0%) showed more clear boundary than type 2 PRCC (12/24, 50.0%). Conclusion. CT features including diameter, boundary, attenuation, nature, and circular calcification of the tumor, combined with demographic information and symptoms, may be useful to differentiate Xp11.2 RCC from different subtypes of PRCC. PMID:26636097

  2. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI. PMID:21954339

  3. Transient co-expression of post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors for increased in planta expression of a recombinant anthrax receptor fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M; McDonald, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  4. Pseudocapsule of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion: a clue for tumor enucleation?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiangming; He, Jian; Gan, Weidong; Fan, Xiangshan; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Bin; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of tumor enucleation (TE) for patients with small renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) by analyzing the pseudocapsule characteristics of Xp11.2 RCCs comparing with that of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). From June 2007 to February 2014, 22 patients with Xp11.2 RCC who were diagnosed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization polyclonal (FISH) assay and 32 patients with ccRCC treated in our institution were comparatively studied. 12 patients with ccRCC underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 20 received TE. Among 22 patients with Xp11.2 RCC, 19 were treated by RN and 3 by TE (1 by radiofrequency ablation assisted TE). Pseudocapsule and other clinicopathological characteristics of the two subtypes of RCC were compared. Survival of patients treated with different surgical methods was evaluated and compared. Pseudocapsule incidence of Xp11.2 RCC (14/22, 63.6%) was lower than that of ccRCC (32/32, 100%, P<0.001). However, pseudocapsule integrity rate of Xp11.2 RCC (10/14, 71.4%) was comparable with that of ccRCC (23/32, 71.9%, P=1.000). The 5-year overall survival of patients with ccRCC treated with RN and TE was 86% and 81%, respectively (P=0.845). Three patients with small Xp11.2 RCC performed well after TE. Over half Xp11.2 RCC had pseudocapsules, whose integrity rate was comparable to that of ccRCC. Treatment effectives of TE and RN were comparable in ccRCC. A preliminary attempt to treat small Xp11.2 RCC with intact pseudocapsule by using TE produced a favorable treatment outcome.

  5. The multislice CT findings of renal carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion and collecting duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Qiu; Zhu, Wen-Rong; Chen, Wen-Xin; Wu, Jing-Tao

    2013-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE gene fusion (Xp11.2/TFE RCC), and collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) are uncommon subtypes of renal cell carcinomas. To investigate the multislice CT (MSCT) characteristics of these two tumor types. Nine patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC and 10 patients with CDC were studied retrospectively. MSCT was undertaken to investigate differences in tumor characteristics and enhancement patterns. All patients had single tumors centered in the renal medulla. Two patients with each tumor type had lymph node involvement and there was a single case of hepatic metastasis (Xp11.2/TFE RCC). The mean tumor diameter of Xp11.2/TFE RCC tumors was significantly larger than for CDC tumors. Two patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC had cystic components as did eight patients with CDC (P < 0.05). Calcifications were present in six patients, each with CDC. Clear tumor boundaries were visible in two patients with CDC and in nine with Xp11.2/TFE RCC (P < 0.05). The density of Xp11.2/TFE RCC tumors was greater than that of CDC tumors, normal renal cortex, or medulla on unenhanced CT. Enhancement was higher with Xp11.2/TFE RCC than with CDC tumors during all phases. Xp11.2/TFE RCC enhancement was higher than in the renal medulla during cortical and medullary phase but lower than in normal renal medulla during the delayed phase. CDC tumor enhancement was lower than that for normal renal medulla during all enhanced phases. Both tumor types originated from the renal medulla. Distinguishing features included density on unenhanced CT, enhancement patterns, and capsule signs. Identifying these differences may aid diagnosis.

  6. Pseudocapsule of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion: a clue for tumor enucleation?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiangming; He, Jian; Gan, Weidong; Fan, Xiangshan; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Bin; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of tumor enucleation (TE) for patients with small renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) by analyzing the pseudocapsule characteristics of Xp11.2 RCCs comparing with that of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: From June 2007 to February 2014, 22 patients with Xp11.2 RCC who were diagnosed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization polyclonal (FISH) assay and 32 patients with ccRCC treated in our institution were comparatively studied. 12 patients with ccRCC underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 20 received TE. Among 22 patients with Xp11.2 RCC, 19 were treated by RN and 3 by TE (1 by radiofrequency ablation assisted TE). Pseudocapsule and other clinicopathological characteristics of the two subtypes of RCC were compared. Survival of patients treated with different surgical methods was evaluated and compared. Results: Pseudocapsule incidence of Xp11.2 RCC (14/22, 63.6%) was lower than that of ccRCC (32/32, 100%, P<0.001). However, pseudocapsule integrity rate of Xp11.2 RCC (10/14, 71.4%) was comparable with that of ccRCC (23/32, 71.9%, P=1.000). The 5-year overall survival of patients with ccRCC treated with RN and TE was 86% and 81%, respectively (P=0.845). Three patients with small Xp11.2 RCC performed well after TE. Conclusions: Over half Xp11.2 RCC had pseudocapsules, whose integrity rate was comparable to that of ccRCC. Treatment effectives of TE and RN were comparable in ccRCC. A preliminary attempt to treat small Xp11.2 RCC with intact pseudocapsule by using TE produced a favorable treatment outcome. PMID:26191243

  7. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Characterization of Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusions versus Papillary Renal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Zhou, Kefeng; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Gutian; Li, Xiaogong; Guo, Hongqian; Gan, Weidong; Zhou, Zhengyang; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    To compare the differences of CT characteristics between renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2 RCCs) and papillary cell renal cell carcinomas (PRCCs). CT images and clinical records of 64 patients (25 Xp11.2 RCCs, 15 type 1 and 24 type 2 PRCCs) were analyzed and compared retrospectively. Xp11.2 RCC more frequently affected young (30.7 ± 8.7 years) women (16/25, 64%) with gross hematuria (12/25, 48%), while PRCC more frequently involved middle-aged (54.8 ± 11.1 years) men (28/39, 71.8%) asymptomatically. Xp11.2 RCC tended to be heterogeneous density with some showing circular calcification. Lesion sizes of Xp11.2 RCC (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) and type 2 PRCC (5.7 ± 2.5 cm) were significantly larger than that of type 1 PRCC (3.8 ± 1.8 cm). Xp11.2 RCC contained more cystic components (22/25, 88%) than type 1 PRCC (all solid) and type 2 PRCC (9/24, 36.0%). Type 1 PRCC (13/15, 86.7%) and Xp11.2 RCC (21/25, 84.0%) showed more clear boundary than type 2 PRCC (12/24, 50.0%). CT features including diameter, boundary, attenuation, nature, and circular calcification of the tumor, combined with demographic information and symptoms, may be useful to differentiate Xp11.2 RCC from different subtypes of PRCC.

  8. [Differential diagnosis between renal cell carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion and papillary renal cell carcinoma based on CT and MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingqiang; Zhu, Wenrong; Wu, Jingtao; Fu, Jianxiong; Chen, Wenxin; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2014-05-20

    To comparative study of CT and MRI appearances in renal cell carcinoma associated with XP11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion (XP11.2 RCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). 12 patients with XP11.2 RCC and 18 patients with PRCC were retrospectively studied, and the data was analyzed by AVONA and chi-square text. 12 patients with XP11.2 RCC and 18 patients with PRCC, cystic components (2 vs 11, P < 0.05), calcification (0 vs 6, P < 0.05), hemorrhage (9 vs 5, P < 0.05), homogeneous enhancement (10 vs 7, P < 0.05) and had lymph node (3 vs 0) or hepatic metastasis (1vs 0) (P < 0.05). On unenhanced CT, the density of XP11.2 RCC was greater than PRCC, normal renal cortex or medulla (P < 0.05). Their degree of enhancement were less than normal renal cortex on all enhanced phases (P < 0.05). The enhancement degree of XP11.2 RCC was higher than PRCC (on all phases) and renal medulla (on cortical and medullary phase) (P < 0.05), but less than normal renal medulla on the delayed phase (P < 0.05). The enhancement degree of PRCC was lower than renal medulla on all phases (P < 0.05). The XP11.2 RCC was isointense on T1-weighted imaging, hypointense on T2-weighted imaging. The PRCC was isointense or hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, isointense on T2-weighted imaging. The CT and MRI could show imagings features of XP11.2 RCC and PRCC, and these features were helpful in predicting a specific subtype of renal cell carcinoma.

  9. MDCT findings of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE3 gene fusion and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn; Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, See Hyung; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the MDCT features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11 RCC) and papillary RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study included 19 and 39 patients with histologically proven Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC, respectively, who underwent multiphase renal MDCT before nephrectomy. CT findings were compared between Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC using the Student t test and chi-square test. Subgroup analyses of small (< 4 cm) renal masses for these features were performed. RESULTS. Patients with Xp11 RCC were younger (p < 0.001), and it was more prevalent in women (p = 0.007). Tumor size was greater in Xp11 RCC (p = 0.004) and more common in cystic change (p < 0.001). Calcification and unenhanced high-attenuating areas were more frequent in Xp11 RCC (p = 0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Xp11 RCCs were more prevalent in lymph node and distant metastasis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC showed no significant difference in epicenter, margin, and venous and collecting duct invasion (p = 0.403-1.000). Although Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC had lower attenuation than the renal cortex on corticomedullary and early excretory phases (p < 0.001), only Xp11 RCCs were hyperattenuating to the cortex on the unenhanced phase (p < 0.001). Xp11 RCCs had significantly higher attenuation compared with papillary RCCs on all phases (p ≤ 0.02). Regarding small masses, cystic change, calcification, and lymph node metastasis were still more frequent in Xp11 RCCs (p ≤ 0.016). CONCLUSION. Greater size, more cystic change, calcification, high-attenuating areas on unenhanced imaging, and lymph node and distant metastasis were helpful for differentiating Xp11 RCC from papillary RCC.

  10. A Distinct Malignant Epithelioid Neoplasm With GLI1 Gene Rearrangements, Frequent S100 Protein Expression, and Metastatic Potential: Expanding the Spectrum of Pathologic Entities With ACTB/MALAT1/PTCH1-GLI1 Fusions.

    PubMed

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Swanson, David; Dickson, Brendan C

    2018-04-01

    ACTB-GLI1 fusions have been reported as the pathognomonic genetic abnormality defining an unusual subset of actin-positive, perivascular myoid tumors, known as "pericytoma with the t(7;12) translocation." In addition, GLI1 oncogenic activation through a related MALAT1-GLI1 gene fusion has been recently reported in 2 unrelated gastric tumors, namely plexiform fibromyxoma and gastroblastoma. Triggered by unexpected targeted RNA-sequencing results detecting GLI1-related fusions in a group of malignant neoplasms with round to epithelioid morphology, and frequently strong S100 protein immunoreactivity, we investigated their clinicopathologic features in relation to other known pathologic entities sharing similar genetics. On the basis of a combined approach of targeted RNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization screening, we identified 6 cases with GLI1 gene fusions, including 4 fused to ACTB, 1 with MALAT1 and 1 with PTCH1 gene. Patients had a mean age of 36 years at diagnosis (range, 16 to 79 y) and slight female predilection all except 1 tumor originated in the soft tissue. Microscopically, the tumors had a monomorphic epithelioid phenotype arranged in a distinctive nested or cord-like architecture, separated by thin septae and delicate capillary network. All except 2 cases were strongly positive for S100 protein, whereas being negative for SOX10, SMA, and EMA. Only 1 tumor showed focal cytokeratin positivity in rare cells. Although the tumors showed some resemblance to pericytic/glomus tumors or myoepithelial tumors, the immunoprofile was not supportive of either lineage. Moreover, in contrast to the benign course of so-called pericytoma with t(7;12), 3 patients in this series developed metastatic disease to either lymph nodes or lung. In fact the only patient with lung metastases showed a novel PTCH1-GLI1 gene fusion. It remains to be determined whether these tumors represent a clinically and immunohistologically distinct subset of pericytoma, or an

  11. Project ABLE: (Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.

    1985-03-01

    Project ABLE (Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment) is part of the A.F. Geophysics Laboratory's continuing interest in developing techniques for making remote measurements of atmospheric quantities such as density, pressure, temperatures, and wind motions. The system consists of a balloonborne lidar payload designed to measure neutral molecular density as a function of altitude from ground level to 70 km. The lidar provides backscatter data at the doubled and tripled frequencies of a Nd:YAG laser, which will assist in the separation of the molecular and aerosol contributions and subsequent determination of molecular and aerosol contributions and subsequent determination of molecular density vs altitude. The object of this contract was to fabricate and operate in a field test a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nighttime atmospheric density measurements up to 70 km altitude with a resolution of 150 meters. The payload included a frequency-doubled and -tripled Nd:YAG laser with outputs at 355 and 532 nm; a telescoped receiver with PMT detectors; a command-controlled optical pointing system; and support system, including thermal control, telmetry, command, and power. Successful backscatter measurements were made during field operations which included a balloon launch from Roswell, NM and a flight over the White Sands Missile Range.

