Science.gov

Sample records for abl height climatology

  1. Towards a Wind Energy Climatology at Advanced Turbine Hub-Heights: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2005-05-01

    Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights up to and above 100 m are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) evaluate changes in wind characteristics and wind shear over the area swept by the blades. Developing wind climatology at advanced turbine hub heights for the United States benefits wind energy development. Tall tower data from Kansas, Indiana, and Minnesota (which have the greatest number of tall towers with measurement data) will be the focus of this paper. Analyses of data from the tall towers will start the process of developing a comprehensive climatology.

  2. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  3. Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height over Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Investigating boundary layer climatology in arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa

    2014-05-01

    Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.

  4. Two global climatologies of daily fire emission injection heights since 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Samuel; Veira, Andreas; Paugam, Ronan; Sofiev, Mikhail; Kaiser, Johannes; Marenco, Franco; Burton, Sharon P.; Benedetti, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) assimilates Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from satellite-based MODIS sensors to produce daily estimates of biomass burning emission. It has been extended to include information about injection heights of biomass burning species provided by two distinct algorithms, which also use meteorological information from the operational weather forecasts of ECMWF. Injection heights are provided by the semi-empirical Sofiev parameterization and an analytical one-dimension Plume Rise Model (PRM). The two algorithms provide estimates for injection heights for each satellite pixel. Similarly to FRP observations, these estimates are then gridded, averaged and assimilated, using a simple observation operator, so as to fill the observational gaps. A global database of daily biomass burning emissions and injection heights at 0.1° resolution has thus been produced for 2003-2015. The database is being extended in near-real-time with the operational GFAS service of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). The two injection height datasets were compared against a new dataset of satellite-based plume height observations. The Sofiev parameterization showed a better overall agreement against observations, while the PRM was better at capturing the variability of injection heights and at estimating the injection heights of large fires. The results from both also show a differentiation depending on the type of vegetation. A positive trend with time in median injection heights from the PRM was noted, less marked from the Sofiev parameterization. This is provoked by a negative trend in number of small fires, especially in some regions such as South America. The use of biomass burning emission heights in atmospheric composition forecasts was assessed in two case studies: the SAMBBA campaign which took place in September 2012 in Brazil, and a series of large fire events in the Western U.S. in August 2013. For these case studies

  5. Urban Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazel, Anthony J.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This section on Urban Climates provides a basic understanding of what comprises the urban climate and what factors control the overall development of the urban climate. We also discuss in this section, methods for evaluating urban climate characteristics and forcing functions as well as how the urban heat island effect comes into play as a dynamic influence on urban climatology. Additionally, we examine and discuss the major radiation and energy balance of city (i.e., shortwave and longwave radiation, albedo, net all-wave radiation, total energy balance, and sensible latent, and storage heat) and the interactions of these energy balances with the lower atmosphere. The use of remote sensing to measure urban surface temperatures as a driving force in the development of the urban heat island effect is presented. We also discuss how the overall moisture, precipitation, humidity, and air movement in cities (i,e,, wind speeds and wind direction) and wind environment of the city affects urban climatology.

  6. Intercomparison of Satellite Derived Gravity Time Series with Inferred Gravity Time Series from TOPEX/POSEIDON Sea Surface Heights and Climatological Model Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, C.; Au, A.; Klosko, S.; Chao, B.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The upcoming GRACE mission promises to open a window on details of the global mass budget that will have remarkable clarity, but it will not directly answer the question of what the state of the Earth's mass budget is over the critical last quarter of the 20th century. To address that problem we must draw upon existing technologies such as SLR, DORIS, and GPS, and climate modeling runs in order to improve our understanding. Analysis of long-period geopotential changes based on SLR and DORIS tracking has shown that addition of post 1996 satellite tracking data has a significant impact on the recovered zonal rates and long-period tides. Interannual effects such as those causing the post 1996 anomalies must be better characterized before refined estimates of the decadal period changes in the geopotential can be derived from the historical database of satellite tracking. A possible cause of this anomaly is variations in ocean mass distribution, perhaps associated with the recent large El Nino/La Nina. In this study, a low-degree spherical harmonic gravity time series derived from satellite tracking is compared with a TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived sea surface height time series. Corrections for atmospheric mass effects, continental hydrology, snowfall accumulation, and ocean steric model predictions will be considered.

  7. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  8. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  9. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  10. Tornado climatology of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, A. M.

    After several decades of little work, a revised tornado climatology for Austria is presented. Tornadoes seldom form in the alpine areas, however, near the eastern flanks of the Alps, favourable conditions for tornado genesis are found. Whereas in the alpine regions less than 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year touch down (averaged for provinces or major parts of a province), we can count 0.9 in the greater Graz area, 1.0 in the greater Linz area and 1.2 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year in the greater Vienna area, suggesting the existence of so-called tornado alleys. As these regions are the most populated areas of Austria, there is a possible population bias in the dataset. The overall average for Austria is 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year. The database consists of 89 tornadoes, one landspout and six waterspouts, with a total of 96 events. The seasonal peak is in July with a maximum probability of tornadoes in the late afternoon and early evening hours. Every fifth tornado occurs in the hour after 5 p.m. The maximum intensity determined for a tornado in Austria was T7 on the TORRO-Scale (F3 on the Fujita-Scale), the most common intensity is T2 on the TORRO-Scale (F1 on the Fujita-Scale).

  11. GIS as a Tool for Planning New Road Stretchesin Respect of Climatological Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, T.; Bogren, J.; Eriksson, M.

    When planning a new road stretch there is a need for an evaluation of the local climate to estimate the winter road maintenance costs and what problems that could be expected along the road, e.g. areas subjected to frequent road slipperiness. At present these evaluations are performed manually and by field studies. In this paper a new perspective at solving the problem is presented, by means of using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The basic approach uses three distinct weather types, each being characterised by local climate features. The weather types, which have been mapped separately, are clear days, clear/calm nights and cloudy/windy conditions. The main parameters used are solar irradiance, cold air drainage and ponding and height above sea level. To be able to get an overview of surface temperature variations in the landscape and their frequency of occurrence, the climatological features were classified according to the extent of temperature decrease (or in some cases increase). Three risk-classes were used for low temperatures (2, 1 and 0), with lowest temperatures being assigned the value 2, 1 is an intermediate class and the average of the whole area is represented by 0, e.g. horizontal ground in the case of incoming solar radiation. When a higher than average temperature is expected, for instance in many urban areas or sunny slopes, risk classes -1 and -2 are used. Frequencies of the studied situations were obtained from weather statistics and multiplied by the risk classes. Finally maps for each weather situation were combined into one map showing the expected relative risks and frequencies of low temperatures as climatological risk points. These climatological points, of for example two alternative road stretches, can be compared in order to evaluate the differences in local climate. The software IDRISI, PC Arc/Info and a digital elevation model were used for the calculation and mapping.

  12. A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, D.J.; Trenberth, K.E.; Reynolds, R.W. NOAA, Climate Analysis Center, Washington, DC )

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S. 22 refs.

  13. Active Learning in Introductory Climatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Kenneth F.; Meyer, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a software package available for the climatology curriculum that determines possible climatic events according to a long-term climate history. Describes the integration of the software into the curriculum and presents examples of active learning. (Contains 19 references.) (YDS)

  14. Conference on Applied Climatology, 6th, Charleston, SC, Mar. 7-10, 1989, Preprints

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Papers on applied climatology are presented, covering topics such as climate resources, precipitation climatology and land use planning, urbanization and rainfall distribution, climate changes, heat stress climatology, climate and culture, climate and agriculture, studies of the 1988 drought, and climatic records. Papers are included on orography and precipitation variability, climate scenarios for impact assessment, temperature changes and the greenhouse effect, the relationship between a GCM simulated climate and the observed local climate, a synoptic approach to the detection of climatic change, and climate modeling with a limited area model coupled to a GCM. Other topics include high-resolution ground-based remote sensors, the application of a spatial synoptic climatological index to changes in atmospheric NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} concentrations, thunderstorm and lightning relationships, satellite-derived vegetation indices as indicators of climatic variability, and the relationships between precipitation and 700 mb height patterns.

  15. TRMM-Based Lightning Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded climatologies of total lightning flash rates seen by the spaceborne Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) have been updated. OTD collected data from May 1995 to March 2000. LIS data (equatorward of about 38 deg) has been added for 1998-2010. Flash counts from each instrument are scaled by the best available estimates of detection efficiency. The long LIS record makes the merged climatology most robust in the tropics and subtropics, while the high latitude data is entirely from OTD. The mean global flash rate from the merged climatology is 46 flashes per second. The peak annual flash rate at 0.5 deg scale is 160 fl/square km/yr in eastern Congo. The peak monthly average flash rate at 2.5 scale is 18 fl/square km/mo, from early April to early May in the Brahmaputra Valley of far eastern India. Lightning decreases in this region during the monsoon season, but increases further north and west. A monthly average peak from early August to early September in northern Pakistan also exceeds any monthly averages from Africa, despite central Africa having the greatest yearly average. Most continental regions away from the equator have an annual cycle with lightning flash rates peaking in late spring or summer. The main exceptions are India and southeast Asia, with springtime peaks in April and May. For landmasses near the equator, flash rates peak near the equinoxes. For many oceanic regions, the peak flash rates occur in autumn. This is particularly noticeable for the Mediterranean and North Atlantic. Landmasses have a strong diurnal cycle of lightning, with flash rates generally peaking between 3-5 pm local solar time. The central United States flash rates peak later, in late evening or early night. Flash rates peak after midnight in northern Argentina. These regions are known for large, intense, long-lived mesoscale convective systems.

  16. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  17. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Olson, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  18. 30 CFR 779.18 - Climatological information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Climatological information. 779.18 Section 779... PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 779.18 Climatological information. (a) When requested by the regulatory authority, the...

  19. 30 CFR 779.18 - Climatological information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Climatological information. 779.18 Section 779... PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 779.18 Climatological information. (a) When requested by the regulatory authority, the...

  20. 30 CFR 783.18 - Climatological information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Climatological information. 783.18 Section 783... PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 783.18 Climatological information. (a) When requested by the regulatory authority,...

  1. 30 CFR 783.18 - Climatological information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Climatological information. 783.18 Section 783... PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 783.18 Climatological information. (a) When requested by the regulatory authority,...

  2. Sprite climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (< 40% of events) between 00:30 and 02:15 LST (22:30-00:15 UT; LST = UT + 2). The detection times of sprites are well-correlated with a relative increase in the fraction of + CG strokes, which exhibit maxima between 00:00 and 02:00 LST. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites, that we were able to clearly identify, is dominated by column sprites (49.3%), with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in Central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure in between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in Japan. The climatology shows the Eastern Mediterranean to be a major sprite producer in Northern Hemisphere winter, and offers ground-based coverage for future space missions.

  3. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (< 40% of events) between 00:30-02:15 LST (22:30-00:15 UT; LST=UT+2). The detection times of sprites are well-correlated with a relative increase in the fraction of +CG strokes, which exhibit maxima between 00:00-02:00 LST. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites, that we were able to clearly identify, is dominated by column sprites (49.3%), with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  4. Retrieval of cloud height from SCIAMACHY using oxygen absorption around 630nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich; Wang, Ping; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) on ENVISAT allows measurements of different atmospheric trace gases (e.g. O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, HCHO, CO, BrO, H2O, O2, O4) using the DOAS technique. The HICRU algorithm retrieves cloud height using the spectral analysis of the oxygen absorption around 630nm combined with results of the Monte-Carlo model TRACY-II and a new SCIAMACHY surface albedo database. The results are compared to: 1.) cloud height retrievals of other satellite instruments (MERIS, MODIS) 2.) ISCCP climatology 3.) SCIAMACHY cloud algorithms (SACURA, FRESCO+) 4.) LIDAR/RADAR measurements. For low clouds, the HICRU algorithm retrieves cloud heights more close to the the top, because of the assumption of an appropriate cloud model with a realistic estimation of the scattering inside the cloud. It is also demonstrated, that none the three SCIAMACHY cloud algorithms HICRU, SACURA and FRESCO+ is able to retrieve the top of high clouds because of principal characteristics of the retrieval methods based on oxygen absorption. But oxygen absorptions can provide important additional information on the vertical cloud structure and multiple cloud layers if the method is combined with cloud-top-retrieval using windows in the thermal infrared. An application of these concepts to the GOSAT instrument will be discussed.

  5. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  6. BCR-ABL1: Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... called p190), which is most frequently associated with Ph chromosome-positive ALL. The quantitative BCR-ABL1 molecular test measures either of the breakpoints in the fusion gene. It is used to establish a baseline value and then to monitor the person's response to ...

  7. Alpine cloud climatology: regional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Martina; Kriebel, Karl T.

    1996-12-01

    The present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of clouds in the hydrologic cycle shows severe gaps of knowledge. Water vapor plays an essential part in atmospheric dynamics. For example, the release of large amounts of latent heat, due to the condensation in convective clouds, plays an important role in the general circulation. Knowledge of the distribution of clouds and its transport is essential to understand atmospheric dynamics. Clouds can have a positive as well as a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. A cloud cover climatology in a 15 km grid resolution has been retrieved by means of the APOLLO algorithm using the 5 calibrated AVHRR channels. The monthly means of total cloud cover are about 15 percent too high compared to conventional data, the standard deviation is +/- 12 percent. The high resolution cloud cover maps show topometeorological features like 'Fohn' on single days but not in monthly means, because these events are too rare. But increased cloud cover in the luff regions are detected in monthly means as well as some cloud sparse regions like Lake Garda, Ticino or the Swiss Rhone valley. The different annual cycles of cloud cover show the different climatic regions, which are temperate, Alpine, and Mediterranean climate. This is indicated, for example, by the remarkably smaller cloud cover in the Alpine region in winter as compared to the northern and southern forelands.

  8. Climatological data summary 1993 with historical data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.; Burk, K.W.

    1994-06-01

    This document presents the climatological data summary for calendar year 1993. It presents updated historical climatologies for temperature, wind, precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters from the Hanford Meteorology Station (HMS) and Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network. It also presents climatological normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation for the HMS. Previous documents have included climatological data collected at the old Hanford Townsite, located approximately 10 miles east-northeast of the present HMS. The records for these two different sites have been frequently interchanged as if representing the same location. With the exception of Section 2.0, the remainder of this document uses data only from the HMS, with a period of record beginning December 7, 1944.

  9. [Height vertigo, fear of heights, acrophobia].

    PubMed

    Rennert, H

    1990-06-01

    Height vertigo (acrophobia) is a very frequent phenomenon being of interest for its physiological and psychological background, though usually only of limited significance in neuropsychiatry and otology. The different aspects as to its nature and origin are discussed. If acrophobia has developed into a conditioned reaction of avoidance with pressure of suffering, or acrophobia in persons, who have to work at heights, behavior therapeutic measures with systematic desensibilisation, starting from an imaginative training, are indicated.

  10. Biomes computed from simulated climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Martin; Esch, Monika

    1994-01-01

    The biome model of Prentice et al. (1992a) is used to predict global patterns of potential natural plant formations, or biomes, from climatologies simulated by ECHAM, a model used for climate simulations at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Meteorologie. This study is undertaken in order to show the advantage of this biome model in diagnosing the performance of a climate model and assessing effects of past and future climate changes predicted by a climate model. Good overall agreement is found between global patterns of biomes computed from observed and simulated data of present climate. But there are also major discrepancies indicated by a difference in biomes in Australia, in the Kalahari Desert, and in the Middle West of North America. These discrepancies can be traced back to failures in simulated rainfall as well as summer or winter temperatures. Global patterns of biomes computed from an ice age simulation reveal that North America, Europe, and Siberia should have been covered largely by tundra and taiga, whereas only small differences are seen for the tropical rain forests. A potential northeast shift of biomes is expected from a simulation with enhanced C02 concentration according to the IPCC Scenario A. Little change is seen in the tropical rain forest and the Sahara. Since the biome model used is not capable of predicting changes in vegetation patterns due to a rapid climate change, the latter simulation has to be taken as a prediction of changes in conditions favourable for the existence of certain biomes, not as a prediction of a future distribution of biomes.[/ab

  11. Biomes computed from simulated climatologies

    SciTech Connect

    Claussen, M.; Esch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The biome model of Prentice et al. is used to predict global patterns of potential natural plant formations, or biomes, from climatologies simulated by ECHAM, a model used for climate simulations at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie. This study undertaken in order to show the advantage of this biome model in diagnosing the performance of a climate model and assessing effects of past and future climate changes predicted by a climate model. Good overall agreement is found between global patterns of biomes computed from observed and simulated data of present climate. But there are also major discrepancies indicated by a difference in biomes in Australia, in the Kalahari Desert, and in the Middle West of North America. These discrepancies can be traced back to in simulated rainfall as well as summer or winter temperatures. Global patterns of biomes computed from an ice age simulation reveal that North America, Europe, and Siberia should have been covered largely by tundra and taiga, whereas only small differences are for the tropical rain forests. A potential northeast shift of biomes is expected from a simulation with enhanced CO{sub 2} concentration according to the IPCC Scenario A. Little change is seen in the tropical rain forest and the Sahara. Since the biome model used is not capable of predicting chances in vegetation patterns due to a rapid climate change, the latter simulation to be taken as a prediction of chances in conditions favourable for the existence of certain biomes, not as a reduction of a future distribution of biomes. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Spherical harmonic analysis of a synoptic climatology generated with a global general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christidis, Z. D.; Spar, J.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis was used to analyze the observed climatological (C) fields of temperature at 850 mb, geopotential height at 500 mb, and sea level pressure. The spherical harmonic method was also applied to the corresponding "model climatological" fields (M) generated by a general circulation model, the "GISS climate model." The climate model was initialized with observed data for the first of December 1976 at 00. GMT and allowed to generate five years of meteorological history. Monthly means of the above fields for the five years were computed and subjected to spherical harmonic analysis. It was found from the comparison of the spectral components of both sets, M and C, that the climate model generated reasonable 500 mb geopotential heights. The model temperature field at 850 mb exhibited a generally correct structure. However, the meridional temperature gradient was overestimated and overheating of the continents was observed in summer.

  13. A global satellite-assisted precipitation climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, A.; Michaelsen, J.; Peterson, P.; Pedreros, D.; Husak, G.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high-resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data-sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  14. A global satellite assisted precipitation climatology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Verdin, Andrew P.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Pedreros, Diego; Husak, Gregory J.; Peterson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  15. A climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, Philippe P.

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are large, low-level, cyclonic circulations that are observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. CAGs often occur in conjunction with TCs, and can result in torrential rainfall over portions of Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and eastern United States. The lack of prior research on CAGs, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high- impact weather motivates this study. To study CAG occurrence, an algorithm was developed to identify cyclonic circulations possessing similar characteristics to monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs) in other ocean basins. This algorithm also includes a series of tests that distinguishes CAG events from large TCs and non-closed circulations. This algorithm was run between May-November 1980-2010 using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 0.5o gridded dataset to produce the CAG climatology. 42 CAGs were classified (˜1.4 per season) with a bimodal distribution of occurrence favoring the early (May-Jun) and late (Sep-Nov) TC season. Stratification of CAG occurrence by the phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) shows that over 75% of all CAGs develop in phases 8,1, and 2. A gyre-relative, time-lagged, CAG composite analysis is performed on CAG cases spanning from three days prior to two days after CAG formation. Positive low-level geopotential height anomalies are present in the east Pacific and Atlantic basins and are associated with anomalous low-level flow before the formation of the CAG. This results in increasing cyclonic vorticity near anomalously high precipitable water over Central America, a pattern that aids the generation of deep convection and the broad closed low-level cyclonic circulation that defines the CAG. CAGs are also split into two subsets using potential vorticity (PV) on the 350K isentropic surface. Tropical CAGs possess upper-tropospheric ridging associated with low

  16. Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities for Spaceports and Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott; Lafosse, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide forecasters with a tool to indicate the warm season climatological probability of one or more lightning strikes within a circle at a site within a specified time interval. This paper described the AMU work conducted in developing flow regime based climatologies of lightning probabilities for the SLF and seven airports in the NWS MLB CWA in east-central Florida. The paper also described the GUI developed by the AMU that is used to display the data for the operational forecasters. There were challenges working with gridded lightning data as well as the code that accompanied the gridded data. The AMU modified the provided code to be able to produce the climatologies of lightning probabilities based on eight flow regimes for 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-n mi circles centered on eight sites in 1-, 3-, and 6-hour increments.

  17. SPARC Intercomparison of Middle Atmosphere Climatologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William; Fleming, Eric; Geller, Marvin; Hamilton, Kevin; Karoly, David; Ortland, Dave; Pawson, Steve; Swinbank, Richard; Udelhofen, Petra

    2002-01-01

    This atlas presents detailed incomparisons of several climatological wind and temperature data sets which cover the middle atmosphere (over altitudes approx. 10-80 km). A number of middle atmosphere climatologies have been developed in the research community based on a variety of meteorological analyses and satellite data sets. Here we present comparisons between these climatological data sets for a number of basic circulation statistics, such as zonal mean temperature, winds and eddy flux statistics. Special attention is focused on tropical winds and temperatures, where large differences exist among separate analyses. We also include comparisons between the global climatologies and historical rocketsonde wind and temperature measurements, and also with more recent lidar temperature data. These comparisons highlight differences and uncertainties in contemporary middle atmosphere data sets, and allow biases in particular analyses to be isolated. In addition, a brief atlas of zonal mean temperature and wind statistics is provided to highlight data availability and as a quick-look reference. This technical report is intended as a companion to the climatological data sets held in archive at the SPARC Data Center (http://www.sparc.sunysb.edu).

  18. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than understanding atmospheric processes. This subtlety is particularly appreciated for Earth, where chemical cycles, geology, ocean influences, and biology are considered in most climate models. In Part IV, Surface and Interior, we look at the role that geochemical cycles, volcanism, and interior mantle processes play in the stability and evolution of terrestrial planetary climates. There is one vital commonality between the climates of all the planets of the solar system: Regardless of the different processes that dominate each of the climates of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan, they are all ultimately forced by radiation from the same star, albeit at variable distances. In Part V, Solar Influences, we discuss how the Sun's early evolution affected the climates of the terrestrial planets, and how it continues to control the temperatures and compositions of planetary atmospheres. This will be of particular interest as models of exoplanets, and the influences of much different stellar types and distances, are advanced by further observations. Comparisons of atmospheric and climate processes between the planets in our solar system has been a focus of numerous conferences over the past decade, including the Exoclimes conference series. In particular, this book project was closely tied to a conference on Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets that was held in Boulder, Colorado, on June 25-28, 2012. This book benefited from the opportunity for the author teams to interact and obtain feedback from the broader community, but the chapters do not in general tie directly to presentations at the conference. The conference, which was organized by a diverse group of atmospheric and climate scientists led by Mark Bullock and Lori Glaze, sought to build connections between the various communities, focusing on synergies and complementary capabilities. Discussion panels at the end of most

  19. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  20. Forecasting maximum wave height at selected sites based on high resolution hindcast modeling and local adaptation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeri, Christina; Galanis, George; Kallos, George

    2014-05-01

    Extreme wave heights play a major role in many deep offshore and coastal activities today. As a result, it is of significant importance to understand and accurately simulate their behavior. The lack of a dense in-situ and remote sensing observational network implies non trivial difficulties in this framework. A way out can be given by the utilization of high resolution third generation spectral wave models that incorporate advanced formulations for the estimation of maximum wave height conditions along with local adaptation techniques which can simulate in a credible way the non-frequent values for a specific area. For this study, a 10-year (2001-2010) hourly high resolution dataset of the main metocean parameters that covers the entire European coastline with a resolution of 5km, developed by the Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in the framework of the FP7 project MARINA Platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/index.aspx) was utilized. The hindcast wave data, based on the latest version of the wave model WAM, in conjunction with non-conventional statistical methods and available buoy measurements for selected locations in the Spanish coastline formed an integrated system able to provide accurate maximum wave height estimations taking into consideration the climatological characteristics of the area.

  1. Hanford Site Climatological Data Summary 1999 with Historical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, Dana J.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2000-05-11

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the Hanford Site for claendar year 1999. The information contained includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitaion and other meteorological parameters.

  2. Climatology of the stratospheric polar vortex and planetary wave breaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Holton, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of Ertel's potential vorticity (PV) on the 850 K isentropic surface is used to establish a climatology for the transient evolution of the planetary scale circulation in the Northern Hemisphere winter midstratosphere. PV distributions are computed from gridded NMC daily temperature and height maps for the 10 and 30 mb levels, and show that a very good approximation for 850 K PV can be derived from 10 mb heights and temperatures alone. It is assumed that reversals of the latitudinal gradient of PV, localized in longitude and latitude may be regarded as signatures of planetary wave breaking. Wave breaking identified by such signatures tends to occur mainly in the vicinity of the Aleutian anticyclone, with a secondary maximum over Europe. The area of the polar vortex, defined as the area enclosed by PV contours greater than a certain critical value, is strongly influenced by wave breaking. Erosion of the polar vortex due to transport and mixing of PV leads to a preconditioned state, when defined in terms of vortex area, that always occurs prior to major stratospheric warmings. During winters with little PV transport or mixing, the vortex area evolves rather uniformly in response to radiative forcing. During winters with major sudden warmings, the wave breaking signature as defined here first appears at low values of PV, then rapidly moves toward higher values as the vortex area is reduced and the 'surf-zone' structure becomes well defined.

  3. The Savannah River Technology Center Research and Development Climatology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) built and has operated the Climatology Site (CS) for almost 10 years. The Climatology Site provides a wide variety of meteorological support functions for Savannah River Site (SRS) operations and research. This document describes the Climatology Site facility to familiarize present and potential users with its capabilities.

  4. Constraints on Smoke Injection Height, Source Strength, and Transports from MISR and MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Petrenko, Mariya; Val Martin, Maria; Chin, Mian

    2014-01-01

    The AeroCom BB (Biomass Burning) Experiment AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) motivation: We have a substantial set of satellite wildfire plume AOD snapshots and injection heights to help calibrate model/inventory performance; We are 1) adding more fire source-strength cases 2) using MISR to improve the AOD constrains and 3) adding 2008 global injection heights; We selected GFED3-daily due to good overall source strength performance, but any inventory can be tested; Joint effort to test multiple, global models, to draw robust BB injection height and emission strength conclusions. We provide satellite-based injection height and smoke plume AOD climatologies.

  5. An assessment of climatological synoptic typing by principal component analysis and kmeans clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuell, Charles; Bonsal, Barrie

    2009-10-01

    A common method of automated synoptic typing for climatological investigations involves data reduction by principal component analysis followed by the application of a clustering method. The number of eigenvectors kept in the principal component analysis is usually determined by a threshold value of relative variance retained, typically 85% to 95%, under the implicit assumption that varying this relative variance will not affect the resultant synoptic catalogue. This assumption is tested using daily 500-mb geopotential heights over northwest Canada during the winter period (December to February) from 1948 to 2006. Results show that the synoptic catalogue and associated surface climatological characteristics undergo changes for values of relative variance retained over 99%, indicating the typical thresholds are too low and calling into question the validity of performing principal component analysis prior to objective clustering.

  6. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  7. The SPARC Intercomparison of Middle Atmosphere Climatologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William; Fleming, Eric; Geller, Marvin; Gelman, Mel; Hamilton, Kevin; Karoly, David; Ortland, Dave; Pawson, Steve; Swinbank, Richard; Udelhofen, Petra

    2003-01-01

    Our current confidence in 'observed' climatological winds and temperatures in the middle atmosphere (over altitudes approx. 10-80 km) is assessed by detailed intercomparisons of contemporary and historic data sets. These data sets include global meteorological analyses and assimilations, climatologies derived from research satellite measurements, and historical reference atmosphere circulation statistics. We also include comparisons with historical rocketsonde wind and temperature data, and with more recent lidar temperature measurements. The comparisons focus on a few basic circulation statistics, such as temperature, zonal wind, and eddy flux statistics. Special attention is focused on tropical winds and temperatures, where large differences exist among separate analyses. Assimilated data sets provide the most realistic tropical variability, but substantial differences exist among current schemes.

  8. Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: a climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaysse, C.; Flamant, C.; Janicot, S.; Parker, D. J.; Lafore, J.-P.; Sultan, B.; Pelon, J.

    2009-08-01

    The West African heat low (WAHL), a region of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, is a key element of the West African monsoon system. In this study, we propose a method to detect the WAHL in order to monitor its climatological seasonal displacement over West Africa during the period 1979-2001, using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ERA-40 reanalyses. The low-level atmospheric thickness (LLAT), a variable defined as the difference of geopotential heights at 700 and 925 hPa, is used to detect the dilatation of these levels generated by an increase of the temperature. We define grid points with 10% highest values of the LLAT as the WAHL. We show that our method reliably positions the WAHL over areas of high surface temperatures and low surface pressures, and that it is effective at detecting heat lows. In the course of the year, the climatological WAHL is shown to migrate north-westward from a position south of the Darfur mountains in the winter (November-March) to a location over the Sahara, between the Hoggar and the Atlas mountains, during the summer (June-September). The temperature tendency equation is used to investigate the processes controlling the displacement of the WAHL, and more particularly the heating at low levels. The specific period of the onset of the WAHL in its summer location over the Sahara (referred to as the Saharan heat low -SHL- onset) is also analysed during the 1984-2001 period, using complementary brightness temperature data from the European Union-funded Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS). The climatological onset of the SHL occurs around 20 June, i.e. just before the climatological monsoon onset date. The present study suggests that the onset of the WAHL occurs approximately 5 days before the monsoon onset for the 1984-2001 period. This is confirmed independently by comparing the SHL onset date and the monsoon onset date for the 1984-2001 period. The seasonal evolution of the WAHL for the

  9. Foraminal height measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the proposed advantages of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is restoration of disc height and hence an indirect foraminal height restoration. While this proposed advantage is often quoted in the literature, there are few robust studies demonstrating restoration of foraminal volume. Thus, this study aimed to review the literature and discuss the progression and development of foramen measurement techniques. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify studies which reported foraminal height and dimensions following fusion surgery in cadaveric models or patients. Results Techniques in prior studies used to quantify foraminal dimensions before and after fusion operations include analysis from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Recent studies have attempted to standardize foraminal dimension measurements with the use of orthogonal software, accelerator-based measurements and the use of multiple images for three-dimensional reconstruction of the foramen volume. Conclusions Consistent results have demonstrated significant increases in foraminal area and height following anterior lumbar interbody distraction, providing evidence that ALIF can indirectly increase foraminal height. Future studies should use standardized measurement approaches such as the Pedicle-to-Pedicle technique with CT or MRI images to determine changes in foraminal dimensions.

  10. Foraminal height measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the proposed advantages of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is restoration of disc height and hence an indirect foraminal height restoration. While this proposed advantage is often quoted in the literature, there are few robust studies demonstrating restoration of foraminal volume. Thus, this study aimed to review the literature and discuss the progression and development of foramen measurement techniques. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify studies which reported foraminal height and dimensions following fusion surgery in cadaveric models or patients. Results Techniques in prior studies used to quantify foraminal dimensions before and after fusion operations include analysis from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Recent studies have attempted to standardize foraminal dimension measurements with the use of orthogonal software, accelerator-based measurements and the use of multiple images for three-dimensional reconstruction of the foramen volume. Conclusions Consistent results have demonstrated significant increases in foraminal area and height following anterior lumbar interbody distraction, providing evidence that ALIF can indirectly increase foraminal height. Future studies should use standardized measurement approaches such as the Pedicle-to-Pedicle technique with CT or MRI images to determine changes in foraminal dimensions. PMID:27683677

  11. Climatology 2011: An MLS and Sonde Derived Ozone Climatology for Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    The ozone climatology used as the a priori for the version 8 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms has been updated. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. The new climatology consists of monthly average ozone profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering pressure altitudes from 0 to 65 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from Aura MLS (2004-2010) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2010). Ozone below 8 km (below 12 km at high latitudes) is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 16 km (21 km at high latitudes) is based on MLS measurements. Sonde and MLS data are blended in the transition region. Ozone accuracy in the upper troposphere is greatly improved because of the near uniform coverage by Aura MLS, while the addition of a large number of balloon sonde measurements improves the accuracy in the lower troposphere, in the tropics and southern hemisphere in particular. The addition of MLS data also improves the accuracy of climatology in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The revised climatology has been used for the latest reprocessing of SBUV and TOMS satellite ozone data.

  12. Height unification using GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.

    2012-12-01

    With the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) (preferably combined with the gravity field and climate experiment (GRACE)) a new generation of geoid models will become available for use in height determination. These models will be globally consistent, accurate (<3 cm) and with a spatial resolution up to degree and order 200, when expressed in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion. GOCE is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is the first satellite equipped with a gravitational gradiometer, in the case of GOCE it measures the gradient components Vxx , Vyy, Vzzand Vxz. The GOCE gravitational sensor system comprises also a geodetic global positioning system (GPS)-receiver, three star sensors and ion-thrusters for drag compensation in flight direction. GOCE was launched in March 2009 and will fly till the end of 2013. Several gravity models have been derived from its data, their maximum degree is typically between 240 and 250. In summer 2012 a first re-processing of all level-1b data took place. One of the science objectives of GOCE is the unification of height systems. The existing height offsets among the datum zones can be determined by least-squares adjustment. This requires several precise geodetic reference points available in each height datum zone, physical heights from spirit levelling (plus gravimetry), the GOCE geoid and, in addition, short wavelength geoid refinement from terrestrial gravity anomalies. GOCE allows for important simplifications of the functional and stochastic part of the adjustment model. The future trend will be the direct determination of physical heights (orthometric as well as normal) from precise global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-positioning in combination with a next generation combined satellite-terrestrial high-resolution geoid model.