  12. Establishment and validation of analytical reference panels for the standardization of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements on the international scale.

    PubMed

    White, Helen E; Hedges, John; Bendit, Israel; Branford, Susan; Colomer, Dolors; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Kim, Dong-Wook; Modur, Vijay; Müller, Martin C; Pagnano, Katia B; Pane, Fabrizio; Radich, Jerry; Cross, Nicholas C P; Labourier, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    Current guidelines for managing Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia include monitoring the expression of the BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region/c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) fusion gene by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Our goal was to establish and validate reference panels to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate global standardization on the international scale (IS). Four-level secondary reference panels were manufactured under controlled and validated processes with synthetic Armored RNA Quant molecules (Asuragen) calibrated to reference standards from the WHO and the NIST. Performance was evaluated in IS reference laboratories and with non-IS-standardized RT-qPCR methods. For most methods, percent ratios for BCR-ABL1 e13a2 and e14a2 relative to ABL1 or BCR were robust at 4 different levels and linear over 3 logarithms, from 10% to 0.01% on the IS. The intraassay and interassay imprecision was <2-fold overall. Performance was stable across 3 consecutive lots, in multiple laboratories, and over a period of 18 months to date. International field trials demonstrated the commutability of the reagents and their accurate alignment to the IS within the intra- and interlaboratory imprecision of IS-standardized methods. The synthetic calibrator panels are robust, reproducibly manufactured, analytically calibrated to the WHO primary standards, and compatible with most BCR-ABL1 RT-qPCR assay designs. The broad availability of secondary reference reagents will further facilitate interlaboratory comparative studies and independent quality assessment programs, which are of paramount importance for worldwide standardization of BCR-ABL1 monitoring results and the optimization of current and new therapeutic approaches for chronic myeloid leukemia. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. Disrupting BCR-ABL in combination with secondary leukemia-specific pathways in CML cells leads to enhanced apoptosis and decreased proliferation.

    PubMed

    Woessner, David W; Lim, Carol S

    2013-01-07

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder caused by expression of the fusion gene BCR-ABL following a chromosomal translocation in the hematopoietic stem cell. Therapeutic management of CML uses tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which block ABL-signaling and effectively kill peripheral cells with BCR-ABL. However, TKIs are not curative, and chronic use is required in order to treat CML. The primary failure for TKIs is through the development of a resistant population due to mutations in the TKI binding regions. This led us to develop the mutant coiled-coil, CC(mut2), an alternative method for BCR-ABL signaling inhibition by targeting the N-terminal oligomerization domain of BCR, necessary for ABL activation. In this article, we explore additional pathways that are important for leukemic stem cell survival in K562 cells. Using a candidate-based approach, we test the combination of CC(mut2) and inhibitors of unique secondary pathways in leukemic cells. Transformative potential was reduced following silencing of the leukemic stem cell factor Alox5 by RNA interference. Furthermore, blockade of the oncogenic protein MUC-1 by the novel peptide GO-201 yielded reductions in proliferation and increased cell death. Finally, we found that inhibiting macroautophagy using chloroquine in addition to blocking BCR-ABL signaling with the CC(mut2) was most effective in limiting cell survival and proliferation. This study has elucidated possible combination therapies for CML using novel blockade of BCR-ABL and secondary leukemia-specific pathways.

  14. Assessment of long-term outcomes associated with urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion at repeat biopsy.

    PubMed

    Merdan, Selin; Tomlins, Scott A; Barnett, Christine L; Morgan, Todd M; Montie, James E; Wei, John T; Denton, Brian T

    2015-11-15

    In men with clinically localized prostate cancer who have undergone at least 1 previous negative biopsy and have elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, long-term health outcomes associated with the assessment of urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) and the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) gene fusion (T2:ERG) have not been investigated previously in relation to the decision to recommend a repeat biopsy. The authors performed a decision analysis using a decision tree for men with elevated PSA levels. The probability of cancer was estimated using the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (version 2.0). The use of PSA alone was compared with the use of PCA3 and T2:ERG scores, with each evaluated independently, in combination with PSA to trigger a repeat biopsy. When PCA3 and T2:ERG score evaluations were used, predefined thresholds were established to determine whether the patient should undergo a repeat biopsy. Biopsy outcomes were defined as either positive (with a Gleason score of <7, 7, or >7) or negative. Probabilities and estimates of 10-year overall survival and 15-year cancer-specific survival were derived from previous studies and a literature review. Outcomes were defined as age-dependent and Gleason score-dependent 10-year overall and 15-year cancer-specific survival rates and the percentage of biopsies avoided. Incorporating the PCA3 score (biopsy threshold, 25; generated based on the urine PCA3 level normalized to the amount of PSA messenger RNA) or the T2:ERG score (biopsy threshold, 10; based on the urine T2:ERG level normalized to the amount of PSA messenger RNA) into the decision to recommend repeat biopsy would have avoided 55.4% or 64.7% of repeat biopsies for the base-case patient, respectively, and changes in the 10-year survival rate were only 0.93% or 1.41%, respectively. Multi-way sensitivity analyses suggested that these results were robust

  15. Clinical characteristics of XP11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiangming; Gan, Weidong; Zhang, Gutian; Li, Xiaogong; Guo, Hongqian

    2016-07-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC which is firstly described as a distinct entity in 2004 so that clinical characteristics of Xp11.2 RCC in different gender and age are unknown. The purpose of systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive assessment on them. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies which evaluate the clinical characteristics of Xp11.2 RCC. The literature published between July 2004 and May 2014 was searched. A total of 15 studies with 147 participants were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that number of patients of all age in female was higher than in male with pooled OR of 3.93(95 % CI = 1.66-9.34). However, incidence of distant metastases (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI = 0.12-1.57) and lymphatic metastases (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI = 0.14-1.91), tumor stage (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.34-2.15) and overall survival (OS) (OR = 0.46, 95 % CI = 0.05-4.34) between male and female were comparable. Incidence in female was higher than in male with pooled OR of 5.13(95 % CI = 1.67-15.72) in adults, while in children no gender-related predominance (OR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 0.38-3.72) was observed. In addition, incidence of distant metastases (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.13-7.84) and lymphatic metastases (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.07-13.67) and tumor stage (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI = 0.20-19.03) between children and adults were comparable. Survival curves presented comparable outcomes between male and female (P = 0.707) as well as between children and adults (P = 0.383). Female patients with Xp11.2 RCC in adults exhibit a high incidence compared to male, but not in children. Comparable clinical characteristics including incidence of distant and lymphatic metastases, tumor stage and prognosis is presented between male and female as well as between children and adults.

  16. Renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions: findings on MRI and computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kefu; Xie, Ping; Peng, Weijun; Zhou, Zhengrong

    2014-08-01

    To retrospectively analyze MRI and computed tomographic (CT) findings from renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11-RCC). Institutional review board permission was obtained to review patient medical records, and the requirement for informed consent was waved . The clinical and MRI/CT features of five cases with Xp11-RCC that were confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The image characteristics included the lesion location and size, contribution of cystic and solid components, intratumoral necrosis or hemorrhage, invasion of perinephric tissue and renal sinus, lymphadenopathy, major venous or arterial vascular invasion, pattern of the tumor growth, intratumor calcification and lipids, homogeneity of SI on T2-weighted images, attenuation and SI of the mass with respect to the normal renal cortex on precontrast and contrasted CT/MRI images, tumor SIs, tumor attenuations and tumor-to-cortex indices, homogeneity of enhancement on the contrasted images. The mean age was 32 years (range, 15-47 years). Most patients (4/5) were women. All tumors showed a cortical location. The average tumor size was 9 cm (range, 4-18 cm). Four tumors comprised a predominantly solid lesion with focal necrosis, and one tumor comprised a solid lesion with significant necrosis. All tumors showed intertumor hemorrhage, infiltrative growth and invasion of the perirenal adipose/renal sinus. Four cases showed retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, of which one case showed simultaneous mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. All tumors from four cases showed mild hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI images, and three tumors showed hypointensity on T2-weighted MRI images relative to the renal cortex except for 1 tumor that showed significant hemorrhage and a relative hyperintensity. For 3 cases who were imaged with CT, two tumors imaged using nonenhanced CT images showed mild hyperdensity relative to the renal cortex. Calcification was noted in all

  17. Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion: 3 case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pengfeng; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Wang, Kun; Xu, Renfang; Chen, Yiming; Wang, Xiaogang; Yin, Shuai

    2018-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma. This predominantly occurs in juveniles, but rarely seen in adults with lymph node or organic metastasis and a worsened prognosis. Herein, we presented 3 adult cases of Xp11-RCC. Two patients were in early stage and good condition, and the third patient had lymph node metastasis but showed no recurrence after a 3-month follow-up. Case 1: A 50-year-old female without any lumbago and gross hematuria was incidentally detected by left renal mass by ultrasonography. Case 2: A 31-year-old female with 2-year hemodialysis was detected with right renal carcinoma during preoperative examination of renal transplant. Case 3: A 45-year-old male with right lumbago for 1 month was detected with a mass in the lower pole of right kidney by ultrasonography. The characteristics of these 3 images are not consistent with each other, and showed some differences with the previous ones. All these 3 patients underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and case 1 patient underwent renal hilar lymphnode dissection at the same time. Immunohistochemistry was performed on all the 3 tumors, revealing that the tumor cells were positive for TFE3 and Melan-A. Case 1 showed lymph node metastasis, and received mTOR inhibitors. The 3 patients had no recurrent and new metastasis in other organs after follow-up for 3 months, 2 months, and 11 months, respectively. Whether the adult-onset Xp-RCC has an aggressive clinical course still remains controversial. Characteristics of the images of the 3 adult cases showed some uniformity but still have some differences. Immunohistochemistry results revealed tumor cell positive for TFE3, but have no consistency in carbonic anhydrase IX, CD117, Ki67, CK8/18 AE1/AE3 and so on. Therefore, the uniform and definitive diagnostic standards of the tumors are uncertain. Hence, more cases and findings are required to elaborate the standards of all the

  18. Purification of CD47-streptavidin fusion protein from bacterial lysate using biotin-agarose affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Nasrin; Peng, Ching-An

    2016-07-08

    CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that modulates the activity of a plethora of immune cells via its extracellular domain. Therefore, CD47 plays important roles in the regulation of immune responses and may serve as targets for the development of immunotherapeutic agents. To make sure CD47 functionality is intact under the process of protein conjugation, CD47-streptavidin fusion protein was expressed and purified because it can easily bind to biotin-tagged materials via the unique biotin-streptavidin affinity. In this study, gene sequences of CD47 extracellular domain (CD47ECD) and core streptavidin (coreSA) with a total 834 bp were inserted into pET20b plasmid to construct recombinant plasmid encoding CD47-SA fusion gene. After bacteria transformation, the CD47-SA fusion protein was expressed by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The collected bacteria lysate was loaded on biotinylated agarose to proceed the purification of CD47-SA fusion protein. Due to the unexpected high affinity between biotin and coreSA, standard washing and elution approaches (e.g., varying pH, using biotin, and applying guanidine hydrochloride) reported for biotin-streptavidin affinity chromatography were not able to separate the target fusion protein. Instead, using low concentration of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 followed with alkaline buffer could efficiently weaken the binding between biotin and coreSA, thereby eluting out CD47-SA fusion protein from the biotin agarose column. The purified CD47-SA fusion protein was further characterized by molecular biology methods and its antiphagocytic functionality was confirmed by the phagocytosis assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:949-958, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. A functional promoter shift of a chloroplast gene: a transcriptional fusion between a novel psbA gene copy and the trnK (UUU) gene in Pinus contorta.

    PubMed

    Lidholm, J; Gustafsson, P

    1992-11-01

    A comparative transcription analysis of the chloroplast trnK-psbA-trnH region of the two pine species Pinus contorta and Pinus sylvestris is reported. The chloroplast genome of P. contorta has previously been shown to contain a duplicated psbA gene copy integrated closely upstream of the split trnK gene. This rearrangement has resulted in the gene order psbAI-trnK-psbAII-trnH, where psbAII is the ancestral psbA gene copy. In P. sylvestris, a species which lacks the psbA duplication, transcription of the trnK gene originates from a position 291 bp upstream of the trnK 5' exon, adjacent to a canonical promoter structure. In P. contorta, the corresponding promoter structure has been separated from the trnK gene by the insertion of psbAI, and has, in addition, been partially deleted. Analysis of the transcriptional organization of the trnK-psbA-trnH region of the two pine species revealed that the trnK gene in P. contorta is transcriptionally fused to the inserted psbAI gene copy. As a result, trnK is under the control of the psbA promoter in this species and has therefore acquired psbA-like expression characteristics. In P. sylvestris, accumulation of trnK transcripts is not significantly higher in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. In contrast, the level of trnK transcripts in P. contorta is approximately 12-fold higher in the light than in the dark. When light-grown seedlings of the two pine species were compared, an approximately 20-fold higher level of trnK RNAs was found in P. contorta. In both pine species, evidence was obtained for trnK-psbA and psbA-trnH co-transcription.

  20. C/EBPβ promotes BCR–ABL-mediated myeloid expansion and leukemic stem cell exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y; Hirai, H; Kamio, N; Yao, H; Yoshioka, S; Miura, Y; Ashihara, E; Fujiyama, Y; Tenen, DG; Maekawa, T

    2015-01-01

    The BCR–ABL fusion oncoprotein accelerates differentiation and proliferation of myeloid cells during the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML). Here, the role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a regulator for ‘emergency granulopoiesis,’ in the pathogenesis of CP-CML was examined. C/EBPβ expression was upregulated in Lineage− CD34+ CD38− hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors isolated from bone marrow of patients with CP-CML. In EML cells, a mouse HSC line, BCR–ABL upregulated C/EBPβ, at least in part, through the activation of STAT5. Myeloid differentiation and proliferation induced by BCR–ABL was significantly impaired in C/EBPβ-deficient bone marrow cells in vitro. Mice that were transplanted with BCR–ABL-transduced C/EBPβ knockout bone marrow cells survived longer than mice that received BCR–ABL-transduced wild-type (WT) bone marrow cells. Significantly higher levels of leukemic stem cells were maintained in BCR–ABL-transduced C/EBPβ-deficient cells than in BCR–ABL-transduced WT cells. These results suggest that C/EBPβ is involved in BCR–ABL-mediated myeloid expansion. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the C/EBPβ-mediated stem cell loss might reveal a novel therapeutic strategy for eradication of CML stem cells. PMID:22948537

  1. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  2. Novel kinase fusion transcripts found in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Ryo; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamawaki, Kaoru; Suda, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Adachi, Sosuke; Okuda, Shujiro; Inoue, Ituro; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Enomoto, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA-sequencing technology have enabled the discovery of gene fusion transcripts in the transcriptome of cancer cells. However, it remains difficult to differentiate the therapeutically targetable fusions from passenger events. We have analyzed RNA-sequencing data and DNA copy number data from 25 endometrial cancer cell lines to identify potential therapeutically targetable fusion transcripts, and have identified 124 high-confidence fusion transcripts, of which 69% are associated with gene amplifications. As targetable fusion candidates, we focused on three in-frame kinase fusion transcripts that retain a kinase domain (CPQ-PRKDC, CAPZA2-MET, and VGLL4-PRKG1). We detected only CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript in three of 122 primary endometrial cancer tissues. Cell proliferation of the fusion-positive cell line was inhibited by knocking down the expression of wild-type PRKDC but not by blocking the CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript was significantly lower than that of wild-type PRKDC, corresponding to a low transcript allele fraction of this fusion, based on RNA-sequencing read counts. In endometrial cancers, the CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript may be a passenger aberration related to gene amplification. Our findings suggest that transcript allele fraction is a useful predictor to find bona-fide therapeutic-targetable fusion transcripts. PMID:26689674

  3. Novel kinase fusion transcripts found in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ryo; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamawaki, Kaoru; Suda, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Adachi, Sosuke; Okuda, Shujiro; Inoue, Ituro; Verhaak, Roel G W; Enomoto, Takayuki

    2015-12-22

    Recent advances in RNA-sequencing technology have enabled the discovery of gene fusion transcripts in the transcriptome of cancer cells. However, it remains difficult to differentiate the therapeutically targetable fusions from passenger events. We have analyzed RNA-sequencing data and DNA copy number data from 25 endometrial cancer cell lines to identify potential therapeutically targetable fusion transcripts, and have identified 124 high-confidence fusion transcripts, of which 69% are associated with gene amplifications. As targetable fusion candidates, we focused on three in-frame kinase fusion transcripts that retain a kinase domain (CPQ-PRKDC, CAPZA2-MET, and VGLL4-PRKG1). We detected only CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript in three of 122 primary endometrial cancer tissues. Cell proliferation of the fusion-positive cell line was inhibited by knocking down the expression of wild-type PRKDC but not by blocking the CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript was significantly lower than that of wild-type PRKDC, corresponding to a low transcript allele fraction of this fusion, based on RNA-sequencing read counts. In endometrial cancers, the CPQ-PRKDC fusion transcript may be a passenger aberration related to gene amplification. Our findings suggest that transcript allele fraction is a useful predictor to find bona-fide therapeutic-targetable fusion transcripts.

  4. SNARE-mediated membrane fusion in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongyao; Li, Linsen; Hou, Chen; Lai, Ying; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Zhong, Qing; Diao, Jiajie

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, a conserved self-eating process for the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic materials, involves double-membrane autophagosomes formed when an isolation membrane emerges and their direct fusion with lysosomes for degradation. For the early biogenesis of autophagosomes and their later degradation in lysosomes, membrane fusion is necessary, although different sets of genes and autophagy-related proteins involved in distinct fusion steps have been reported. To clarify the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion in autophagy, to not only expand current knowledge of autophagy, but also benefit human health, this review discusses key findings that elucidate the unique membrane dynamics of autophagy. PMID:27422330

  5. SNARE-mediated membrane fusion in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongyao; Li, Linsen; Hou, Chen; Lai, Ying; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Zhong, Qing; Diao, Jiajie

    2016-12-01

    Autophagy, a conserved self-eating process for the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic materials, involves double-membrane autophagosomes formed when an isolation membrane emerges and their direct fusion with lysosomes for degradation. For the early biogenesis of autophagosomes and their later degradation in lysosomes, membrane fusion is necessary, although different sets of genes and autophagy-related proteins involved in distinct fusion steps have been reported. To clarify the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion in autophagy, to not only expand current knowledge of autophagy, but also benefit human health, this review discusses key findings that elucidate the unique membrane dynamics of autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequence variability of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion gene among contemporary and historical genotypes of RSV/A and RSV/B

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Anne M.; Henke, David M.; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Shaw, Chad A.; Tapia, Lorena I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The fusion (F) protein of RSV is the major vaccine target. This protein undergoes a conformational change from pre-fusion to post-fusion. Both conformations share antigenic sites II and IV. Pre-fusion F has unique antigenic sites p27, ø, α2α3β3β4, and MPE8; whereas, post-fusion F has unique antigenic site I. Our objective was to determine the antigenic variability for RSV/A and RSV/B isolates from contemporary and historical genotypes compared to a historical RSV/A strain. Methods The F sequences of isolates from GenBank, Houston, and Chile (N = 1,090) were used for this analysis. Sequences were compared pair-wise to a reference sequence, a historical RSV/A Long strain. Variability (calculated as %) was defined as changes at each amino acid (aa) position when compared to the reference sequence. Only aa at antigenic sites with variability ≥5% were reported. Results A total of 1,090 sequences (822 RSV/A and 268 RSV/B) were analyzed. When compared to the reference F, those domains with the greatest number of non-synonymous changes included the signal peptide, p27, heptad repeat domain 2, antigenic site ø, and the transmembrane domain. RSV/A subgroup had 7 aa changes in the antigenic sites: site I (N = 1), II (N = 1), p27 (N = 4), α2α3β3β4(AM14) (N = 1), ranging in frequency from 7–91%. In comparison, RSV/B had 19 aa changes in antigenic sites: I (N = 3), II (N = 1), p27 (N = 9), ø (N = 4), α2α3β3β4(AM14) (N = 1), and MPE8 (N = 1), ranging in frequency from 79–100%. Discussion Although antigenic sites of RSV F are generally well conserved, differences are observed when comparing the two subgroups to the reference RSV/A Long strain. Further, these discrepancies are accented in the antigenic sites in pre-fusion F of RSV/B isolates, often occurring with a frequency of 100%. This could be of importance if a monovalent F protein from the historical GA1 genotype of RSV/A is used for vaccine development. PMID:28414749

  7. Sequence variability of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion gene among contemporary and historical genotypes of RSV/A and RSV/B.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Henke, David M; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Shaw, Chad A; Tapia, Lorena I; Piedra, Pedro A

    2017-01-01

    The fusion (F) protein of RSV is the major vaccine target. This protein undergoes a conformational change from pre-fusion to post-fusion. Both conformations share antigenic sites II and IV. Pre-fusion F has unique antigenic sites p27, ø, α2α3β3β4, and MPE8; whereas, post-fusion F has unique antigenic site I. Our objective was to determine the antigenic variability for RSV/A and RSV/B isolates from contemporary and historical genotypes compared to a historical RSV/A strain. The F sequences of isolates from GenBank, Houston, and Chile (N = 1,090) were used for this analysis. Sequences were compared pair-wise to a reference sequence, a historical RSV/A Long strain. Variability (calculated as %) was defined as changes at each amino acid (aa) position when compared to the reference sequence. Only aa at antigenic sites with variability ≥5% were reported. A total of 1,090 sequences (822 RSV/A and 268 RSV/B) were analyzed. When compared to the reference F, those domains with the greatest number of non-synonymous changes included the signal peptide, p27, heptad repeat domain 2, antigenic site ø, and the transmembrane domain. RSV/A subgroup had 7 aa changes in the antigenic sites: site I (N = 1), II (N = 1), p27 (N = 4), α2α3β3β4(AM14) (N = 1), ranging in frequency from 7-91%. In comparison, RSV/B had 19 aa changes in antigenic sites: I (N = 3), II (N = 1), p27 (N = 9), ø (N = 4), α2α3β3β4(AM14) (N = 1), and MPE8 (N = 1), ranging in frequency from 79-100%. Although antigenic sites of RSV F are generally well conserved, differences are observed when comparing the two subgroups to the reference RSV/A Long strain. Further, these discrepancies are accented in the antigenic sites in pre-fusion F of RSV/B isolates, often occurring with a frequency of 100%. This could be of importance if a monovalent F protein from the historical GA1 genotype of RSV/A is used for vaccine development.