  13. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  14. Storm Surge Climatology of the Arctic Marginal Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proshutinsky, T.; Proshutinsky, A.; Maslanik, J.; Solomon, S.; Ashik, I.

    2002-12-01

    The shore of the arctic seas are generally of low relief and the combination of waves and high water levels during late summer and fall storms before the development of significant sea-ice cover can be particularly damaging to shorelines. Gravel barrier beaches can be overwashed and eroded while bluffs consisting of unlithified ice-bonded sediment and segregated ice can fail and retreat. Storm surge climatology of the arctic marginal seas is investigated based on observational data and 2-D coupled ice-ocean barotropic model results. Meteorological forcing is calculated based on NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data for 1948-present period. The spatial resolution of the model is 13.89 km. The sea ice conditions (concentration and thickness) are prescribed on the mean monthly basis. The model was calibrated based on the strongest storm surges observed in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Simulation results are in relatively good agreement with observations of sea level heights and ice drift. Detailed studies showed that the spatial and temporal resolutions of the NCEP/NCAR sea level pressure data (2.5x2.5 degree, 6 hours) are too low and can not reproduce well extreme conditions typical for the relatively small polar cyclones but storm surge event frequency is reproduce very well. The results of this study can be used to aid current and future scenario risk assessments of coastal flooding and costal erosion rates.

  15. Validating the topographic climatology logic of the MTCLIM model

    SciTech Connect

    Glassy, J.M.; Running, S.W.

    1995-06-01

    The topographic climatology logic of the MTCLIM model was validated using a comparison of modeled air temperatures vs. remotely sensed, thermal infrared (TIR) surface temperatures from three Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator scenes. The TIR data was taken in 1990 near Sisters, Oregon, as part of the NASA OTTER project. The original air temperature calculation method was modified for the spatial context of this study. After stratifying by canopy closure and relative solar loading, r{sup 2} values of 0.74, 0.89, and 0.97 were obtained for the March, June, and August scenes, respectively, using a modified air temperature algorithm. Consistently lower coefficients of determination were obtained using the original air temperature algorithm on the same data r{sup 2} values of .070, .52, and .66 for the March, June, and August samples respectively. The difficulties of comparing screen height air temperatures with remotely sensed surface temperatures are discussed, and several ideas for follow-on studies are suggested.

  16. Regional Climatology and Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The climatology and surface radiation budget (SRB) of a region are intimately related. This paper presents a brief examination of this relationship. An 8-year surface radiation budget data set has been developed based on satellite measurements. In that data set and in this paper a region is defined as a quasi-square 2.5o in latitude and approximately the same physical distance in longitude. A pilot study by Wilber et al. (1998) showed a variety of behaviors of the annual cycles for selected regions. Selected desert regions form a loop in a specific part of the plot, with large NLW and large NSW. Tropical wet regions form much smaller loops in a different part of the plot, with small NLW and large NSW. For regions selected in high latitude the annual cycles form nearly linear figures in another part of the plot. The question arises as to whether these trajectories are characteristic of the climatology of the region or simply the behavior of the few regions selected from the set of 6596 regions. In order to address this question, it is necessary to classify the climatology of the each region, e.g. as classified by Koeppen (1936) or Trenwarthe and Horne (1980). This paper presents a method of classifying climate of the regions on the basis of the surface radiation behavior such that the results are very similar to the classification of Trenwarthe and Horne. The characteristics of the annual cycle of SRB components can then be investigated further, based on the climate classification of each region.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  18. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  19. Climatology of extratropical transition for North Atlantic tropical cyclones in the high-resolution GFDL climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Vecchi, G. A.; Smith, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extratropical transition (ET) process of tropical cyclones can lead to fundamental changes in hurricane structure and storms that continue to pose large threats to life and properties. Given the importance of ET, it is necessary to understand how ET changes under a warming climate. Towards this goal, the GFDL climate model (FLOR) is first used to understand the current-day ET climatology. The standard model and a flux-adjusted version of FLOR are both used to examine ET climatology. The operational cyclone phase space method is used to define the onset and completion times of ET. The ET climatology from the climate model is compared with those from two reanalysis data sets ranging from 1979 to 2012. Both models exhibit good skills at simulating the frequency map of phase space diagram. The flux-adjusted version shows much better skill in capturing the ET climatology in terms of ET track patterns, ET locations and monthly ET variations. The model is able to simulate the frequency ratio of reintensified tropical cyclones from all ET cases. Future work involves examining changes in the ET climatology under a changing climate.

  20. Simulating a 40-year flood event climatology of Australia with a view to ocean-land teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    We develop, for the first time, a proof-of-concept version for a high-resolution global flood inundation model to generate a flood inundation climatology of the past 40 years (1973-2012) for the entire Australian continent at a native 1 km resolution. The objectives of our study includes (1) deriving an inundation climatology for a continent (Australia) as a demonstrator case to understand the requirements for expanding globally; (2) developing a test bed to assess the potential and value of current and future satellite missions (GRACE, SMAP, ICESat-2, AMSR-2, Sentinels and SWOT) in flood monitoring; and (3) answering science questions such as the linking of inundation to ocean circulation teleconnections. We employ the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to generate a flood inundation climatology. The model will be built from freely available SRTM-derived data (channel widths, bank heights and floodplain topography corrected for vegetation canopy using ICESat canopy heights). Lakes and reservoirs are represented and channel hydraulics are resolved using actual channel data with bathymetry inferred from hydraulic geometry. Simulations are run with gauged flows and floodplain inundation climatology are compared to observations from GRACE, flood maps from Landsat, SAR, and MODIS. Simulations have been completed for the entire Australian continent. Additionally, changes in flood inundation have been correlated with indices related to global ocean circulation, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation index. We will produce data layers on flood event climatology and other derived (default) products from the proposed model including channel and floodplain depths, flow direction, velocity vectors, floodplain water volume, shoreline extent and flooded area. These data layers will be in the form of simple vector and raster formats. Since outputs will be large in size we propose to upload them onto Google Earth under the GEE API license.

  1. NASA GLDAS Evapotranspiration Data and Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water lost to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. ET is a shared component in the energy and water budget, therefore, a critical variable for global energy and water cycle and climate change studies. However, direct ET measurements and data acquisition are difficult and expensive, especially at the global level. Therefore, modeling is one common alternative for estimating ET. With the goal to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes, the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been generating quality-controlled, spatially and temporally consistent, terrestrial hydrologic data, including ET and other variables that affect evaporation and transpiration, such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, soil moisture, heat flux, and solar radiation. This poster presents the long-term ET climatology (mean and monthly), derived from the 61-year GLDAS-2 monthly 1.0 deg x 1.0 deg. NOAH model Experiment-1 data, and describes the basic characteristics of spatial and seasonal variations of the climatology. The time series of GLDAS-2 precipitation and radiation, and ET are also discussed to show the improvement of GLDAS-2 forcing data and model output over those from GLDAS-1.

  2. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets.

  3. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons.

    PubMed

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets. PMID:25796390

  4. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons.

    PubMed

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets.

  5. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290-740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes.

  6. Up-to-date probabilistic temperature climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Devineni, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    With ongoing global warming, climatologies based on average past temperatures are increasingly recognized as imperfect guides for current conditions, yet there is no consensus on alternatives. Here, we compare several approaches to deriving updated expected values of monthly mean temperatures, including moving average, exponentially weighted moving average, and piecewise linear regression. We go beyond most previous work by presenting updated climate normals as probability distributions rather than only point estimates, enabling estimation of the changing likelihood of hot and cold extremes. We show that there is a trade-off between bias and variance in these approaches, but that bias can be mitigated by an additive correction based on a global average temperature series, which has much less interannual variability than a single-station series. Using thousands of monthly temperature time series from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), we find that the exponentially weighted moving average with a timescale of 15 years and global bias correction has good overall performance in hindcasting temperatures over the last 30 years (1984-2013) compared with the other methods tested. Our results suggest that over the last 30 years, the likelihood of extremely hot months (above the 99th percentile of the temperature probability distribution as of the early 1980s) has increased more than fourfold across the GHCN stations, whereas the likelihood of very cold months (under the 1st percentile) has decreased by over two-thirds.

  7. Multifunctional Abl kinases in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Aaditya; Wang, Jun; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The Abelson tyrosine kinases were initially identified as drivers of leukemia in mice and humans. The Abl family kinases Abl1 and Abl2 regulate diverse cellular processes during development and normal homeostasis, and their functions are subverted during inflammation, cancer and other pathologies. Abl kinases can be activated by multiple stimuli leading to cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesion and polarity. Depending on the cellular context, Abl kinases regulate cell survival and proliferation. Emerging data support important roles for Abl kinases in pathologies linked to inflammation. Among these are neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Unexpectedly, Abl kinases have also been identified as important players in mammalian host cells during microbial pathogenesis. Thus, the use of Abl kinase inhibitors might prove to be effective in the treatment of pathologies beyond leukemia and solid tumors. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and in the accompanying poster, we highlight the emerging roles of Abl kinases in the regulation of cellular processes in normal cells and diverse pathologies ranging from cancer to microbial pathogenesis.

  8. Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Cho, Byung S.

    1992-01-01

    A polarization (0.694 microns wavelength) lidar dataset for subvisual and thin (bluish-colored) cirrus clouds is drawn from project FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) extended time observations. The clouds are characterized by their day-night visual appearance; base, top, and optical midcloud heights and temperatures; measured physical and estimated optical cloud thicknesses; integrated linear depolarization ratios; and derived k/2 eta ratios. A subset of the data supporting 30 NOAA polar-orbiting satellite overpasses is given in tabular form to provide investigators with the means to test cloud retrieval algorithms and establish the limits of cirrus detectability from satellite measurements under various conditions. Climatologically, subvisual-thin cirrus appear to be higher, colder, and more strongly depolarizing than previously reported multilatitude cirrus, although similar k/2 eta that decrease with height and temperature are found.

  9. Teaching English to Less-Able Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Raphael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the "less-able" student via a description of the strategies used by the good language learner. Such strategies include a positive, active, and tolerant approach to learning the language, with a willingness to practice the language. The less-able needs a constant sense of achievement to continue. (PJM)

  10. 46 CFR 15.840 - Able seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Able seamen. 15.840 Section 15.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.840 Able seamen. (a) With certain exceptions, 46 U.S.C. 8702 applies to all vessels of at least...

  11. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1996, with historical data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.; Burk, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site for calendar year 1996. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters.

  12. Hanford Site Climatological Data Summary 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DJ Hoitink; JV Ramsdell; KW Burk

    1999-05-26

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1998. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature; precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998); however, Appendix B--Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1998 was much warmer than normal, tying 1992 as the warmest year on record. The average temperature was 56.4 F, 3.1 F above normal (53.3 F). The highest July temperature ever recorded was 112 F on July 27, 1998. The first week in May, three daily temperature records were broken or tied. November 1998 was the third warmest on record. For the year 1998, there were 73 days with maximum temperature >90 F, the third highest on record. For the 12-month period, 11 months were warmer than normal and 1 was cooler than normal. The summer (June, July, and August) and autumn (September, October, and November) of 1998 were the fourth warmest on record. 1998 was slightly wetter than normal. Precipitation totaled 6.45 in., 103% of normal (6.26 in.); snow-fall totaled 7.2 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. There were eight thunderstorms recorded at Hanford Meteorological Station in July 1998, tying 1983 for the most thunderstorms in July. The average wind speed during 1998 was 7.9 mph, 0.2 mph above normal (7.7 mph). There were 32 days with peak gusts {ge}40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26 mph. The peak gust during the year was 56 mph from the south-southwest on November 21. November 1998 had a record number of days (10) with wind gusts {ge}40 mph. The heating-degree days for 1997-1998 were 4,523 (14% below the 5

  13. MERIS albedo climatology and its effect on the FRESCO+ O2 A-band cloud retrieval from SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Christoph; Wang, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; Stammes, Piet; Zhou, Yipin

    2010-05-01

    Accurate cloud information is an important prerequisite for the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases from spaceborne UV/VIS sensors. Errors in the estimated cloud fraction and cloud height (pressure) result in an erroneous air mass factor and thus can lead to inaccuracies in the vertical column densities of the retrieved trace gas. In ESA's TEMIS (Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service) project, the FRESCO+ (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) cloud retrieval is applied to, amongst others, SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) data to determine these quantities. Effective cloud fraction and pressure are inverted by (i) radiative transfer simulations of top-of-atmosphere reflectance based on O2 absorption, single Rayleigh scattering, surface and cloud albedo in three spectral windows covering the O2 A-band and (ii) a subsequent fitting of the simulated to the measured spectrum. However, FRESCO+ relies on a relatively coarse resolution surface albedo climatology (1° x 1°) compiled from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) measurements in the 1990's which introduces several artifacts, e.g. an overestimation of cloud fraction at coastlines or over some mountainous regions. Therefore, we test the substitution of the GOME climatology with a new land surface albedo climatology compiled for every month from MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) Albedomap data (0.05° x 0.05°) covering the period January 2003 to October 2006. The MERIS channels at 754nm and 775nm are located spectrally close to the corresponding GOME channels (758nm and 772nm) on both sides of the O2 A-band. Further, the increased spatial resolution of the MERIS product allows to better account for SCIAMACHY's pixel size of approximately 30x60km. The aim of this study is to describe and assess (i) the compilation and quality of the MERIS climatology (ii) the differences to the GOME climatology, and (iii) possible

  14. A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.W.; Smith, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    In response to the development of a new higher-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), a new monthly 1{degrees} global sea surface temperature climatology was constructed from two intermediate climatologies: the 2{degrees} SST climatology used a 30-yr 1950-1979 base period between roughly 40{degrees}S and 60{degrees}N based on in situ (ship and buoy) SST data supplemented by four years (1982-1985) of satellite SST retrievals, and sea-ice coverage data over a 12-yr period (1982-1993). The final climatology was combined from these two products so that a 1{degrees} resolution was maintained and the base period was adjusted to the 1950-1979 period wherever possible (approximately between 40{degrees}S and 60{degrees}N). Compared to the 2{degrees} climatology, the 1{degrees} climatology resolves equatorial upwelling and fronts much better. This leads to a better matching of the scales of the new analysis and climatology. In addition, because the magnitudes of large-scale features are consistently maintained in both the older 2{degrees} and the new 1{degrees} climatologies, climate monitoring of large-scale anomalies will be minimally affected by the analysis change. The use of 12 years of satellite SST retrievals makes this new climatology useful for many additional purposes because its effective resolution actually approaches 1{degrees} everywhere over the global ocean and because the mean SST values are more accurate south of 40{degrees}S than climatologies without these data. 12 refs., 16 figs.

  15. Climatology of Urban-regional Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Urbanized areas have come to be significant if not dominant components of many regional land surfaces. They represent perhaps the most dramatic recent change man has made in his environment - a change that may well burgeon in the foreseeable future as greater percentages of world populations crowd into metropolitan areas. The climate of urban-regional systems is involved because temperature, air, and pollutants added to the air are significant aspects of this change. During the past two years, substantial progress has been made in the application of remote sensing techniques to the study of urban climatology by programs jointly sponsored by NASA and the United States Geological Survey. The initial effort has endeavored with considerable success to map terrestrial radiation emission or the general thermal state of the land surface with the aid of imaging radiometers (mechanical-optical scanners).

  16. Inner Radiation Belt Dynamics and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, P. P.; Looper, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al. Inner Zone Model (SIZM). By varying modeled physics parameters and solar particle injection parameters to generate many ensembles of the inner belt, then optimizing the ensemble weights according to inner belt observations from SAMPEX/PET at LEO and HEO/DOS at high altitude, we obtain the best-fit state of the inner belt. We need to fully sample the range of solar proton injection sources among the ensemble members to ensure reasonable agreement between the model ensembles and observations. Once this is accomplished, we find the method is fairly robust. We will demonstrate the data assimilation by presenting an extended interval of solar proton injections and losses, illustrating how these short-term dynamics dominate long-term inner belt climatology.

  17. Climatology of fog in SW-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Aurelio; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2016-04-01

    The climatology of fog in Keflavik Airport in Southwest-Iceland has been investigated for the latter half of the 20th Century. Fog is twice as frequent in the late night than in the afternoon, suggesting important, but not dominating, impact of the diurnal cycle. There is large interannual variability in the frequency of fog, but no clear long-term trend. However, there is a clear shift in seasonal frequency; the period 1953-1977 had relatively frequent fog in the autumn, while 1978-1998, fog is relatively frequent in the spring and summer. This indicates sensitivity of the fog to mean sea surface temperatures. An attempt is made to assess frequency of fog in climate scenarii.

  18. Tohono O'odham Monsoon Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, G.

    2006-12-01

    The North American monsoon is a summertime weather phenomenon that develops over the southwestern North America. For thousands of years the Tohono O'odham people of this area have depended on the associated rainy season (Jukiabig Masad) to grow traditional crops using runoff agriculture. Today, the high incidence of Type II diabetes among native people has prompted many to return to their traditional agricultural diets. Local monsoon onset dates and the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset were used to develop a 24-year Tohono O'odham Nation (TON) monsoon and pre-monsoon climatology that can be used as a tool for planning runoff agriculture. Using monsoon composite datasets, temporal and spatial correlations between antecedent period meteorological variables, monsoon onset dates and total monsoon precipitation were examined to identify variables that could be useful in predicting the onset and intensity of the monsoon. The results suggest additional research is needed to identify variables related to monsoon onset and intensity.

  19. A hemispheric climatology of monsoon depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J. V.; Boos, W.

    2012-12-01

    Monsoon depressions are large (1000-2000 km diameter) cyclonic low pressure systems having organized deep convection, best known for forming in the Bay of Bengal and migrating northwest over northern India in the monsoon trough. About 3 to 5 of these systems occur during each monsoon season, contributing about half of the Indian summer rainfall. Despite their importance as a precipitation source, their dynamics are poorly constrained. Furthermore, although they do occur elsewhere, such as around Australia and in the southern Indian Ocean, there does not exist a collective inventory of these systems outside of the Bay of Bengal region. Here we present a climatology of monsoon depressions produced from the ERA-Interim Reanalysis. Feature tracks are identified using an automated tracking algorithm (K. Hodges' TRACK code) applied to the 850 hPa relative vorticity field for local summer, 1989 to 2003. Using criteria based on relative vorticity and sea level pressure, cyclonic low pressure systems are separated into different intensity categories, one of which corresponds to the definition for monsoon depressions used by the India Meteorological Department. The resultant distribution of storms obtained for the Bay of Bengal region compares well with a previously compiled climatology of monsoon depressions that was limited to the region surrounding India. Having validated our ability to identify monsoon depressions in their classic genesis region near India, we then extend the methods to include the western Pacific, Australia, and the southern Indian Ocean. Track distributions and composite structures of monsoon depressions for these different regions will be presented.

  20. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  1. Climatology of Duststorms in the World during 1982-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Koshiba, A.

    2002-12-01

    A climatology of routine surface meteorological reports of duststorm (code form SYNOP / WMO) during 1982 -1993 was carried out to investigate the geographical and temporal variability of the duststorms in the world. The duststorm is defined as an ensemble of particles of dust or sand lifted to greater heights by a strong and turbulent wind. Surface visibility is reduced to lower limit; the qualification for a synoptic report is visibility below 1000 m. About 2000 stations in the world were available in the present study. The results of the present study are summarized as follows. 1) The major source regions of duststorms are Sahara, Arabia Peninsula, central Asia, Takla Makan, Gobi, Mexico and Australia. In general, the frequency of duststorms is less in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. 2) A regional tendency can be seen in a large desert; there are little frequency of the duststorms in the interior of great deserts, such as Sahara, Rubak Khali, and Australia. On the contrary, many duststorms are reported in the west Sahara and the east Australia, which are the downstream regions of the prevailing winds. 3) In the North Hemisphere, the duststorms occur in the spring. A major peak of the frequency of the duststorms occurs in March in the North America, April to May in China and Asia, June to July in the former USSR. There are two peaks in January and May in Africa; because Africa extends over both hemispheres. The January peak is caused by Harmattan (a dry easterly wind from the Sahara). 4) The occurrence of the duststorm is related to the frontal activity and the surface condition of ground. Generally speaking, a peak season of duststorms in the world occurs about one month before the rainy season. 5) The total frequency of the duststorms in the world slightly decreased during 1982 - 1993. But, the frequency of the duststorms in the East Asia has increased since 2000.

  2. A climatological network for regional climate monitoring in Sardinia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Region of Sardinia has been working to set-up a Regional Climatological Network of surface stations, in order to monitor climate (either stationary or changing) at sub-synoptic scale and in order to make robust climatological information available to researchers and to local stake-holders. In order to do that, an analysis of long climatological time series has been performed on the different historical networks of meteorological stations that existed over the past two centuries. A set of some hundreds of stations, with about a century of observations of daily precipitation, was identified. An important subset of them was also defined, having long series of observations of temperature, wind, pressure and other quantities. Specific investments were made on important stations sites where observations had been carried for decades, but where the climatological stations did not exist anymore. In the present talk, the Regional Climatological Network of Sardinia will be presented and its consistency discussed. Specific attention will be given to the most important climatological stations which have got more than a century of observations of meteorological quantities. Critical issues of the Regional Climatological Network, like relocation of stations and inhomogeneity of data due to instrumental changes or environmental modifications, will be discussed.

  3. Assessing Tower Flux Footprint Climatology and Scaling Between Remotely Sensed and Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baozhang; Black, T. Andrew; Coops, Nicholas C.; Hilker, Thomas; (Tony) Trofymow, J. A.; Morgenstern, Kai

    2009-02-01

    We describe pragmatic and reliable methods to examine the influence of patch-scale heterogeneities on the uncertainty in long-term eddy-covariance (EC) carbon flux data and to scale between the carbon flux estimates derived from land surface optical remote sensing and directly derived from EC flux measurements on the basis of the assessment of footprint climatology. Three different aged Douglas-fir stands with EC flux towers located on Vancouver Island and part of the Fluxnet Canada Research Network were selected. Monthly, annual and interannual footprint climatologies, unweighted or weighted by carbon fluxes, were produced by a simple model based on an analytical solution of the Eulerian advection-diffusion equation. The dimensions and orientation of the flux footprint depended on the height of the measurement, surface roughness length, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric stability. The weighted footprint climatology varied with the different carbon flux components and was asymmetrically distributed around the tower, and its size and spatial structure significantly varied monthly, seasonally and inter-annually. Gross primary productivity (GPP) maps at 10-m resolution were produced using a tower-mounted multi-angular spectroradiometer, combined with the canopy structural information derived from airborne laser scanning (Lidar) data. The horizontal arrays of footprint climatology were superimposed on the 10-m-resolution GPP maps. Monthly and annual uncertainties in EC flux caused by variations in footprint climatology of the 59-year-old Douglas-fir stand were estimated to be approximately 15-20% based on a comparison of GPP estimates derived from EC and remote sensing measurements, and on sensor location bias analysis. The footprint-variation-induced uncertainty in long-term EC flux measurements was mainly dependent on the site spatial heterogeneity. The bias in carbon flux estimates using spatially-explicit ecological models or tower-based remote sensing at

  4. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  5. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1997, with historical data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.; Burk, K.W.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site for calendar year 1997. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk; however, Appendix B - Wind Climatology is excluded.

  6. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  7. A Climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Griffin, K. S.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Monsoon gyres, commonly found over the western Pacific Ocean, are characterized by broad low-level cyclonic circulations that occur at a variety of spatial scales ranging from 1500-3000 km. Low-level cyclonic gyre circulations, while less frequent and occupying a smaller scale, have also been observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. A noteworthy gyre observed during the 2010 PREDICT field project served as a "collector" of TC Matthew and a source for TC Nicole. During October 2011, devastating flooding occurred in Guatemala and El Salvador when TD 12-E, embedded in a gyre circulation, made landfall on the Pacific coast of Central America. These gyre occurrences, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high-impact weather motivates this presentation. A preliminary analysis of Central American gyres suggests that their spatial scales vary between 1000-2000 km. These gyres also tend to be co-located with reservoirs of deep moisture that are characterized by high precipitable water values (>50 mm) and embedded deep convection on their southern and eastern sides. Catastrophic flooding can occur when gyre cyclonic circulations interact with the topography of Central America. A Central American gyre climatology including gyre frequency over the TC season and individual gyre duration will be presented. This climatology is then used to craft a gyre composite using previous gyre cases from 1980-2010. Particular attention will be given to the common synoptic and sub-synoptic scale features that precede and take place during gyre formation. This includes the role that intraseasonal and interannual circulations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) might play in gyre development. TC genesis events within gyre circulations will also be highlighted and examined further. Finally, the results of a September 2010 case study will be used to illustrate the impact that Central American

  8. Climatology of Global Swell-Atmosphere Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    , but also where the wind speed is lowest and consequently the wave age is high. A detailed global climatology of the wave age and swell steepness parameters, based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis is presented. It will be shown, in line with previous studies, that the global climatological patterns of the wave age confirm the global dominance of the World Ocean by swell waves. The areas of the ocean where the highest interaction of swell waves and the lower atmosphere can be expected are also presented.

  9. An Objective Climatology of Tropical Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Luise; Hohberger, Esther; Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Tropical Plumes (TPs) are continuous bands of high and mid-level clouds stretching over several thousand of kilometres from the Tropics pole- and eastward into the subtropics or even mid-latitudes. TP-related poleward moisture transports can lead to extreme precipitation events in the outer Tropics or subtropics, and the cloudiness associated with TPs affects the Earth's radiation budget. Previous TP studies were based on a subjective visual inspection of infrared satellite images and were therefore quite time consuming with respect to climatological investigations. Here we present a newly developed objective identification algorithm that allows a flexible and quick processing of large datasets. The new algorithm is applied to 10.8μm brightness temperatures (BTs) from the Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS), which provides global data on a uniform latitude-longitude grid at a spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 degrees and a temporal resolution of three hours for the time period July 1983 to June 2006. Following the classic definition by McGuirk et al. (1987, Mon. Wea. Rev.) TPs are defined as extended bands (length > 2000 km) with BT anomalies below -30 K that cross 15° North or South. Additionally a criterion for the elongatedness of TP is developed, which is based on the length-width ratio of the smallest rectangle that contains the TP. The detected systems are tracked in time based on spatial overlap and attributes such as lifetime are determined. For boreal winter (Oct.-March), the resulting climatology reveals that TP occurrence is largely confined to oceanic regions with the main maximum located over the Central South Pacific close to the South Pacific convergence zone. Other TP frequency maxima are found over the eastern parts of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans and over the western part of the South Atlantic near the South Atlantic convergence zone. In boreal summer (April-Sep.) the geographical distribution of TP occurrence has a similar

  10. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.

    2016-09-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).

  11. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  12. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  13. Project ABLE: Descriptive Summaries of Project ABLE Programs. 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    Project ABLE is a series of demonstration educational programs initiated in 1961 for the purpose of identifying and encouraging potential abilities among pupils from culturally deprived groups and low socioeconomic backgrounds. The word ABLE was chosen to indicate a belief that, given adequate resources, schools are ABLE to devise educational…

  14. Able-Disabled Battling against Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Shirley Boes

    1978-01-01

    Disabled persons manage a program in San Diego, California, called "Able-Disabled Advocacy," which offers, with federal aid, work experience, counseling, and placement services to the area's disabled through experience in publishing a monthly magazine promoting opportunities for the disabled and through an on-the-job training project. (MF)

  15. On not being able to dream.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, the author explores the phenomenon of not being able to dream (as opposed to not being able to remember one's dreams) from three different vantage points. First, from the point of view of psychoanalytic theory, he discusses Bion's idea that the work of dreaming creates the conscious and unconscious mind (and not the other way around). A person who cannot dream is unable to generate differentiable conscious and unconscious experience and, consequently, lives in a psychic state in which he is unable to differentiate waking from sleeping, dreaming from perceiving. The author then approaches the problem of the inability to dream from the perspective achieved by a literary work. He discusses a Borges fiction that creates, in a singularly artful way, the experience of not being able to dream. Finally, the author utilises the vantage point of a detailed account of a clinical experience to explore what it means not to be able to dream. He describes an initial state characterised by the patient's proliferation of unutilisable 'psychic noise' which, over a period of years, led to the analyst's experiencing 'reverie-deprivation' and brief periods of countertransference psychosis. Two analytic sessions are presented and discussed in which psychological work was done that contributed to an enhanced capacity on the part of both patient and analyst for genuine dreaming - both in sleep and in analytic reverie states.

  16. ABL and BAM Friction Analysis Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2014-12-29

    Here, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here is a comparison of the Alleghany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) friction data and Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM) friction data for 19 HEM and military standard explosives.

  17. Supporting the Digitally Able Beginning Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research which explored the experiences six digitally able beginning teachers during their first year in secondary schools. Using a complexity theoretical framework, the barriers and enablers that influenced the integration of digital technologies into teaching practice were examined. The findings indicate that context…

  18. Climatology of clouds and precipitation over East Antarctica using ground-based remote sensing at the Princess Elizabeth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Tricht, Kristof; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    The surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly dependent on the interaction between clouds and precipitation. Our understanding of these processes is challenged by the limited availability of observations over the area and problems in Antarctic climate simulations by state-of-the-art climate models. Improvements are needed in this field, as the Antarctic ice sheet is expected to become a dominant contributor to sea level rise in the 21st century. In 2010, an observational site was established at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) Antarctic station. PE is located in the escarpment area of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (72°S, 23°E). The instruments consist of several ground-based remote sensing instruments: a ceilometer (measuring cloud-base height and vertical structure), a 24-GHz Micro Rain Radar (MRR; providing vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (measuring effective cloud base temperature). An automatic weather station provides info on boundary-layer meteorology (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, pressure), as well as broadband radiative fluxes and snow height changes. This set of instruments can be used to infer the role of clouds in the Antarctic climate system, their interaction with radiation and their impact on precipitation. Cloud and precipitation characteristics are derived from 5-year-long measurement series, which is unprecedented for the Antarctic region. Here, we present an overview of the cloud and precipitation climatology. Statistics on cloud occurrence are calculated on annual / seasonal basis and a distinction between liquid / mixed phase and ice clouds is made. One can discriminate between liquid-bearing and ice-only clouds by investigating the ceilometer attenuated backscatter, since liquid phase clouds have a much higher signal. Furthermore, by using pyrometer measurements, we are able to identify the range of temperatures at which liquid / ice clouds are

  19. The Global Climatology of Large Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Christopher J.; MacCallum, Stuart N.

    2010-12-01

    There are ~250 large lakes in the world, large here meaning lakes with surface areas exceeding 500 km2 . Lakes are potentially sensitive indicators of regional climatic changes and large lakes also significantly modulate climate locally, via their effects on surface atmosphere fluxes and atmospheric stability. The interactions of lakes and atmosphere are therefore significant for climatology and weather forecasting. Relatively few lakes are permanently instrumented (mostly in N America and Europe), and in assimilation systems for numerical weather prediction, highly simplistic approximations for lake surface temperature are giving way to lake temperature models within the land-atmosphere exchange schemes. It is therefore important to exploit satellite observations to inform and constrain lake and weather models, and to provide observations of lake temperature changes for a wider range of lakes. Here we present results from the first phase of an ESA-funded project, ARCLake, to demonstrate accurate lake surface temperatures and detection of ice cover, using ATSR-2 and AATSR, for large lakes globally. It is sometimes assumed that sea surface temperature (SST) techniques are applicable, but in fact, lake-specific approaches are required for cloud detection and for temperature retrieval. In this paper, we present preliminary results from application of the techniques described in a companion paper [1].

  20. Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitus, Sydney

    A project to objectively analyze historical ocean temperature, salinity, oxygen, and percent oxygen saturation data for the world ocean has recently been completed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey. The results of the project are being made available through distribution of the Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean (NOAA Professional Paper No. 13), and through distribution of magnetic tapes containing the objective analyses.The sources of data used in the project were the Station Data, Mechanical Bathythermograph, and Expendable Bathythermograph files of the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) in Washington, D.C., updated through 1977-1978. The raw data were subjected to quality control procedures, averaged by one-degree squares, and then used as input to an objective analysis procedure that fills in one-degree squares containing no data and smooths the results. Due to the lack of synoptic observations for the world ocean, the historical data are composited by annual, seasonal, and (for temperature) monthly periods.