  8. ERG Expression Levels in Prostate Tumors Reflect Functional Status of the Androgen Receptor (AR) as a Consequence of Fusion of ERG with AR Regulated Gene Promoters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    mathematically defined in the following formulas. ARGI = Σ (I PMEPA1 + IPSA +INKX3.1+IODC1+IAMD1) ARFI=CI=ARGI+IERG Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Junctions...ERG expression into the Androgen Receptor Function Index, ARFI. ARGI = Σ (I PMEPA1 + IPSA +INKX3.1+IODC1+IAMD1) ARFI=CI=ARGI+IERG In the high ERG

  9. PSF/SFPQ is a very common gene fusion partner in TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular characteristics suggesting classification as a distinct entity.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qiu; Shen, Qin; Xia, Qiu-yuan; Wang, Zi-yu; Liu, Biao; Shi, Shan-shan; Shi, Qun-li; Yin, Hong-lin; Wu, Bo; Ye, Sheng-bing; Li, Li; Chen, Jie-Yu; Pan, Min-hong; Li, Qing; Li, Rui; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ru-song; Yu, Bo; Ma, Heng-hui; Lu, Zhen-feng; Zhou, Xiao-jun

    2015-09-01

    An increasing number of TFE3 rearrangement-associated tumors, such as TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas), melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and melanotic Xp11 neoplasms, have recently been reported. We examined 12 such cases, including 5 TFE3 rearrangement-associated PEComas located in the pancreas, cervix, or pelvis and 7 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. All the tumors shared a similar morphology, including a purely nested or sheet-like architecture separated by a delicate vascular network, purely epithelioid cells displaying a clear or granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, a lack of papillary structures and spindle cell or fat components, uniform round or oval nuclei containing small visible nucleoli, and, in most cases (11/12), melanin pigmentation. The levels of mitotic activity and necrosis varied. All 12 cases displayed moderately (2+) or strongly (3+) positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 and cathepsin K. One case labeled focally for HMB45 and Melan-A, whereas the others typically labeled moderately (2+) or strongly (3+) for 1 of these markers. None of the cases were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin, CKpan, S100, or PAX8. PSF-TFE3 fusion genes were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cases (7/7) in which a novel PSF-TFE3 fusion point was identified. All of the cases displayed TFE3 rearrangement associated with Xp11 translocation. Furthermore, we developed a PSF-TFE3 fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the detection of the PSF-TFE3 fusion gene and detected it in all 12 cases. Clinical follow-up data were available for 7 patients. Three patients died, and 2 patients (cases 1 and 3) remained alive with no evidence of disease after initial resection. Case 2 experienced recurrence and remained alive with disease. Case 5, a recent case, remained alive with extensive abdominal cavity

  10. Engineering a self-sufficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP130 by gene fusion with the reductase-domain of CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ugalde, Sandra; Luirink, Rosa A; Geerke, Daan P; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Bitter, Wilbert; Commandeur, Jan N M

    2018-03-01

    CYP130 belongs to the subset of cytochrome P450s from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that have been structurally characterized. Despite several efforts for its functional characterization, CYP130 is still considered an orphan enzyme for which no endogenous or exogenous substrate has been identified. In addition, functional redox-partners for CYP130 have not been clearly established yet, hampering the elucidation of its physiological role. In the present study, a catalytically active fusion protein involving CYP130 and the NADPH reductase-domain of CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium was created. By screening a panel of known substrates of human P450s, dextromethorphan N-demethylation was identified as a reaction catalyzed by CYP130. The fusion enzyme showed higher catalytic activity, when compared to CYP130 reconstituted with a selection of non-native redox-partners. Molecular dynamics simulation studies based on the crystal structure of CYP130 revealed two primary docking poses of dextromethorphan within the active site consistent with the experimentally observed N-demethylation reaction during the entire molecular dynamics simulation. The dextromethorphan N-demethylation reaction was strongly inhibited by azole-drugs and maybe applied to identify mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP130. Furthermore, the present active CYP130-fusion protein may facilitate the identification of endogenous substrates from Mtb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel mechanism for Bcr-Abl action: Bcr-Abl-mediated induction of the eIF4F translation initiation complex and mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, S; Saadat, D; Zhang, M; Halbur, L; Fruehauf, J P; Ong, S T

    2007-02-22

    The oncogenic kinase Bcr-Abl is thought to cause chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) by altering the transcription of specific genes with growth- and survival-promoting functions. Recently, Bcr-Abl has also been shown to activate an important regulator of protein synthesis, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which suggests that dysregulated translation may also contribute to CML pathogenesis. In this study, we found that both Bcr-Abl and the rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1 complex contribute to the phosphorylation (inactivation) of 4E-BP1, an inhibitor of the eIF4E translation initiation factor. Experiments with rapamycin and the Bcr-Abl inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, in Bcr-Abl-expressing cell lines and primary CML cells indicated that Bcr-Abl and mTORC1 induced formation of the translation initiation complex, eIF4F. This was characterized by reduced 4E-BP1 binding and increased eIF4G binding to eIF4E, two events that lead to the assembly of eIF4F. One target transcript is cyclin D3, which is regulated in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells by both Bcr-Abl and mTORC1 in a translational manner. In addition, the combination of imatinib and rapamycin was found to act synergistically against committed CML progenitors from chronic and blast phase patients. These experiments establish a novel mechanism of action for Bcr-Abl, and they provide insights into the modes of action of imatinib mesylate and rapamycin in treatment of CML. They also suggest that aberrant cap-dependent mRNA translation may be a therapeutic target in Bcr-Abl-driven malignancies.

  12. The recurrent chromosomal translocation t(12;18) (q14~15;q12~21) causes the fusion gene HMGA2-SETBP1 and HMGA2 expression in lipoma and osteochondrolipoma

    PubMed Central

    PANAGOPOULOS, IOANNIS; GORUNOVA, LUDMILA; BJERKEHAGEN, BODIL; LOBMAIER, INGVILD; HEIM, SVERRE

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumors in adults. They often carry chromosome aberrations involving 12q13~15 leading to rearrangements of the HMGA2 gene in 12q14.3, with breakpoints occurring within or outside of the gene. Here, we present eleven lipomas and one osteochondrolipoma with a novel recurrent chromosome aberration, t(12;18) (q14~15;q12~21). Molecular studies on eight of the tumors showed that full-length HMGA2 transcript was expressed in three and a chimeric HMGA2 transcript in five of them. In three lipomas and in the osteochondrolipoma, exons 1–3 of HMGA2 were fused to a sequence of SETBP1 on 18q12.3 or an intragenic sequence from 18q12.3 circa 10 kbp distal to SETBP1. In another lipoma, exons 1–4 of HMGA2 were fused to an intronic sequence of GRIP1 which maps to chromosome band 12q14.3, distal to HMGA2. The ensuing HMGA2 fusion transcripts code for putative proteins which contain amino acid residues of HMGA2 corresponding to exons 1–3 (or exons 1–4 in one case) followed by amino acid residues corresponding to the fused sequences. Thus, the pattern is similar to the rearrangements of HMGA2 found in other lipomas, i.e., disruption of the HMGA2 locus leaves intact exons 1–3 which encode the AT-hooks domains and separates them from the 3′-terminal part of the gene. The fact that the examined osteochondrolipoma had a t(12;18) and a HMGA2-SETBP1 fusion identical to the findings in the much more common ordinary lipomas, underscores the close developmental relationship between the two tumor types. PMID:26202160

  13. A pleîotropic acid phosphatase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli shows premature termination in the dsbA gene. Use of dsbA::phoA fusions to localize a structurally important domain in DsbA.

    PubMed

    Belin, P; Quéméneur, E; Boquet, P L

    1994-01-01

    A one-step mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 lacking both glucose-1-phosphatase (Agp) and pH 2.5 acid phosphatase (AppA) activities in the periplasmic space was isolated. The mutation which mapped close to chlB, at 87 min on the E. coli linkage map, also caused the loss of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) activity, even when this activity was expressed from TnphoA fusions to genes encoding periplasmic or membrane proteins. A DNA fragment that complements the mutation was cloned and shown to carry the dsbA gene, which encodes a periplasmic disulphide bond-forming factor. The mutant had an ochre triplet in dsbA, truncating the protein at amino acid 70. Introduction of TnphoA fusions into a plasmid-borne dsbA gene resulted in DsbA-PhoA hybrid proteins that were all exported to the periplasmic space in both dsbA+ and dsbA strains. They belong to three different classes, depending on the length of the DsbA fragment fused to PhoA. When PhoA was fused to an amino-terminal DsbA heptapeptide, the protein was only seen in the periplasm of a dsbA+ strain, as in the case of wild-type PhoA. Hybrid proteins missing up to 29 amino acids at the carboxy-terminus of DsbA were stable and retained both the DsbA and PhoA activities. Those with shorter DsbA fragments that still carried the -Cys-Pro-His-Cys- motif were rapidly degraded (no DsbA activity). The presence is discussed of a structural domain lying around amino acid 170 of DsbA and which is probably essential for its folding into a proteolytic-resistant and enzymatically active form.

  14. Protocol Design for the Bench to Bed Trial in Alectinib-Refractory Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Harboring the EML4-ALK Fusion Gene (ALRIGHT/OLCSG1405).

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Hideko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ichihara, Eiki; Takigawa, Nagio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Kubo, Toshio; Ninomiya, Takashi; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Oda, Naohiro; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Ichikawa, Hirohisa; Inoue, Masaaki; Takata, Ichiro; Shibayama, Takuo; Kuyama, Shoichi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Harada, Daijiro; Harita, Shingo; Sendo, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2016-11-01

    Based on our preclinical study results, which showed that the activation of the hepatocyte growth factor/MET pathway is a potential mechanism of acquired resistance to alectinib, we launched the ALRIGHT (OLCSG1405 [alectinib-refractory non-small-cell lung cancer patients harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene]), a phase II trial of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/MET inhibitor crizotinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer refractory to alectinib and harboring the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion gene. Patients with ALK-rearranged tumors who have developed disease progression during alectinib treatment will receive crizotinib monotherapy until disease progression or the occurrence of unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint is set as the objective response rate, assuming that a response in 50% of eligible patients will indicate potential usefulness and that 15% would be the lower limit of interest (1-sided α of 0.05, β of 0.20). The estimated accrual number of patients is 9. The secondary endpoints include progression-free survival, overall survival, adverse events, and patient-reported outcomes. We will also take tissue samples before crizotinib monotherapy to conduct an exploratory analysis of ALK and hepatocyte growth factor/MET expression levels and gene alterations (eg, mutations, amplifications, and translocations). We will obtain information regarding whether crizotinib, which targets not only ALK, but also MET, can truly produce efficacy with acceptable safety profiles in ALK + non-small-cell lung cancer even in the alectinib-refractory setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  16. Immune responses and protective efficacy of the gene vaccine expressing Ag85B and ESAT6 fusion protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chang-hong, Shi; Xiao-wu, Wang; Hai, Zhang; Ting-fen, Zhang; Li-Mei, Wang; Zhi-kai, Xu

    2008-04-01

    Genetic immunity is a new promising approach for the development of novel tuberculosis vaccines. In this study, it is shown that DNA vaccines expressing the fusion protein of antigen 85B (Ag85B) and early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa antigen (ESAT6) can induce high levels of specific IgG2a antibody subtype in the mice. With the prolongation of postimmunization time, the levels of IgG2a antibody decrease gradually. Although a high-level specific IgG2a antibody subtype is also elicited by classical BCG, the ratio of antibody subtypes IgG2a to IgG1 changes 4 weeks after immunization, and IgG1 is gradually shifted to the main antibody subtype. DNA vaccines also elicit cellular immunity as shown by specific spleen lymphocytes proliferation to Ag85B or ESAT6 protein and the production of high levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2, which is similar to that elicited by BCG. Vaccination of mice with DNA vaccines expressing the fusion protein Ag85B-ESAT6 results in a significant level of protection against the subsequent high-dose challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv. Dramatic reduction in the number of MTB colony-forming units in the spleens and lungs is observed. Pathological examination showed that recombinant plasmid and BCG groups have only minor damage and organizational structures that are kept relatively complete, while in the control group, spleens and lungs are damaged seriously. Therefore, although the reducing degree of mycobacterial loads in the organ of mice immunized with recombinant plasmid is not more than that of BCG, through the analysis of pathological changes, we may conclude that the protective effect provided by DNA vaccine expressing the Ag85B-ESAT6 fusion protein is equivalent to that afforded by the classical BCG.