  1. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  2. Planetary boundary layer heights from GPS radio occultation refractivity and humidity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Chi O.; Waliser, Duane E.; Chan, Steven K.; Li, Jui-Lin; Tian, Baijun; Xie, Feiqin; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2012-08-01

    The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is an important parameter that relates to the various processes associated with the PBL. In this paper, we use Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPSRO) measurements to derive a global climatology of PBL heights. Utilizing the strength of GPSRO in capturing fine vertical structures, the top of the PBL is defined to be the height at which the vertical gradient of the refractivity or water vapor partial pressure is minimum, corresponding to the height where the refractivity or water vapor pressure changes most rapidly. A "sharpness parameter" is defined that quantifies the applicability of these definitions. The sharpness parameter is largest over the subtropical regions characterized by strong subsidence. When the sharpness parameter is large, the refractivity- and moisture-based heights are shown to converge. We derived global PBL height climatology using three years (Dec. 2006-Nov. 2009) of COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 measurements and compared with values calculated from ECMWF Reanalysis Interim (ERA-Int). We found that the mean PBL heights from GPSRO shared similar spatial and seasonal variations with ERA-Int; however, GPSRO heights were higher by 500 m. The standard deviation was also higher from GPSRO, especially in the tropics. We present detailed comparisons between GPSRO and ERA-Int over the Pacific Ocean and the Sahara desert and examine the PBL height distributions as well as its annual and diurnal variabilities. These results suggest that the underlying causes of the bias between GPSRO and ERA-Int likely vary from region to region.

  3. Teaching a Model-based Climatology Using Energy Balance Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, David

    1981-01-01

    After outlining the difficulties of teaching climatology within an undergraduate geography curriculum, the author describes and evaluates the use of a computer assisted simulation to model surface energy balance and the effects of land use changes on local climate. (AM)

  4. Hanford Site Climatological Summary 2004 with Historical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, Dana J.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Ramsdell, James V.; Shaw, William J.

    2005-06-03

    This document presents the climatological data measured on the DOE Hanford Site for calendar year 2004. This report contains updated historical information for temperature, precipitation, wind, and normal and extreme values of temperature, and precipitation.

  5. Empirical and modeled synoptic cloud climatology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. G.; Crane, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    A daily climatology of the atmospheric circulation of the Arctic and the associated cloud conditions were determined. These are used for comparisons with the variability of general circulation model, generated circulation, and cloud cover for the same region.

  6. Latitudinal variations of cloud base height and lightning parameters in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.; Boccippio, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed reduction in cloud-to-ground lightning in the new-equational zone is examined from the perspective of the width of the main negative charge region. Thermodynamic observations of cloud base height also show a climatological minimum value in the near-equatorial region. The association of low cloud base with both narrow updrafts and narrow changing zones may impede the bridging of the large air gap to ground, and thereby suppress cloud-to-ground lightning activity. This width dependence may be more important than the approx. 10% variation in height of the freezing level in the encouraging flashes to ground.

  7. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  8. Extending the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatology Above 100 km Altitude Using an Inversion Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, A.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, S.; McCullough, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the algorithm given by Chanin and Hauchecorne (1980; henceforth CH) for the last 3 decades. Recently Khanna et al. have presented an inversion approach to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles. This method uses a nonlinear inversion method with a Monte Carlo technique to determine the statistical uncertainties for the retrieved nightly average temperature profiles. Using this approach, Purple Crow Lidar temperature profiles can now be extended 10 km higher in altitude compared to those calculated with the CH method, with reduced systematic uncertainty. Argall and Sica (2007) used the CH method to produce a climatology of the Purple Crow Lidar measurements from 1994 to 2004 which was compared with the CIRA-86 model. The CH method integrates temperatures downward, and requires the assumption of a 'seed' pressure at the highest altitude, taken from a model. Geophysical variation here, in the lower thermosphere, is sufficiently large to cause temperature retrievals to be unreliable for the top 10 or more km; uncertainties due to this pressure assumption cause the top two scale heights of temperatures from each profile to be discarded until the retrieval is no longer sensitive to the seed pressure. Khanna et al. (2012) use an inversion approach which allows the corrected lidar photocount profile to be integrated upward, as opposed to downward as required by the CH method. Khanna et al. (2012) showed that seeding the retrieval at the lowest instead of top height allows a much smaller uncertainty in the contribution of the seed pressure to the temperature compared to integrating from the top of the profile. Two other benefits to seeding the retrieval at the lower altitudes (around 30 km) include reduced geophysical variability, and the availability of routine pressure measurements from radiosondes. This presentation will show an extension of the Khanna et al. (2012) comparison

  9. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  10. Unified height systems after GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  11. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation.

  12. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation. PMID:25462036

  13. Climatological analysis of precipitation patterns over Mount Baldo (Southern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, G.; Zardi, D.; de Franceschi, M.

    2010-09-01

    dataset covers an overall timespan of 145 years (1864-2008), although the various stations have been operated rather discontinuously in it. The analysis of the 18 time series for the best covered and most representative 60-year time interval (1914-1973) provides an overview of typical annual and seasonal mean values along with their trends. Correlation analysis between seasonal precipitation totals clearly shows how, especially on the southern part, some stations located on the same side of the mountain are better correlated with respect to other lying closer, but on the opposite side. The dependence of annual total precipitation amounts on altitude is evaluated and discussed. In particular two different regimes are identified, i. e. below 600 m MSL, where precipitation totals are practically invariant with height, and over 600 m MSL, where totals increase by 130 mm every 100 m. Suitable mapping of precipitation through Kriging techniques allows to infer the spatial distribution of precipitation under various seasonal and typical weather patterns. To identify the latter, a selection of 100 precipitation events were classified into 7 typical meteorological scenarios, identified on the basis of synoptic situations on the basis of ECMWF reanalyses. Specific features of each event are evaluated and discussed. The results provide an example of the appropriate scale required for climatological analysis and mapping of precipitation distribution in an alpine sub-area.

  14. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  15. A tornado and waterspout climatology for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    2011-06-01

    The results of a systematic investigation and recording of tornado and waterspout occurrence in Greece for the 10-year period 2000-2009 are presented. This is the first database developed in Greece in an attempt to collect and record comprehensive information about tornadoes, waterspouts, funnel clouds, dust devils and other whirlwind phenomena. The primary research purpose of this database is to search, diagnose and record tornado and waterspout occurrences and identify their morphological and climatological features. Based on the 10-year data, a mean annual number of 1.1 tornadoes per unit area of 10 4 km 2, is depicted for Greece. The seasonality appears differently for various parts, with winter most active tornado season for western Greece and summer for northern Greece. Spatial distribution showed that tornadoes are more frequent over western Greece and the Ionian coasts with a local maximum over northwest Peloponnese. Waterspouts occur in both the Aegean and the Ionian Sea mostly in summer and autumn, with a peak in September, while a considerable geographical maximum is located over north off the shore of Iraklion, Crete Island. A preliminary estimate of probability of tornado occurrence for each of the 51 Greek prefectures plus the Mount Athos area, showed highest values for Kerkyra Island and Elias prefectures, western Greece. Analysis based on intensities as assessed by damage data, indicated that the majority of tornadoes reached T4 of the T-scale or F2 of the F-scale. Short wave trough is found as the most relevant synoptic circulation pattern to tornadic activity. Thermodynamic and wind parameters showed a wide range of values, suggesting that threat levels should be adjusted for various areas since tornadoes and waterspouts can occur in different environments.

  16. Climatology of equatorial stratosphere over Lagos, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi Samuel

    We have used 12 complete calendar years (January 1993-December 2004) of monthly averages of measurements made by the Dobson spectrophotometer instrument over an urban site, Lagos (6.6oN, 3.3oE), southwest Nigeria, to study equatorial stratospheric column ozone variations and trends. Our results indicate that the time-averaged total column ozone has a seasonal cy-cle, which maximizes in June and July with a value of 259 Dobson units (DU) and minimizes in February with a magnitude of 250 DU. Statistical analysis of the climatological mean monthly total Dobson O3 record for 1993-2004 show that the local trend is approximately +0.041±0.0011 DU/year (+0.49±0.013% per decade). Spectral analysis was applied to the monthly averages series. The significant periodicity at 95% confidence level demonstrate prominent spectra peaks near 1.9 and 3.6 years, representative of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and quasi-triennial oscillation (QTO), respectively. Signal due to semiannual variation is also identified at Lagos sounding site. Comparison with the ozone observations from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrom-eter (TOMS) on board the Earth-Probe (EP) satellite for the period from 1997 to 2002 reveal that EP/TOMS instrument consistently larger than the ground-based measurement from Dob-son station. Percentage mean relative disparity ranges from -11% to 15%. The root mean square error (RMSE) between satellite and ground-based observations over Lagos ranges be-tween ˜35-83 DU with largest and lowest variability occurring during the ascending phase of solar activity (1999, 10.7 cm radio flux, F10.7 equals 154 flux units) and during the peak phase of solar activity (2001, F10.7 equals 181), respectively.

  17. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  18. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    1984-02-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity.

  19. What is the Planetary Boundary Layer Height in a Global Perspective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Syndergaard, S.; von Engeln, A.

    2014-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is a fundamental parameter characterizing the vertical extent of atmospheric mixing near the surface. It is critical for understanding the PBL process and low cloud evolution and its feedback on the climate system, which remains a key uncertainty in climate modeling. The PBL height is generally defined as the altitude of a transition layer where air temperature or humidity gradient are significant within the lowest 1-5 kilometers above the surface. Numerous thermodynamic parameters, including temperature, humidity (specific/relative humidity) and their derivatives (e.g., potential/virtual potential temperature etc.) have been widely used to define the PBL height. Advances in satellite remote sensing technique allow novel ways to detect the PBL heights from space. Many new parameters are proposed for PBL height detection including GPS radio occultation (RO) measurements (e.g., refractivity, bending angle and dry-temperature) and CALIPSO lidar backscattering measurements (e.g., cloud-top-height). Large discrepancy among various PBL height definitions was revealed from radiosonde analyses, which however are restricted over lands and represent limited horizontal scales of atmospheric conditions. In this talk, we investigate the definition difference in a global perspective by using multi-year high-resolution ERA-interim (1 degree grid with 60 vertical layers) global analysis. Automatic algorithms are applied to compute the PBL heights with various physical parameters (both conventional and GPS RO) at each model grid. The global PBL height seasonal climatology and the difference among the climatologies are derived. Large discrepancy between the thermal-based and humidity-based PBL height definitions is most prominent over tropical and polar regions. Humidity-based PBL heights become problematic over dry regions, especially over high-latitude in winter season. The cloud-top height from CALIPSO is consistent with most physical

  20. A spectral climatology for atmospheric compensation of hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, John H.; Resmini, Ronald G.

    2016-05-01

    Most Earth observation hyperspectral imagery (HSI) detection and identification algorithms depend critically upon a robust atmospheric compensation capability to correct for the effects of the atmosphere on the radiance signal. Atmospheric compensation methods typically perform optimally when ancillary ground truth data are available, e.g., high fidelity in situ radiometric observations or atmospheric profile measurements. When ground truth is incomplete or not available, additional assumptions must be made to perform the compensation. Meteorological climatologies are available to provide climatological norms for input into the radiative transfer models; however no such climatologies exist for empirical methods. The success of atmospheric compensation methods such as the empirical line method suggests that remotely sensed HSI scenes contain comprehensive sets of atmospheric state information within the spectral data itself. It is argued that large collections of empirically-derived atmospheric coefficients collected over a range of climatic and atmospheric conditions comprise a resource that can be applied to prospective atmospheric compensation problems. A previous study introduced a new climatological approach to atmospheric compensation in which empirically derived spectral information, rather than sensible atmospheric state variables, is the fundamental datum. The current work expands the approach across an experimental archive of 127 airborne HSI datasets spanning nine physical sites to represent varying climatological conditions. The representative atmospheric compensation coefficients are assembled in a scientific database of spectral observations and modeled data. Improvements to the modeling methods used to standardize the coefficients across varying collection and illumination geometries and the resulting comparisons of adjusted coefficients are presented. The climatological database is analyzed to show that common spectral similarity metrics can be used

  1. Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    A procedure is described to estimate bias errors for mean precipitation by using multiple estimates from different algorithms, satellite sources, and merged products. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly product is used as a base precipitation estimate, with other input products included when they are within +/- 50% of the GPCP estimates on a zonal-mean basis (ocean and land separately). The standard deviation s of the included products is then taken to be the estimated systematic, or bias, error. The results allow one to examine monthly climatologies and the annual climatology, producing maps of estimated bias errors, zonal-mean errors, and estimated errors over large areas such as ocean and land for both the tropics and the globe. For ocean areas, where there is the largest question as to absolute magnitude of precipitation, the analysis shows spatial variations in the estimated bias errors, indicating areas where one should have more or less confidence in the mean precipitation estimates. In the tropics, relative bias error estimates (s/m, where m is the mean precipitation) over the eastern Pacific Ocean are as large as 20%, as compared with 10%-15% in the western Pacific part of the ITCZ. An examination of latitudinal differences over ocean clearly shows an increase in estimated bias error at higher latitudes, reaching up to 50%. Over land, the error estimates also locate regions of potential problems in the tropics and larger cold-season errors at high latitudes that are due to snow. An empirical technique to area average the gridded errors (s) is described that allows one to make error estimates for arbitrary areas and for the tropics and the globe (land and ocean separately, and combined). Over the tropics this calculation leads to a relative error estimate for tropical land and ocean combined of 7%, which is considered to be an upper bound because of the lack of sign-of-the-error canceling when integrating over different areas with a

  2. An Aircraft-Based Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere O3, CO, and H2O Climatology for the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, S.; Pan, L. L.; Hoor, P.; Atlas, E.; Avery, M. A.; Campos, T.; Christensen, L. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Gao, R.-S.; Herman, R. L.; Hinsta, E. J.; Loewenstein, M.; Lopez, J.; Paige, M. E.; Pittman, J. V.; Podolske, J. R.; Proffitt, M. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Schiller, C.; Schlager, H.; Smith, J.; Spelten, N.; Webster, C.; Weinheimer, A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a climatology of O3, CO, and H2O for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), based on a large collection of high ]resolution research aircraft data taken between 1995 and 2008. To group aircraft observations with sparse horizontal coverage, the UTLS is divided into three regimes: the tropics, subtropics, and the polar region. These regimes are defined using a set of simple criteria based on tropopause height and multiple tropopause conditions. Tropopause ]referenced tracer profiles and tracer ]tracer correlations show distinct characteristics for each regime, which reflect the underlying transport processes. The UTLS climatology derived here shows many features of earlier climatologies. In addition, mixed air masses in the subtropics, identified by O3 ]CO correlations, show two characteristic modes in the tracer ]tracer space that are a result of mixed air masses in layers above and below the tropopause (TP). A thin layer of mixed air (1.2 km around the tropopause) is identified for all regions and seasons, where tracer gradients across the TP are largest. The most pronounced influence of mixing between the tropical transition layer and the subtropics was found in spring and summer in the region above 380 K potential temperature. The vertical extent of mixed air masses between UT and LS reaches up to 5 km above the TP. The tracer correlations and distributions in the UTLS derived here can serve as a reference for model and satellite data evaluation

  3. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  4. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Bartosz; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    We utilize ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature (Tatm) and optical depth (τ) at centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in clear sky conditions pointed towards the Sun. Based on the measurements, we devise a selection criteria to filter the climatology data to match the PWV levels to the expectations of the clear sky conditions. We apply the reconstruction to the location of a Polish 32-metre radio telescope, and characterize Tatm and τ year round, at selected frequencies. We also derive the zenith distance dependence for these parameters, and discuss the shortcomings of using planar, single-layer and optically thin atmospheric models in continuum radio-source flux-density measurement calibrations. We obtain PWV-Tatm and PWV-τ scaling relations in clear sky conditions, and constrain limits to which the actual Tatm and τ can deviate from those derived solely from the climatological data. Finally, we suggest a statistical method to detect clear sky that involves ground-level measurements of relative humidity. Accuracy is tested using local climatological data. The method may be useful to constrain cloud cover in cases when no other (and more robust) climatological data are available.

  5. TRMM precipitation analysis of extreme storms in South America: Bias and climatological contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.; Zuluaga, M. D.; Choi, S. L.; Chaplin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite was designed both to measure spatial and temporal variation of tropical rainfall around the globe and to understand the factors controlling the precipitation. TRMM observations have led to the realization that storms just east of the Andes in southeastern South America are among the most intense deep convection in the world. For a complete perspective of the impact of intense precipitation systems on the hydrologic cycle in South America, it is necessary to assess the contribution from various forms of extreme storms to the climatological rainfall. However, recent studies have suggested that the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) algorithm significantly underestimates surface rainfall in deep convection over land. Prior to investigating the climatological behavior, this research first investigates the range of the rain bias in storms containing four different types of extreme radar echoes: deep convective cores, deep and wide convective cores, wide convective cores, and broad stratiform regions over South America. The TRMM PR algorithm exhibits bias in all four extreme echo types considered here when the algorithm rates are compared to a range of conventional Z-R relations. Storms with deep convective cores, defined as high reflectivity echo volumes that extend above 10 km in altitude, show the greatest underestimation, and the bias is unrelated to their echo top height. The bias in wide convective cores, defined as high reflectivity echo volumes that extend horizontally over 1,000 km2, relates to the echo top, indicating that storms with significant mixed phase and ice hydrometeors are similarly affected by assumptions in the TRMM PR algorithm. The subtropical region tends to have more intense precipitating systems than the tropics, but the relationship between the TRMM PR rain bias and storm type is the same regardless of the climatological regime. The most extreme storms are typically not collocated with

  6. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events and their relation to Weather Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact or economic impacts. These classifications are not always objective since they depend of several factors, for instance, the observation network is biased towards the densely populated urban areas against rural or oceanic areas. It is also very important to note that not all rare synoptic-scale meteorological events attract significant media attention. In this work we use a comprehensive method of classifying synoptic-scale events adapted from Hart and Grumm, 2001, to the European region (30N-60N, 30W-15E). The main motivation behind this method is that the more unusual the event (a cold outbreak, a heat wave, or a flood), for a given region, the higher ranked it must be. To do so, we use four basic meteorological variables (Height, Temperature, Wind and Specific Humidity) from NCEP reanalysis dataset over the range of 1000hPa to 200hPa at a daily basis from 1948 to 2004. The climatology used embraces the 1961-1990 period. For each variable, the analysis of raking climatological anomalies was computed taking into account the daily normalized departure from climatology at different levels. For each day (from 1948 to 2004) we have four anomaly measures, one for each variable, and another, a combined where the anomaly (total anomaly) is the average of the anomaly of the four variables. Results will be analyzed on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Seasonal trends and variability will also be shown. In addition, and given the extent of the database, the expected return periods associated with the anomalies are revealed. Moreover, we also use an automated version of the Lamb weather type (WT) classification scheme (Jones et al, 1993) adapted for the Galicia area (Northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula) by Lorenzo et al (2008) in order to compute the daily local circulation regimes in this area. By combining the corresponding daily WT with the five anomaly

  7. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  8. Taking America To New Heights

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new heights with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...

  9. Evaluation and Applications of Cloud Climatologies from CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David; Getzewitch, Brian; Vaughan, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Clouds have a major impact on the Earth radiation budget and differences in the representation of clouds in global climate models are responsible for much of the spread in predicted climate sensitivity. Existing cloud climatologies, against which these models can be tested, have many limitations. The CALIOP lidar, carried on the CALIPSO satellite, has now acquired over two years of nearly continuous cloud and aerosol observations. This dataset provides an improved basis for the characterization of 3-D global cloudiness. Global average cloud cover measured by CALIOP is about 75%, significantly higher than for existing cloud climatologies due to the sensitivity of CALIOP to optically thin cloud. Day/night biases in cloud detection appear to be small. This presentation will discuss detection sensitivity and other issues associated with producing a cloud climatology, characteristics of cloud cover statistics derived from CALIOP data, and applications of those statistics.

  10. Epigenetic heredity of human height.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    Genome-wide SNP analyses have identified genomic variants associated with adult human height. However, these only explain a fraction of human height variation, suggesting that significant information might have been systematically missed by SNP sequencing analysis. A candidate for such non-SNP-linked information is DNA methylation. Regulation by DNA methylation requires the presence of CpG islands in the promoter region of candidate genes. Seventy two of 87 (82.8%), height-associated genes were indeed found to contain CpG islands upstream of the transcription start site (USC CpG island searcher; validation: UCSC Genome Browser), which were shown to correlate with gene regulation. Consistent with this, DNA hypermethylation modules were detected in 42 height-associated genes, versus 1.5% of control genes (P = 8.0199e(-17)), as were dynamic methylation changes and gene imprinting. Epigenetic heredity thus appears to be a determinant of adult human height. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation are candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits. This may help to explain progressive height changes over multiple generations, through trans-generational heredity of progressive DNA methylation patterns.

  11. Wind Climate Analyses for SRTC's Central Climatology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    2003-06-23

    This report was written to present climatological summaries of the wind data at the Central Climatology (CC) tower in a convenient format and to point out some features of the wind speed and direction that have not been widely appreciated in the past. Short-term (two-week) wind roses provide a means to demonstrate the temporal and spatial relationships that wind speed and direction undergo using a ten-year database from the CC tower. These relationships are best demonstrated by examining the figures provided in this report or looking at loops of computer-generated images provided by the authors.

  12. Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea M.; Salmun, H.; Dempsey, M

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourly archived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughout the central United States. Unlike previous studies, the present algorithm has been applied to a long record of publicly available wind profiler signal backscatter data. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heights compare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourly temperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky reanalysis based estimates show that the wind profiler PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m. The geographical distribution of daily maximum PBL heights corresponds well with the expected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Wind profiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, and are generally higher than both the Richardson number based and reanalysis PBL heights, resulting in a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference. The algorithm presented here was shown to provide a reliable summertime climatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States.

  13. The height premium in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the height premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a height premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the height premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers.

  14. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  15. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  16. A Total Lightning Climatology for the Tennessee Valley Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.; Boccippio, D.; Koshak, W.; Bailey, J.; Hallm, J.; Bateman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Total flash counts derived from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are being processed for 2002 to form a climatology of total lightning for the Tennessee Valley region. The data from this active and interesting period will be compared to data fiom the National Lightning Detection Network, space-based lightning sensors, and weather radars.

  17. Toward Creating A Global Retrospective Climatology of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Robert J.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are thought to cause a significant direct and indirect climate forcing, but the magnitude of this forcing remains highly uncertain because of poor knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and their temporal changes. The standard long-term global product, the one-channel Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness over the ocean, relies on a single predefined aerosol model and can be inaccurate in many cases. Furthermore, it provides no information on aerosol column number density, thus making it impossible to estimate the indirect aerosol effect on climate. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data can be used to detect absorbing aerosols over land, but are insensitive to aerosols located below one kilometer. It is thus clear that innovative approaches must be employed in order to extract a more quantitative and accurate aerosol climatology from available satellite and other measurements, thus enabling more reliable estimates of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings. The Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) was established in 1998 as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). Its main objective is to analyze satellite radiance measurements and field observations to infer the global distribution of aerosols, their properties, and their seasonal and interannual variations. The overall goal is to develop advanced global aerosol climatologies for the period of satellite data and to make the aerosol climatologies broadly available through the GACP web site.

  18. A climatological description of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1990-05-22

    This report provides a general climatological description of the Savannah River Site. The description provides both regional and local scale climatology. The regional climatology includes a general regional climatic description and presents information on occurrence frequencies of the severe meteorological phenomena that are important considerations in the design and siting of a facility. These phenomena include tornadoes, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and ice/snow storms. Occurrence probabilities given for extreme tornado and non-tornado winds are based on previous site specific studies. Local climatological conditions that are significant with respect to the impact of facility operations on the environment are described using on-site or near-site meteorological data. Summaries of wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability are primarily based on the most recently generated five-year set of data collected from the onsite meteorological tower network (1982--86). Temperature, humidity, and precipitation summaries include data from SRL's standard meteorological instrument shelter and the Augusta National Weather Service office at Bush Field through 1986. A brief description of the onsite meteorological monitoring program is also provided. 24 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Climatology of tropopause folds over a European Arctic station (Esrange)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. Narayana; Arvelius, J.; Kirkwood, S.

    2008-04-01

    Eleven years (September 1996 to August 2007) of continuous measurements of three-dimensional wind and backscattered signal strength observed with Esrange Radar (ESRAD) have been utilized to study the annual and interannual variation of tropopause folds over an Arctic station. Two typical tropopause fold events (one is associated with a streamer type of system and the other with a cutoff low) are selected and are characterized with the help of synoptic charts and potential vorticity (PV) analysis. Typical characteristics of radar parameters during the passage of folds are identified, such as the sudden rise in the tropopause altitude, high-reflectivity layer sloping downward from the tropopause beneath the jet stream, and intensification of the jet stream. These characteristics are utilized to discern the tropopause fold in the radar data. The climatology of tropopause folds exhibits a pronounced annual cycle with a large number of folds in winter and fewer in summer. The annual cycle of folds is more or less similar in all the years; however, significant interannual variation is observed with winter periods exhibiting maximum interannual variability. The climatology of folds and its annual cycle are compared and contrasted with similar climatological studies available in the literature. The differences in the climatologies are discussed in light of differences in the algorithms and the spatial variability of fold frequency.

  20. Biologically effective surface UV climatology at Rome and Aosta, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna Maria; Modesti, Sarah; Casale, Giuseppe Rocco; Diemoz, Henri; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    Given the beneficial and harmful effects of UV radiation on human health, our study aims to provide a characterization of erythemal and vitamin D dose rates at two Italian sites, Rome and Aosta, subject to quite different environmental conditions. Based on the respective UV climatologies, exposure times needed to induce erythema or vitamin D photoproduction are provided as a function of the UV index.

  1. Contribution of the Ebro Observatory team to the IRI climatological modeling: A Review.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, David; Blanch, Estefania; Miquel Torta, J.

    During the recent years, the Geomagnetism and Aeronomy group of the Ebre Observatory has been working to improve the climatological prediction of some ionospheric key parameters. To do that, we have taken advantage of the increasing number of ionospheric stations providing data and sharing it through the Digital Ionospheric Data Base (DIDB). We have used the Spherical Harmonic analysis as analytical technique for globally modeling those parameters during quiet conditions. Models for bottom-side B0 and B1 parameters of IRI, for density peak height (hmF2) and for equivalent scale height (Hm) have been developed. Each SH model has been parameterized according to the time-space pattern of respectively ionospheric parameter and has been bounded to the solar activity. It has been proved that these empirical models improve, in average, the prediction of B0, B1 and hmF2 by 40%, 20% and 10% respectively with respect to previous IRI versions (hmF2 is improved by more than 30% at high and low latitudes). Due to these good results and to the analytical formulation, IRI has adopted the SH empirical models for B0 and B1 as an option in the current version (IRI 2012) and has proposed the SH model for hmF2 to be included into next releases. The analytical model for Hm could be useful to estimate information for the topside profile formulation.

  2. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

  3. Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

  4. Observational climatology and characteristics of wintertime atmospheric blocking over Ural-Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Ho Nam; Zhou, Wen; Shao, Yaping; Chen, Wen; Mok, Hing Yim; Wu, Man Chi

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the climatological aspects and temporal characteristics of wintertime Ural-Siberian blocking (USB, centered over 30°-100°E), for the period 1980/1981-2009/2010. Sixty-eight events are identified and their physical structure is diagnosed using thermodynamic and geostrophic vorticity tendency equations. In climatology, horizontal advections play a fundamental role in constructing a USB event, in which the anticyclonic center is a warm core in the troposphere and a cold core in the lower stratosphere. The decay of the thermal structure is related to diabatic cooling along the vertical structure and warm advection in the lower stratosphere. Meanwhile, the collapse of the height structure is caused primarily by cyclonic vorticity advection. A strong interrelationship exists between the intensity and extension of USB events. The temporal characteristics of USB events are analyzed by examining strong and weak events, which are of high and low intensity. The strong events are probably preceded by an open ridge over Europe and a cyclogenesis over the Mediterranean Sea, and their formation is followed by the stronger amplification of a Rossby wave packet across Eurasia. On the other hand, the weak events are likely to be triggered by surface cold anomalies over Siberia. Overall, the evolution of a USB event forms a dynamic linkage with the Siberian high, in which the decay stage of the USB event is accompanied by a southeastward migration of the Siberian high and a subsequent cold air outbreak in East Asia. These results advance our understanding of USB and its relationship with East Asian winter monsoon activities.

  5. Climatological Processing of Radar Data for the TRMM Ground Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulie, Mark; Marks, David; Robinson, Michael; Silberstein, David; Wolff, David; Ferrier, Brad; Amitai, Eyal; Fisher, Brad; Wang, Jian-Xin; Augustine, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was successfully launched in November, 1997. The main purpose of TRMM is to sample tropical rainfall using the first active spaceborne precipitation radar. To validate TRMM satellite observations, a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program has been implemented. The primary goal of TRMM GV is to provide basic validation of satellite-derived precipitation measurements over monthly climatologies for the following primary sites: Melbourne, FL; Houston, TX; Darwin, Australia; and Kwajalein Atoll, RMI. As part of the TRMM GV effort, research analysts at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generate standardized TRMM GV products using quality-controlled ground-based radar data from the four primary GV sites as input. This presentation will provide an overview of the TRMM GV climatological processing system. A description of the data flow between the primary GV sites, NASA GSFC, and the TRMM Science and Data Information System (TSDIS) will be presented. The radar quality control algorithm, which features eight adjustable height and reflectivity parameters, and its effect on monthly rainfall maps will be described. The methodology used to create monthly, gauge-adjusted rainfall products for each primary site will also be summarized. The standardized monthly rainfall products are developed in discrete, modular steps with distinct intermediate products. These developmental steps include: (1) extracting radar data over the locations of rain gauges, (2) merging rain gauge and radar data in time and space with user-defined options, (3) automated quality control of radar and gauge merged data by tracking accumulations from each instrument, and (4) deriving Z-R relationships from the quality-controlled merged data over monthly time scales. A summary of recently reprocessed official GV rainfall products available for TRMM science users will be presented. Updated basic standardized product results and trends involving

  6. Normal ABL1 is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in human and mouse leukemias expressing oncogenic ABL1 kinases.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Yashodhara; Koptyra, Mateusz; Hoser, Grazyna; Kantekure, Kanchan; Roy, Darshan; Gornicka, Barbara; Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Bolton-Gillespie, Elisabeth; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Müschen, Markus; Valent, Peter; Wasik, Mariusz A; Richardson, Christine; Hantschel, Oliver; van der Kuip, Heiko; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Skorski, Tomasz

    2016-04-28

    Leukemias expressing constitutively activated mutants of ABL1 tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1, TEL-ABL1, NUP214-ABL1) usually contain at least 1 normal ABL1 allele. Because oncogenic and normal ABL1 kinases may exert opposite effects on cell behavior, we examined the role of normal ABL1 in leukemias induced by oncogenic ABL1 kinases. BCR-ABL1-Abl1(-/-) cells generated highly aggressive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-blast phase-like disease in mice compared with less malignant CML-chronic phase-like disease from BCR-ABL1-Abl1(+/+) cells. Additionally, loss of ABL1 stimulated proliferation and expansion of BCR-ABL1 murine leukemia stem cells, arrested myeloid differentiation, inhibited genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis, and facilitated accumulation of chromosomal aberrations. Conversely, allosteric stimulation of ABL1 kinase activity enhanced the antileukemia effect of ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib and ponatinib) in human and murine leukemias expressing BCR-ABL1, TEL-ABL1, and NUP214-ABL1. Therefore, we postulate that normal ABL1 kinase behaves like a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in leukemias expressing oncogenic forms of the kinase. PMID:26864341

  7. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  8. Long-term trend analysis and climatology of tropical cirrus clouds using 16 years of lidar data set over Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sixteen-year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from 7 and a half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and the differences in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55 % of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect a higher number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. The mid-cloud altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds is found to be increasing at the rate of 41 ± 21 m year-1. Statistically significant decrease in optical thickness of sub-visible and thick cirrus clouds is observed. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to have increased by 9 % in the last 16 years (1998 to 2013). This increase is mainly compensated by a 7 % decrease in thin cirrus cloud fraction. This has implications for the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  9. Height ridges of oriented medialness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Jacob David

    Shape analysis of objects is an important aspect of medical image processing. Information gained from shape analysis can be used for object segmentation, object- based registration and object visualization. One shape analysis tool is the core, defined to be a height ridge of a medial strength measure made on an image. In this dissertation I present 3D cores, defined here to be optimal scale-orientation height ridges of oriented medial strength measurements. This dissertation covers (1)a medial strength measurement, Blum- like medialness, that is robust, efficient, and insensitive to intrafigural interference, (2)a new definition for a ridge, the optimal parameter height ridge, and its properties, and (3)an algorithm, Marching Ridges, for extracting cores. The medial strength measurement uses Gaussian derivatives, so is insensitive to noise, and responds to object boundaries at points rather than on entire spheres, so is faster to calculate and less sensitive to boundaries of other image figures. The Marching Ridges algorithm uses the grid structure of the image domain to identify ridge points as zero-crossings of first derivatives and to track ridges through the image domain. I include results of this algorithm on medical images of cerebral vasculature, a skull, kidneys, and brain ventricles.