  17. Undifferentiated Sarcomas in Children Harbor Clinically Relevant Oncogenic Fusions and Gene Copy-Number Alterations: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Laetsch, Theodore W; Roy, Angshumoy; Xu, Lin; Black, Jennifer O; Coffin, Cheryl M; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Tian, Jing; Spunt, Sheri L; Hawkins, Douglas S; Bridge, Julia A; Parsons, D Williams; Skapek, Stephen X

    2018-04-24

    Purpose: A comprehensive analysis of the genomics of undifferentiated sarcomas (UDS) is lacking. We analyzed copy-number alterations and fusion status in patients with UDS prospectively treated on Children's Oncology Group protocol ARST0332. Experimental Design: Copy-number alterations were assessed by OncoScan FFPE Express on 32 UDS. Whole-exome and transcriptome libraries from eight tumors with sufficient archived material were sequenced on HiSeq (2 × 100 bp). Targeted RNA-sequencing using Archer chemistry was performed on two additional cases. Results: Five-year overall survival for patients with UDS was 83% (95% CI, 69%-97%) with risk-adapted therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy). Both focal and arm-level copy-number alterations were common including gain of 1q (8/32, 25%) and loss of 1p (7/32, 22%), both of which occurred more often in clinically defined high-risk tumors. Tumors with both loss of 1p and gain of 1q carried an especially poor prognosis with a 5-year event-free survival of 20%. GISTIC analysis identified recurrent amplification of FGF1 on 5q31.3 ( q = 0.03) and loss of CDKN2A and CDKN2B on 9p21.3 ( q = 0.07). Known oncogenic fusions were identified in eight of 10 cases analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Conclusions: Pediatric UDS generally has a good outcome with risk-adapted therapy. A high-risk subset of patients whose tumors have copy-number loss of 1p and gain of 1q was identified with only 20% survival. Oncogenic fusions are common in UDS, and next-generation sequencing should be considered for children with UDS to refine the diagnosis and identify potentially targetable drivers. Clin Cancer Res; 1-10. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. A clear cell variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma harboring CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene found in buccal mucosa: report of a case showing a large clear cell component and lacking typical epidermoid cells and intermediate cells.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Namiki, Ichiro; Koda, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    The predominance of clear cells in mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) is rare, and cases in which this occurs are termed clear cell variants of MEC. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman complaining of a right buccal mucosal mass, which had increased in size over 1 year. Histological examination revealed the mass to be composed predominantly of clear tumor cells, with mucin-containing cells and intermediate cell-like cells. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumor was positive for CK5/6 and p63, but negative for myoepithelial markers such as S-100 protein, αSMA, and calponin. These findings ruled out the possibility of a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma, which is the most frequently observed type of salivary carcinoma composed predominantly of clear cells. However, it is difficult to distinguish between clear cell variants of MEC and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. Therefore, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine whether MAML2 rearrangement had occurred in this mass. Direct sequencing of the RT-PCR product demonstrated CRTC1-MAML2 fusion between exon 1 of CRTC1 and exon 2 of MAML2. Thus, the diagnosis of clear cell variant of MEC was confirmed. This is the first report of CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene detection in a clear cell variant of MEC.

  19. BCR-ABL enhances differentiation of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schemionek, Mirle; Elling, Christian; Steidl, Ulrich; Bäumer, Nicole; Hamilton, Ashley; Spieker, Tilmann; Göthert, Joachim R.; Stehling, Martin; Wagers, Amy; Huettner, Claudia S.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Tickenbrock, Lara; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Serve, Hubert; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In a previously developed inducible transgenic mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia, we now demonstrate that the disease is transplantable using BCR-ABL+ Lin−Sca-1+c-kit+ (LSK) cells. Interestingly, the phenotype is more severe when unfractionated bone marrow cells are transplanted, yet neither progenitor cells (Lin−Sca-1−c-kit+), nor mature granulocytes (CD11b+Gr-1+), nor potential stem cell niche cells (CD45−Ter119−) are able to transmit the disease or alter the phenotype. The phenotype is largely independent of BCR-ABL priming before transplantation. However, prolonged BCR-ABL expression abrogates the potential of LSK cells to induce full-blown disease in secondary recipients and increases the fraction of multipotent progenitor cells at the expense of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) in the bone marrow. BCR-ABL alters the expression of genes involved in proliferation, survival, and hematopoietic development, probably contributing to the reduced LT-HSC frequency within BCR-ABL+ LSK cells. Reversion of BCR-ABL, or treatment with imatinib, eradicates mature cells, whereas leukemic stem cells persist, giving rise to relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia on reinduction of BCR-ABL, or imatinib withdrawal. Our results suggest that BCR-ABL induces differentiation of LT-HSCs and decreases their self-renewal capacity. PMID:20053753

  20. Wnt/Ca2+/NFAT signaling maintains survival of Ph+ leukemia cells upon inhibition of Bcr-Abl

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Mark A.; Phang, Tzu L.; Neviani, Paolo; Alvarez-Calderon, Francesca; Eide, Christopher A.; O’Hare, Thomas; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Williams, Richard T.; Druker, Brian J.; Perrotti, Danilo; DeGregori, James

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors have proven effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), they generally fail to completely eradicate Bcr-Abl+ leukemia cells. To identify genes whose inhibition sensitizes Bcr-Abl+ leukemias to killing by Bcr-Abl inhibitors, we performed an RNAi-based synthetic lethal screen with imatinib in CML cells. This screen identified numerous components of a Wnt/Ca2+/NFAT signaling pathway. Antagonism of this pathway led to impaired NFAT activity, decreased cytokine production and enhanced sensitivity to Bcr-Abl inhibition. Furthermore, NFAT inhibition with cyclosporin A facilitated leukemia cell elimination by the Bcr-Abl inhibitor dasatinib and markedly improved survival in a mouse model of Bcr-Abl+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Targeting this pathway in combination with Bcr-Abl inhibition could improve treatment of Bcr-Abl+ leukemias. PMID:20609354

  1. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  2. The chimeric ubiquitin ligase SH2-U-box inhibits the growth of imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML by targeting the native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Yi; Wang, Qinhao; Liu, Xiping; Zhang, Mei; Zhong, Daixing; Ye, Mingxiang; Li, Yuanchun; Han, Hua; Yao, Libo; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by constitutively active fusion protein tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) against BCR-ABL, imatinib, is the first-line therapy for CML, acquired resistance almost inevitably emerges. The underlying mechanism are point mutations within the BCR-ABL gene, among which T315I is notorious because it resists to almost all currently available inhibitors. Here we took use of a previously generated chimeric ubiquitin ligase, SH2-U-box, in which SH2 from the adaptor protein Grb2 acts as a binding domain for activated BCR-ABL, while U-box from CHIP functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase domain, so as to target the ubiquitination and degradation of both native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL. As such, SH2-U-box significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in CML cells harboring either the wild-type or T315I-mutant BCR-ABL (K562 or K562R), with BCR-ABL-dependent signaling pathways being repressed. Moreover, SH2-U-box worked in concert with imatinib in K562 cells. Importantly, SH2-U-box-carrying lentivirus could markedly suppress the growth of K562-xenografts in nude mice or K562R-xenografts in SCID mice, as well as that of primary CML cells. Collectively, by degrading the native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL, the chimeric ubiquitin ligase SH2-U-box may serve as a potential therapy for both imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML. PMID:27329306

  3. The chimeric ubiquitin ligase SH2-U-box inhibits the growth of imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML by targeting the native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL.

    PubMed

    Ru, Yi; Wang, Qinhao; Liu, Xiping; Zhang, Mei; Zhong, Daixing; Ye, Mingxiang; Li, Yuanchun; Han, Hua; Yao, Libo; Li, Xia

    2016-06-22

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by constitutively active fusion protein tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) against BCR-ABL, imatinib, is the first-line therapy for CML, acquired resistance almost inevitably emerges. The underlying mechanism are point mutations within the BCR-ABL gene, among which T315I is notorious because it resists to almost all currently available inhibitors. Here we took use of a previously generated chimeric ubiquitin ligase, SH2-U-box, in which SH2 from the adaptor protein Grb2 acts as a binding domain for activated BCR-ABL, while U-box from CHIP functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase domain, so as to target the ubiquitination and degradation of both native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL. As such, SH2-U-box significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in CML cells harboring either the wild-type or T315I-mutant BCR-ABL (K562 or K562R), with BCR-ABL-dependent signaling pathways being repressed. Moreover, SH2-U-box worked in concert with imatinib in K562 cells. Importantly, SH2-U-box-carrying lentivirus could markedly suppress the growth of K562-xenografts in nude mice or K562R-xenografts in SCID mice, as well as that of primary CML cells. Collectively, by degrading the native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL, the chimeric ubiquitin ligase SH2-U-box may serve as a potential therapy for both imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML.

  4. Effects of Character Education on the Self-Esteem of Intellectually Able and Less Able Elementary Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…

  5. Effective Teaching of Able Pupils in the Primary School: The Findings of the Oxfordshire Effective Teachers of Able Pupils Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Deborah; Coates, David; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Higgins, Chris; McClure, Lynne; Wilson, Helen; Chamberlin, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    A review of British research on effective teaching of able students leads to a report on the Oxfordshire Effective Teachers of Able Pupils Project. This study found effective teachers shared similar beliefs about learning, had empathy with the needs of able children, created a secure classroom environment, held high expectations, used…

  6. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies inmore » a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.« less

  7. Telomeres and mechanisms of Robertsonian fusion.

    PubMed

    Slijepcevic, P

    1998-05-01

    The Robertsonian (Rb) fusion, a chromosome rearrangement involving centric fusion of two acro-(telo)centric chromosomes to form a single metacentric, is one of the most frequent events in mammalian karyotype evolution. Since one of the functions of telomeres is to preserve chromosome integrity, a prerequisite for the formation of Rb fusions should be either telomere loss or telomere inactivation. Possible mechanisms underlying the formation of various types of Rb fusion are discussed here. For example, Rb fusion in wild mice involves complete loss of p-arm telomeres by chromosome breakage within minor satellite sequences. By contrast, interstitial telomeric sites are found in the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes originating from a number of vertebrate species, suggesting the occurrence of Rb-like fusion without loss of telomeres, a possibility consistent with some form of telomere inactivation. Finally, a recent study suggests that telomere shortening induced by the deletion of the telomerase RNA gene in the mouse germ-line leads to telomere loss and high frequencies of Rb fusion in mouse somatic cells. Thus, at least three mechanisms in mammalian cells lead to the formation of Rb fusions.

  8. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  9. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.

    2006-07-05

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1{sup V12} or Cdc42{sup V12} could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra ormore » SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA{sup L63} decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia.« less

  10. Gene Trapping Using Gal4 in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Balciuniene, Jorune; Balciunas, Darius

    2013-01-01

    Large clutch size and external development of optically transparent embryos make zebrafish an exceptional vertebrate model system for in vivo insertional mutagenesis using fluorescent reporters to tag expression of mutated genes. Several laboratories have constructed and tested enhancer- and gene-trap vectors in zebrafish, using fluorescent proteins, Gal4- and lexA- based transcriptional activators as reporters 1-7. These vectors had two potential drawbacks: suboptimal stringency (e.g. lack of ability to differentiate between enhancer- and gene-trap events) and low mutagenicity (e.g. integrations into genes rarely produced null alleles). Gene Breaking Transposon (GBTs) were developed to address these drawbacks 8-10. We have modified one of the first GBT vectors, GBT-R15, for use with Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter and added UAS:eGFP as the secondary reporter for direct detection of gene trap events. Application of Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter provides two main advantages. First, it increases sensitivity for genes expressed at low expression levels. Second, it enables researchers to use gene trap lines as Gal4 drivers to direct expression of other transgenes in very specific tissues. This is especially pertinent for genes with non-essential or redundant functions, where gene trap integration may not result in overt phenotypes. The disadvantage of using Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter is that genes coding for proteins with N-terminal signal sequences are not amenable to trapping, as the resulting Gal4-VP16 fusion proteins are unlikely to be able to enter the nucleus and activate transcription. Importantly, the use of Gal4-VP16 does not pre-select for nuclear proteins: we recovered gene trap mutations in genes encoding proteins which function in the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. PMID:24121167

  11. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History through ABLE Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 25 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio. The compilation is organized in three sections as follows: (1) people (9 items, including a…

  12. Novel RNA hybridization method for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 gene fusions in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kunju, Lakshmi P; Carskadon, Shannon; Siddiqui, Javed; Tomlins, Scott A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2014-09-01

    The genetic basis of 50% to 60% of prostate cancer (PCa) is attributable to rearrangements in E26 transformation-specific (ETS) (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), BRAF, and RAF1 genes and overexpression of SPINK1. The development and validation of reliable detection methods are warranted to classify various molecular subtypes of PCa for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. ETS gene rearrangements are typically detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against ERG have been developed that detect the truncated ERG protein in immunohistochemical assays where staining levels are strongly correlated with ERG rearrangement status by fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, specific antibodies for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 are unavailable, challenging their clinical use. We developed a novel RNA in situ hybridization-based assay for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from prostate needle biopsies, prostatectomy, and metastatic PCa specimens using RNA probes. Further, with combined RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we identified a rare subset of PCa with dual ETS gene rearrangements in collisions of independent tumor foci. The high specificity and sensitivity of RNA in situ hybridization provides an alternate method enabling bright-field in situ detection of ETS gene aberrations in routine clinically available PCa specimens.