  10. Climatological variables and the incidence of Dengue fever in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Depradine, Colin; Lovell, Ernest

    2004-12-01

    A retrospective study to determine relationships between the incidence of dengue cases and climatological variables and to obtain a predictive equation was carried out for the relatively small Caribbean island of Barbados which is divided into 11 parishes. The study used the weekly dengue cases and precipitation data for the years (1995 - 2000) that occurred in the small area of a single parish. Other climatological data were obtained from the local meteorological offices. The study used primarily cross correlation analysis and found the strongest correlation with the vapour pressure at a lag of 6 weeks. A weaker correlation occurred at a lag of 7 weeks for the precipitation. The minimum temperature had its strongest correlation at a lag of 12 weeks and the maximum temperature a lag of 16 weeks. There was a negative correlation with the wind speed at a lag of 3 weeks. The predictive models showed a maximum explained variance of 35%.

  11. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  12. Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

  13. Origin of intraplate volcanoes from guyot heights and oceanic paleodepth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Duennebier, Fred; Ito, Garrett

    2000-02-01

    The height of a guyot as measured from the surrounding regional sea floor to the volcano's slope break records the water depth at the time the guyot submerged. Thus guyot heights may be used as indicators of the paleodepth of the surrounding ocean floor. We compile data on the heights of 68 intraplate guyots and atolls in the Pacific Ocean as well as 46 volcanic islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. We find that guyot heights generally increase with the age of the lithosphere upon which they were emplaced, although there is a large amount of scatter. In nearly all cases, seamount height, and thus seafloor paleodepth, is less than expected of normal seafloor. These results suggest that most of the volcanoes in this study formed on anomalously shallow seafloor, consistent with formation at hotspots. To characterize thermal anomalies associated with these hotspot swells, we model guyot heights by calculating the isostatic uplift predicted for normal lithosphere that has been partly reheated and is underlain by anomalously hot mantle. This model is able to explain the anomalous water depth at most of the seamounts with hotspot thermal anomalies of 100°-300°C. The heights of a few volcanic chains, however, are not anomalously low, suggesting that these volcanoes are not associated with hotspots. In addition, the observed trend of Hawaiian-Emperor guyot heights as well as the subdued morphology and gravity signature of the oldest Emperor seamounts supports our hypothesis that Cretaceous age Meiji seamount may have formed on or near a spreading center.

  14. Climatology of Warm Boundary Layer Clouds at the ARM SGP Site and Their Comparison to Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Manajit; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2004-12-01

    A four-year climatology (1997-2000) of warm boundary layer cloud properties is developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Parameters in the climatology include cloud liquid water path, cloud base height and surface solar flux. These parameters are retrieved from measurements produced by a dual-channel microwave radiometer, a millimeter-wave cloud radar, a micropulse lidar, a Belfort ceilometer, shortwave radiometers and atmospheric temperature profiles amalgamated from multiple sources, including radiosondes. No significant interannual differences are observed, but nighttime liquid water paths are consistently higher than daytime values. The summer months of June, July and August have the lowest liquid water paths and the highest cloud base heights. Model outputs of cloud liquid water paths from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model and the Early Eta Model for 104 Model Output Location Time Series (MOLTS) stations in the environs of the SGP central facility are compared to observations. The ECMWF and MOLTS mean and median liquid water paths are 3 and 4 times greater, respectively, than the observed values. The MOLTS data show lower liquid water paths in summer, which is consistent with observations, while the ECMWF data exhibit the opposite tendency. A parameterization of normalized cloud forcing that requires only cloud liquid water path and solar zenith angle is developed from the observations. The parameterization, which has a correlation coefficient of 0.81 with the observations, provides estimates of surface solar flux that are comparable to values obtained from explicit radiative transfer calculations based on plane-parallel theory. This parameterization is used to estimate the impact on the surface solar flux of differences in the liquid water paths between models and observations. Overall, there is a low bias of 50% in modeled normalized cloud forcing

  15. A Web-Based Climatology of Global Ocean Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risien, C. M.; Chelton, D. B.; Hodges, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    A climatology of winds over the global ocean on a 0.5° x 0.5° grid is under development based on five-years of measurements from the SeaWinds scatterometer. The SeaWinds instrument was launched on 19 June 1999 onboard the QuikSCAT satellite. SeaWinds is an active microwave radar that, using electromagnetic backscatter from the wind roughened ocean surface, measures vector winds with an accuracy equivalent to well-calibrated buoy observations. This five-year climatology is a web-based interactive atlas from which users can retrieve wind statistics, both in tabular and graphic form, for any particular region of interest. The global coverage of the scatterometer data provides valuable information about the wind statistics in the many regions of the world ocean that are sparsely sampled by ships and buoys. One of the anticipated uses of this climatology will be presented via a case study of the NOAA/HAZMAT response to a 2001 oil spill that resulted from the grounding of the tanker "Jessica" at the entrance to Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, in Wreck Bay, on San Cristóbal island, Galápagos.

  16. Evaluation of an assimilated aerosol climatology using AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, W. D.; Rasch, P. J.; Conley, A.

    2002-05-01

    The estimates of multi-wavelength aerosol optical depth and optical properties from AERONET represent a valuable data set for evaluating aerosol models. We have analyzed the fidelity of a new aerosol climatology using the AERONET network. An aerosol climatology for 1995-2000 has been created using an aerosol assimilation model. The model produces global three-dimensional distributions of major aerosol species at six-hourly intervals (Collins et al, 2001; Rasch et al, 2001). The atmospheric state and dynamical fields are obtained from the NCEP meteorological reanalysis for 1979 to the present. The model is adjusted to reduce discrepancies relative to retrievals of aerosol optical depth from the AVHRR imagers on board NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. While these adjustments improve the realism of modeled optical depths over ocean regions (e.g., Collins et al, 2001), the satellite observations do not constrain the model over continental surfaces close to major aerosol source regions. We compare the predictions of the assimilation model to selected AERONET observations of aerosol optical depths and single-scattering albedos at multiple wavelengths. The results will be used to improve the treatment of aerosol sources and optical properties in subsequent versions of the climatology.

  17. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1995 with historical data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.; Burk, K.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site for calendar year 1995. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995); however, Appendix B--Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1995 was warmer than normal, averaging 54.7 F, 1.4 F above normal (53.3 F). For the 12-month period, 8 months were warmer than normal, and 4 were cooler than normal. 1995 was the wettest year on record. Precipitation totaled 12.31 in., 197% of normal (6.26 in.); snowfall totaled 7.7 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. The average wind speed during 1995 was 7.8 mph, 0.1 mph above normal (7.7 mph). The peak gust during the year was 61 mph from the south-southwest on December 12. There were 27 days with peak gusts {ge} 40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26.

  18. Mars Orbiter Camera climatology of textured dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Kulowski, Laura; Wang, Huiqun

    2015-09-01

    We report the climatology of "textured dust storms", those dust storms that have visible structure on their cloud tops that are indicative of active dust lifting, as observed in Mars Daily Global Maps produced from Mars Orbiter Camera wide-angle images. Textured dust storms predominantly occur in the equinox seasons while both solstice periods experience a planet-wide "pause" in textured dust storm activity. These pauses correspond to concurrent decreases in global atmospheric dust opacity. Textured dust storms most frequently occur in Acidalia Planitia, Chryse Planitia, Arcadia Planitia, and Hellas basin. To examine the nature of the link between textured dust storms and atmospheric dust opacity, we compare the textured dust storm climatology with a record of atmospheric dust opacity and find a peak global correlation coefficient of approximately 0.5 with a lag of 20-40° in solar longitude in the opacity compared to the solar climatology. This implies that textured dust storms observed at 1400 local time by MOC are responsible for a large fraction of atmospheric dust opacity and that other mechanisms (e.g., dust devil lifting or storm-scale lifting not observed in this study) may supply a comparable amount of dust.

  19. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-,20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  20. Comparing Icesat/glas Based Elevation Heights with Photogrammetric Terrain Heights from Uav-Imagery on the East Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, F.; Fritz, A.; Koch, B.

    2015-08-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) and height measurements are broadly used in environmental studies. Two common elevation sources are the Ice Cloud and land elevation Satellite (ICESat), which acquired laser range measurements with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) across the globe and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Current developments of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide the opportunity to collect aerial images of remote areas at a high spatial resolution. These can be further processed to digital surface models by stereophotogrammetry and provide a reliable data source to evaluate coarse scale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). This study compares ICESat/GLAS and SRTM90 elevation data against photogrammetric terrain heights within GLAS footprints on high altitudes on the East Tibetan Plateau. Without vegetation-bias, we were able to examine height differences under different topographic conditions and of different acquisition dates. Several resampling techniques were applied to SRTM90 data and averaged height within each footprint was calculated. ICESat/GLAS heights (n = 148) are most similar to UAV data based elevations with an averaged difference of -0.8m ±3.1m. Results furthermore indicate the validity of ICESat/GLAS heights, which are usually removed from analyses by applying different quality flags. Smallest difference of SRTM90 to UAV based heights could be observed by a natural neighbour resampling technique (averaged 3.6m ±14m), whereat other techniques achieved quite similar results. It can be confirmed that within a range of 3,800-4,200m above mean sea level the ICESat/GLAS heights are a precise source to determine elevation at footprint geolocation.

  1. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV: Central Florida Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  2. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  3. Aerosol Property Comparison Within and Above the ABL at the ARM Program SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Monache, L

    2002-05-01

    This thesis determines what, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth surface are representative of those within the entire air column. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site at the Southern Great Plains, the only location in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements are routinely made. Flight legs during the one-year period from March 2000 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by use of an objective mixing height determination technique. Correlations between aerosol properties measured at the surface and those within and above the ABL were computed. Aerosol extensive and intensive properties measured at the surface were found representative of values within the ABL, but not of within the free atmosphere.

  4. Judgments of others' heights are biased toward the height of the perceiver.

    PubMed

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2015-04-01

    We examined how observers use one aspect of their own morphology, height, when judging the physical characteristics of other people. To address this, participants judged the heights of people as they walked past. We tested the hypothesis that differences between participant and target height account for systematic patterns of variability and bias in height estimation. Height estimate error and error variability increased as the difference between participant height and target height increased, suggesting that estimates are scaled to observers' heights. Furthermore, participants' height estimates were biased toward two standards, demonstrating classic category effects. First, estimates were biased toward participants' own heights. Second, participants biased height estimates toward the average height of the target distribution. These results support past research on using both the body and categorical information to estimate target properties but extend to real-world situations involving interactions with moving people, such as height judgments provided during eyewitness testimony. PMID:25028087

  5. The Capable ABL: What Is Its Biological Function?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian ABL1 gene encodes the ubiquitously expressed nonreceptor tyrosine kinase ABL. In response to growth factors, cytokines, cell adhesion, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and other signals, ABL is activated to stimulate cell proliferation or differentiation, survival or death, retraction, or migration. ABL also regulates specialized functions such as antigen receptor signaling in lymphocytes, synapse formation in neurons, and bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Although discovered as the proto-oncogene from which the Abelson leukemia virus derived its Gag–v-Abl oncogene, recent results have linked ABL kinase activation to neuronal degeneration. This body of knowledge on ABL seems confusing because it does not fit the one-gene-one-function paradigm. Without question, ABL capabilities are encoded by its gene sequence and that molecular blueprint designs this kinase to be regulated by subcellular location-dependent interactions with inhibitors and substrate activators. Furthermore, ABL shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm where it binds DNA and actin—two biopolymers with fundamental roles in almost all biological processes. Taken together, the cumulated results from analyses of ABL structure-function, ABL mutant mouse phenotypes, and ABL substrates suggest that this tyrosine kinase does not have its own agenda but that, instead, it has evolved to serve a variety of tissue-specific and context-dependent biological functions. PMID:24421390

  6. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1999 with historical data

    SciTech Connect

    DJ Hoitink; KW Burk; JV Ramsdell

    2000-05-11

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1999. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink et al. (1999), and Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998); however, Appendix B-Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1999 was warmer than normal at the Hanford Meteorology Station with an average temperature of 54.4 F, 1.1 F above normal (53.3 F). The hottest temperature was 105 F on July 28, while the coldest was 18 F on January 3. The maximum temperature of 64 F on August 30 was the lowest maximum temperature ever recorded in August, while the maximum temperature of 76 F on November 13 was the highest maximum temperature ever recorded in November. For the 12-month period, 6 months were warmer than normal and 6 were cooler than normal. 1999 was the fourth driest year on record. Precipitation totaled 3.75 inches, 60% of normal (6.26 inches); snowfall totaled 0.6 inch, the least calendar year snowfall on record (compared to the normal of 13.8 inches). 1999 was the windiest year on record with an average wind speed of 8.8 mph, 1.1 mph above normal (7.7 mph). There were 48 days with peak gust {ge} 40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26 mph. The peak gust during the year was 65 mph on February 6. The heating-degree days for 1998--1999 were 4,802 (8% below the 5,231 normal). Cooling-degree days for 1999 were 891 (10% below the 994 normal).

  7. Statistical examination of climatological data relevant to global temperature variation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.L.; Gunst, R.F.; Woodward, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    The research group at Southern Methodist University has been involved in the examination of climatological data as specified in the proposal. Our efforts have resulted in three papers which have been submitted to scholarly journals, as well as several other projects which should be completed either during the next six months or next year. In the following, we discuss our results to date along with projected progress within the next six months. Major topics discussed in this progress report include: testing for trend in the global temperature data; (2) defining and estimating mean global temperature change; and, (3) the effect of initial conditions on autoregressive models for global temperature data.

  8. Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter low cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    It will not be possible to support the multiple planetary missions of the magnitude and order of previous missions on the basis of foreseeable NASA funding. It is, therefore, necessary to seek innovative means for accomplishing the goals of planetary exploration with modestly allocated resources. In this connection, a Core Program set of planetary exploration missions has been recommended. Attention is given to a Mission Operations design overview which is based on the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter Phase-A study performed during spring of 1983.

  9. Mars Geoscience Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) extended study: Technical volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The FLTSATCOM Earth orbiting communications satellite is a prominent candidate to serve as the Mars Geoscience Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) spacecraft. Major aspects directly applicable are: (1) the incorporation of solid orbit insertion motor; (2) the ability to cruise to Mars in the spin-stabilized mode; (3) ample capability for payload mass and power; (4) attitude control tried to nadir and orbit plane coordinates; (5) exemplary Earth orbital performance record and projected lifetime; and (6) existence of an on-going procurement into the MGCO time period.

  10. Global Warming - Myth or Reality?, The Erring Ways of Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Marcel

    In the global-warming debate, definitive answers to questions about ultimate causes and effects remain elusive. In Global Warming: Myth or Reality? Marcel Leroux seeks to separate fact from fiction in this critical debate from a climatological perspective. Beginning with a review of the dire hypotheses for climate trends, the author describes the history of the 1998 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and many subsequent conferences. He discusses the main conclusions of the three IPCC reports and the predicted impact on global temperatures, rainfall, weather and climate, while highlighting the mounting confusion and sensationalism of reports in the media.

  11. The genetic architecture of maize height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

  12. Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis

    2000-03-01

    We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.

  13. Effects of Character Education on the Self-Esteem of Intellectually Able and Less Able Elementary Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…

  14. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

  15. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  16. Tracer Lamination in the Stratosphere: A Global Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appenzeller, Christof; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical soundings of stratospheric ozone often exhibit laminated tracer structures characterized by strong vertical tracer gradients. The change in time of these gradients is used to define a tracer lamination rate. It is shown that this quantity can be calculated by the cross product of the horizontal temperature and horizontal tracer gradients. A climatology based on UARS satellite-borne ozone data and on ozone-like pseudotracer data is presented. Three stratospheric regions with high lamination rates were found: the part of the stratospheric overworld which is influenced by the polar vortex, the part of the lowermost stratosphere which is influenced by the tropopause and a third region in the subtropical lower stratosphere mainly characterized with strong vertical shear. High lamination rates in the stratospheric overworld were absent during summer, whereas in the lowermost stratosphere high lamination rates were found year-round. This is consistent with the occurrence and seasonal variation of the horizontal tracer gradient and vertical shear necessary for tilting the tracer surfaces. During winter, high lamination rates associated with the stratospheric polar vortex are present down to approximately 100 hPa. Several features of the derived climatology are roughly consistent with earlier balloon-borne studies. The patterns in the southern and northern hemisphere are comparable, but details differ as anticipated from a less disturbed and more symmetric southern polar vortex.

  17. Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Dan

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop a method for calculating the distribution of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) over most of the earth's surface using NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data, and to use this method to develop a UVR climatology that is useful in the context of the global ozone depletion issue. The research carried out with this support has resulted the following accomplishments: (1) a radioactive transfer method. based on the delta-Eddington approximation, was successfully developed; (2) the method was applied to the five years of overlapping TOMS and ERBE Monthly-Hourly data to examine the impact of global variability in cloud cover on trends in surface UVR; (3) a presentation was made on effects of stratospheric ozone depletion; (4) the radioactive transfer model was finally applied to all daylight hours to make a through study of the global effect of cloud cover;and (6) a five-year global climatology of surface UVR based on all of the research has been prepared for general distribution.

  18. User's guide to the Texas climatological model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) (Part of the UNAMAP version 4 collection) is a Fortran computer program designed to predict ground-level, long-term concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. The Model uses techniques that require much less computer time than most climatological models. Predictions are based upon the steady-state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formulations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and exponential pollutant decay. Long-term ground-level concentrations may be determined for one or two pollutants. Any number of point sources and area sources may be input to the model. Long-term meteorological conditions are input by a meteorological joint frequency function which gives the probability of occurrence for each of 576 different cases. Five scenarios of meteorological data and source emission inventories may be input to the model for one run. Plume rise is calculated by the most representative of six different methods and optionally can use only final rise. An option allows the simulation of dispersion found in urban areas. TCM-2 is well suited for, but not limited to, the following applications: Stack parameter design studies; Fuel conversion studies; Monitoring network design; Control strategy evaluation for SIP; Evaluation of the impact of new sources or source modifications for permit application review; Control technology evaluation; and Prevention of significant deterioration.

  19. Climatology of Tropical Intraseasonal Convective Anomalies: 1979 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Higgins, R. Wayne; Waliser, Duane E.; Schemm, J.-K. E.

    2004-02-01

    Tropical intraseasonal convective anomalies (TICA) have a central role in subseasonal changes in the coupled ocean atmosphere system, but the climatology of TICA events has not been properly documented. This study exploits 24 years of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data and a tracking algorithm to develop a climatology of eastward propagating TICA events. Three distinct types of TICA occurrences are documented according to their propagation characteristics. The first type (IND) is characterized by events that propagate in the Indian Ocean without significant influence in the western Pacific Ocean. The second and third types are associated with occurrences of the Madden Julian oscillation during boreal winters (MJO) and summers (ISO). The frequency of occurrence of TICA events is highest in April June and October December and lowest in July September. An analysis of the spatial and temporal characteristics reveals that MJO events tend to have the longest life cycle, greatest intensity, and largest variability inside the contiguous region of OLR anomaly. Given the data record of 24 years, the analysis of interannual occurrences of TICA events does not show statistically significant differences among events that occur in different phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). A procedure is developed to identify major MJO events and estimate their frequency of occurrence in the data record.

  20. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering.

    PubMed

    Grossi, C M; Brimblecombe, P; Menéndez, B; Benavente, D; Harris, I; Déqué, M

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Köppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Köppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). PMID:21514627

  1. A climatological link between slantwise instability and surface weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinton, M. R.; Gray, S. L.; Chagnon, J. M.; Morcrette, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    Midlatitude weather phenomena including rainbands in fronts and cloud heads and the descending sting jets found in extreme windstorms have been attributed, in part, to the release of conditional symmetric instability (CSI). CSI is a slantwise parcel instability arising from the combination of inertial and gravitational instability in a baroclinic atmosphere; its release gives slantwise convection. However, to date, demonstration of the link between CSI and severe weather has been confined to a few case studies. Weather forecast models with domains big enough to encompass entire midlatitude storms do not have sufficient resolution to realistically resolve the release of CSI, and CSI release is not parameterized in these models. The consequences of this lack of representation of CSI release are currently unknown and motivate this study. We present a North Atlantic climatology of the energy available for slantwise convection due to CSI derived from the ERA-Interim re-analysis, and compare it with an equivalent climatology of CAPE (the energy available for upright convection due to conditional instability). The annual cycle of land and sea surface temperatures are shown to strongly modulate these instabilities. The statistical relationship between these instabilities and surface weather conditions are presented.

  2. A Statistical Aggregation Engine for Climatology and Trend Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. R.; Simon, T. A.; Halem, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fundamental climate data records (FCDRs) from satellite instruments often span tens to hundreds of terabytes or even petabytes in scale. These large volumes make it difficult to aggregate or summarize their climatology and climate trends. It is especially cumbersome to supply the full derivation (provenance) of these aggregate calculations. We present a lightweight and resilient software platform, Gridderama that simplifies the calculation of climatology by exploiting the "Data-Cube" topology often present in earth observing satellite records. By using the large array storage (LAS) paradigm, Gridderama allows the analyst to more easily produce a series of aggregate climate data products at progressively coarser spatial and temporal resolutions. Furthermore, provenance tracking and extensive visualization capabilities allow the analyst to track down and correct for data problems such as missing data and outliers that may impact the scientific results. We have developed and applied Gridderama to calculate a trend analysis of 55 Terabytes of AIRS Level 1b infrared radiances, and show statistically significant trending in the greenhouse gas absorption bands as observed by AIRS over the 2003-2012 decade. We will extend this calculation to show regional changes in CO2 concentration from AIRS over the 2003-2012 decade by using a neural network retrieval algorithm.

  3. Climatological Data Rescue from historic meteorological stations in the Czech Republic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repka, M.

    2010-09-01

    Digitization of climatological data from meteorological station had several periods in past. Last period is very close connected with database system CLIDATA. The main source of historical data is archive in Ostrava regional office of CHMI where a lot of historical monthly reports of observations with daily data are stored. Other historical data were founded from various types of historical annual reports and last but not least from border cooperation with Polish and Slovak meteorological services. During several last years were imported daily data from new discovered stations, and some elements from historic stations such as precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, hourly data of sunshine, temperatures from thermographs and also meteorological phenomena from some synoptic stations. Within the frame of our project we could also digitize wind speed, wind direction and wind gust data. During more than 150 years of regular meteorological observation, were used a big amount of various types of monthly reports for measured data records. Meteorological stations were founded by several organizations and all of them used another kind of reports that were changed during years. We recognized nearly 30 types of precipitation monthly reports and 50 types of climatologic reports. Digitization of data especially from very historical stations brings also some problems during definition of metadata such as coordinates, elevations, measuring instruments height, a lot of observing terms or historic units of elements. Some historical annual reports mention observer's jobs, that is very interesting and we can find position of meteorological stations more exactly. Data quality control has been proceeded since 1993. First were used special programs and algorithms outside of database system. Some new programs for wrong values detection or for missing values filling are used at present. CLIDATA database system and its extensions allows to make logical and spatial data

  4. Abl suppresses cell extrusion and intercalation during epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Jodoin, Jeanne N; Martin, Adam C

    2016-09-15

    Tissue morphogenesis requires control over cell shape changes and rearrangements. In the Drosophila mesoderm, linked epithelial cells apically constrict, without cell extrusion or intercalation, to fold the epithelium into a tube that will then undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Apical constriction drives tissue folding or cell extrusion in different contexts, but the mechanisms that dictate the specific outcomes are poorly understood. Using live imaging, we found that Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase depletion causes apically constricting cells to undergo aberrant basal cell extrusion and cell intercalation. abl depletion disrupted apical-basal polarity and adherens junction organization in mesoderm cells, suggesting that extruding cells undergo premature EMT. The polarity loss was associated with abnormal basolateral contractile actomyosin and Enabled (Ena) accumulation. Depletion of the Abl effector Enabled (Ena) in abl-depleted embryos suppressed the abl phenotype, consistent with cell extrusion resulting from misregulated ena Our work provides new insight into how Abl loss and Ena misregulation promote cell extrusion and EMT.

  5. Characterization of leukemias with ETV6-ABL1 fusion.

    PubMed

    Zaliova, Marketa; Moorman, Anthony V; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Stanulla, Martin; Harvey, Richard C; Roberts, Kathryn G; Heatley, Sue L; Loh, Mignon L; Konopleva, Marina; Chen, I-Ming; Zimmermannova, Olga; Schwab, Claire; Smith, Owen; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joelle; Chabannon, Christian; Kim, Myungshin; Frederik Falkenburg, J H; Norton, Alice; Marshall, Karen; Haas, Oskar A; Starkova, Julia; Stuchly, Jan; Hunger, Stephen P; White, Deborah; Mullighan, Charles G; Willman, Cheryl L; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the incidence, clinical features and genetics of ETV6-ABL1 leukemias, representing targetable kinase-activating lesions, we analyzed 44 new and published cases of ETV6-ABL1-positive hematologic malignancies [22 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (13 children, 9 adults) and 22 myeloid malignancies (18 myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4 acute myeloid leukemias)]. The presence of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion was ascertained by cytogenetics, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Genomic and gene expression profiling was performed by single nucleotide polymorphism and expression arrays. Systematic screening of more than 4,500 cases revealed that in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ETV6-ABL1 is rare in childhood (0.17% cases) and slightly more common in adults (0.38%). There is no systematic screening of myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, the number of ETV6-ABL1-positive cases and the relative incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms suggest that in adulthood ETV6-ABL1 is more common in BCR-ABL1-negative chronic myeloid leukemia-like myeloproliferations than in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The genomic profile of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia resembled that of BCR-ABL1 and BCR-ABL1-like cases with 80% of patients having concurrent CDKN2A/B and IKZF1 deletions. In the gene expression profiling all the ETV6-ABL1-positive samples clustered in close vicinity to BCR-ABL1 cases. All but one of the cases of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia were classified as BCR-ABL1-like by a standardized assay. Over 60% of patients died, irrespectively of the disease or age subgroup examined. In conclusion, ETV6-ABL1 fusion occurs in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias; the genomic profile and clinical behavior resemble BCR-ABL1-positive malignancies, including the unfavorable prognosis, particularly of acute leukemias. The poor outcome suggests that treatment with

  6. Characterization of leukemias with ETV6-ABL1 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zaliova, Marketa; Moorman, Anthony V.; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Stanulla, Martin; Harvey, Richard C.; Roberts, Kathryn G.; Heatley, Sue L.; Loh, Mignon L.; Konopleva, Marina; Chen, I-Ming; Zimmermannova, Olga; Schwab, Claire; Smith, Owen; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joelle; Chabannon, Christian; Kim, Myungshin; Frederik Falkenburg, J. H.; Norton, Alice; Marshall, Karen; Haas, Oskar A.; Starkova, Julia; Stuchly, Jan; Hunger, Stephen P.; White, Deborah; Mullighan, Charles G.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the incidence, clinical features and genetics of ETV6-ABL1 leukemias, representing targetable kinase-activating lesions, we analyzed 44 new and published cases of ETV6-ABL1-positive hematologic malignancies [22 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (13 children, 9 adults) and 22 myeloid malignancies (18 myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4 acute myeloid leukemias)]. The presence of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion was ascertained by cytogenetics, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing. Genomic and gene expression profiling was performed by single nucleotide polymorphism and expression arrays. Systematic screening of more than 4,500 cases revealed that in acute lymphoblastic leukemia ETV6-ABL1 is rare in childhood (0.17% cases) and slightly more common in adults (0.38%). There is no systematic screening of myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, the number of ETV6-ABL1-positive cases and the relative incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms suggest that in adulthood ETV6-ABL1 is more common in BCR-ABL1-negative chronic myeloid leukemia-like myeloproliferations than in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The genomic profile of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia resembled that of BCR-ABL1 and BCR-ABL1-like cases with 80% of patients having concurrent CDKN2A/B and IKZF1 deletions. In the gene expression profiling all the ETV6-ABL1-positive samples clustered in close vicinity to BCR-ABL1 cases. All but one of the cases of ETV6-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia were classified as BCR-ABL1-like by a standardized assay. Over 60% of patients died, irrespectively of the disease or age subgroup examined. In conclusion, ETV6-ABL1 fusion occurs in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias; the genomic profile and clinical behavior resemble BCR-ABL1-positive malignancies, including the unfavorable prognosis, particularly of acute leukemias. The poor outcome suggests that treatment with

  7. Use of knee height for the estimation of body height in Thai adult women.

    PubMed

    Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Knee height has been the most frequently used measure for height prediction where full height is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee height to estimate the height of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing height and knee height were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee height calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured heights showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee height (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee height in a regression model exhibited the most accurate height prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "Height=38.1+2.45 (average knee height) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new height estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee height. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand. PMID:27440676

  8. Comparison of Aerosol Properties Within and Above the ABL at the ARM Program's SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Monache, L

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this thesis is to determine under what conditions, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth's surface are representative of aerosol properties within the column of air above the surface. This thesis will use data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) which is the only location in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements are made on a routine basis. All flight legs in the one-year period from March 2000-March 2001 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer using an objective mixing height determination technique. The correlations between the aerosol properties measured at the surface and the measured within and above the ABL were then computed. The conclusion of this comparison is that the aerosol extensive and intensive properties measured at the surface are representative of values within the ABL, but not within the free atmosphere.

  9. Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  10. Tropical Stratospheric Cloud climatology from the PATMOS-x dataset - an assessment of convective contributions to stratospheric water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Foster, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The PATMOS-x level 2b climatology, generated using three decades of AVHRR measurements, contains valuable information about the past global cloud record. We extract climatologies of tropical deep convective clouds from the PATMOS-x data set, based on the 10.30-11.30 micro meter brightness temperature. A comparison of the cross ropopause convective cloud frequency between ISCCP and PATMOS-x shows that PATMOS-x has a greater frequency of occurrence than does the ISCCP, and this enhanced frequency is attributed to greater horizontal resolution (2 km) in the PATMOS-x data. The high resolution makes this dataset suitable for a search for cross tropopause convection, which happens on length scales down to 1 km. We find there have been several changes in deep convective activity over land during the period 1982 to 2009. We explore specifically the epoch of the HALOE satellite, and find a correlation between land deep convective activity and anomalies in the HALOE stratospheric water retrievals. A simple model is able to predict stratospheric water vapor concentrations highly correlated to that observed using only frequency of deep convection. From this we conclude that deep convection over land contributes to moistening of the lowest tropical stratosphere on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales[1]. [1] GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 38, L18801, 5 PP., 2011 doi:10.1029/2011GL049429

  11. Predictability of Malaria Transmission Intensity in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, Using Land Surface Climatology and Autoregressive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, David; Jasinski, Michael F.; Govere, John

    2003-01-01

    There has been increasing effort in recent years to employ satellite remotely sensed data to identify and map vector habitat and malaria transmission risk in data sparse environments. In the current investigation, available satellite and other land surface climatology data products are employed in short-term forecasting of infection rates in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, using a multivariate autoregressive approach. The climatology variables include precipitation, air temperature and other land surface states computed by the Off-line Land-Surface Global Assimilation System (OLGA) including soil moisture and surface evaporation. Satellite data products include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and other forcing data used in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) model. Predictions are compared to long- term monthly records of clinical and microscopic diagnoses. The approach addresses the high degree of short-term autocorrelation in the disease and weather time series. The resulting model is able to predict 11 of the 13 months that were classified as high risk during the validation period, indicating the utility of applying antecedent climatic variables to the prediction of malaria incidence for the Mpumalanga Province.

  12. Development of an operational global ocean climatology through the use of remotely sensed sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, T.M.

    1995-05-09

    Monthly mean satellite-derived sea surface temperature SST data have been derived globally using daytime and nighttime AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) multi-channel data. From a 12 year data set (1982-1993), valid monthly daytime and nighttime climatologies were created using an eight year subset (1984-1990, 1993). Based on buoy comparisons, four years were omitted due to volcanic aerosol corruption (El Chichon 1982/83, Mt. Pinatubo 1991/92). These resulting monthly climatologies provide SST fields at approximately 1/3rd degree latitude/longitude resolution. Difference fields have been created comparing the new satellite climatology with the older and coarser-resolution climatology constructed from conventional SST data. Regional and zonal climatology differences were also created to highlight the deficiencies, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, in the older climatology believed to result primarily from a lack of buoy/ship (in situ) data. Such comparisons made it clear that the satellite climatology provided a much better product. Ocean current systems, El Nino, La Nina, and other water mass characteristics all appear with better detail and accuracy within the high-resolution satellite climatology.

  13. Expression of BCR-ABL1 oncogene relative to ABL1 gene changes overtime in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manu; Milani, Lili; Hermansson, Monica; Simonsson, Bengt; Markevaern, Berit; Syvaenen, Ann Christine; Barbany, Gisela

    2008-02-15

    Using a quantitative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay we have investigated the changes in the expression of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene relative to the wild-type ABL1 and BCR alleles in cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients not responding to therapy. The results show a progressive increase in the BCR-ABL1 oncogene expression at the expense of decreased expression of the ABL1 allele, not involved in the fusion. No relative changes in the expression of the two BCR alleles were found. These results demonstrate that allele-specific changes in gene expression, with selective, progressive silencing of the wild-type ABL1 allele in favor of the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 allele occur in CML patients with therapy-resistant disease.

  14. A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

    2006-03-30

    In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

  15. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Alan; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables) as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a corresponding rise in

  16. Abstraction the public from scientific - applied meteorological-climatologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanoska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical and meteorological statistic processing of meteorological-climatologic data, which includes assessment of the exactness, level of confidence of the average and extreme values, frequencies (probabilities) of the occurrence of each meteorological phenomenon and element e.t.c. helps to describe the impacts climate may have on different social and economic activities (transportation, heat& power generation), as well as on human health. Having in mind the new technology and the commercial world, during the work with meteorological-climatologic data we have meet many different challenges. Priority in all of this is the quality of the meteorological-climatologic set of data. First, we need compatible modern, sophisticated measurement and informatics solution for data. Results of this measurement through applied processing and analyze is the second branch which is very important also. Should we all (country) need that? Today we have many unpleasant events connected with meteorology, many questions which are not answered and all of this has too long lasting. We must give the answers and solve the real and basic issue. In this paper the data issue will be presented. We have too much of data but so little of real and quality applied of them, Why? There is a data for: -public applied -for jurisdiction needs -for getting fast decision-solutions (meteorological-dangerous phenomenon's) -for getting decisions for long-lasting plans -for explore in different sphere of human living So, it is very important for what kind of data we are talking. Does the data we are talking are with public or scientific-applied character? So,we have two groups. The first group which work with the data direct from the measurement place and instrument. They are store a quality data base and are on extra help to the journalists, medical workers, human civil engineers, electromechanical engineers, agro meteorological and forestry engineer e.g. The second group do work with all scientific

  17. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History through ABLE Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 25 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio. The compilation is organized in three sections as follows: (1) people (9 items, including a…

  18. Molecular Detection of BCR-ABL in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    All chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients have the BCR-ABL fusion gene. The constitutively activated BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase is a critical pathogenetic event in CML. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, are synthesized small molecules that primarily target BCR-ABL tyrosine kinases and have become a first-line treatment for CML. Detection of BCR-ABL transcript level by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) is a clinical routine for evaluating TKI treatment efficacy and predicting long-term response. Furthermore, because they are a main TKI resistance mechanism, the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) point mutations that are detected by Sanger sequencing can help clinicians make decisions on subsequent treatment selections. Here, we present protocols for the two abovementioned molecular methods for CML analysis. PMID:27581134

  19. Cloud base and top heights in the Hawaiian region determined with satellite and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Wang, Yuqing; Lauer, Axel; Hamilton, Kevin; Xie, Feiqin

    2012-08-01

    We present a multi-year climatology of cloud-base-height (CBH), cloud-top-height (CTH), and trade wind inversion base height (TWIBH) for the Hawaiian region (18°N-22.5°N, 153.7°W-160.7°W). The new climatology is based on data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), ceilometer observations and radiosondes. The climatology reported here is well suited to evaluate climate model simulations and can serve as a reference state for studies of the impact of climate change on Hawaiian ecosystems. The averaged CBH from CALIPSO in the Hawaiian Region is 890 m. The mean CTH from CALIPSO is 2110 m, which is close to the mean TWIBH from COSMIC. For non-precipitating cases, the mean TWIBH at both Lihue and Hilo is close to 2000 m. For precipitating cases, the mean TWIBH is 2450 m and 2280 m at Hilo and Lihue, respectively. The potential cloud thickness (PCT) is defined as the difference between TWIBH and CBH and the mean PCT is several hundred meters thicker for precipitating than for the non-precipitating cases at both stations. We find that the PCT is more strongly correlated to the TWIBH than the CBH and that precipitation is unlikely to occur if the TWIBH is below 1500 m. The observed rainfall intensity is correlated to the PCT, i.e., thicker clouds are more likely to produce heavy rain.

  20. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. PMID:26656205

  1. Measuring orthometric water heights from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandini, Filippo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Reyna-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A better quantitative understanding of hydrologic processes requires better observations of hydrological variables, such as surface water area, water surface level, its slope and its temporal change. However, ground-based measurements of water heights are restricted to the in-situ measuring stations. Hence, the objective of remote sensing hydrology is to retrieve these hydraulic variables from spaceborne and airborne platforms. The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will be able to acquire water heights with an expected accuracy of 10 centimeters for rivers that are at least 100 m wide. Nevertheless, spaceborne missions will always face the limitations of: i) a low spatial resolution which makes it difficult to separate water from interfering surrounding areas and a tracking of the terrestrial water bodies not able to detect water heights in small rivers or lakes; ii) a limited temporal resolution which limits the ability to determine rapid temporal changes, especially during extremes. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are one technology able to fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, ensuring 1) high spatial resolution; 2) tracking of the water bodies better than any satellite technology; 3) timing of the sampling which only depends on the operator 4) flexibility of the payload. Hence, this study focused on categorizing and testing sensors capable of measuring the range between the UAV and the water surface. The orthometric height of the water surface is then retrieved by subtracting the height above water measured by the sensors from the altitude above sea level retrieved by the onboard GPS. The following sensors were tested: a) a radar, b) a sonar c) a laser digital-camera based prototype developed at Technical University of Denmark. The tested sensors comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg). The sensors were evaluated in terms of accuracy, maximum ranging distance and beam

  2. A coupled theory of tropical climatology: Warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

    1997-07-01

    Based on results from analytic and general circulation models, the authors propose a theory for the coupled warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation system. The intensity of the coupled system is determined by the coupling strength, the local equilibrium time, and latitudinal differential heating. Most importantly, this intensity is strongly regulated in the coupled system, with a saturation level that can be reached at a modest coupling strength. The saturation west-east sea surface temperature difference (and the associated Walker circulation) corresponds to about one-quarter of the latitudinal differential equilibrium temperature. This regulation is caused primarily by the decoupling of the SST gradient from a strong ocean current. The author`s estimate suggests that the present Pacific is near the saturation state. Furthermore, the much weaker Walker circulation system in the Atlantic Ocean is interpreted as being the result of the influence of the adjacent land, which is able to extend into the entire Atlantic to change the zonal distribution of the trade wind. The theory is also applied to understand the tropical climatology in coupled GCM simulations, in the Last Glacial Maximum climate, and in the global warming climate, as well as in the regulation of the tropical sea surface temperature. 41 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Gravity wave climatology at midlatitude from Rayleigh lidar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R.; Chanin, M. L.; Hauchecorne, A.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric sounding of the middle atmosphere by Rayleigh scattering has been performed in France for several years, from two stations with different orographic situations: one in the Alps, the Observatoire de Haute Provence, one on the Atlantic coast at Biscarosse. The vertical profiles of density and temperature are obtained with a temporal and spatial resolution of, respectively, 15 mn and 300 m between 30 and 80 km. A statistical study of the atmospheric fluctuations due to gravity waves was performed and the main results are presented: climatology of the gravity wave activity, distribution of energy versus vertical wave number and altitude, and comparison of the observations at the two sites. Conclusions are presented on the saturation of the wave field, the filtering by the mean wind, the transfer of energy and momentum into the atmosphere.

  4. The role of global cloud climatologies in validating numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN

    1991-01-01

    The net upward longwave surface radiation is exceedingly difficult to measure from space. A hybrid method using General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations and satellite data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was used to produce global maps of this quantity over oceanic areas. An advantage of this technique is that no independent knowledge or assumptions regarding cloud cover for a particular month are required. The only information required is a relationship between the cloud radiation forcing (CRF) at the top of the atmosphere and that at the surface, which is obtained from the GCM simulation. A flow diagram of the technique and results are given.

  5. The Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter 1990 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, G. D.; Stuart, J. R.; Palluconi, F. D.; Blume, W. H.; Erickson, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental objectives of the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) 1990 mission are related to the determination of the surface composition and topography of the planet Mars, its gravitational and intrinsic magnetic fields, and the seasonal behavior of volatiles, dust, and the atmosphere of Mars. These objectives would be achieved through a global mapping of the planet over a Martian year. For the baseline mission, a single spacecraft would be launched in August 1990, arrive at Mars in August 1991, and map the planet from a Sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit for one Martian year. Attention is given to a science rationale and objectives, a mission description, the flight system, and mission operations.

  6. Satellite SST Trends and Climatologies - how many years is enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, S. F.; Skirving, W. J.; Christensen, T. R.; Eakin, C. M.; Gledhill, D. K.; Liu, G.; Morgan, J. A.; Parker, B. A.; Strong, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    Stress on coral reef ecosystems is generally due to abnormal events, rather than absolute levels, of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and light). For example, ocean temperatures of 30°C would be "comfortable" for corals in the Persian Gulf but stressful for the corals off the coast of Brazil because they are accustomed to different conditions. Identifying anomalous conditions requires good knowledge of the baseline ("usual", "normal") conditions. Here we discuss whether a remotely-sensed, 4km sea surface temperature (SST) record of length 23 years is sufficient to calculate a long-term average (climatology) that can sensibly be used as a baseline for monitoring the health of corals. We also discuss issues related to ocean warming in determining this baseline and the relevance of adaptation by corals.

  7. Acoustic remote sensing of the ABL wind structure in Moscow city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhiyarova, Ksenia; Lokoshchenko, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of wind velocity V in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) above Moscow city have been analyzed by long-term data of sodar measurements. The Doppler 'MODOS' sodar of METEK firm (Germany) production operates at Moscow University since 2004. Besides, data of two cup anemometers on 7 and 15 m heights inside 'dead zone' of the sodar have been added to analysis. The methodical questions of comparison between in situ and sodar data about V are discussed in details. The profile of wind velocity V in the air layer from 7 to 500 m has been received and analyzed in average of eight last years from 2004 to 2012. In average it is close to logarithmical law up to 60 m so that this value seems to be equal to the surface air layer height. It should be noted that sodar due to its high spatial resolution (20 m) allows studying the ABL fine-structure. Among others, the daily course of V has been investigated in details at different heights. It demonstrates clear daily maximum and nocturnal minimum at any height below 80 m and, vice versa, nocturnal maximum and daily minimum above 140 m everywhere. The air layer from 80 to 140 m represents intermediate zone of smoothed daily course of V. In general this zone corresponds to cross-over height (ideal level where the daily course of wind velocity is absent) but it is noted by important additional feature - minimum in the morning which is statistically significant. Besides, with using of the sodar data it's possible to study mostly interesting weather phenomena such as thunderstorm. Total sampling of this weather event was equal to 137 cases in Moscow from 2004 to 2012. Averaged values both of V, and of its vertical component W have been analyzed during these thunderstorms. As it was shown both V, and W values are increased at the moment of this phenomenon starting. The wind velocity at this moment is in average nearly on 1 m/s higher than three hours before thunderstorm and this increase is statistically significant with 0

  8. The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) - in situ observation based precipitation climatology on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, T.; Schneider, U.; Rudolf, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC, http://gpcc.dwd.de) provides global monthly precipitation analyses for monitoring and research of the earth's climate. The centre is a German contribution to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), and to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). It contributes to water resources assessments, flood and drought monitoring, climate variability and trend analyses. GPCC published in year 2008 a new global precipitation climatology as well as a reanalysis of its full data base for all months of the period 1901-2007. The GPCC data base comprises monthly precipitation totals from more than 70 000 different stations in the world. It produces gridded data sets of monthly precipitation on the earth's land surface derived from raingauge based observation data. Intensive quality control of observation data and station metadata ensures a high analysis quality. The different GPCC products are adjusted to different user needs. It routinely produces 2 near real-time precipitation monitoring products. Its 2 non real-time products are updated at irregular time intervals after significant updates of its observation station database. All GPCC products can be visualised and accessed free of charge via Internet from http://gpcc.dwd.de. The GPCC First Guess Product of the monthly precipitation anomaly is based on synoptic weather reports (SYNOP) from about 6,300 stations worldwide received near real-time via the WMO Global Telecommunication System (GTS). The product is available within 5 days after end of an observation month. Main application purpose is near real-time drought monitoring. The product uses since mid 2008 the new GPCC monthly precipitation climatology as analysis background. Spatial product resolution: 1.0° and 2.5°. The GPCC Monitoring Product of monthly precipitation is based on SYNOP and monthly CLIMAT reports received near real-time via GTS from about

  9. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  10. Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gove, Jamison M; Williams, Gareth J; McManus, Margaret A; Heron, Scott F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vetter, Oliver J; Foley, David G

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help

  11. Analysis of the global ISCCP TOVS water vapor climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmeyer, Ian L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    A climatological examination of the global water vapor field based on a multiyear period of successfull satellite-based observations is presented. Results from the multiyear global ISCCP TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) water vapor dataset as operationally produced by NESDIS and ISCCP are shown. The methods employed for the retrieval of precipitable water content (PWC) utilize infrared measurements collected by the TOVS instrument package flown aboard the NOAA series of operational polar-orbiting satellites. Strengths of this dataset include the nearly global daily coverage, availability for a multiyear period, operational internal quality checks, and its description of important features in the mean state of the atmosphere. Weaknesses of this PWC dataset include that the infrared sensors are unable to collect data in cloudy regions, the retrievals are strongly biased toward a land-based radiosonde first-guess dataset, and the description of high spatial and temporal variability is inadequate. Primary consequences of these factors are seen in the underestimation of ITCZ water vapor maxima, and underestimation of midlatitude water vapor mean and standard deviation values where transient atmospheric phenomena contribute significantly toward time means. A comparison of TOVS analyses to SSM/I data over ocean for the month of July 1988 shows fair agreement in the magnitude and distribution of the monthly mean values, but the TOVS fields exhibit much less temporal and spatial variability on a daily basis in comparison to the SSM/I analyses. The emphasis of this paper is on the presentation and documentation of an early satellite-based water vapor climatology, and description of factors that prevent a more accurate representation of the global water vapor field.

  12. Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gove, Jamison M; Williams, Gareth J; McManus, Margaret A; Heron, Scott F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vetter, Oliver J; Foley, David G

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help

  13. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  14. Climatology and Characteristics of Aerosol Optical Properties in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Lauren; Ogren, John; Backman, John; Asmi, Eija; Andrews, Elisabeth; Jefferson, Anne; Bergin, Michael; Tunved, Peter; Sharma, Sangeeta; Starkweather, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Within the Arctic, climate forcers like atmospheric aerosols are important contributors to the observed warming and environmental changes in the region. Quantifying the forcing by aerosols in the Arctic is especially difficult, given short aerosol lifetimes, annual variability in illumination and surface albedo, stratified atmospheric conditions, complex feedbacks, and long-range aerosol transport. However, in-situ surface measurements of Arctic aerosol optical properties can be used to constrain variability of light scattering and absorption, identify potential particle sources, and help evaluate the resulting forcing. Data from six WMO Global Atmosphere Watch stations are presented: Alert, Canada (ALT); Barrow, Alaska (BRW); Pallas, Finland (PAL); Summit, Greenland (SUM); Tiksi, Russia (TIK); and Zeppelin Mountain, Norway (ZEP). These sites contribute to the International Arctic System for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA), which facilitates Arctic-wide data collection and analysis. Climatologies of aerosol optical properties from each station show differences in magnitude and variability of observed parameters. For example, most stations (ALT, BRW, SUM, TIK, ZEP) experience maximum scattering in winter/spring, while PAL exhibits maximum scattering in the summer. The observed range in scattering across these sites is large (almost an order of magnitude) - SUM has the lowest annual median scattering at 0.82 Mm-1 while BRW has the highest at 6.9 Mm-1. A closer look at systematic variability between optical properties at each station, as well as site back trajectories, suggest differences in aerosol processes, sources and transport. The development of consistent climatologies and additional analyses like the ones presented here can help provide a better understanding of trans-Arctic aerosol variability, which can be an asset for improving aerosol models in this unique and remote region.

  15. Eight-year climatology of dust optical depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, L.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Wilson, R. J.; Lewis, S. R.; Cantor, B.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from martian year 24-31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure that is weighted in space, time, and retrieval quality. The lack of observations at certain times and locations introduces missing grid points in the maps, which therefore may result in irregularly gridded (i.e. incomplete) fields. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we compare with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. We have statistically analyzed the irregularly gridded maps to provide an overview of the dust climatology on Mars over eight years, specifically in relation to its interseasonal and interannual variability, in addition to provide a basis for instrument intercomparison. Finally, we have produced regularly gridded maps of CDOD by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These complete maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modeling

  16. The Interfaces Between Historical, Paleo-, and Modern Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Historical climatology, commonly defined as the study of reconstructing past climates from documentary and early instrumental data, has routinely utilized data within the last several hundred years down to sub-daily temporal resolution prior to the advent of "modern" instrumental records beginning in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Historical climate reconstruction methods generally share similar aspects conducted in both paleoclimate reconstruction and modern climatology, given the need to quantify, calibrate, and conduct careful data quality assessments. Although some studies have integrated historical climatic studies with other high resolution paleoclimatic proxies, very few efforts have integrated historical data with modern "systematic" climate networks to further examine spatial and temporal patterns of climate variability. This presentation describes historical climate examples of how such data can be integrated within modern climate timescales, including examples of documentary data on tropical cyclones from the Western Pacific and Atlantic Basins, colonial records from Belize and Constantinople, ship logbooks in the Western Arctic, plantation diaries from the American Southeast, and newspaper data from the Fiji Islands and Bermuda. Some results include a unique wet period in Belize and active tropical cyclone periods in the Western and South Pacific in the early 20th century - both are not reflected in conventional modern climate datasets. Documentary data examples demonstrate high feasibility in further understanding extreme weather events at daily timeframes such as false spring/killing frost episodes and hydrological extremes in southeastern North America. Recent unique efforts also involve community participation, secondary education, and web- based volunteer efforts to digitize and archive historical weather and climate information.

  17. Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gove, Jamison M.; Williams, Gareth J.; McManus, Margaret A.; Heron, Scott F.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Foley, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic–biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will

  18. Climatology and Predictability of Cool-Season High Wind Events in the New York City Metropolitan and Surrounding Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layer, Michael

    Damaging wind events not associated with severe convective storms or tropical cyclones can occur over the Northeast U.S. during the cool season and can cause significant problems with transportation, infrastructure, and public safety. These non-convective wind events (NCWEs) events are difficult for operational forecasters to predict in the NYC region as revealed by relatively poor verification statistics in recent years. This study investigates the climatology of NCWEs occurring between 15 September and 15 May over 13 seasons from 2000-2001 through 2012-2013. The events are broken down into three distinct types commonly observed in the region: pre-cold frontal (PRF), post-cold frontal (POF), and nor'easter/coastal storm (NEC) cases. Relationships between observed winds and some atmospheric parameters such as 900 hPa height gradient, 3-hour MSLP tendency, low-level wind profile, and stability are also studied. Overall, PRF and NEC events exhibit stronger height gradients, stronger low-level winds, and stronger low-level stability than POF events. Model verification is also conducted over the 2009-2014 time period using the Short Range Ensemble Forecast system (SREF) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Both deterministic and probabilistic verification metrics are used to evaluate the performance of the ensemble during NCWEs. Although the SREF has better forecast skill than most of the deterministic SREF control members, it is rather poorly calibrated, and exhibits a significant overforecasting, or positive wind speed bias in the lower atmosphere.

  19. The genetic architecture of maize height.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jason A; Romay, Maria C; Gore, Michael A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J; Gardner, Candice A C; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Buckler, Edward S

    2014-04-01

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy.

  20. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  1. Climatology and Formation of Tropical Midlevel Clouds at the Darwin ARM Site

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2012-10-01

    A 4-yr climatology of midlevel clouds is presented from vertically pointing cloud lidar and radar measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) site at Darwin, Australia. Few studies exist of tropical midlevel clouds using a dataset of this length. Seventy percent of clouds with top heights between 4 and 8 km are less than 2 km thick. These thin layer clouds have a peak in cloud-top temperature around the melting level (0°C) and also a second peak around -12.5°C. The diurnal frequency of thin clouds is highest during the night and reaches a minimum around noon, consistent with variation caused by solar heating. Using a 1.5-yr subset of the observations, the authors found that thin clouds have a high probability of containing supercooled liquid water at low temperatures: ~20% of clouds at -30°C, ~50% of clouds at -20°C, and ~65% of clouds at -10°C contain supercooled liquid water. The authors hypothesize that thin midlevel clouds formed at the melting level are formed differently during active and break monsoon periods and test this over three monsoon seasons. A greater frequency of thin midlevel clouds are likely formed by increased condensation following the latent cooling of melting during active monsoon periods when stratiform precipitation is most frequent. This is supported by the high percentage (65%) of midlevel clouds with preceding stratiform precipitation and the high frequency of stable layers slightly warmer than 0°C. In the break monsoon, a distinct peak in the frequency of stable layers at 0°C matches the peak in thin midlevel cloudiness, consistent with detrainment from convection.

  2. Biases in Total Precipitable Water Vapor Climatologies from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2006-01-01

    We examine differences in total precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) experiments sharing the Aqua spacecraft platform. Both systems provide estimates of PWV over water surfaces. We compare AIRS and AMSR-E PWV to constrain AIRS retrieval uncertainties as functions of AIRS retrieved infrared cloud fraction. PWV differences between the two instruments vary only weakly with infrared cloud fraction up to about 70%. Maps of AIRS-AMSR-E PWV differences vary with location and season. Observational biases, when both instruments observe identical scenes, are generally less than 5%. Exceptions are in cold air outbreaks where AIRS is biased moist by 10-20% or 10-60% (depending on retrieval processing) and at high latitudes in winter where AIRS is dry by 5-10%. Sampling biases, from different sampling characteristics of AIRS and AMSR-E, vary in sign and magnitude. AIRS sampling is dry by up to 30% in most high-latitude regions but moist by 5-15% in subtropical stratus cloud belts. Over the northwest Pacific, AIRS samples conditions more moist than AMSR-E by a much as 60%. We hypothesize that both wet and dry sampling biases are due to the effects of clouds on the AIRS retrieval methodology. The sign and magnitude of these biases depend upon the types of cloud present and on the relationship between clouds and PWV. These results for PWV imply that climatologies of height-resolved water vapor from AIRS must take into consideration local meteorological processes affecting AIRS sampling.

  3. Development of Satellite-based Climatology of Low-level Cloud and Fog in Mountain Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of orographic clouds and fog has major environmental and economic implications that the potential shift in the space-time distribution can effectively redistribute freshwater resources and threaten the sustainability of the ecology, geomorphology and hydrology of mountainous regions and adjacent basins. This includes the Southern Appalachian Mountains, which rely closely on the moisture input from fog, cap clouds and light rainfall, as well as cloud forests in the Andes with frequent occurrence of dense fog. However, the applicability of fog forecasting models becomes limited in regions of complex terrain. The motivation of this project is to develop a satellite-based hydroclimatology and physical parameterization of orographic low-level clouds and fog regimes in the Southern Appalachians using a general methodology that can be applied to mountainous regions elsewhere. An algorithm for the detection and extraction of stratus clouds and fog was developed using changes in vertical gradients of CPR reflectivity and liquid water products from almost 5-years of CLOUDSAT and SRTM terrain data. This population of low-level clouds and fog will be analyzed with GOES infrared and visible imagery, MODIS and CALIPSO products, and with airport cloud height and visibility records to expand the spatial coverage beyond narrow satellite sensor swaths. The climatology will be further developed through integration with results from WRF simulations for selected periods since the bulk of the PMM network has been in place (2008-present) to aid in defining meteorological and time-of-day constraints in the interpretation of simulated satellite radar reflectivity profiles. The overarching goal is to infer a representation of the diurnal cycle, seasonal and inter-annual variations of the vertical distribution of LWC and hydrometeors in orographic clouds and fog that vary spatially with landform toward developing a more general parameterization of seeder-feeder interactions in

  4. A climatology of air-sea interactions at the Mediterranean LION and AZUR buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy; Prieur, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Giordani, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The LION and AZUR buoys (respectively at 42.1°N 4.7°E and 43.4°N 7.8°E) provide an extended data set since respectively 1999 and 2001 to present for studying air-sea interactions in the northwestern Mediterranean basin. The two buoys are located where high wind events occur (resp. north western and north easterly gale winds), that force and condition deep oceanic winter convection in that region. A short-term climatology (resp. 13 and 11 years) of air-sea interactions has been developed, which includes classical meteo-oceanic parameters, but also waves period and significant wave heights and radiative fluxes. Moreover turbulent surface fluxes have been estimated from various bulk parameterizations, in order to estimate uncertainties on fluxes. An important dispersion of turbulent fluxes is found at high wind speeds according to the parameterization used, larger than taking into account the second order effects of cool skin, warm layer and waves. An important annual cycle affects air temperatures (ATs), SSTs and turbulent fluxes at the two buoys. The annual cycle of ATs and SSTs can be well reconstructed from the first two annual harmonics, while for the turbulent heat fluxes the erratic occurrence of high and low flux events, well correlated with high/dry and low windy periods, strongly affect their annual and interannual cycles. The frequency of high surface heat fluxes and high wind stress is found highest during the autumn and winter months, despite the fact that north-westerly gale winds occur all year long at LION buoy. During calm weather period, ATs and SSTs experience an important diurnal cycle (on average 1 and 0.5°C respectively), that affect latent and sensible heat fluxes. Finally, an estimate of the interannual variability of the turbulent fluxes in Autumn and Winter is discussed, in order to characterize their potential role on deep ocean convection.

  5. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  6. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  7. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  8. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  9. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  10. Height and Weight of Children: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Peter V. V.; And Others

    This report contains national estimates based on findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963-65 on height and weight measurements of children 6- to 11-years-old. A nationwide probability sample of 7,119 children was selected to represent the noninstitutionalized children (about 24 million) in this age group. Height was obtained in stocking…

  11. Abl promotes cadherin-dependent adhesion and signaling in myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Krauss, Robert S

    2010-07-15

    Cell-cell contact promotes myogenic differentiation but the mechanisms that regulate this phenomenon are not well understood. Cdo (also known as Cdon), an Ig superfamily member, functions as a component of cell surface complexes to promote myogenic differentiation through activation of p38alpha/beta MAP kinase. We recently showed that N-cadherin ligation activated p38alpha/beta in a Cdo-dependent manner, whereas N-cadherin ligation-dependent activation of ERK MAP kinase was not affected by loss of Cdo. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl associates with Cdo during myoblast differentiation and is necessary for full activition of p38alpha/beta during this process. The Abl SH3 domain binds to a PxxP motif in the Cdo intracellular domain, and both these motifs are required for their promyogenic activity. Here we show that Abl is necessary for p38alpha/beta activation initiated by N-cadherin ligation, but in contrast to Cdo, Abl is also required for N-cadherin-dependent ERK activation. Moreover, Abl is required for efficient cadherin-mediated myoblast aggregation via modulation of RhoA-ROCK signaling. Therefore, Abl regulates N-cadherin-mediated p38alpha/beta activation by multiple mechanisms, more generally through regulation of cell-cell adhesion and specifically as a component of Cdo-containing complexes. The role of Cdo as a multifunctional coreceptor with roles in several pathways is also discussed.

  12. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  13. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as flooding, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses, and are usually associated to deep low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months are fed by the Mediterranean. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and with relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2003, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands (Herrera et al., 2012), and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal (Belo-Pereira et al., 2011), with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. The daily precipitation data from 1950 to 2003 are compared with a 30-year (1961-90) precipitation climatology to achieve a daily normalized departure from the climatology. The magnitude of an event is given daily by an index that is obtained after multiplying 1) the area (in percentage) that has precipitation anomalies above two standard deviations by 2) the mean values of these anomalies over this area. With this criterion we are able to evaluate not only the spatial extent of the precipitation events but also their spatially integrated intensity. In addition, to stress out the hydrological responses to precipitation, rankings taking into account the sum of the normalized anomalies over different time periods (3 days, 5 days and 10 days) were also computed. Here different precipitation rankings will be presented considering the entire Iberian

  14. Lidar Ratio Climatology for Dust, as Computed from AERONET Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Vaughan, M.; MacDonnell, D.; Su, W.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubovik, O.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Raman lidar measurements by Tesche et al. (2009) and Wandinger et al. (2010) indicate lidar ratios of about 55 sr in Morocco and Cape Verde, which is significantly higher than the value of 40 sr assumed for the CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals. Hence, we investigated the dust lidar ratio by analyzing the aerosol climatology at AERONET sites in the dust belt. In order to limit our analysis to "pure" dust retrievals, we restricted the data to depolarizations of 0.2 or greater and fine volume fractions of 0.05 or less, and thereby focused on 1714 retrievals at 22 AERONET sites in non-Sahel regions of north Africa, Sahel Africa, the Middle East, and India. The AERONET climatology indicates that the real refractive index increases from n=1.49 for 229 retrievals in non-Sahel Africa to n=1.53 for 929 retrievals in the Sahel, and that the largest refractive indices occur in the Middle East and Kanpur, India (n=1.57 for 489 and 67 retrievals, respectively). Dry dust mixtures with refractive indices that are less than about 1.5 require high fractions of illite (which has a refractive index of 1.41), since the other common minerals in dust -- calcite, quartz, gypsum, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hematite -- all have refractive indices greater than 1.49. Hence, the AERONET refractive indices are consistent with Chester et al. (1972), who measured the relative fraction of illite during a research voyage near the west African coast; they found that illite decreases from a maximum mass fraction of about 0.53 at 15-20 degrees North to a minimum of about 0.09 at 0-5 degrees North. These illite fractions correspond to a refractive index change from 1.48 to 1.54 as the source aerosol region changed from the Sahara to the Sahel (if the average refractive index of the other minerals in the mixture is assumed to be 1.55). We then used the AERONET refractive indices with the AERONET size distributions, "percent spheres," and forward optics code for spheres and spheroids

  15. C-Abl as a modulator of p53

    SciTech Connect

    Levav-Cohen, Yaara; Goldberg, Zehavit; Zuckerman, Valentina; Grossman, Tamar; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal . E-mail: haupt@md.huji.ac.il

    2005-06-10

    P53 is renowned as a cellular tumor suppressor poised to instigate remedial responses to various stress insults that threaten DNA integrity. P53 levels and activities are kept under tight regulation involving a complex network of activators and inhibitors, which determine the type and extent of p53 growth inhibitory signaling. Within this complexity, the p53-Mdm2 negative auto-regulatory loop serves as a major route through which intra- and extra-cellular stress signals are channeled to appropriate p53 responses. Mdm2 inhibits p53 transcriptional activities and through its E3 ligase activity promotes p53 proteasomal degradation either within the nucleus or following nuclear export. Upon exposure to stress signals these actions of Mdm2 have to be moderated, or even interrupted, in order to allow sufficient p53 to accumulate in an active form. Multiple mechanisms involving a variety of factors have been demonstrated to mediate this interruption. C-Abl is a critical factor that under physiological conditions is required for the maximal and efficient accumulation of active p53 in response to DNA damage. C-Abl protects p53 by antagonizing the inhibitory effect of Mdm2, an action that requires a direct interplay between c-Abl and Mdm2. In addition, c-Abl protects p53 from other inhibitors of p53, such as the HPV-E6/E6AP complex, that inhibits and degrades p53 in HPV-infected cells. Surprisingly, the oncogenic form of c-Abl, the Bcr-Abl fusion protein in CML cells, also promotes the accumulation of wt p53. However, in contrast to the activation of p53 by c-Abl, its oncogenic form, Bcr-Abl, counteracts the growth inhibitory activities of p53 by modulating the p53-Mdm2 loop. Thus, it appears that by modulating the p53-Mdm2 loop, c-Abl and its oncogenic forms critically determine the type and extent of the cellular response to DNA damage.

  16. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  17. Organic acids and selected nitrogen species for ABLE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) executed airborne science missions aboard the NASA Wallops Electra (NA429) in the North American high latitude (greater than 45 deg North) atmosphere during Jul. to Aug. 1988 and Jul. to Aug. 1990. These missions were part of GTE's Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE). The 1988 mission , ABLE-3A, examined the ecosystems of Alaska as a source and/or sink for important tropospheric gases and particles, and gained new information on the chemical composition of the Arctic atmosphere during the summertime. During 1990 the second high latitude mission, ABLE-3B, focused on the Hudson Bay Lowland and Labrador regions of Canada. Both of these missions provided benchmark data sets on atmosphere biosphere exchange and atmospheric chemistry over largely uninhabited regions of North America. In support of the GTE/ABLE-3A and -3B field missions, the University of New Hampshire flew instrumentation aboard the Wallops Electra research aircraft to provide measurements of the trace gases nitric (HNO3), formic (HCOOH), and acetic (CH3COOH) acid. In addition, measurements were conducted to determine the major water soluble ionic composition of the atmospheric aerosol. For ABLE-3B, groundbased measurements of the acidic trace gases were also performed from the NASA micrometerological tower situated at Schefferville, Laborador. These measurements were aimed at assessing dry deposition of acidic gases to the taiga ecosystem in the Laborador region of Canada.