  13. Activation of tyrosine kinase c-Abl contributes to α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Donghoon; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Kumar, Manoj; Mao, Xiaobo; Shin, Joo Ho; Lee, Yunjong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Ko, Han Seok

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein contributes to the formation of Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathologic hallmarks of Parkinson disease (PD) and α-synucleinopathies. Although a number of human mutations have been identified in familial PD, the mechanisms that promote α-synuclein accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Here, we report that hyperactivity of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl critically regulates α-synuclein–induced neuropathology. In mice expressing a human α-synucleinopathy–associated mutation (hA53Tα-syn mice), deletion of the gene encoding c-Abl reduced α-synuclein aggregation, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active c-Abl in hA53Tα-syn mice accelerated α-synuclein aggregation, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Moreover, c-Abl activation led to an age-dependent increase in phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein. In human postmortem samples, there was an accumulation of phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein in brain tissues and Lewy bodies of PD patients compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that c-Abl phosphorylation of α-synuclein at tyrosine 39 enhances α-synuclein aggregation. Taken together, this work establishes a critical role for c-Abl in α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration and demonstrates that selective inhibition of c-Abl may be neuroprotective. This study further indicates that phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein is a potential disease indicator for PD and related α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27348587

  14. A de novo X;8 translocation creates a PTK2-THOC2 gene fusion with THOC2 expression knockdown in a patient with psychomotor retardation and congenital cerebellar hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bianchi, Federico T.; Schiavi, Alfonso; Chiotto, Alessandra M.A.; Rolando, Marco; di Cantogno, Ludovica Verdun; Grosso, Enrico; Cavalieri, Simona; Calcia, Alessandro; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Stevanin, Giovanni; Marelli, Cecilia; Durr, Alexandra; Forlani, Sylvie; Chelly, Jamel; Montarolo, Francesca; Tempia, Filippo; Beggs, Hilary E.; Reed, Robin; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria C.; Brussino, Alessandro; Ventura, Natascia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Brusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    We identified a balanced de novo translocation involving chromosomes Xq25 and 8q24 in an eight year-old girl with a non-progressive form of congenital ataxia, cognitive impairment and cerebellar hypoplasia. Breakpoint definition showed that the promoter of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase 2 (PTK2, also known as Focal Adhesion Kinase, FAK) gene on chromosome 8q24.3 is translocated 2 kb upstream of the THO complex subunit 2 (THOC2) gene on chromosome Xq25. PTK2 is a well-known non-receptor tyrosine kinase whereas THOC2 encodes a component of the evolutionarily conserved multiprotein THO complex, involved in mRNA export from nucleus. The translocation generated a sterile fusion transcript under the control of the PTK2 promoter, affecting expression of both PTK2 and THOC2 genes. PTK2 is involved in cell adhesion and, in neurons, plays a role in axonal guidance, and neurite growth and attraction. However, PTK2 haploinsufficiency alone is unlikely to be associated with human disease. Therefore, we studied the role of THOC2 in the CNS using three models: 1) THOC2 ortholog knockout in C. elegans which produced functional defects in specific sensory neurons; 2) Thoc2 knockdown in primary rat hippocampal neurons which increased neurite extension; 3) Thoc2 knockdown in neuronal stem cells (LC1) which increased their in vitro growth rate without modifying apoptosis levels. We suggest that THOC2 can play specific roles in neuronal cells and, possibly in combination with PTK2 reduction, may affect normal neural network formation, leading to cognitive impairment and cerebellar congenital hypoplasia. PMID:23749989

  15. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; ...

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). Furthermore, the status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  16. First Human Experience with Directly Image-able Iodinated Embolization Microbeads

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Elliot B., E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Krishnasamy, Venkatesh P.; Lewis, Andrew L.

    PurposeTo describe first clinical experience with a directly image-able, inherently radio-opaque microspherical embolic agent for transarterial embolization of liver tumors.MethodologyLC Bead LUMI™ is a new product based upon sulfonate-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel microbeads with covalently bound iodine (~260 mg I/ml). 70–150 μ LC Bead LUMI™ iodinated microbeads were injected selectively via a 2.8 Fr microcatheter to near complete flow stasis into hepatic arteries in three patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, carcinoid, or neuroendocrine tumor. A custom imaging platform tuned for LC LUMI™ microbead conspicuity using a cone beam CT (CBCT)/angiographic C-arm system (Allura Clarity FD20, Philips) was used along with CBCT embolization treatment planning software (EmboGuide,more » Philips).ResultsLC Bead LUMI™ image-able microbeads were easily delivered and monitored during the procedure using fluoroscopy, single-shot radiography (SSD), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), dual-phase enhanced and unenhanced CBCT, and unenhanced conventional CT obtained 48 h after the procedure. Intra-procedural imaging demonstrated tumor at risk for potential under-treatment, defined as paucity of image-able microbeads within a portion of the tumor which was confirmed at 48 h CT imaging. Fusion of pre- and post-embolization CBCT identified vessels without beads that corresponded to enhancing tumor tissue in the same location on follow-up imaging (48 h post).ConclusionLC Bead LUMI™ image-able microbeads provide real-time feedback and geographic localization of treatment in real time during treatment. The distribution and density of image-able beads within a tumor need further evaluation as an additional endpoint for embolization.« less

  17. Line-Tension Controlled Mechanism for Influenza Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Grubmüller, Helmut; Marrink, Siewert Jan; Müller, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Our molecular simulations reveal that wild-type influenza fusion peptides are able to stabilize a highly fusogenic pre-fusion structure, i.e. a peptide bundle formed by four or more trans-membrane arranged fusion peptides. We rationalize that the lipid rim around such bundle has a non-vanishing rim energy (line-tension), which is essential to (i) stabilize the initial contact point between the fusing bilayers, i.e. the stalk, and (ii) drive its subsequent evolution. Such line-tension controlled fusion event does not proceed along the hypothesized standard stalk-hemifusion pathway. In modeled influenza fusion, single point mutations in the influenza fusion peptide either completely inhibit fusion (mutants G1V and W14A) or, intriguingly, specifically arrest fusion at a hemifusion state (mutant G1S). Our simulations demonstrate that, within a line-tension controlled fusion mechanism, these known point mutations either completely inhibit fusion by impairing the peptide’s ability to stabilize the required peptide bundle (G1V and W14A) or stabilize a persistent bundle that leads to a kinetically trapped hemifusion state (G1S). In addition, our results further suggest that the recently discovered leaky fusion mutant G13A, which is known to facilitate a pronounced leakage of the target membrane prior to lipid mixing, reduces the membrane integrity by forming a ‘super’ bundle. Our simulations offer a new interpretation for a number of experimentally observed features of the fusion reaction mediated by the prototypical fusion protein, influenza hemagglutinin, and might bring new insights into mechanisms of other viral fusion reactions. PMID:22761674

  18. Activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors highlights the role of BCR/ABL kinase dynamics in drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Mohammad; Nardi, Valentina; Shakespeare, William C.; Metcalf, Chester A.; Bohacek, Regine S.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Sliz, Piotr; Veach, Darren R.; Bornmann, William G.; Clarkson, Bayard; Dalgarno, David C.; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Daley, George Q.

    2006-01-01

    Mutation in the ABL kinase domain is the principal mechanism of imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Many mutations favor active kinase conformations that preclude imatinib binding. Because the active forms of ABL and SRC resemble one another, we tested two dual SRC-ABL kinase inhibitors, AP23464 and PD166326, against 58 imatinib-resistant (IMR) BCR/ABL kinase variants. Both compounds potently inhibit most IMR variants, and in vitro drug selection demonstrates that active (AP23464) and open (PD166326) conformation-specific compounds are less susceptible to resistance than imatinib. Combinations of inhibitors suppressed essentially all resistance mutations, with the notable exception of T315I. Guided by mutagenesis studies and molecular modeling, we designed a series of AP23464 analogues to target T315I. The analogue AP23846 inhibited both native and T315I variants of BCR/ABL with submicromolar potency but showed nonspecific cellular toxicity. Our data illustrate how conformational dynamics of the ABL kinase accounts for the activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors against IMR-mutants and provides a rationale for combining conformation specific inhibitors to suppress resistance. PMID:16754879

  19. Heat shock protein-70 neutralizes apoptosis inducing factor in Bcr/Abl expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Dai, An-Ya; Tao, Kun; Xiao, Qing; Huang, Zheng-Lan; Gao, Miao; Li, Hui; Wang, Xin; Cao, Wei-Xi; Feng, Wen-Li

    2015-10-01

    Bcr/Abl fusion protein is a hallmark of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The protein can activate various signaling pathways to make normal cells transform malignantly and thus to facilitate tumorigenesis. It has been reported that heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) can be served as an anti-apoptotic protein that suppresses Bax and Apo-2L/TRAIL. But it is unclear whether HSP-70 affects AIF-initiated apoptosis in Bcr/Abl expressing cells considering that HSP-70 is coincidentally over-regulated in these cells. Our findings supported that abundant HSP-70 in Bcr/Abl cells neutralizes AIF by segregating it from nucleus via direct interaction, leading to the failure of AIF initiating cell death and the silence of caspase-independent apoptotic pathway upon apoptotic induction. Moderate inhibition of HSP-70 expression by siRNA leads to Vp-16 triggered re-distribution of AIF in nucleus. In addition, AIF bears a HSP-70 binding domain allowing association with HSP-70. Therefore, disruption of the association using an AIF mutant lacking this domain can restore the potential of AIF importing into nucleus, and finally triggers cell death in a time dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arthroscopic partial wrist fusion.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Cheong

    2008-12-01

    The wide intraarticular exposure of the wrist joint under arthroscopic view provides an excellent ground for various forms of partial wrist fusion. Combining with percutaneous fixation technique, arthroscopic partial wrist fusion can potentially generate the best possible functional outcome by preserving the maximal motion pertained with each type of partial wrist fusion because the effect of extraarticular adhesion associated with open surgery can be minimized. From November 1997 to May 2008, the author had performed 12 cases of arthroscopic partial wrist fusion, including scaphotrapeziotrapezoid fusion in 3, scaphoidectomy and 4-corner fusion in 4, radioscapholunate fusion in 3, radiolunate fusion in 1, and lunotriquetral fusion in 1 case. Through the radiocarpal or midcarpal joint, the corresponding articular surfaces were denuded of cartilage using arthroscopic burr and curette. Carpal bones involved in the fusion process were then transfixed with K wires percutaneously after alignment corrected and confirmed under fluoroscopic control. Autogenous cancellous bone graft or bone substitute were inserted and impacted to the fusion site through cannula under direct arthroscopic view. Final fixation could be by multiple K wires or cannulated screw system. Early mobilization was encouraged. Surgical complications were minor, including pin tract infection, skin burn, and delay union in 1 case. Uneventful radiologic union was obtained in 9 cases, stable fibrous union in 2, and nonunion in 1. The average follow-up period was 70 months. Symptom was resolved or improved, and functional motion was gained in all cases. All surgical scars were almost invisible, and aesthetic outcome was excellent.