  18. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed. PMID:23992873

  19. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-01-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP–TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP–TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP–TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP–TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision. PMID:25361080

  20. Variability of Atmospheric Boundary Layer height over the tropical oceans - A study using atmospheric refractivity profiles from multi campaign in-situ and satellite radio occultation data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, M.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) over the tropical oceans controls and regulates the influx of water vapour into the free atmosphere due to evaporation. The availability of in situ data for determining the ABL characteristics over tropical oceans are limited to different ship based campaigns and hence restricted in spatial and temporal coverage. For ABL studies the Radio Occultation (RO) based satellite data over tropical oceans have good temporal and spatial coverage but limited in temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric refractivity profiles are extensively used in many studies to determine the ABL height from both platforms. The present study attempts to use the advantages in both in-situ and satellite (RO) based data to quantify the variability in the ABL height over the tropical oceans. All studies done so far to identify the ABL height from RO derived refractivity profiles rely extensively on the detection of the minimum refractivity gradient (MRG) below ~6 km along with additional threshold criteria. This leads to an over estimation of ABL heights especially in presence of strong subsidence inversion caused by local/ mesoscale/ synoptic scale processes where the MRG lies significantly above the ABL. The present study attempts to quantify this over estimation using atmospheric refractivity profiles derived from thermo-dynamical parameters from radiosonde ascents over the tropical ocean, suggests an improved method of ABL detection and quantifies the variability so deduced. Over 1000 radiosonde ascents from four ship cruises conducted during DYNAMO 2011 field campaign over the tropical Indian Ocean are used for the purpose. ABL heights determined from radiosonde data using traditional methods (using virtual potential temperature and specific humidity) are compared with those identified from simulated atmospheric refractivity profiles from same data (using prevalent methods for RO) to quantify the over estimation. A new method of ABL detection from

  1. Developing a cloud mask climatology covering two Meteosat satellite generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, Rebekka; Stöckli, Reto; Liniger, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Long term cloud cover observations from satellites are fundamental for climate model validation and climate monitoring. Further, they support ground-based observations in regions with sparse coverage. Additionally, information on cloud cover is needed to derive other physical parameters such as surface radiation fluxes or clear sky and cloudy atmospheric states and is of high relevance for the solar energy sector. Within the current project phase of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) an algorithm to calculate a climatological cloud mask (or cloud cover probability) from Meteosat satellites is developed. The algorithm shall be applicable for both Meteosat first generation (1983-2005) and Meteosat second generation (2004-present) which significantly differ in their spectral properties. The algorithm linearly aggregates a set of continuous scores instead of the commonly used decision tree approach. The scores are calculated for different channels as well as different spatial and temporal settings. Each score yields a probability for the pixel's cloud cover. The final result, the cloud cover probability, is obtained by combining all available scores taking into account the varying performance of the scores during day and night and over snow. The uncertainty of the final cloud cover estimate is an inherent part of the probability. The algorithm is calibrated using cloud cover measurements from SYNOP stations located on the Meteosat disc. The subsequent validation is done at an independent set of collocated SYNOP/ARSA (Automated Radiosonde Archive) stations. The presentation introduces the applied cloud mask algorithm and presents the results of the validation for both satellite generations. The comparison of the two satellite generations addresses the climatological homogeneity of the future cloud mask climate data record which will be distributed by CM SAF after 2016. Special attention is also drawn to issues like the day-night-bias of

  2. Climatological context for large-scale coral bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A. D.; Casey, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    Large-scale coral bleaching was first observed in 1979 and has occurred throughout virtually all of the tropics since that time. Severe bleaching may result in the loss of live coral and in a decline of the integrity of the impacted coral reef ecosystem. Despite the extensive scientific research and increased public awareness of coral bleaching, uncertainties remain about the past and future of large-scale coral bleaching. In order to reduce these uncertainties and place large-scale coral bleaching in the longer-term climatological context, specific criteria and methods for using historical sea surface temperature (SST) data to examine coral bleaching-related thermal conditions are proposed by analyzing three, 132 year SST reconstructions: ERSST, HadISST1, and GISST2.3b. These methodologies are applied to case studies at Discovery Bay, Jamaica (77.27°W, 18.45°N), Sombrero Reef, Florida, USA (81.11°W, 24.63°N), Academy Bay, Galápagos, Ecuador (90.31°W, 0.74°S), Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, USA (175.83°W, 27.83°N), Midway Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, USA (177.37°W, 28.25°N), Davies Reef, Australia (147.68°E, 18.83°S), and North Male Atoll, Maldives (73.35°E, 4.70°N). The results of this study show that (1) The historical SST data provide a useful long-term record of thermal conditions in reef ecosystems, giving important insight into the thermal history of coral reefs and (2) While coral bleaching and anomalously warm SSTs have occurred over much of the world in recent decades, case studies in the Caribbean, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, and parts of other regions such as the Great Barrier Reef exhibited SST conditions and cumulative thermal stress prior to 1979 that were comparable to those conditions observed during the strong, frequent coral bleaching events since 1979. This climatological context and knowledge of past environmental conditions in reef ecosystems may foster a better understanding of how coral reefs will

  3. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2011-01-01

    The AMU added three years of data to the POR from the previous work resulting in a 22-year POR for the warm season months from 1989-2010. In addition to the flow regime stratification, moisture and stability stratifications were added to separate more active from less active lighting days within the same flow regime. The parameters used for moisture and stability stratifications were PWAT and TI which were derived from sounding data at four Florida radiosonde sites. Lightning data consisted of NLDN CG lightning flashes within 30 NM of each airfield. The AMU increased the number of airfields from nine to thirty-six which included the SLF, CCAFS, PAFB and thirty-three airfields across Florida. The NWS MLB requested the AMU calculate lightning climatologies for additional airfields that they support as a backup to NWS TBW which was then expanded to include airfields supported by NWS JAX and NWS MFL. The updated climatologies of lightning probabilities are based on revised synoptic-scale flow regimes over the Florida peninsula (Lambert 2007) for 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-NM radius range rings around the thirty-six airfields in 1-, 3- and 6-hour increments. The lightning, flow regime, moisture and stability data were processed in S-PLUS software using scripts written by the AMU to automate much of the data processing. The S-PLUS data files were exported to Excel to allow the files to be combined in Excel Workbooks for easier data handling and to create the tables and charts for the Gill. The AMU revised the Gill developed in the previous phase (Bauman 2009) with the new data and provided users with an updated HTML tool to display and manipulate the data and corresponding charts. The tool can be used with most web browsers and is computer operating system independent. The AMU delivered two Gills - one with just the PWAT stratification and one with both the PWAT and TI stratifications due to insufficient data in some of the PWATITI stratification combinations. This will allow

  4. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale

  5. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  6. Assessing sedimentary records of paleohurricane activity using modeled hurricane climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Emanuel, Kerry; Lane, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of overwash deposition observed within back-barrier sediment archives can indicate past changes in tropical cyclone activity; however, it is necessary to evaluate the significance of observed trends in the context of the full range of variability under modern climate conditions. Here we present a method for assessing the statistical significance of patterns observed within a sedimentary hurricane-overwash reconstruction. To alleviate restrictions associated with the limited number of historical hurricanes affecting a specific site, we apply a recently published technique for generating a large number of synthetic storms using a coupled ocean-atmosphere hurricane model set to simulate modern climatology. Thousands of overwash records are generated for a site using a random draw of these synthetic hurricanes, a prescribed threshold for overwash, and a specified temporal resolution based on sedimentation rates observed at a particular site. As a test case we apply this Monte Carlo technique to a hurricane-induced overwash reconstruction developed from Laguna Playa Grande (LPG), a coastal lagoon located on the island of Vieques, Puerto Rico in the northeastern Caribbean. Apparent overwash rates in the LPG overwash record are observed to be four times lower between 2500 and 1000 years B.P. when compared to apparent overwash rates during the last 300 years. However, probability distributions based on Monte Carlo simulations indicate that as much as 65% of this drop can be explained by a reduction in the temporal resolution for older sediments due to a decrease in sedimentation rates. Periods of no apparent overwash activity at LPG between 2500 and 3600 years B.P. and 500-1000 years B.P. are exceptionally long and are unlikely to occur (above 99% confidence) under the current climate conditions. In addition, breaks in activity are difficult to produce even when the hurricane model is forced to a constant El Niño state. Results from this study continue to support

  7. Comparison of Aerosol Properties within and above the ABL at the ARM Program's SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Monache, L.D.; Perry, K.D.; Cederwall, R.T.

    2002-02-26

    The goal of this study was to determine under what conditions, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth's surface are representative of the aerosol properties within the column of air above the surface. This project used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Stokes and Schwartz 1994), which is one of the only locations in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric aerosol are made on a routine basis. All flight legs in the one-year period from March 2000 to March 2001 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using an objective mixing height determination technique. The correlations between the aerosol properties measured at the surface and those measured within and above the ABL were then computed. The conclusion of this comparison is that the aerosol extensive properties (those that depend upon the amount of aerosol that is present in the atmosphere, i.e., either the number or mass concentrations), and intensive properties (those that do not depend upon the amount of aerosol present) measured at the surface are representative of values within the ABL, but not within the free atmosphere.

  8. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  9. Seat height in handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, D J; Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, T J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of seat height on the cardiorespiratory system and kinematics in handrim wheelchair ambulation, nine non-wheelchair users participated in a wheelchair exercise experiment on a motor-driven treadmill. The subjects conducted five progressive exercise tests. After an initial try-out test, four tests were performed at different standardized seat heights of 100, 120, 140, and 160 degrees elbow extension (subject sitting erect, hands on the rim in top-dead-center = 12.00 hrs; full extension = 180 degrees). Each test consisted of four 3-minute exercise blocks at speeds of respectively 0.55, 0.83, 1.11, and 1.39 m.s-1 (2-5 km.hr-1). Analysis of variance revealed significant effects of seat height (P less than 0.05) on gross mechanical efficiency (ME), oxygen cost, push range, and push duration, and on the ranges of motion in the different arm segments and trunk. Mean ME appeared higher at the lower seat heights of 100 and 120 degrees elbow extension. This is reflected in an enhanced oxygen consumption at seat heights of 140 and 160 degrees elbow extension. Simultaneously, the push range showed a 15 to 20 degree decrease with increasing seat height, which is reflected in a decreased push duration. In the push phase, decreases in retroflexion and abduction/adduction of the upper arm were seen. The trunk shifted further forward, and the motion range in the elbow joint shifted to extension with increasing seat height. No shifts in minimum and maximum angular velocities were seen with increasing seat height. The results showed an interrelationship between wheelchair seat height and both cardiorespiratory and kinematic parameters. With respect to the cardiorespiratory system, the optimization of the wheelchair geometry, based on functional characteristics of the user, appears beneficial.

  10. Application and Limitations of GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) Data for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Detection over the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshan, M.; Wu, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to recent changes in the Arctic environment, it is important to monitor the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) properties over the Arctic Ocean, especially to explore the variability in ABL clouds (such as sensitivity and feedback to sea ice loss). For example, radiosonde and satellite observations of the Arctic ABL height (and low-cloud cover) have recently suggested a positive response to sea ice loss during October that may not occur during the melt season (June-September). Owing to its high vertical and spatiotemporal resolution, an independent ABL height detection algorithm using GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) refractivity in the Arctic is explored. Similar GPS-RO algorithms developed previously typically define the level of the most negative moisture gradient as the ABL height. This definition is favorable for subtropical oceans where a stratocumulus-topped ABL is often capped by a layer of sharp moisture lapse rate (coincident with the temperature inversion). The Arctic Ocean is also characterized by stratocumulus cloud cover, however, the specific humidity does not frequently decrease in the ABL capping inversion. The use of GPS-RO refractivity for ABL height retrieval therefore becomes more complex. During winter months (December-February), when the total precipitable water in the troposphere is a minimum, a fairly straightforward algorithm for ABL height retrieval is developed. The applicability and limitations of this method for other seasons (Spring, Summer, Fall) is determined. The seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in the GPS-derived ABL height over the Arctic Ocean, as well as its relation to the underlying surface (ice vs. water), is investigated. The GPS-RO profiles are also explored for the evidence of low-level moisture transport in the cold Arctic environment.

  11. Weibull- k Revisited: "Tall" Profiles and Height Variation of Wind Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Mark; Troen, Ib; Jørgensen, Hans E.

    2014-07-01

    The Weibull distribution is commonly used to describe climatological wind-speed distributions in the atmospheric boundary layer. While vertical profiles of mean wind speed in the atmospheric boundary layer have received significant attention, the variation of the shape of the wind distribution with height is less understood. Previously we derived a probabilistic model based on similarity theory for calculating the effects of stability and planetary boundary-layer depth upon long-term mean wind profiles. However, some applications (e.g. wind energy estimation) require the Weibull shape parameter ( k), as well as mean wind speed. Towards the aim of improving predictions of the Weibull- profile, we develop expressions for the profile of long-term variance of wind speed, including a method extending our probabilistic wind-profile theory; together these two profiles lead to a profile of Weibull-shape parameter. Further, an alternate model for the vertical profile of Weibull shape parameter is made, improving upon a basis set forth by Wieringa (Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 1989, Vol. 47, 85-110), and connecting with a newly-corrected corollary of the perturbed geostrophic-drag theory of Troen and Petersen (European Wind Atlas, 1989, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde). Comparing the models for Weibull- k profiles, a new interpretation and explanation is given for the vertical variation of the shape of wind-speed distributions. Results of the modelling are shown for a number of sites, with a discussion of the models' efficacy and applicability. The latter includes a comparative evaluation of Wieringa-type empirical models and perturbed-geostrophic forms with regard to surface-layer behaviour, as well as for heights where climatological wind-speed variability is not dominated by surface effects.

  12. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  13. Hierarchical control of ride height system for electronically controlled air suspension based on variable structure and fuzzy control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Kongkang; Zou, Nannan; Jiang, Hong; Cui, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    The current research of air suspension mainly focuses on the characteristics and design of the air spring. In fact, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) has excellent performance in flexible height adjustment during different driving conditions. However, the nonlinearity of the ride height adjusting system and the uneven distribution of payload affect the control accuracy of ride height and the body attitude. Firstly, the three-point measurement system of three height sensors is used to establish the mathematical model of the ride height adjusting system. The decentralized control of ride height and the centralized control of body attitude are presented to design the ride height control system for ECAS. The exact feedback linearization method is adopted for the nonlinear mathematical model of the ride height system. Secondly, according to the hierarchical control theory, the variable structure control (VSC) technique is used to design a controller that is able to adjust the ride height for the quarter-vehicle anywhere, and each quarter-vehicle height control system is independent. Meanwhile, the three-point height signals obtained by three height sensors are tracked to calculate the body pitch and roll attitude over time, and then by calculating the deviation of pitch and roll and its rates, the height control correction is reassigned based on the fuzzy algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed combined control strategy, a validating test of ride height control system with and without road disturbance is carried out. Testing results show that the height adjusting time of both lifting and lowering is over 5 s, and the pitch angle and the roll angle of body attitude are less than 0.15°. This research proposes a hierarchical control method that can guarantee the attitude stability, as well as satisfy the ride height tracking system.

  14. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous phase, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TcVTk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  15. a Climatology of Extreme Minimum Winter Temperatures in Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, Dennis Joe

    The Extreme Minimum Winter Temperature (EMWT) is the coldest temperature recorded each winter at a given weather station. This variable is a measure of winter temperature stress. Extreme cold influences the geographic distribution of plants, and is a prime control for the production of some valuable fruit crops grown in Ohio. EMWT values are often used to map plant hardiness zones, however the magnitude of EMWT and the date that it occurs has varied widely from year to year. Climatic variables rarely remain constant over time, and the plant hardiness zones could shift significantly if the climate changes and there is a trend towards warmer EMWTs. Plants that have their present geographic ranges limited by cold winter temperatures could increase their spatial extent. Furthermore, EMWT has impacts on human health and has applications for architecture. EMWTs at eighty-nine weather stations in Ohio were analyzed. Summary statistics and return period intervals for critical EMWTs are tabulated and mapped. Return period maps may be more useful for environmental planning than plant hardiness zone maps based on average EMWT, especially in a variable climate. Graphical methods, curve fitting and a probability model for the mean were utilized to examine the long term trend. The EMWT has not warmed during the known climatic record of this variable in Ohio. This study demonstrates the need for more applied climatological studies based on the observed climate record, not obscured by the assumptions of the global warming paradigm.

  16. TRMM's Contribution to Our Knowledge of Climatology, Storms and Floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has successfully completed nearly ten years in orbit. A brief review of the history and accomplishments of this joint mission between the U.S. and Japan is presented. Research highlights will focus on the seasonal cycle of a TRMM-based rainfall climatology, which takes advantage of the multiple rain estimates available from TRMM. Examples will be given of the use of TRMM data to diagnose the impact of man on precipitation patterns through urbanization and the effect of pollution. Use of TRMM data for tropical cyclone operational analysis in the U.S. will also be shown. Methods for generating 3-hourly rainfall information from multiple satellites using TRMM to calibrate all the information will be described as will application of such information to study extreme rainfall events and associated floods and landslides. These results will emphasize the breadth of science success achieved with the 10-year record of observations from the only rain radar and passive microwave instrument combination in space. The outlook for continued operation of the TRMM satellite and progress in TRMM science and applications will be addressed.

  17. Updated population metadata for United States historical climatology network stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, T.W.; Gallo, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature dataset is comprised of 1221 high-quality, long-term climate observing stations. The HCN dataset is available in several versions, one of which includes population-based temperature modifications to adjust urban temperatures for the "heat-island" effect. Unfortunately, the decennial population metadata file is not complete as missing values are present for 17.6% of the 12 210 population values associated with the 1221 individual stations during the 1900-90 interval. Retrospective grid-based populations. Within a fixed distance of an HCN station, were estimated through the use of a gridded population density dataset and historically available U.S. Census county data. The grid-based populations for the HCN stations provide values derived from a consistent methodology compared to the current HCN populations that can vary as definitions of the area associated with a city change over time. The use of grid-based populations may minimally be appropriate to augment populations for HCN climate stations that lack any population data, and are recommended when consistent and complete population data are required. The recommended urban temperature adjustments based on the HCN and grid-based methods of estimating station population can be significantly different for individual stations within the HCN dataset.

  18. Borneo Vortices: A case study and its relation to climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braesicke, P.; Ooi, S. H.; Samah, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Borneo vortices (BVs) develop over the South China Sea and are main drivers for the formation of deep convection and heavy rainfall in East Malaysia. We present a case study of a cold-surge-induced BV during January 2010 in which the export of potential energy lead to a strengthening of the subtropical jet. Potential vorticity (PV) and water vapour analyses confirm a significant impact of the BV on upper tropospheric composition. Dry, high PV air is found far below 100 hPa in the vicinty of the vortex. Using a PV threshold analysis of ERA-Interim data we construct a climatological composite of similar events and characterise the thermal, dynamical and composition structure of a 'typical' BV. We note the preferential formation of BVs during ENSO cold conditions and show that two effects contribute to the formation of the dry upper layer above a BV: Air is vertically transported upwards in the BV whilst precipitating and the large scale flow in which the BV is embedded advect dry, ozone rich air from the equatorial TTL over the BV. Thus the occurence frequency of BVs is important for the regional variability of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric composition.

  19. A climatologically significant aerosol longwave indirect effect in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Dan; Vogelmann, Andrew M

    2006-01-26

    The warming of Arctic climate and decreases in sea ice thickness and extent observed over recent decades are believed to result from increased direct greenhouse gas forcing, changes in atmospheric dynamics having anthropogenic origin, and important positive reinforcements including ice-albedo and cloud-radiation feedbacks. The importance of cloud-radiation interactions is being investigated through advanced instrumentation deployed in the high Arctic since 1997 (refs 7, 8). These studies have established that clouds, via the dominance of longwave radiation, exert a net warming on the Arctic climate system throughout most of the year, except briefly during the summer. The Arctic region also experiences significant periodic influxes of anthropogenic aerosols, which originate from the industrial regions in lower latitudes. Here we use multisensor radiometric data to show that enhanced aerosol concentrations alter the microphysical properties of Arctic clouds, in a process known as the 'first indirect' effect. Under frequently occurring cloud types we find that this leads to an increase of an average 3.4 watts per square metre in the surface longwave fluxes. This is comparable to a warming effect from established greenhouse gases and implies that the observed longwave enhancement is climatologically significant.

  20. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  1. Climatology and classification of Spring Saharan cyclone tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, A.; Awad, A.; Ammar, K.

    2011-08-01

    Spring Saharan cyclones constitute a dominant feature of the not-well-explored Saharan region. In this manuscript, a climatological analysis and classification of Saharan cyclone tracks are presented using 6-hourly NCEP/NCAR sea level pressure (SLP) reanalyses over the Sahara (10°W-50°E, 20°N-50°N) for the Spring (March-April-May) season over the period 1958-2006. A simple tracking procedure based on following SLP minima is used to construct around 640 Spring Saharan cyclone tracks. Saharan cyclones are found to be short-lived compared to their extratropical counterparts with an e-folding time of about 3 days. The lee side of the west Atlas mountain is found to be the main cyclogenetic region for Spring Saharan cyclones. Central Iraq is identified as the main cyclolytic area. A subjective procedure is used next to classify the cyclone tracks where six clusters are identified. Among these clusters the Western Atlas-Asia Minor is the largest and most stretched, whereas Algerian Sahara-Asia Minor is composed of the most long-lived tracks. Upper level flow associated with the tracks has also been examined and the role of large scale baroclinicity in the growth of Saharan cyclones is discussed.

  2. Climatology and Impact of Convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Pittman, Jasna

    2007-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in controlling the radiative balance and the chemical composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Mechanisms ranging from slow transport and dehydration under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions to fast transport in convection have been proposed as regulators of the amount of water vapor in this layer. However,.details of these mechanisms and their relative importance remain poorly understood, The recently completed Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign had the opportunity to sample the.TTL over the Eastern Tropical Pacific using ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. The main goal of this study is to provide the climatological context for this campaign of deep and overshooting convective activity using various satellite observations collected during the summertime. We use the Microwave Humidity Sensor (MRS) aboard the NOAA-18 satellite to investigate the horizontal extent.and the frequency of convection reaching and penetrating into the TTL. We use the Moderate Resolution I1l1aging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite to investigate the frequency distribution of daytime cirrus clouds. We use the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission(TRMM) and CloudSat to investigate the vertical structure and distribution of hydrometeors in the convective cells, In addition to cloud measurements; we investigate the impact that convection has on the concentration of radiatively important gases such as water vapor and ozone in the TTL by examining satellite measurement obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder(MLS) aboard the Aura satellite.

  3. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Climatology: Approaches Based on SHADOZ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hudson, Robert D.; Andrade, Marcos; Coetzee, Geert J. R.; Posny, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the central website, , for 12 stations that span the entire equatorial zone [Thompson et al., JGR, 108,8238, 2003]. The most striking features of tropospheric ozone profiles in SHADOZ are: (1) persistent longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; (2) intense short-term variability triggered by changing meteorological conditions and advection of pollution. The implications of these results for profile climatologies and trends are described along with several approaches to classifying ozone profiles: 1) Seasonal means during MAM (March-April-May) and SON (September-October-November); 2) Maxima and minima, identified through correlation of TOMS-derived TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) column depth with the sonde integrated tropospheric ozone column; and 3) Meteorological regimes, a technique that is effective in the subtropics where tropical and mid-latitude conditions alternate.

  4. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project: First Algorithm Intercomparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Phillip A.; Xie, Pingping

    1994-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was established by the World Climate Research Program to produce global analyses of the area- and time-averaged precipitation for use in climate research. To achieve the required spatial coverage, the GPCP uses simple rainfall estimates derived from IR and microwave satellite observations. In this paper, we describe the GPCP and its first Algorithm Intercomparison Project (AIP/1), which compared a variety of rainfall estimates derived from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite visible and IR observations and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) microwave observations with rainfall derived from a combination of radar and raingage data over the Japanese islands and the adjacent ocean regions during the June and mid-July through mid-August periods of 1989. To investigate potential improvements in the use of satellite IR data for the estimation of large-scale rainfall for the GPCP, the relationship between rainfall and the fractional coverage of cold clouds in the AIP/1 dataset is examined. Linear regressions between fractional coverage and rainfall are analyzed for a number of latitude-longitude areas and for a range of averaging times. The results show distinct differences in the character of the relationship for different portions of the area. These results suggest that the simple IR-based estimation technique currently used in the GPCP can be used to estimate rainfall for global tropical and subtropical areas, provided that a method for adjusting the proportional coefficient for varying areas and seasons can be determined.

  5. Climatology and Genesis Environment of North Atlantic Polar Lows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Clio; Spengler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Polar lows are intense maritime cyclones occurring during cold air outbreaks in high latitudes. We use the Melbourne University cyclone algorithm to detect and track polar lows. The algorithm employs the Laplacian of mean sea level pressure and is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalyses from 1979 to 2014. Track density maps indicate that polar lows mainly occur close to Svalbard, as well as in the northern Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. This is in accordance to previous studies about polar low tracks densities which are using less objective method and shorter time periods. Also the cyclogenesis density correlates well with the winter-time climatology of cold air outbreaks. Furthermore, we present inter- and intra-annual variability of polar lows and its relation to the NAO as well as sea ice extent. We also differentiated the polar low genesis environment into forward and reverse shear conditions, where forward shear implies that the thermal and mean wind are in the same direction, whereas they are opposite for reverse shear conditions. The forward and reverse shear results based on the objective tracking are similar to a previous study based on polar low tracks from the STARS data set provided by MET Norway.

  6. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Phase 2, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2007-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. The forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Spaceflight Center in Houston, TX consider lightning in their landing forecasts for space shuttles at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), FL Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) do the same in their routine Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAFs) for seven airports in the NWS MLB County Warning Area (CWA). The Applied Meteorology Unit created flow regime climatologies of lightning probability in the 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-n mi circles surrounding the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and all airports in the NWS MLB county warning area in 1-, 3-, and 6-hour increments. The results were presented in tabular and graphical format and incorporated into a web-based graphical user interface so forecasters could easily navigate through the data and to make the GUI usable in any web browser on computers with different operating systems.

  7. Antarctic Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This project has successfully produced a climatology of local noon spectral surface irradiance covering the Antarctic continent and the Southern Ocean, the spectral interval 290-700 nm (UV-A, UV-B, and photosynthetically active radiation, PAR), and the entire sunlit part of the year for November 1979-December 1999. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data were used to specify column ozone abundance and UV-A (360- or 380-nm) reflectivity, and passive microwave (MW) sea ice concentrations were used to specify the surface albedo over the Southern Ocean. For this latter task, sea ice concentration retrievals from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and its successor, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) were identified with ultraviolet/visible-wavelength albedos based on an empirical TOMS/MW parameterization developed for this purpose (Lubin and Morrow, 2001). The satellite retrievals of surface albedo and UV-A reflectivity were used in a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model to estimate cloud effective optical depth. These optical depth estimates were then used along with the total ozone and surface albedo to calculate the downwelling spectral UV and PAR irradiance at the surface. These spectral irradiance maps were produced for every usable day of TOMS data between 1979-1999 (every other day early in the TOMS program, daily later on).

  8. Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.

  9. Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.

  10. Converting NAD83 GPS Heights Into NAVD88 Elevations With LVGEOID, a Hybrid Geoid Height Model for the Long Valley Volcanic Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Dzurisin, Daniel; Langbein, John; Svarc, Jerry; Hill, David P.

    2008-01-01

    A GPS survey of leveling benchmarks done in Long Valley Caldera in 1999 showed that the application of the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) geoid model GEOID99 to tie GPS heights to historical leveling measurements would significantly underestimate the caldera ground deformation (known from other geodetic measurements). The NGS geoid model was able to correctly reproduce the shape of the deformation, but required a local adjustment to give a realistic estimate of the magnitude of the uplift. In summer 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a new leveling survey along two major routes crossing the Long Valley region from north to south (Hwy 395) and from east to west (Hwy 203 - Benton Crossing). At the same time, 25 leveling bench marks were occupied with dual frequency GPS receivers to provide a measurement of the ellipsoid heights. Using the heights from these two surveys, we were able to compute a precise geoid height model (LVGEOID) for the Long Valley volcanic region. Our results show that although the LVGEOID and the latest NGS GEOID03 model practically coincide in areas outside the caldera, there is a difference of up to 0.2 m between the two models within the caldera. Accounting for this difference is critical when using the geoid height model to estimate the ground deformation due to magmatic or tectonic activity in the caldera.

  11. A Comprehensive Plan for Attracting Able Students to Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Sally; And Others

    In response to the need to draw academically able students into the teaching profession, the College of Education and Human Services at Wright State University (Ohio) has initiated several new programs and policies that form part of a comprehensive plan to recruit, select, and retain potentially talented teachers. The special programs include: (1)…

  12. The "Project ABLE" General Woodworking Curriculum. (Interim Product).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Pittsburgh, PA.

    A sample of student tasks and topic objectives which were developed for woodworking courses in Project ABLE are given. A larger collection of these were identified for grades 10, 11, and 12. Prior to this activity an analysis of selected occupations was made, and a frequency count of skills and knowledges was utilized to determine the necessary…

  13. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  14. Extending and Merging the Purple Crow Lidar Temperature Climatologies Using the Inversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Ali; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    Rayleigh and Raman scatter measurements from The University of Western Ontario Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) have been used to develop temperature climatologies for the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using data from 1994 to 2013 (Rayleigh system) and from 1999 to 2013 (vibrational Raman system). Temperature retrievals from Rayleigh-scattering lidar measurements have been performed using the methods by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980; henceforth HC) and Khanna et al. (2012). Argall and Sica (2007) used the HC method to compute a climatology of the PCL measurements from 1994 to 2004 for 35 to 110 km, while Iserhienrhien et al. (2013) applied the same technique from 1999 to 2007 for 10 to 35 km. Khanna et al. (2012) used the inversion technique to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles and found that it had advantages over the HC method. This paper presents an extension of the PCL climatologies created by Argall and Sica (2007) and Iserhienrhien et al. (2013). Both the inversion and HC methods were used to form the Rayleigh climatology, while only the latter was adopted for the Raman climatology. Then, two different approaches were used to merge the climatologies from 10 to 110 km. Among four different functional identities, a trigonometric hyperbolic relation results in the best choice for merging temperature profiles between the Raman and Low level Rayleigh channels, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.9 K for merging temperatures. Also, error function produces best result with uncertainty of 0.7 K between the Low Level Rayleigh and High Level Rayleigh channels. The results show that the temperature climatologies produced by the HC method when using a seed pressure are comparable to the climatologies produced by the inversion method. The Rayleigh extended climatology is slightly warmer below 80 km and slightly colder above 80 km. There are no significant differences in temperature between the extended and the previous Raman channel climatologies. Through out

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Pamela Y.; Johnson, Christian W.; Fang, Cong; Cao, Xiaoqing; Graeber, Thomas G.; Mattos, Carla; Colicelli, John

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins are signal transduction gatekeepers that mediate cell growth, survival, and differentiation through interactions with multiple effector proteins. The RAS effector RAS- and RAB-interacting protein 1 (RIN1) activates its own downstream effectors, the small GTPase RAB5 and the tyrosine kinase Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase (ABL), to modulate endocytosis and cytoskeleton remodeling. To identify ABL substrates downstream of RAS-to-RIN1 signaling, we examined human HEK293T cells overexpressing components of this pathway. Proteomic analysis revealed several novel phosphotyrosine peptides, including Harvey rat sarcoma oncogene (HRAS)-pTyr137. Here we report that ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS. Increased RIN1 levels enhanced HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation by nearly 5-fold, suggesting that RAS-stimulated RIN1 can drive ABL-mediated RAS modification in a feedback circuit. Tyr137 is well conserved among RAS orthologs and is part of a transprotein H-bond network. Crystal structures of HRASY137F and HRASY137E revealed conformation changes radiating from the mutated residue. Although consistent with Tyr137 participation in allosteric control of HRAS function, the mutations did not alter intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates in vitro. HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation enhanced HRAS signaling capacity in cells, however, as reflected by a 4-fold increase in the association of phosphorylated HRASG12V with its effector protein RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RAF1). These data suggest that RAS phosphorylation at Tyr137 allosterically alters protein conformation and effector binding, providing a mechanism for effector-initiated modulation of RAS signaling.—Ting, P. Y., Johnson, C. W., Fang, C., Cao, X., Graeber, T. G., Mattos, C., Colicelli, J. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding. PMID:25999467

  16. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    two with the commander and pilot seats on the top and the two remaining seats underneath, thereby limiting the amount of clearance for the crewmembers seated in the bottom seat. The inner mold line of these types of vehicles are fixed due to other design constraints; therefore, it is essential that all seats incorporate additional clearance to account for adequate spinal growth thereby ensuring that the crew can safely ingress the seat and be strapped in prior to its return to earth. If there is not enough clearance to account for spinal growth deltas between seats then there is the potential that crewmembers will not be able to comfortably and safely fit into their seats. The crewmember in the bottom stacked seat may even have negative clearance with the seat above him or her which could lead to potential ingress/egress issues or potentially injury of the crewmember during landing. These impacts are specific to these types of vehicles with stacked seat configuration. Without proper knowledge of the amount of spinal elongation, or growth, which occurs due to microgravity and space flight, the design of future vehicle(s) or suits may cause injury, discomfort, and limit crew accommodation and crew complements. The experiment primarily aimed to collect seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments, and feed new information regarding the effect of elongation of the spine forward into the design of the Orion. The data collected during the experiment included, two seated height measurement and two digital pictures of seated height pre-, in-, and post-flight. In addition to seated height, crewmembers had an optional task of collecting stature , standing height. Seated height data was obtained from 29 crewmembers that included 8 ISS increment crew (2 females and 6 males) and 21 Shuttle crew (1 female, 20 males), and whose mean age was 48 years ( 4 years). This study utilized the last six Shuttle flights, STS-128 to STS-134. The results show that

  17. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systematic fashion. Here, we present a synthetic review of the literature on human height from an explicit evolutionary perspective, addressing its phylogenetic history, development, and environmental and genetic influences on growth and stature. In addition to presenting evidence to suggest the past action of natural selection on human height, we also assess the evidence that natural and sexual selection continues to act on height in contemporary populations. Although there is clear evidence to suggest that selection acts on height, mainly through life-history processes but perhaps also directly, it is also apparent that methodological factors reduce the confidence with which such inferences can be drawn, and there remain surprising gaps in our knowledge. The inability to draw firm conclusions about the adaptiveness of such a highly visible and easily measured trait suggests we should show an appropriate degree of caution when dealing with other human traits in evolutionary perspective. PMID:25530478

  18. Micropulse lidar-derived aerosol optical depth climatology at ARM sites worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, D. N.; Coulter, R. L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on climatology of the vertical distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD (z)) from micropulse lidar (MPL) observations for climatically different locations worldwide. For this, a large data set obtained by MPL systems operating at 532 nm during the 4 year period 2007-2010 was used to derive vertical profiles of AOD (z) by combining the corresponding AOD data as an input from an independent measurement using nearly colocated multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) systems at five different U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites—three permanent sites (SGP in north-central Oklahoma, at 36.6°N, 97.5°W, 320 m; TWP-Darwin in the tropical western Pacific, at 12.4°S, 130.9°E, 30 m; and NSA at Barrow on the North Slope of Alaska, at 71.3°N, 156.6°W, 8 m) and two mobile facility sites (GRW at Graciosa Island in the Azores, at 39°N, 28°W, 15 m; and FKB in the Black Forest of Germany, at 48.5°N, 8.4°E, 511 m). Therefore, amount of data used in this study is constrained by the availability of the MFRSR data. The MPL raw data were averaged for 30 s in time and 30 m in altitude. The diurnally averaged AOD (z) profiles from 4 years were combined to obtain a multiyear vertical profile of AOD (z) climatology at various ARM sites, including diurnal, day-to-day, and seasonal variabilities. Most aerosols were found to be confined to 0-2 km (approximately the planetary boundary layer region) at all sites; however, all sites exhibited measurable aerosols well above the mixed layer, with different height maxima. The entire data set demonstrates large day-to-day variability at all sites. However, there is no significant diurnal variation in AOD (z) at all sites. Significant interannual variability was observed at the SGP site. Clear seasonal variations in AOD (z) profiles exist for all five sites, but seasonal behavior was distinct. Moreover, the different seasonal variability for the lower level (0 to ~2

  19. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    PubMed

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  20. Recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using offsets method over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odera, Patroba Achola; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important applications of a geoid model is a recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights (normally obtained from GNSS). The application of the geoid model for recovering orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights is normally achieved by fitting the geoid model to a local vertical datum. The fitting procedure is usually accomplished by least squares collocation (LSC), using planar or spherical covariance functions. This procedure warps the gravimetric geoid model onto the local vertical datum, hence the local geoid model derived by this procedure, though convenient for local applications, it is not an equipotential surface. We propose offsets method for practical orthometric height recovery from a geoid model. The proposed procedure is more realistic because it does not constrain the local geoid to be coincident to the local vertical datum. We compare the performance of plannar fitting and offsets methods over Japan using a cross-validation procedure. Results show that offsets method performs better than the normally used planar fitting in the recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using a geoid model. The standard deviations of the differences between established and converted orthometric heights at randomly selected GPS/levelling test points over Japan are ±4 and ±3 cm for planar fitting and offsets methods, respectively. The offsets method is therefore more appropriate for converting ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights than the planar fitting in the area of study.