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formedmore » draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.« less

  2. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang

    2010-01-22

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potentialmore » entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.« less

  3. Direct observation of intermediate states in model membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Keidel, Andrea; Bartsch, Tobias F.; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel assay for membrane fusion of solid supported membranes on silica beads and on coverslips. Fusion of the lipid bilayers is induced by bringing an optically trapped bead in contact with the coverslip surface while observing the bead’s thermal motion with microsecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution using a three-dimensional position detector. The probability of fusion is controlled by the membrane tension on the particle. We show that the progression of fusion can be monitored by changes in the three-dimensional position histograms of the bead and in its rate of diffusion. We were able to observe all fusion intermediates including transient fusion, formation of a stalk, hemifusion and the completion of a fusion pore. Fusion intermediates are characterized by axial but not lateral confinement of the motion of the bead and independently by the change of its rate of diffusion due to the additional drag from the stalk-like connection between the two membranes. The detailed information provided by this assay makes it ideally suited for studies of early events in pure lipid bilayer fusion or fusion assisted by fusogenic molecules. PMID:27029285

  4. Direct observation of intermediate states in model membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Keidel, Andrea; Bartsch, Tobias F; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig

    2016-03-31

    We introduce a novel assay for membrane fusion of solid supported membranes on silica beads and on coverslips. Fusion of the lipid bilayers is induced by bringing an optically trapped bead in contact with the coverslip surface while observing the bead's thermal motion with microsecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution using a three-dimensional position detector. The probability of fusion is controlled by the membrane tension on the particle. We show that the progression of fusion can be monitored by changes in the three-dimensional position histograms of the bead and in its rate of diffusion. We were able to observe all fusion intermediates including transient fusion, formation of a stalk, hemifusion and the completion of a fusion pore. Fusion intermediates are characterized by axial but not lateral confinement of the motion of the bead and independently by the change of its rate of diffusion due to the additional drag from the stalk-like connection between the two membranes. The detailed information provided by this assay makes it ideally suited for studies of early events in pure lipid bilayer fusion or fusion assisted by fusogenic molecules.

  5. Structure of the beta-galactosidase gene from Thermus sp. strain T2: expression in Escherichia coli and purification in a single step of an active fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Vian, A; Carrascosa, A V; García, J L; Cortés, E

    1998-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of both the bgaA gene, coding for a thermostable beta-galactosidase of Thermus sp. strain T2, and its flanking regions was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme predicts a polypeptide of 645 amino acids (Mr, 73,595). Comparative analysis of the open reading frames located in the flanking regions of the bgaA gene revealed that they might encode proteins involved in the transport and hydrolysis of sugars. The observed homology between the deduced amino acid sequences of BgaA and the beta-galactosidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus allows us to classify the new enzyme within family 42 of glycosyl hydrolases. BgaA was overexpressed in its active form in Escherichia coli, but more interestingly, an active chimeric beta-galactosidase was constructed by fusing the BgaA protein to the choline-binding domain of the major pneumococcal autolysin. This chimera illustrates a novel approach for producing an active and thermostable hybrid enzyme that can be purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, retaining the catalytic properties of the native enzyme. The chimeric enzyme showed a specific activity of 191,000 U/mg at 70 degrees C and a Km value of 1.6 mM with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate, and it retained 50% of its initial activity after 1 h of incubation at 70 degrees C.

  6. Prostate and mammary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice carrying a rat C3(1) simian virus 40 large tumor antigen fusion gene.

    PubMed Central

    Maroulakou, I G; Anver, M; Garrett, L; Green, J E

    1994-01-01

    A transgenic mouse model for prostate and mammary cancer has been developed in mice containing a recombinant gene expressing the simian virus 40 early-region transforming sequences under the regulatory control of the rat prostatic steroid binding protein [C3(1)] gene. Male transgenic mice develop prostatic hyperplasia in early life that progresses to adenoma or adenocarcinoma in most animals surviving to longer than 7 months of age. Prostate cancer metastases to lung have been observed. Female animals from the same founder lines generally develop mammary hyperplasia by 3 months of age with subsequent development of mammary adenocarcinoma by 6 months of age in 100% of the animals. The development of tumors correlates with the expression of the transgene as determined by Northern blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the C3(1) regulatory region used in these experiments is useful for targeting expression to the prostate and mammary gland. To our knowledge, this experimental system is the first reported transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer. These transgenic animals offer the opportunity to study hormone response elements in vivo and the multistage progression from normal tissue to carcinoma in the prostate and mammary glands. Images PMID:7972041

  7. Cytologic Features of Renal Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocations/ TFE3 Gene Fusions: A Case Report with Voided and Catheterized Urine Cytology and a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Murai, Yuki; Endo, Yukari; Masago, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Naoto; Horie, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions are rare subtypes of renal neoplasm that predominantly occur in younger individuals. There are very few reports describing the cytologic features of these tumors. A 27-year-old man presented with hematuria and was found to have a mass in the lower part of the right kidney. Cytology of catheterized urine obtained from the right renal pelvis showed clusters of cells with abundant clear or eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, large round nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Papillary clusters containing thin fibrous stroma were occasionally seen. Voided urine cytology showed similar cell clusters but degeneration made the features obscure. Nephroureterectomy revealed a renal tumor showing a mixed papillary and nested architecture. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The present case indicates that the characteristic features of these tumor subtypes can be retained in urine cytology. Cytology may be enough to suspect these tumors as part of the differential diagnosis when the patient's age and imaging findings are taken into account and may facilitate further studies for a definitive diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Molecular cytogenetic analysis consistently identifies translocations involving chromosomes 1, 2 and 15 in five embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and a PAX-FOXO1A fusion gene negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I; Gordon, A; Wang, R; Pritchard-Jones, K; Shipley, J; Coleman, N

    2001-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma in children is a "small round blue cell tumour" that displays skeletal muscle differentiation. Two main histological variants are recognised, alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal (ERMS) rhabdomyosarcoma. Whereas consistent chromosome translocations characteristic of ARMS have been reported, no such cytogenetic abnormality has yet been described in ERMS. We have used multiple colour chromosome painting to obtain composite karyotypes for five ERMS cell lines and one PAX-FOXO1A fusion gene negative ARMS. The cell lines were assessed by spectral karyotyping (SKY), tailored multi-fluorophore fluorescence in situ hybridisation (M-FISH) using series of seven colour paint sets generated to examine specific abnormalities, and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). This approach enabled us to obtain karyotypes of the cell lines in greater detail than previously possible. Several recurring cytogenetic abnormalities were demonstrated, including translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 15 and chromosomes 2 and 15, in 4/6 and 2/6 cell lines respectively. All six cell lines demonstrated abnormalities of chromosome 15. Translocations between chromosomes 1 and 15 have previously been recorded in two primary cases of ERMS by conventional cytogenetics. Analysis of the translocation breakpoints may suggest mechanisms of ERMS tumourigenesis and may enable the development of novel approaches to the clinical management of this tumour. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Organic acids and selected nitrogen species for ABLE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) executed airborne science missions aboard the NASA Wallops Electra (NA429) in the North American high latitude (greater than 45 deg North) atmosphere during Jul. to Aug. 1988 and Jul. to Aug. 1990. These missions were part of GTE's Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE). The 1988 mission , ABLE-3A, examined the ecosystems of Alaska as a source and/or sink for important tropospheric gases and particles, and gained new information on the chemical composition of the Arctic atmosphere during the summertime. During 1990 the second high latitude mission, ABLE-3B, focused on the Hudson Bay Lowland and Labrador regions of Canada. Both of these missions provided benchmark data sets on atmosphere biosphere exchange and atmospheric chemistry over largely uninhabited regions of North America. In support of the GTE/ABLE-3A and -3B field missions, the University of New Hampshire flew instrumentation aboard the Wallops Electra research aircraft to provide measurements of the trace gases nitric (HNO3), formic (HCOOH), and acetic (CH3COOH) acid. In addition, measurements were conducted to determine the major water soluble ionic composition of the atmospheric aerosol. For ABLE-3B, groundbased measurements of the acidic trace gases were also performed from the NASA micrometerological tower situated at Schefferville, Laborador. These measurements were aimed at assessing dry deposition of acidic gases to the taiga ecosystem in the Laborador region of Canada.

  10. Targeting of the N-terminal coiled coil oligomerization interface of BCR interferes with the transformation potential of BCR-ABL and increases sensitivity to STI571.

    PubMed

    Beissert, Tim; Puccetti, Elena; Bianchini, Andrea; Güller, Saskia; Boehrer, Simone; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver Gerhard; Nervi, Clara; Ruthardt, Martin

    2003-10-15

    Translocations involving the abl locus on chromosome 9 fuses the tyrosine kinase c-ABL to proteins harboring oligomerization interfaces such as BCR or TEL, enabling these ABL-fusion proteins (X-ABL) to transform cells and to induce leukemia. The ABL kinase activity is blocked by the ABL kinase inhibitor STI571 which abrogates transformation by X-ABL. To investigate the role of oligomerization for the transformation potential of X-ABL and for the sensitivity to STI571, we constructed ABL chimeras with oligomerization interfaces of proteins involved in leukemia-associated translocations such as BCR, TEL, PML, and PLZF. We assessed the capacity of these chimeras to form high molecular weight (HMW) complexes as compared with p185(BCR-ABL). There was a direct relationship between the size of HMW complexes formed by these chimeras and their capacity to induce factor independence in Ba/F3 cells, whereas there was an inverse relationship between the size of the HMW complexes and the sensitivity to STI571. The targeting of the oligomerization interface of p185(BCR-ABL) by a peptide representing the coiled coil region of BCR reduced its potential to transform fibroblasts and increased sensitivity to STI571. Our results indicate that targeting of the oligomerization interfaces of the X-ABL enhances the effects of STI571 in the treatment of leukemia caused by X-ABL.

  11. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion (F) Glycoprotein from an Added Gene: Effects of Prefusion Stabilization and Packaging of RSV F.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Liang, Bo; Ngwuta, Joan; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Lingemann, Matthias; Kwong, Peter D; Graham, Barney S; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2017-11-15

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. Both viruses lack vaccines. Here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent RSV/HPIV1 vaccine based on a recombinant HPIV1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses RSV F protein modified for increased stability in the prefusion (pre-F) conformation by previously described disulfide bond (DS) and hydrophobic cavity-filling (Cav1) mutations. RSV F was expressed from the first or second gene position as the full-length protein or as a chimeric protein with its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains substituted with those of HPIV1 F in an effort to direct packaging in the vector particles. All constructs were recovered by reverse genetics. The TMCT versions of RSV F were packaged in the rHPIV1 particles much more efficiently than their full-length counterparts. In hamsters, the presence of the RSV F gene, and in particular the TMCT versions, was attenuating and resulted in reduced immunogenicity. However, the vector expressing full-length RSV F from the pre-N position was immunogenic for RSV and HPIV1. It conferred complement-independent high-quality RSV-neutralizing antibodies at titers similar to those of wild-type RSV and provided protection against RSV challenge. The vectors exhibited stable RSV F expression in vitro and in vivo In conclusion, an attenuated rHPIV1 vector expressing a pre-F-stabilized form of RSV F demonstrated promising immunogenicity and should be further developed as an intranasal pediatric vaccine. IMPORTANCE RSV and HPIV1 are major viral causes of acute pediatric respiratory illness for which no vaccines or suitable antiviral drugs are available. The RSV F glycoprotein is the major RSV neutralization antigen. We used a rHPIV1 vector, bearing a

  12. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion (F) Glycoprotein from an Added Gene: Effects of Prefusion Stabilization and Packaging of RSV F

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Liang, Bo; Ngwuta, Joan; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Lingemann, Matthias; Kwong, Peter D.; Graham, Barney S.; Collins, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. Both viruses lack vaccines. Here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent RSV/HPIV1 vaccine based on a recombinant HPIV1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses RSV F protein modified for increased stability in the prefusion (pre-F) conformation by previously described disulfide bond (DS) and hydrophobic cavity-filling (Cav1) mutations. RSV F was expressed from the first or second gene position as the full-length protein or as a chimeric protein with its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains substituted with those of HPIV1 F in an effort to direct packaging in the vector particles. All constructs were recovered by reverse genetics. The TMCT versions of RSV F were packaged in the rHPIV1 particles much more efficiently than their full-length counterparts. In hamsters, the presence of the RSV F gene, and in particular the TMCT versions, was attenuating and resulted in reduced immunogenicity. However, the vector expressing full-length RSV F from the pre-N position was immunogenic for RSV and HPIV1. It conferred complement-independent high-quality RSV-neutralizing antibodies at titers similar to those of wild-type RSV and provided protection against RSV challenge. The vectors exhibited stable RSV F expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, an attenuated rHPIV1 vector expressing a pre-F-stabilized form of RSV F demonstrated promising immunogenicity and should be further developed as an intranasal pediatric vaccine. IMPORTANCE RSV and HPIV1 are major viral causes of acute pediatric respiratory illness for which no vaccines or suitable antiviral drugs are available. The RSV F glycoprotein is the major RSV neutralization antigen. We used a rHPIV1 vector, bearing

  13. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  14. Playgrounds Where All Kids are Able to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brochure describes the W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Able to Play Project, a special effort to build barrier-free state-of-the-art playgrounds for children of all abilities across the state of Michigan. These are playgrounds that not only greatly expand play opportunities for children with special needs but also serve as a rallying point for…

  15. Do Academically Able Teachers Leave Education? The North Carolina Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Vance, Victor S.