  1. Polar vortices on Earth and Mars: A comparative study of the climatology and variability from reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, D M; Montabone, L; Thomson, S; Read, P L

    2015-01-01

    Polar vortices on Mars provide case-studies to aid understanding of geophysical vortex dynamics and may help to resolve long-standing issues regarding polar vortices on Earth. Due to the recent development of the first publicly available Martian reanalysis dataset (MACDA), for the first time we are able to characterise thoroughly the structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices, and hence perform a systematic comparison with the polar vortices on Earth. The winter atmospheric circulations of the two planets are compared, with a specific focus on the structure and evolution of the polar vortices. The Martian residual meridional overturning circulation is found to be very similar to the stratospheric residual circulation on Earth during winter. While on Earth this residual circulation is very different from the Eulerian circulation, on Mars it is found to be very similar. Unlike on Earth, it is found that the Martian polar vortices are annular, and that the Northern Hemisphere vortex is far stronger than its southern counterpart. While winter hemisphere differences in vortex strength are also reported on Earth, the contrast is not as large. Distinctions between the two planets are also apparent in terms of the climatological vertical structure of the vortices, in that the Martian polar vortices are observed to decrease in size at higher altitudes, whereas on Earth the opposite is observed. Finally, it is found that the Martian vortices are less variable through the winter than on Earth, especially in terms of the vortex geometry. During one particular major regional dust storm on Mars (Martian year 26), an equatorward displacement of the vortex is observed, sharing some qualitative characteristics of sudden stratospheric warmings on Earth. PMID:26300564

  2. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  3. Melissotarsus ants are likely able to digest plant polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mony, Ruth; Dejean, Alain; Bilong, Charles Félix Bilong; Kenne, Martin; Rouland-Lefèvre, Corinne

    2013-10-01

    Melissotarsus ants have an extremely specialized set of behaviours. Both workers and gynes tunnel galleries in their host tree bark. Workers walk with their mesothoracic legs pointing upwards and tend Diaspididae hemiptera for their flesh. The ants use their forelegs to plug the galleries with silk that they secrete themselves. We hypothesised that the ants' energetic needs for nearly constant gallery digging could be satisfied through the absorption of host tree tissues; so, using basic techniques, we examined the digestive capacities of workers from two species. We show that workers are able to degrade oligosaccharides and heterosides as well as, to a lesser degree, polysaccharides. This is one of the rare reports on ants able to digest plant polysaccharides other than starch.

  4. Global dust altitude climatology based on CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamalis, C.; Chedin, A.; Peyridieu, S.

    2011-12-01

    seasonal climatology with both day and night time data during the last 5 years (June 2006 - May 2011) with a horizontal resolution of 1 degree. Two classes of aerosols are used from the L2 product: dust and polluted dust. It is known that the polluted dust class may also contain smoke or polluted continental aerosols, but the results on the regions possibly contaminated by these aerosols are treated with caution and generally avoided. Results show that both dust mean altitude (a.s.l.) and geometrical thickness present an obvious seasonal dependence with lower values during winter and higher values during summer. Also, there is a contrast land-sea, especially for the geometrical thickness, with higher values, more dispersed, above continents. For the dust belt the altitude is ~2 km during winter, while it reaches ~3 km during summer; the dust geometrical thickness goes from about 2 km in the Sahel region during winter to its maximum of ~3 km above Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula during summer. Above the desert regions of central Asia, altitudes over 5.5 km are observed during spring, with the subsequent long-range transport at ~4.5 km towards North America. The results are, in general, coherent with ECMWF ERA-Interim climatological wind data during the CALIPSO measurement period.

  5. Isolation of a Bacterial Strain Able To Degrade Branched Nonylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Tanghe, Tom; Dhooge, Willem; Verstraete, Willy

    1999-01-01

    Conventional enrichment of microorganisms on branched nonylphenol (NP) as only carbon and energy source yielded mixed cultures able to grow on the organic compound. However, plating yielded no single colonies capable, alone or in combination with other isolates, of degrading the NP in liquid culture. Therefore, a special approach was used, referred to as “serial dilution-plate resuspension,” to reduce culture complexity. In this way, one isolate, TTNP3, tentatively identified as a Sphingomonas sp., was found to be able to grow on NP in liquid culture. Remarkably, this isolate was able to be filtered through a 0.45-μm-pore-diameter filter. Moreover, isolate TTNP3 did not form visible colonies on mineral medium with NP, and it formed visible colonies on R2A agar only after a prolonged incubation of 1 week. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the culture media indicated that the strain starts the degradation of NP with a fission of the phenol ring and preferably uses the para isomer of NP and not the ortho isomer. No distinct accumulation of an intermediary product could be observed. PMID:9925611

  6. The Global Historical Climatology Network: A preview of Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, R.S.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Peterson, T.C.; Eischeid, J.K.

    1995-02-01

    Instruments that could reliably measure temperature, precipitation, and pressure were developed by the late 17th and early 18th centuries. It has been estimated that weather records have been collected at one to two hundred thousand locations since those first instruments were placed in the field. Numerous applications, from global change studies to climate impact assessments to general circulation models, make use of such historical records. Given their importance, it is unfortunate that one cannot approach a single researcher or data center to acquire all of the records for all of the stations, or even a large portion of them. In 1990, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) undertook a collaborative effort aimed at solving this problem. The initiative completed its first data product, known as the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) version 1.0, in 1992. This data base contains quality-controlled monthly climatic time series from 6,039 temperature, 7,533 precipitation, 1,883 sea level pressure, and 1,873 station pressure stations located on global land areas. This paper describes the data and methods being used to compile GHCN version 2.0, an expanded and improved version of its predecessor. Planned for distribution in early 1995, its enhancements will include (1) data for additional stations--perhaps three times as many as in version 1.0, plus maximum/minimum temperature measurements; (2) detailed assessments of data quality, including nearest-neighbor checks; and (3) adjustments for nonclimatic inhomogeneities, such as station relocations and land use changes.

  7. Wind Climatology of the Mount Washington Observatory (1935-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Kevin Patrick

    The Mount Washington Observatory (MWO), which is located on the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire (44.27° N, 71.30° W, 1917 m ASL), has operated and maintained more than 80 years of continuous weather observations. This is the first climatological analysis of the digitized MWO wind record (1935-present) and incorporates data from 1935-2013. The MWO station site changes and obstructions on the summit made a measurable impact on the wind record. This study did not account for the site changes or obstructions on the summit and did not attempt to make corrections on the record. Since the anemometer moved in 1980 to the current location on the Sherman Adams Building, it has been fully exposed to the prevailing westerly wind direction. Wind speed and directional diel patterns exist during all seasons with the most consistent diel pattern seen in the summer. Summer wind speed peaks before sunrise and decrease to a minimum in the early afternoon indicating frequent planetary boundary layer exposure. The weak winter diel wind cycle implies regular exposure to the free troposphere in the winter where synoptic scale patterns dominate wind variability. The influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (e.g., Arctic Oscillation) on xiv Mount Washington wind speed is strongest during the cold season, but is relatively weak. A Theil-Sen's slope trend analysis of the Mount Washington wind record from 1981- 2013 reveals a decrease of 0.25 m s-1 decade-1. Although the finding is not statistically significant, it is consistent with similar decreasing trends observed at other Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude stations that may be a result of Arctic amplification.

  8. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  9. Climatology and a dynamical investigation of tropical cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaadi, Ali; Brunet, Gilbert; Yau, Peter M. K.

    2014-05-01

    In general, observation has indicated that only a small fraction of the easterly waves occur in a single hurricane season contribute to tropical cyclogenesis. However, this small fraction includes a large portion of named storms. In addition, it has recently been shown that named storms in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins are almost all associated with a cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer, located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. Therefore, to better understand the dynamics involved in tropical cyclogenesis, it is desirable to investigate the flow characteristics and the physical mechanism for an easterly wave to form a cat's eye. We have chosen the simplest of all scenarios to present the fundamental concepts of tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer. Our methodology involves performing a climatological study of developing easterly waves covering the 1998-2001 hurricane seasons using ERA-Interim 6-hourly reanalysis data. Spatial and temporal filtering is applied to decompose the desired fields, and time-lagged composites are obtained in a translating reference frame following the disturbances. The stability analysis of the basic state flow has been investigated. The composite basic state zonal wind profiles indicate a cyclonic critical layer at cat's eye formation region. Composite perturbation potential vorticity showed a wave-like pattern, which is in agreement with typical characteristics of easterly waves. Statistical analysis is also used to determine the levels of confidence in the composite fields to assess the reliability of the results. In addition, the total potential vorticity diagnostics show a closed pattern only for one of the easterly wave troughs within the domain, the one associated with the tropical storms, and seem to be a better approach to distinguish developing vs. non-developing disturbances.

  10. An Emerging Global Aerosol Climatology from the MODIS Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.; Levy, Robert C.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Mattoo, Shana; Martins, J. Vandelei; Ichoku, Charles; Koren, Ilan; Hongbin, Yu; Holben, Brent N.

    2008-01-01

    The recently released Collection 5 MODIS aerosol products provide a consistent record of the Earth's aerosol system. Comparison with ground-based AERONET observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) we find that Collection 5 MODIS aerosol products estimate AOD to within expected accuracy more than 60% of the time over ocean and more than 72% of the time over land. This is similar to previous results for ocean, and better than the previous results for land. However, the new Collection introduces a 0.01 5 offset between the Terra and Aqua global mean AOD over ocean, where none existed previously. Aqua conforms to previous values and expectations while Terra is high. The cause of the offset is unknown, but changes to calibration are a possible explanation. We focus the climatological analysis on the better understood Aqua retrievals. We find that global mean AOD at 550 nm over oceans is 0.13 and over land 0.19. AOD in situations with 80% cloud fraction are twice the global mean values, although such situations occur only 2% of the time over ocean and less than 1% of the time over land. There is no drastic change in aerosol particle size associated with these very cloudy situations. Regionally, aerosol amounts vary from polluted areas such as East Asia and India, to the cleanest regions such as Australia and the northern continents. In almost all oceans fine mode aerosol dominates over dust, except in the tropical Atlantic downwind of the Sahara and in some months the Arabian Sea.

  11. Mapping Atmospheric Moisture Climatologies across the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Daly, Christopher; Smith, Joseph I; Olson, Keith V

    2015-01-01

    Spatial climate datasets of 1981-2010 long-term mean monthly average dew point and minimum and maximum vapor pressure deficit were developed for the conterminous United States at 30-arcsec (~800m) resolution. Interpolation of long-term averages (twelve monthly values per variable) was performed using PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model). Surface stations available for analysis numbered only 4,000 for dew point and 3,500 for vapor pressure deficit, compared to 16,000 for previously-developed grids of 1981-2010 long-term mean monthly minimum and maximum temperature. Therefore, a form of Climatologically-Aided Interpolation (CAI) was used, in which the 1981-2010 temperature grids were used as predictor grids. For each grid cell, PRISM calculated a local regression function between the interpolated climate variable and the predictor grid. Nearby stations entering the regression were assigned weights based on the physiographic similarity of the station to the grid cell that included the effects of distance, elevation, coastal proximity, vertical atmospheric layer, and topographic position. Interpolation uncertainties were estimated using cross-validation exercises. Given that CAI interpolation was used, a new method was developed to allow uncertainties in predictor grids to be accounted for in estimating the total interpolation error. Local land use/land cover properties had noticeable effects on the spatial patterns of atmospheric moisture content and deficit. An example of this was relatively high dew points and low vapor pressure deficits at stations located in or near irrigated fields. The new grids, in combination with existing temperature grids, enable the user to derive a full suite of atmospheric moisture variables, such as minimum and maximum relative humidity, vapor pressure, and dew point depression, with accompanying assumptions. All of these grids are available online at http://prism.oregonstate.edu, and include 800-m and 4

  12. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: methodology and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kigotsi, Jean; Soula, Serge; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The global climatology of lightning issued from space observations (OTD and LIS) clearly showed the maximum of the thunderstorm activity is located in a large area of the Congo Basin, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The first goal of the present study is to compare observations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) over a 9-year period (2005-2013) in this 2750 km × 2750 km area. The second goal is to analyse the lightning activity in terms of time and space variability. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN relative to LIS has increased between 2005 and 2013, typically from about 1.70 % to 5.90 %, in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. The mean monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a maximum between November and March and a minimum between June and August, associated with the ICTZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, depending on the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world. The annual flash density shows a sharp maximum localized in eastern DRC regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. This annual maximum systematically located west of Kivu Lake corresponds to that previously identified by many authors as the worldwide maximum which Christian et al. (2013) falsely attributed to Rwanda. Another more extended region within the Congo Basin exhibits moderately large values, especially during the beginning of the period analyzed. A comparison of both patterns of lightning density from the WWLLN and from LIS allows to validate the representativeness of this world network and to restitute the total lightning activity in terms of lightning density and rate.

  13. Mapping Atmospheric Moisture Climatologies across the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Daly, Christopher; Smith, Joseph I; Olson, Keith V

    2015-01-01

    Spatial climate datasets of 1981-2010 long-term mean monthly average dew point and minimum and maximum vapor pressure deficit were developed for the conterminous United States at 30-arcsec (~800m) resolution. Interpolation of long-term averages (twelve monthly values per variable) was performed using PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model). Surface stations available for analysis numbered only 4,000 for dew point and 3,500 for vapor pressure deficit, compared to 16,000 for previously-developed grids of 1981-2010 long-term mean monthly minimum and maximum temperature. Therefore, a form of Climatologically-Aided Interpolation (CAI) was used, in which the 1981-2010 temperature grids were used as predictor grids. For each grid cell, PRISM calculated a local regression function between the interpolated climate variable and the predictor grid. Nearby stations entering the regression were assigned weights based on the physiographic similarity of the station to the grid cell that included the effects of distance, elevation, coastal proximity, vertical atmospheric layer, and topographic position. Interpolation uncertainties were estimated using cross-validation exercises. Given that CAI interpolation was used, a new method was developed to allow uncertainties in predictor grids to be accounted for in estimating the total interpolation error. Local land use/land cover properties had noticeable effects on the spatial patterns of atmospheric moisture content and deficit. An example of this was relatively high dew points and low vapor pressure deficits at stations located in or near irrigated fields. The new grids, in combination with existing temperature grids, enable the user to derive a full suite of atmospheric moisture variables, such as minimum and maximum relative humidity, vapor pressure, and dew point depression, with accompanying assumptions. All of these grids are available online at http://prism.oregonstate.edu, and include 800-m and 4

  14. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Meier, Matthias M.; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis suggests

  15. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  16. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  17. Mapping Atmospheric Moisture Climatologies across the Conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Smith, Joseph I.; Olson, Keith V.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial climate datasets of 1981–2010 long-term mean monthly average dew point and minimum and maximum vapor pressure deficit were developed for the conterminous United States at 30-arcsec (~800m) resolution. Interpolation of long-term averages (twelve monthly values per variable) was performed using PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model). Surface stations available for analysis numbered only 4,000 for dew point and 3,500 for vapor pressure deficit, compared to 16,000 for previously-developed grids of 1981–2010 long-term mean monthly minimum and maximum temperature. Therefore, a form of Climatologically-Aided Interpolation (CAI) was used, in which the 1981–2010 temperature grids were used as predictor grids. For each grid cell, PRISM calculated a local regression function between the interpolated climate variable and the predictor grid. Nearby stations entering the regression were assigned weights based on the physiographic similarity of the station to the grid cell that included the effects of distance, elevation, coastal proximity, vertical atmospheric layer, and topographic position. Interpolation uncertainties were estimated using cross-validation exercises. Given that CAI interpolation was used, a new method was developed to allow uncertainties in predictor grids to be accounted for in estimating the total interpolation error. Local land use/land cover properties had noticeable effects on the spatial patterns of atmospheric moisture content and deficit. An example of this was relatively high dew points and low vapor pressure deficits at stations located in or near irrigated fields. The new grids, in combination with existing temperature grids, enable the user to derive a full suite of atmospheric moisture variables, such as minimum and maximum relative humidity, vapor pressure, and dew point depression, with accompanying assumptions. All of these grids are available online at http://prism.oregonstate.edu, and include 800-m

  18. The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

  19. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

  20. Understanding the Rainfall Daily Climatology of Northwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito-Castillo, L.

    2007-05-01

    Maximum monthly precipitation (MMP) over northwestern Mexico is not concurrent because it occurs in different months from July through September. However, instead of occurring progressively from one month to the next as latitude increases, as it might be logic since rains move progressively from south to north as monsoon develops, MMP occurs in July in latitudes of Jalisco state, then MMP shifts to August more to the north in latitudes of Nayarit state and along the eastern coast of the Gulf of California, then it occurs in July in higher latitudes through the main axis of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), and finally MMP shifts to September to the west in the California Peninsula. The maximum monthly streamflow occurs in a similar pattern as MMP does but one month later. When daily rainfall climatology of the region is calculated, i.e. the long-term mean per day from stations with more than 20 years of data between 1940 and 2004, it is possible to understand why the behavior of MMP occurs in a July-August-July pattern from south to north. Preliminary results indicate that at latitudes of Nayarit state normal frequent storms with abundant rains develop at the end of July and through the August. These rains sum to the rains that move from the south to the north, as monsoon develops increasing the volume of precipitations at those latitudes in August. To the east crossing the SMO through northwestern Zacatecas state maximum volume of precipitations also is observed in August. However, in higher latitudes it is not observed any increment of rains in August and consequently maximum volume of precipitations occurs in July. To understand the dynamics of the rains at the latitudes of Nayarit state it results necessary to investigate the source of these local rains and explain why the increase of precipitations in August is limited at those latitudes.

  1. Duck!: Scaling the height of a horizontal barrier to body height

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Geuss, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research shows that the body is used to scale environmental extents. We question whether the body is used to scale heights as measured by real actions (Experiments 1 and 2), or judgments about action and extent made from a single viewpoint (Experiments 3 and 4). First, participants walked under barriers either naturally or when wearing shoes or a helmet. Participants required a larger margin of safety (ducked at shorter heights) when they were made taller. In follow-up experiments, participants visually matched barrier heights and judged whether they could walk under them when wearing shoes or a helmet. Only the helmet decreased visually matched estimates; action judgments were no different when taller. The final experiment suggested that the change in matched estimates may have been due to lack of experience wearing the helmet. Overall, the results suggest that perceived height is scaled to the body and that when body height is altered, experience may moderate the rescaling of height. PMID:20601715

  2. Are inequalities in height narrowing? Comparing effects of social class on height in two generations

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Manor, O; Power, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether social inequalities in height change across generations. Methods: The target population was from the 1958 British birth cohort, all born 3rd–9th March 1958, followed to 1991, and the offspring of one third of this population. Main outcomes were height measured at 7, 11, 16, and 33 years (cohort members) and once at 4–18 years (offspring). Multilevel models applied to associations of social class of origin with (a) child-to-adult growth trajectory (cohort members), (b) height (offspring), and (c) generational height increment. Results: Height inequalities were observed among cohort members, with differences >2.0 cm at all ages between classes I and II, and IV and V. By adulthood, the difference in mean height had declined significantly in boys and slightly in girls. A secular trend was seen between the two generations. While male offspring had a similar mean height to their fathers in classes I and II, boys in classes IV and V gained 2.1 cm (p<0.001). Height gains of female offspring were evident in all classes, with a greater gain in classes IV and V (non-significant). The social class effect on height was weaker among offspring, with a difference between classes I and II, and IV and V of less than 1 cm. Conclusions: Social inequalities in height observed among the cohort weakened substantially in the next generation due to a greater height gain among offspring from manual classes. Inequalities in childhood height have narrowed between the two generations in this study. PMID:15499054

  3. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  4. The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    1990-10-01

    Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.

  5. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and the tropical climatology. Part I. The dangers of flux correction

    SciTech Connect

    Neelin, J.D.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    1995-05-01

    This sequence of papers examines the role of dynamical feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere in determining features of the tropical climatology. A stripped-down, intermediate, coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to provide a prototype problem for the Pacific basin. Here the authors contrast the fully coupled case with the case where flux correction is used to construct the climatology. In the fully coupled case, the climatology is determined largely by feedback mechanisms within the ocean basin: winds driven by gradients of sea surface temperature (SST) within the basin interact with the ocean circulation to maintain SST gradients. For all realistic cases, these lead to a unique steady solution for the tropical climatology. In the flux-corrected case, the artificially constructed climatology becomes unstable at sufficiently large coupling, leading to multiple steady states as found in a number of coupled models. Using continuation methods, we show that there is a topological change in the bifurcation structure as flux correction is relaxed toward a fully coupled case; this change is characterized as an imperfection and must occur generically for all flux-corrected cases. The cold branch is steady solutions is governed by mechanisms similar to the fully coupled case. The warm branch, however, is spurious and disappears. The dynamics of this and consequences for coupled models are discussed. Multiple steady states can be ruled out as a mechanism for El Nino in favor of oscillatory mechanisms. The important role that coupled feedbacks are suggested to play in establishing tropical climatology is referred to as {open_quotes}the climatological version of the Bjerknes hypothesis.{close_quotes} 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Comparison of global precipitation climatology products derived from ground- and satellite-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-based products increasingly take an important role in filling data gaps in data sparse regions around the world. In recent years, precipitation products that utilize multi-satellite and multi-sensor datasets have been gaining more popularity than products from a single sensor or satellite. Adjusted with gauge and ground radar data, satellitebased products have been significantly improved. However the history of satellite-based precipitation products is relatively short compared to the length of 30 years in the definition for climatology from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). For example, the NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has been in operation for over 16 years since 1997. The length of TRMM is far shorter than those from ground observations, raising a question whether TRMM climatology products are good enough for research and applications. In this study, three climatologies derived from ground observations (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Willmott and Matsuura (WM)) and a blended product (the TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) monthly product or 3B43) are compared on a global scale to assess the performance and weaknesses of the TMPAderived climatology. Results show that the 3B43 climatology matches well with the two gauge-based climatologies in all seasons in terms of spatial distribution, zonal means as well as seasonal variations. However, high variations in rain rates are found in light rain regions such as the Sahara Desert. Large negative biases (3B43

  7. First look at the NOAA Aircraft-based Tropospheric Ozone Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, M.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; McClure-Begley, A.; Lin, M.; Tarasick, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network's aircraft program has operated since the 1990s as part of the NOAA Global Monitoring Division network to capture spatial and temporal variability in greenhouse tracers (i.e. CO2, CO, N2O, methane, SF6, halo- and hydro-carbons). Since 2005 the suite of airborne measurements also includes ozone, humidity and temperature profiling through the troposphere (up to 8 km). Light commercial aircraft are equipped with modified 2B Technology ozone monitors (Model 205DB), incorporate temperature and humidity probes, and include global positioning system instrumentation. The dataset was analyzed for tropospheric ozone variability at five continental US stations. As site locations within the Tropospheric Aircraft Ozone Measurement Program have flights only once (four times at one site) a month and begun a decade ago, this raises the question of whether this sampling frequency allows the derivation of an accurate vertical climatology of ozone values. We interpret the representativeness of the vertical and seasonal ozone distribution from aircraft measurements using multi-decadal hindcast simulations conducted with the GFDL AM3 chemistry-climate model. When available, climatology derived from co-located ozone-sonde data will be used for comparisons. The results of the comparisons are analyzed to establish altitude ranges in the troposphere where the aircraft climatology would be deemed to be the most representative. Aircraft-based climatologies are tested from two approaches: comparing the aircraft-based climatology to the daily sampled model and to the subset of model data with matching aircraft dates. Whenever the model and aircraft climatologies show significant seasonal differences, further information is gathered from a seasonal Gaussian distribution plot. We will report on the minimum frequency in flights that can provide adequate climatological representation of seasonal and vertical variability in tropospheric ozone.

  8. The height limit of a siphon

    PubMed Central

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  9. The height limit of a siphon.

    PubMed

    Boatwright, A; Hughes, S; Barry, J

    2015-12-02

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure-about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  10. The height limit of a siphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-12-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  11. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  12. The height limit of a siphon.

    PubMed

    Boatwright, A; Hughes, S; Barry, J

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure-about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  13. A 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaiyer, M. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Nordeen, M. L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.

    2001-01-01

    While the various instruments maintained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) provide detailed cloud and radiation measurements for a small area, satellite cloud property retrievals provide a means of examining the large-scale properties of the surrounding region over an extended period of time. Seasonal and inter-annual climatological trends can be analyzed with such a dataset. For this purpose, monthly datasets of cloud and radiative properties from December 1996 through November 1999 over the SGP region have been derived using the layered bispectral threshold method (LBTM). The properties derived include cloud optical depths (ODs), temperatures and albedos, and are produced on two grids of lower (0.5 deg) and higher resolution (0.3 deg) centered on the ARM SGP CF. The extensive time period and high-resolution of the inner grid of this dataset allows for comparison with the suite of instruments located at the ARM CF. In particular, Whole-Sky Imager (WSI) and the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) cloud products can be compared to the cloud amounts and heights of the LBTM 0.3 deg grid box encompassing the CF site. The WSI provides cloud fraction and the ARSCL computes cloud fraction, base, and top heights using the algorithms by Clothiaux et al. (2001) with a combination of Belfort Laser Ceilometer (BLC), Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), and Micropulse Lidar (MPL) data. This paper summarizes the results of the LBTM analysis for 3 years of GOES-8 data over the SGP and examines the differences between surface and satellite-based estimates of cloud fraction.

  14. Orthometric height determination using optical clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, WenBin

    2013-04-01

    General relativity theory predicts that there exists a gravity frequency shift (gravitational red shift) if an electromagnetic signal propagates from one point to another point, and the frequency shift depends on the geopotential difference between these two points. Inversely, by measuring the gravity frequency shift between arbitrary two points we may determine the geopotential and consequently the orthometric height difference between these two points. To improve our previous investigations (Shen and Peng 2012), the present study provides further foundation of the optical-fiber frequency transfer approach (OFTA; Shen and Peng 2012) and describes in details how to determine the orthometric height between two points using optical clocks via optical fiber. Optical clocks have achieved a stability of 10E-17 to 10E-18. In another aspect, remote optical fiber communication (e.g. Predehl et al. 2012) demonstrates a frequency comparison accuracy at the level of 10E-18 (or better), which is equivalent to a height variation of 1cm. The quick development of time-frequency science, including the high-precise optical clocks, provides potential of determining the orthometric height between arbitrary two points which are connected by optical fiber. This study suggests that determining the orthometric height difference between two points using optical clocks via optical fiber frequency transfer communication technique is prospective and potential. The realization of the OFTA may greatly contribute to the unification of the world height system (WHS). This work was supported partly by the NSFC (grant No. 41174011), National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant No. 41210006, 41128003, 41021061, 40974015).