    1981-01-01

    To determine whether academically able teachers are more likely than others to leave the classroom, a study was conducted of the data file of all certified regular classroom teachers who entered teaching in North Carolina from 1973 to 1980 and had no prior teaching experience. (Author/WD)

  16. The Able Privilege Scale: A New Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Alan B.; Choate, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The Able Privilege Scale (APS) is a theoretically derived reflexive instrument that asks participants to assess their level of personal power and privilege in relation to society depending upon the presence, and/or type, of disability. The 23-items on the APS are derived form McIntosh's concept of white privilege (1988) and adapted to reflect…

  17. Fusion of SpCas9 to E. coli Rec A protein enhances CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene knockout in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Petersen, Trine Skov; Jensen, Kristopher Torp; Bolund, Lars; Kühn, Ralf; Luo, Yonglun

    2017-04-10

    Mammalian cells repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) by a range of different pathways following DSB induction by the engineered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein Cas9. While CRISPR-Cas9 thus enables predesigned modifications of the genome, applications of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing are frequently hampered by the unpredictable and varying pathways for DSB repair in mammalian cells. Here we present a strategy of fusing Cas9 to recombinant proteins for fine-tuning of the DSB repair preferences in mammalian cells. By fusing Streptococcus Pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) to the recombinant protein A (Rec A, NP_417179.1) from Escherichia coli, we create a recombinant Cas9 protein (rSpCas9) which enhances the generation of indel mutations at DSB sites in mammalian cells, increases the frequency of DSB repair by homology-directed single-strand annealing (SSA), and represses homology-directed gene conversion by approximately 33%. Our study thus proves for the first time that fusing SpCas9 to recombinant proteins can influence the balance between DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells. This approach may form the basis for further investigations of the applications of recombinant Cas9 proteins to fine-tuning DSB repair pathways in eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  19. Fusion of disubstituted benzenes.

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Yalkowsky, S H; Wells, J E

    1979-05-01

    The entropy of fusion of 84 disubstituted benzenes was essentially constant and independent of the participation of the compounds in intramolecular or intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It was also independent of the shapes, sizes, and dipole moments of the rigid molecules studied. While the entropy of fusion was independent of these parameters, the melting point and the heat of fusion showed a direct dependence on molecular properties.

  20. Technologies for Army Knowledge Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    interpret it in context and understand the implications (Alberts et al., 2002). Note that the knowledge / information fusion issue arises immediately here...Army Knowledge Fusion Richard Scherl Department of Computer Science Monmouth University Dana L. Ulery Computational and Information Sciences...civilian and military sources. Knowledge fusion, also called information fusion and multisensor data fusion, names the body of techniques needed to

  1. Glucose-ABL1-TOR Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning to Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon-responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia). WT appressorial development is accompanied by one round of mitosis followed by autophagic cell death of the conidium. In contrast, Δabl1 mutant strains undergo multiple rounds of accelerated mitosis in elongated germ tubes, produce few appressoria, and are abolished for autophagy. Treating WT spores with glucose or 2-deoxyglucose phenocopied Δabl1. Inactivating TOR in Δabl1 mutants or glucose-treated WT strains restored appressorium formation by promoting mitotic arrest at G1/G0 via an appressorium- and autophagy-inducing cell cycle delay at G2/M. Collectively, this work uncovers a novel glucose-ABL1-TOR signaling axis and shows it engages two metabolic checkpoints in order to modulate cell cycle tuning and mediate terminal appressorial cell differentiation. We thus provide new molecular insights into TOR regulation and cell development in response to glucose. PMID:28072818

  2. Glucose-ABL1-TOR Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning to Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Marroquin-Guzman, Margarita; Sun, Guangchao; Wilson, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon-responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia). WT appressorial development is accompanied by one round of mitosis followed by autophagic cell death of the conidium. In contrast, Δabl1 mutant strains undergo multiple rounds of accelerated mitosis in elongated germ tubes, produce few appressoria, and are abolished for autophagy. Treating WT spores with glucose or 2-deoxyglucose phenocopied Δabl1. Inactivating TOR in Δabl1 mutants or glucose-treated WT strains restored appressorium formation by promoting mitotic arrest at G1/G0 via an appressorium- and autophagy-inducing cell cycle delay at G2/M. Collectively, this work uncovers a novel glucose-ABL1-TOR signaling axis and shows it engages two metabolic checkpoints in order to modulate cell cycle tuning and mediate terminal appressorial cell differentiation. We thus provide new molecular insights into TOR regulation and cell development in response to glucose.

  3. Comprehensive characterization of RSPO fusions in colorectal traditional serrated adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Ogawa, Reiko; Hashimoto, Taiki; Motohiro, Kojima; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Saito, Yutaka; Yasuhiro, Ohno; Ochiai, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) is a rare but distinct type of colorectal polyp. Our previous study showed that PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions are frequent and characteristic genetic alterations in TSAs. This study aimed to characterize comprehensively the prevalence and variability of RSPO fusions in colorectal TSAs. We examined RSPO expression and explored novel RSPO fusions in 129 TSAs, including 66 lesions analysed previously for WNT pathway gene mutations. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses identified three and 43 TSAs overexpressing RSPO2 and RSPO3, respectively, whereas the expression of RSPO1 and RSPO4 was marginal or undetectable in all cases. RSPO overexpression was always mutually exclusive with other WNT pathway gene mutations. Known PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions were detected in 37 TSAs, all but one of which overexpressed RSPO3. In addition, rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed three novel RSPO fusion transcripts, an NRIP1-RSPO2 fusion and two PTPRK-RSPO3 fusion isoforms, in six TSAs. Overall, 43 TSAs had RSPO fusions (33%), whereas four TSAs (3%) overexpressed RSPO in the absence of RSPO fusions. TSAs with RSPO fusions showed several clinicopathological features, including distal localization (P = 0.0063), larger size (P = 0.0055), prominent ectopic crypt foci (P = 8.4 × 10 -4 ), association of a high-grade component (P = 1.1 × 10 -4 ), and the presence of KRAS mutations (P = 4.5 × 10 -5 ). The present study identified RSPO fusion transcripts, including three novel transcripts, in one-third of colorectal TSAs and showed that PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions were the predominant cause of RSPO overexpression in colorectal TSA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  5. Influence of entrainment and countergradient on the ABL diurnal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.

    2009-09-01

    The representation of the diurnal evolution of the boundary layer (ABL) by NCAR-Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) and by the mesoscale model Weather Research Forecast (WRF) is compared. Special attention is paid to determine the role of processes that occur near and below the inversion zone: the positive correlation between the heat flux and the gradient (countergradient) and the role of entrainment of heat originating from the free troposphere. Both processes play a key role in the modelling of the diurnal variability of temperature, moisture and atmospheric compounds. A number of 13 simulations are carried out to determine the sensitivity of the model results to the formulation of the ABL height and countergradient heat flux in the Medium Range Forecast (MRF) ABL scheme. Model results are compared with experimental data obtained from the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen oxides) campaign. It was organized by Max Planck Institute for Atmospheric Chemistry (Germany) in collaboration with the National Institute for Aerospace Technology (Spain). The DOMINO campaign took place at the "Atmospheric Sounding Station - El Arenosillo", a platform dedicated to atmospheric measurements in the Southwest of Spain. All numerical experiments are grouped in four clusters, each focussing on the sensitivity of different relevant aspects. The following aspects of the formulation are analyzed: surface moisture availability (M), the countergradient term (γc) and the ABL height (h). This is done by modifying both the bulk critical Richardson number (Ric) at the inversion zone, and a coefficient of proportionality (b) that determines the excess temperature and countergradient. The importance of b is due to its direct relation in the definition of both, γc and h. The results got with MM5 model show that temperature and specific moisture temporal evolution is not very sensitive to changes in the soil moisture availability (M value from 0.6 to 0.1). Using the MRF

  6. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton

    2010-08-15

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmicmore » tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger.« less

  7. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmic tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger. PMID:20537366

  8. Dominant integration locus drives continuous diversification of plant immune receptors with exogenous domain fusions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Paul C; Schudoma, Christian; Jackson, William; Baggs, Erin; Dagdas, Gulay; Haerty, Wilfried; Moscou, Matthew; Krasileva, Ksenia V

    2018-02-19

    The plant immune system is innate and encoded in the germline. Using it efficiently, plants are capable of recognizing a diverse range of rapidly evolving pathogens. A recently described phenomenon shows that plant immune receptors are able to recognize pathogen effectors through the acquisition of exogenous protein domains from other plant genes. We show that plant immune receptors with integrated domains are distributed unevenly across their phylogeny in grasses. Using phylogenetic analysis, we uncover a major integration clade, whose members underwent repeated independent integration events producing diverse fusions. This clade is ancestral in grasses with members often found on syntenic chromosomes. Analyses of these fusion events reveals that homologous receptors can be fused to diverse domains. Furthermore, we discover a 43 amino acid long motif associated with this dominant integration clade which is located immediately upstream of the fusion site. Sequence analysis reveals that DNA transposition and/or ectopic recombination are the most likely mechanisms of formation for nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat proteins with integrated domains. The identification of this subclass of plant immune receptors that is naturally adapted to new domain integration will inform biotechnological approaches for generating synthetic receptors with novel pathogen "baits."

  9. Fusion of the SUMO/Sentrin-specific protease 1 gene SENP1 and the embryonic polarity-related mesoderm development gene MESDC2 in a patient with an infantile teratoma and a constitutional t(12;15)(q13;q25).

    PubMed

    Veltman, Imke M; Vreede, Lilian A; Cheng, Jinke; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Janssen, Bert; Schoenmakers, Eric F P M; Yeh, Edward T H; van Kessel, Ad Geurts

    2005-07-15

    Recently, we identified a patient with an infantile sacrococcygeal teratoma and a constitutional t(12;15)(q13;q25). Here, we show that, as a result of this chromosomal translocation, the SUMO/Sentrin-specific protease 1 gene (SENP1) on chromosome 12 and the embryonic polarity-related mesoderm development gene (MESDC2) on chromosome 15 are disrupted and fused. Both reciprocal SENP1-MESDC2 (SEME) and MESDC2-SENP1 (MESE) fusion genes are transcribed in tumor-derived cells and their open reading frames encode aberrant proteins. As a consequence of this, and in contrast to wild-type (WT) MESDC2, the translocation-associated SEME protein is no longer targeted to the endoplasmatic reticulum, leading to a presumed loss-of-function as a chaperone for the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and/or LRP6. Ultimately, this might lead to abnormal development and/or routing of germ cell tumor precursor cells. SUMO, a post-translational modifier, plays an important role in several cellular key processes and is cleaved from its substrates by WT SENP1. Using a PML desumoylation assay, we found that translocation-associated MESE proteins exhibit desumoylation capacities similar to those observed for WT SENP1. We speculate that spatio-temporal disturbances in desumoylating activities during critical stages of embryonic development might have predisposed the patient. Together, the constitutional t(12;15)(q13;q25) translocation revealed two novel candidate genes for neonatal/infantile GCT development: MESDC2 and SENP1.

  10. Isolation of a Bacterial Strain Able To Degrade Branched Nonylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Tanghe, Tom; Dhooge, Willem; Verstraete, Willy

    1999-01-01

    Conventional enrichment