  15. Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tõnu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gögele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Åsa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polašek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kähönen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Räikkönen, Katri; Masciullo, Corrado; Starr, John M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Esposito, Laura; Kolčić, Ivana; Farrington, Susan M.; Oostra, Ben; Zemunik, Tatijana; Campbell, Harry; Kirin, Mirna; Pehlic, Marina; Faletra, Flavio; Porteous, David; Pistis, Giorgio; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Koskinen, Seppo; Fischer, Krista; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heath, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Madden, Pamela A. F.; d'Adamo, Pio; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Rudan, Igor; Gasparini, Paolo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Deary, Ian J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T.; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Wilson, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance. PMID:22829771

  16. Communication barriers between 'the able-bodied' and 'the handicapped'.

    PubMed

    Zola, I K

    1981-08-01

    The specific details and hardships of having a handicap or chronic disease vary from person to person. But not the core problem. The story is inevitably difficult both to hear and to tell. The hearing brings up many basic fears of personal and social failure to the listener. The telling confronts the individual who has a handicap with the depressing realities to be faced every day. Moreover, the problems that both "the able-bodied" and "the handicapped" have in communicating with one another are rooted deep in Western culture. PMID:6455101

  17. A new river discharge and river temperature climatology data set for the pan-Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitefield, Jonathan; Winsor, Peter; McClelland, James; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    Most regional ocean models that use discharge as part of the forcing use relatively coarse river discharge data sets (1°, or ∼110 km) compared to the model resolution (typically 1/4° or less), and do not account for seasonal changes in river water temperature. We introduce a new climatological data set of river discharge and river water temperature with 1/6° grid spacing over the Arctic region (Arctic River Discharge and Temperature; ARDAT), incorporating observations from 30 Arctic rivers. The annual mean discharge for all rivers in ARDAT is 2817 ± 330 km3 yr-1. River water temperatures range between 0 °C in winter to 14.0-17.6 °C in July, leading to a long-term mean monthly heat flux from all rivers of 3.2 ± 0.6 TW, of which 31% is supplied by Alaskan rivers and 69% is supplied by Eurasian rivers. This riverine heat flux is equivalent to 44% of the estimated ocean heat flux associated with the Bering Strait throughflow, but during the spring freshet can be ∼10 times as large, suggesting that heat flux associated with Arctic rivers is an important component of the Arctic heat budget on seasonal time scales. We apply the ARDAT data set to a high-resolution regional ocean-ice model, and compare results to a model integration using a 1° resolution discharge data set. Integrated freshwater content on the Arctic shelves (<200 m) increases by ∼3600 km3 in the ARDAT forced model run compared to the coarser forcing, suggesting that river discharge is contained on the Arctic shelves when forced with the ARDAT data set. Modelled summer heat fluxes over the shelves increase by 8 TW when river water temperature is included, which subsequently reduces basin-wide September sea ice extent by ∼10%. Regional differences are larger, where e.g., sea ice extent on the Beaufort shelf is reduced by ∼36%. Using a non-linear free surface parameterization along with the ARDAT data set, we find an increase in the sea surface height gradient around river mouths

  18. Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelium.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Daniel; Cailleau, Guillaume; Bindschedler, Saskia; Simon, Anaele; Job, Daniel; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    A technique based on an inverted Petri dish system was developed for the growth and isolation of soil oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelia. The method is related to the 'fungal highways' dispersion theory in which mycelial fungal networks allow active movement of bacteria in soil. Quantification of this phenomenon showed that bacterial dispersal occurs preferentially in upper soil horizons. Eight bacteria and one fungal strain were isolated by this method. The oxalotrophic activity of the isolated bacteria was confirmed through calcium oxalate dissolution in solid selective medium. After separation of the bacteria-fungus couple, partial sequencing of the 16S and the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal RNA genes were used for the identification of bacteria and the associated fungus. The isolated oxalotrophic bacteria included strains related to Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Cohnella, and Variovorax. The recovered fungus corresponded to Trichoderma sp. A test carried out to verify bacterial transport in an unsaturated medium showed that all the isolated bacteria were able to migrate on Trichoderma hyphae or glass fibers to re-colonize an oxalate-rich medium. The results highlight the importance of fungus-driven bacterial dispersal to understand the functional role of oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi in soils. PMID:24106816

  19. Zebra finches are able to learn affixation-like patterns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiani; Jansen, Naomi; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Adding an affix to transform a word is common across the world languages, with the edges of words more likely to carry out such a function. However, detecting affixation patterns is also observed in learning tasks outside the domain of language, suggesting that the underlying mechanism from which affixation patterns have arisen may not be language or even human specific. We addressed whether a songbird, the zebra finch, is able to discriminate between, and generalize, affixation-like patterns. Zebra finches were trained and tested in a Go/Nogo paradigm to discriminate artificial song element sequences resembling prefixed and suffixed 'words.' The 'stems' of the 'words,' consisted of different combinations of a triplet of song elements, to which a fourth element was added as either a 'prefix' or a 'suffix.' After training, the birds were tested with novel stems, consisting of either rearranged familiar element types or novel element types. The birds were able to generalize the affixation patterns to novel stems with both familiar and novel element types. Hence, the discrimination resulting from the training was not based on memorization of individual stimuli, but on a shared property among Go or Nogo stimuli, i.e., affixation patterns. Remarkably, birds trained with suffixation as Go pattern showed clear evidence of using both prefix and suffix, while those trained with the prefix as the Go stimulus used primarily the prefix. This finding illustrates that an asymmetry in attending to different affixations is not restricted to human languages. PMID:26297477

  20. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Results, Status and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is one of a number of long-term, satellite-based, global analyses routinely produced under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and its Global Energy and Watercycle EXperiment (GEWEX) program. The research quality analyses are produced a few months after real-time through the efforts of scientists at various national agencies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. The primary product is a monthly analysis of surface precipitation that is globally complete and spans the period 1979-present. There are also pentad analyses for the same period and a daily analysis for the 1997-present period. Although generated with somewhat different data sets and analysis schemes, the pentad and daily data sets are forced to agree with the primary monthly analysis on a grid box by grid box basis. The primary input data sets are from low-orbit passive microwave observations, geostationary infrared observations and surface raingauge information. Examples of research with the data sets are discussed, focusing on tropical (25N-25s) rainfall variations and possible long-term changes in the 28-year (1979-2006) monthly dataset. Techniques are used to discriminate among the variations due to ENSO, volcanic events and possible long-term changes for rainfall over both land and ocean. The impact of the two major volcanic eruptions over the past 25 years is estimated to be about a 5% maximum reduction in tropical rainfall during each event. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, a small upward linear change over tropical ocean (0.06 mm/day/l0yr) and a slight downward linear change over tropical land (-0.03 mm/day/l0yr) are examined to understand the impact of the inhomogeneity in the data record and the length of the data set. These positive changes correspond to about a 5% increase (ocean) and 3% increase (ocean plus land) during this time period. Relations between variations in

  1. Climatology of Diffusion Potential Classes for Minneapolis-St. Paul.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Allen B.; Baker, Donald G.

    1997-12-01

    This climatological study reports on the potential for atmospheric diffusion at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, cities located in the heart of the North American continent. As such, the results can be considered typical of an urban setting within a continental climate.Data were obtained from a nearly continuous 8-yr record of vertical temperature and wind measurements made on a 152.4-m tower. Temperature lapse rates between 21.3 and 152.4 m were grouped into three stability categories: 1) isothermal-inversion, 2) subadiabatic, and 3) superadiabatic. A subdivision of each was based upon wind speeds of less than 4 m s1 and greater than or equal to 4 m s1, resulting in six classes that were examined according to wind direction, time of day, time of year and, most importantly, the associated synoptic conditions.The isothermal-inversion condition was limited to nighttime periods, especially when high pressure centers were dominant and winds were less than 4 m s1. The highest frequency of occurrence was during midsummer, while the lowest was during late fall and early winter. The subadiabatic condition was primarily a nighttime phenomenon, except for the winter season when it was also common during the day. An interesting feature of the diurnal frequencies was that a morning and evening subadiabatic peak occurred due to the transition between nighttime stable and the daytime unstable conditions. The superadiabatic condition was mainly a daytime phenomenon and dominated the early afternoon period throughout the year.The lowest diffusion potential, a result of very stable air and light winds, occurred during the nighttime period, particularly when under the influence of a high pressure center. Weak to moderate diffusion potential, found to occur with weakly stable air and light to moderate winds, was associated with the perimeter of the high pressure center and also with overcast skies near a low pressure center. This condition normally occurred during the night as well

  2. High Resolution Hydro-climatological Projections for Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Andre Richard

    Accurate identification of the impact of global warming on water resources and hydro-climatic extremes represents a significant challenge to the understanding of climate change on the regional scale. Here an analysis of hydro-climatic changes in western Canada is presented, with specific focus on the Fraser and Athabasca River basins and on changes in hydro-climatic extremes. The analysis is based on a suite of simulations designed to characterize internal variability, as well as model uncertainty. A small ensemble of Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) simulations was employed to generate global climate projections, which were downscaled to 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF V3.4.1) with several sets of physical parameterizations. Downscaling was performed for a historical validation period and a mid- and end-21st-century projection period, using the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas trajectory. Daily station observations and monthly gridded datasets were used for validation. Changes in hydro-climatic extremes are characterized using Extreme Value Analysis. A novel method of aggregating data from climatologically similar stations was employed to increase the statistical power of the analysis. Changes in mean and extreme precipitation are found to differ strongly between seasons and regions, but (relative) changes in extremes generally follow changes in the (seasonal) mean. At the end of the 21st century, precipitation and precipitation extremes are projected to increase by 30% at the coast in fall and land-inwards in winter, while the projected increase in summer precipitation is smaller and changes in extremes are often not statistically significant. Reasons for the differences between seasons, the role of precipitation recycling in atmospheric water transport, and the sensitivity to physics parameterizations are discussed. Major changes are projected for the Fraser River basin, including earlier snowmelt and a 50% reduction in

  3. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  4. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations and data assimilations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation data sets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation data sets is examined using two metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams, which allow examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis data sets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high-density observation networks. The regions of large inter-data-set variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extremely high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreement between data sets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5: the inter-data-set variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these data sets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the

  5. Assessing Extremes Climatology Using NWS Local Climate Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Hollingshead, A.; Hilderbrand, D.; Mayes, B.; Hartley, T.; Kempf McGavock, N. M.; Lau, E.; Olenic, E. A.; Motta, B.; Bunge, R.; Brown, L. E.; Fritsch, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) is evolving out of a need to support and enhance the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) field offices’ ability to access, manipulate, and interpret local climate data and characterize climate variability and change impacts. LCAT will enable NWS Regional Headquarters, Weather Forecast Offices, Weather Service Offices, and River Forecast Centers the ability to conduct regional and local climate studies using station and reanalysis gridded data and various statistical techniques for climate analysis. The analysis results will be used for climate services to guide local decision makers in weather and climate sensitive actions and to deliver information to the general public. Field offices need standardized, scientifically sound methodology for local climate analysis (such as trend, composites, and principal statistical and time-series analysis) that is comprehensive, accessible, and efficient, with the potential to expand with growing NOAA Climate Services needs. The methodology for climate analyses is practiced by the NWS Climate Prediction Center (CPC), NOAA National Climatic Data Center, and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, as well as NWS field office staff. LCAT will extend this practice at the local level, allowing it to become both widespread and standardized, and thus improve NWS climate services capabilities. LCAT focus is on the local scale (as opposed to national and global scales of CPC products). The LCAT will: -Improve professional competency of local office staff and expertise in providing local information to their users. LCAT will improve quality of local climate services -Ensure adequate local input to CPC products that depend on local information, such as the U.S. Drought Monitor. LCAT will allow improvement of CPC climate products -Allow testing of local climate variables beyond temperature averages and precipitation totals such as climatology of

  6. Modeling the Climatology of Tornado Occurrence with Bayesian Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. S.

    Our mechanistic understanding of tornadic environments has significantly improved by the recent technological enhancements in the detection of tornadoes as well as the advances of numerical weather predictive modeling. Nonetheless, despite the decades of active research, prediction of tornado occurrence remains one of the most difficult problems in meteorological and climate science. In our efforts to develop predictive tools for tornado occurrence, there are a number of issues to overcome, such as the treatment of inconsistent tornado records, the consideration of suitable combination of atmospheric predictors, and the selection of appropriate resolution to accommodate the variability in time and space. In this dissertation, I address each of these topics by undertaking three empirical (statistical) modeling studies, where I examine the signature of different atmospheric factors influencing the tornado occurrence, the sampling biases in tornado observations, and the optimal spatiotemporal resolution for studying tornado occurrence. In the first study, I develop a novel Bayesian statistical framework to assess the probability of tornado occurrence in Canada, in which the sampling bias of tornado observations and the linkage between lightning climatology and tornadogenesis are considered. The results produced reasonable probability estimates of tornado occurrence for the under-sampled areas in the model domain. The same study also delineated the geographical variability in the lightning-tornado relationship across Canada. In the second study, I present a novel modeling framework to examine the relative importance of several key atmospheric variables (e.g., convective available potential energy, 0-3 km storm-relative helicity, 0-6 km bulk wind difference, 0-tropopause vertical wind shear) on tornado activity in North America. I found that the variable quantifying the updraft strength is more important during the warm season, whereas the effects of wind

  7. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2–3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns. PMID:24392279

  8. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case-control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2-3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance - contrary to various specific phobias - is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.

  9. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  10. Modeling Dynamic Height and Crown Growth in Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, O.; Fransson, P.; Brännström, Å.

    2015-12-01

    Previously we have shown how principles based on productivity maximization (e.g. maximization of net primary production, net growth maximization, or functional balance) can explain allocation responses to resources, such as nutrients and light (Franklin et al., 2012). However, the success of these approaches depend on how well they align with the ultimate driver of plant behavior, fitness, or life time reproductive success. Consequently, they may not fully explain how allocation changes during the life cycle of trees where not only growth but also survival and reproduction are important. In addition, maximizing instantaneous productivity does not account for path dependence of tree growth. For example, maximizing productivity during early growth in shade may delay emergence in the forest canopy and reduce lifetime fitness compared to a more height oriented strategy. Here we present an approach to model how growth of stem diameter and leaf area in relation to stem height dynamically responds to light conditions in a way that maximizes life-time fitness (rather than instantaneous growth). The model is able to predict growth of trees growing in different types of forests, including trees emerging under a closed canopy and seedlings planted in a clear-cut area. It can also predict the response to sudden changes in the light environment, due to disturbances or harvesting. We envisage two main applications of the model, (i) Modeling effects of forest management, including thinning and planting (ii) Elucidating height growth strategies in trees and how they can be represented in vegetation models. ReferenceFranklin O, Johansson J, Dewar RC, Dieckmann U, McMurtrie RE, Brännström Å, Dybzinski R. 2012. Modeling carbon allocation in trees: a search for principles. Tree Physiology 32(6): 648-666.

  11. Satellite images analysis for shadow detection and building height estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liasis, Gregoris; Stavrou, Stavros

    2016-09-01

    Satellite images can provide valuable information about the presented urban landscape scenes to remote sensing and telecommunication applications. Obtaining information from satellite images is difficult since all the objects and their surroundings are presented with feature complexity. The shadows cast by buildings in urban scenes can be processed and used for estimating building heights. Thus, a robust and accurate building shadow detection process is important. Region-based active contour models can be used for satellite image segmentation. However, spectral heterogeneity that usually exists in satellite images and the feature similarity representing the shadow and several non-shadow regions makes building shadow detection challenging. In this work, a new automated method for delineating building shadows is proposed. Initially, spectral and spatial features of the satellite image are utilized for designing a custom filter to enhance shadows and reduce intensity heterogeneity. An effective iterative procedure using intensity differences is developed for tuning and subsequently selecting the most appropriate filter settings, able to highlight the building shadows. The response of the filter is then used for automatically estimating the radiometric property of the shadows. The customized filter and the radiometric feature are utilized to form an optimized active contour model where the contours are biased to delineate shadow regions. Post-processing morphological operations are also developed and applied for removing misleading artefacts. Finally, building heights are approximated using shadow length and the predefined or estimated solar elevation angle. Qualitative and quantitative measures are used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method for both shadow detection and building height estimation.

  12. Modeling the plasmasphere to topside ionosphere scale height ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Pencho; Kutiev, Ivan; Belehaki, Anna; Tsagouri, Ioanna

    2015-08-01

    A new model of plasmasphere to topside ionosphere scale heights ratio is developed, based on topside electron density (Ne) profiles deduced from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS)-1 satellite measurements. The model is able to improve operational algorithms for space weather predictions. The topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric scale heights are determined by the lowest and largest gradients of measured profiles, respectively, converted in dh/dlnNe units. The new model depends on four parameters: the month of the year (M), the local time (LT), the geomagnetic latitude (glat), and the ln(O+) density (zO) at the O+-H+ ion transition height. It is designed to replace the old one-dimensional model of the ratio in the TaD (TSM-assisted Digisonde) profiler. The parameters M, LT, and glat are approximated by trigonometric basis functions, while zO is described by a polynomial. A series of models were produced with different number of coefficients (number of terms) of the basis functions. Comparison between models revealed that those with larger number of coefficients can produce unrealistic extremes of the model curves due to the non-uniform sampling of data along the axes. Further considered is the simplest model approximating M, LT, and glat by simple 24 sinusoidal functions and linearly depending on zO. The model description and its 54 coefficients are given in Appendix 1 and can be used by other users for reconstruction of plasmasphere density profiles. The main variation of the ratio along geomagnetic latitude at fixed values of the other model parameters is illustrated in a series of plots.

  13. On the climatological probability of the vertical propagation of stationary planetary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, K.; Braesicke, P.; Sinnhuber, M.; Versick, S.

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a diagnostic tool to assess in a climatological framework the optimal propagation conditions for stationary planetary waves. Analyzing 50 winters using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data we derive probability density functions (PDFs) of positive refractive indices as a function of zonal and meridional wave numbers. We contrast this quantity with classical climatological means of the refractive index. Introducing a Membership Value Function (MVF) based on fuzzy logic, we objectively generate a modified set of PDFs (mPDFs) and demonstrate their superior performance compared to the climatological mean of refractive indices and the original PDFs. We argue that mPDFs allow an even better understanding of how background conditions impact wave propagation in a climatological sense. As expected, probabilities are decreasing with increasing zonal wave numbers. In addition we discuss the meridional wave number dependency of the PDFs which is usually neglected, highlighting the contribution of meridional wave numbers 2 and 3 in the stratosphere. We also describe how mPDFs change in response to strong vortex regime (SVR) and weak vortex regime (WVR) conditions, with increased probabilities during WVR than SVR in the stratosphere. We conclude that the mPDFs are a convenient way to summarize climatological information about planetary wave propagation in reanalysis and climate model data.

  14. On the climatological probability of the vertical propagation of stationary planetary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Khalil; Braesicke, Peter; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Versick, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a diagnostic tool to assess a climatological framework of the optimal propagation conditions for stationary planetary waves. Analyzing 50 winters using NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data we derive probability density functions (PDFs) of positive vertical wave number as a function of zonal and meridional wave numbers. We contrast this quantity with classical climatological means of the vertical wave number. Introducing a membership value function (MVF) based on fuzzy logic, we objectively generate a modified set of PDFs (mPDFs) and demonstrate their superior performance compared to the climatological mean of vertical wave number and the original PDFs. We argue that mPDFs allow an even better understanding of how background conditions impact wave propagation in a climatological sense. As expected, probabilities are decreasing with increasing zonal wave numbers. In addition we discuss the meridional wave number dependency of the PDFs which is usually neglected, highlighting the contribution of meridional wave numbers 2 and 3 in the stratosphere. We also describe how mPDFs change in response to strong vortex regime (SVR) and weak vortex regime (WVR) conditions, with increased probabilities of the wave propagation during WVR than SVR in the stratosphere. We conclude that the mPDFs are a convenient way to summarize climatological information about planetary wave propagation in reanalysis and climate model data.

  15. Height as a Basis for Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.

    Based on the observation that taller males seem to have an advantage in date/mate selection, a study investigated the role that height plays in the choice of a partner. Subjects, 594 student volunteers from communication classes at a large Mid-Atlantic university, completed a questionnaire designed to assess such factors as respondent sex, present…

  16. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section 3280.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section 3280.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  18. 75 FR 22691 - Death of Dorothy Height

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-10248 Filed 4-29-10; 8:45 am... memory of Dorothy Height, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the...

  19. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  20. Expressing gait-line symmetry in able-bodied gait

    PubMed Central

    Jeleń, Piotr; Wit, Andrzej; Dudziński, Krzysztof; Nolan, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait-lines, or the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the vertical ground reaction force, are a commonly reported parameter in most in-sole measuring systems. However, little is known about what is considered a "normal" or "abnormal" gait-line pattern or level of asymmetry. Furthermore, no reference databases on healthy young populations are available for this parameter. Thus the aim of this study is to provide such reference data in order to allow this tool to be better used in gait analysis. Methods Vertical ground reaction force data during several continuous gait cycles were collected using a Computer Dyno Graphy in-sole system® for 77 healthy young able-bodied subjects. A curve (termed gait-line) was obtained from the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the force. An Asymmetry Coefficient Curve (AsC) was calculated between the mean gait-lines for the left and right foot for each subject. AsC limits of ± 1.96 and 3 standard deviations (SD) from the mean were then calculated. Gait-line data from 5 individual subjects displaying pathological gait due to disorders relating to the discopathy of the lumbar spine (three with considerable plantarflexor weakness, two with considerable dorsiflexor weakness) were compared to the AsC results from the able-bodied group. Results The ± 1.96 SD limit suggested that non-pathological gait falls within 12–16% asymmetry for gait-lines. Those exhibiting pathological gait fell outside both the ± 1.96 and ± 3SD limits at several points during stance. The subjects exhibiting considerable plantarflexor weakness all fell outside the ± 1.96SD limit from 30–50% of foot length to toe-off while those exhibiting considerable dorsiflexor weakness fell outside the ± 1.96SD limit between initial contact to 25–40% of foot length, and then surpassed the ± 3SD limit after 55–80% of foot length. Conclusion This analysis of gait-line asymmetry provides a reference

  1. [Use of knee height to correct the body height of elderly Hispanics].

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O I; Tucker, K L

    2000-03-01

    Loss of stature in certain elderly subjects can be attributed to diseases such as osteoporosis, as well as to age and generational effects. In addition, many elders cannot stand straight for accurate measurement. For these cases, total height can be estimated with regression equations based on knee height. The aims of this study were, firstly, to evaluate the applicability of regression equations based on knee height for estimation of stature and, secondly, to document the differences between measured and estimated height in a group of elderly Hispanics with postural problems (n = 166) in comparison with a group of elderly Hispanic without postural problems (n = 270). Using both, estimated and measured height, we also calculated the body mass index (BMI) of both groups of elders. Statistical analyses were done with paired t-tests, within sex and study group. Within the group with postural problems, estimated height was higher than the measured height for both men (p < or = 0.001) and women (p < or = 0.001). There were no significant differences between measured and estimated height in the group without postural problems. Furthermore, in the group with postural problems, BMI values calculated with estimated height were lower than those estimated with the measured height, and these differences were also significant for both men (p < or = 0.001) and women (p < or = 0.001). With the aging of the Latin American population, there is a need for more nutrition and health research among elders. In order to do this we need to develop and use methods and criteria appropriate for each population. PMID:11048570

  2. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  3. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V. E-mail: brc@iac.e

    2010-09-10

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  5. Endocrine disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Casati, Lavinia; Sendra, Ramon; Sibilia, Valeria; Celotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include “both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable.” These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs). These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ), and methoxychlor (MXC) promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor. PMID:26151052

  6. Endocrine disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Casati, Lavinia; Sendra, Ramon; Sibilia, Valeria; Celotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include "both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable." These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs). These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ), and methoxychlor (MXC) promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor. PMID:26151052

  7. Building a 15-Year Cloud Climatology using Lidar in Space Observations: CALIOP and CloudSat now, EarthCARE next.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, M.; Chepfer, H.; Donovan, D. P.; Noel, V.; Marchand, R.; Cesana, G.; Hoareau, C.; Chiriaco, M.; Bastin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Today, the CALIOP lidar and CloudSat radar have collected more than seven years of observations, and willhopefully still operate in 2016, after the EarthCARE-ATLID/CPR launch. Lidars and Radars in space providecutting edge information on the detailed vertical structure of clouds: a key element for both the evaluation ofthe description of clouds in climate models, and the survey of the clouds inter-annual evolution in variousclimatic conditions (El Nino, variation of North Atlantic Oscillations, polar regions, etc). For this purpose,the observations collected by CALIOP and by ATLID as well as CloudSat and EarthCARE CPR need to bemerged into a long-term (15 years) cloud climatology. Here, we examine the possibility of building such a climatology, with the aim of defining its accuracy andrelevance for cloud inter-annual studies. We examine the differences between the instruments (wavelengths,satellite's altitudes, telescope fields of view, multiple scattering processes, spatial resolutions) and theirability to detect the same clouds consistently. Then, we define a set of cloud detection thresholds for ATLID,CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE-CPR and test against synthetic cloud scenes (cirrus and shallowcumulus) over small areas (about 200km) produced by a lidar and radar instrument simulator (ECSIM)running on Large Eddy Simulations. Doing so, we verify that the fourth instruments will be able to detect thesame clouds despite their differences (e.g. their sensitivities to noise). Finally, we use the COSP lidar andradar simulator to predict the global scale cloud cover that ATLID, CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE CPRwould observe if they were overflying the same atmosphere predicted by a GCM. Our results suggest that amerged CALIOP/ATLID and CloudSat/CPR cloud climatology could be to be useful for clouds inter-annualstudies, if the post-launch sensitivity of EarthCARE instruments is in line with what is predicted today.

  8. Wave climatological analysis in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Dong, Changming; He, Yijun

    2016-06-01

    The ERA-40 and ERA-Interim datasets from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) are used to study the wave and wind climate in the East China Sea (ECS). The temporal and spatial variablities in the wave and wind fields on multiple scales from the intraseasonal to decadal are discussed in detail. The results show that the wave height and the wind speed are highly correlated, especially in winter. For interannual and decadal scale, the wind and wave in the ECS is strongly influenced by the ENSO and PDO with the negative correlation. The trend spatial distributions of the mean state and extreme events are presented with wave height increase by 0.005-0.01 m a-1 in most of the ECS from 1979 to 2014. The influence of typhoon on the extreme wave is significant. Vector empirical orthogonal function (VEOF) methods are used to analyze the primary three modes of wave and wind variability. Because the monthly values are filtered the fluctuation with period shorter than 14 months before VEOF analysis, the three modes presents interannual variations. The first mode is presented as the wind blowing from land to sea or from sea to land. The second mode reflects the asymmetry of winter and summer monsoon for wind and wave. And the third mode presents as a cyclone located near 28°N which caused by a cyclonic eddy existing in the north of the ECS. The waves are further categorized based on quasi-wave age. The wind waves and swell distributions display obvious differences in different seasons. The wind waves are found to be dominated in autumn and winter in the ECS.

  9. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  10. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  11. Tennessee Valley Total and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatology Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J. M.; McCaul, E. W.

    2008-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) has been in operation since 2001 and consists often VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama. The NALMA locates sources of impulsive VHF radio signals from total lightning by accurately measuring the time that the signals arrive at the different receiving stations. The sources detected are then clustered into flashes by applying spatially and temporally constraints. This study examines the total lightning climatology of the region derived from NALMA and compares it to the cloud-to-ground (CG) climatology derived from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) The presentation compares the total and CG lightning trends for monthly, daily, and hourly periods.

  12. Problems in the climatology of the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions. [surface heat and water budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Critchfield, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief review of the effects of climate and weather on the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions and the subsequent dispersion of ash and gases and the reciprocal influences of the eruptions on climate and climatology is presented. The effects of mesoscale destruction of snow fields and vegetation, a revised mountain profile, and ash deposits are addressed along with impacts on hemispheric climate and disruption of normal climatological observations, in the areas directly affected by the explosions and ashfall. Environmental and economic consequences are also considered.

  13. The Increasing Use of Remote Sensing Data in Studying the Climatological Impacts on Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Benedict, Karl; Ceccato, Pietro; Golden, Meredith; Maxwell, Susan; Morian, Stan; Soebiyanto, Radina; Tong, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    One of the more fortunate outcomes of the capture and transformation of remote sensing data into applied information is their usefulness and impacts to better understanding climatological impacts on public health. Today, with petabytes of remote sensing data providing global coverage of climatological parameters, public health research and policy decision makers have an unprecedented (and growing) data record that relates the effects of climatic parameters, such as rainfall, heat, soil moisture, etc. to incidences and spread of disease, as well as predictive modeling. In addition, tools and services that specifically serve public health researchers and respondents have grown in response to needs of the these information users.

  14. Cloud Coverage and Height Distribution from the GLAS Polar Orbiting Lidar: Comparison to Passive Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhime, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) began full on orbit operations in September 2003. A main application of the two-wavelength GLAS lidar is highly accurate detection and profiling of global cloud cover. Initial analysis indicates that cloud and aerosol layers are consistently detected on a global basis to cross-sections down to 10(exp -6) per meter. Images of the lidar data dramatically and accurately show the vertical structure of cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation. The GLAS lidar has made the most accurate measurement of global cloud coverage and height to date. In addition to the calibrated lidar signal, GLAS data products include multi level boundaries and optical depth of all transmissive layers. Processing includes a multi-variable separation of cloud and aerosol layers. An initial application of the data results is to compare monthly cloud means from several months of GLAS observations in 2003 to existing cloud climatologies from other satellite measurement. In some cases direct comparison to passive cloud retrievals is possible. A limitation of the lidar measurements is nadir only sampling. However monthly means exhibit reasonably good global statistics and coverage results, at other than polar regions, compare well with other measurements but show significant differences in height distribution. For polar regions where passive cloud retrievals are problematic and where orbit track density is greatest, the GLAS results are particularly an advance in cloud cover information. Direct comparison to MODIS retrievals show a better than 90% agreement in cloud detection for daytime, but less than 60% at night. Height retrievals are in much less agreement. GLAS is a part of the NASA EOS project and data products are thus openly available to the science community (see http://glo.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  15. Pharmacogenetics of BCR/ABL Inhibitors in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Polillo, Marialuisa; Galimberti, Sara; Baratè, Claudia; Petrini, Mario; Danesi, Romano; Di Paolo, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia was the first haematological neoplasia that benefited from a targeted therapy with imatinib nearly 15 years ago. Since then, several studies have investigated the role of genes, their variants (i.e., polymorphisms) and their encoded proteins in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase activity inhibitors (TKIs). Transmembrane transporters seem to influence in a significant manner the disposition of TKIs, especially that of imatinib at both cellular and systemic levels. In particular, members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family (namely ABCB1 and ABCG2) together with solute carrier (SLC) transporters (i.e., SLC22A1) are responsible for the differences in drug pharmacokinetics. In the case of the newer TKIs, such as nilotinib and dasatinib, the substrate affinity of these drugs for transporters is variable but lower than that measured for imatinib. In this scenario, the investigation of genetic variants as possible predictive markers has led to some discordant results. With the partial exception of imatinib, these discrepancies seem to limit the application of discovered biomarkers in the clinical settings. In order to overcome these issues, larger prospective confirmative trials are needed. PMID:26402671

  16. Dogs are able to solve a means-end task

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Hentrup, Marleen; Viranyi, Zsofia

    2014-01-01

    Dogs, although very skilled in social communicative tasks, have shown limited abilities in the domain of physical cognition. Consequently, several researchers hypothesized that domestication enhanced dogs’ cognitive abilities in the social realm, but relaxed selection on the physical one. For instance, dogs failed to demonstrate means-end understanding, an important form of relying on physical causal connection, when tested in a string-pulling task. Here, we tested dogs in an ‘on/off’ task using a novel approach. Thirty-two dogs were confronted with four different conditions in which they could choose between two boards one with a reward ‘on’ and another one with a reward ‘off’ (reward was placed next to the board). The dogs chose the correct board when 1) both rewards were placed at the same distance from the dog, when 2) the reward placed ‘on’ the board was closer to the dog, and 3) even when the reward placed ‘off’ the board was much closer to the dog and was food. Interestingly, in the latter case dogs did not perform above chance, if instead of a direct reward, the dogs had to retrieve an object placed on the board to get a food reward. In contrast to previous string pulling studies, our results show that dogs are able to solve a means-end task even if proximity of the unsupported reward is a confounding factor. PMID:21445577

  17. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task. PMID:22532073

  18. Pharmacogenetics of BCR/ABL Inhibitors in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Polillo, Marialuisa; Galimberti, Sara; Baratè, Claudia; Petrini, Mario; Danesi, Romano; Di Paolo, Antonello

    2015-09-21

    Chronic myeloid leukemia was the first haematological neoplasia that benefited from a targeted therapy with imatinib nearly 15 years ago. Since then, several studies have investigated the role of genes, their variants (i.e., polymorphisms) and their encoded proteins in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase activity inhibitors (TKIs). Transmembrane transporters seem to influence in a significant manner the disposition of TKIs, especially that of imatinib at both cellular and systemic levels. In particular, members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family (namely ABCB1 and ABCG2) together with solute carrier (SLC) transporters (i.e., SLC22A1) are responsible for the differences in drug pharmacokinetics. In the case of the newer TKIs, such as nilotinib and dasatinib, the substrate affinity of these drugs for transporters is variable but lower than that measured for imatinib. In this scenario, the investigation of genetic variants as possible predictive markers has led to some discordant results. With the partial exception of imatinib, these discrepancies seem to limit the application of discovered biomarkers in the clinical settings. In order to overcome these issues, larger prospective confirmative trials are needed.

  19. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task.

  20. Love, careers, and heights in France, 2001.

    PubMed

    Herpin, Nicolas

    2005-12-01

    Short men are less likely to be married or live in a permanent relationship than their taller counterparts. This pattern is not due to their social status. While blue-collar workers are shorter on average than managers, the effects of height on finding a mate are similar in the two social groups. Being tall is also economically advantageous for men. With identical educational attainment levels, tall men have better careers than short men as they are given greater supervisory responsibilities. In making a commitment, some women might take height into account as an anticipated indicator of future resources of the household. Choice of partner is also influenced by social norms--i.e., partners should be physically well-matched--which is more difficult for shorter men.

  1. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Measuring Ice Sheet Height with ICESat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.

    2015-12-01

    ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet height and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface height based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface height of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice heights. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.

  3. Injury Severity Score based estimation of height of fall in bus rolling down the cliff.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Lazovic, Ranko

    2015-08-01

    A case of bus rollover into the canyon, 40 m down the road, with 47 occupants out of which 18 were fatally injured, was used to compute the Injury Severity Score (ISS) for each passengers as well as the equivalent free fall for this particular accident, to be compared to the height of fall as estimated by the Lau's model based on ISS, resulting the conclusion whether Lau's model and the computation of ISS can be considered reliable to estimate the height of fall in any other case. Dealing with this, we would be also able to assess a protective potential of the bus on occupants while it falls from the height. By using classic energy-related mechanical formulas the presented rollover down the cliff has been transferred into a corresponding free fall from the height (10 m). ISS for each passenger has been used to establish height bands of the corresponding free fall. The analysis of the presented case showed that only 30% of bus passengers sustained injuries similar to the injuries expected in the fall from height in the range of 10-20 m. The chances to be non-severely injured as a consequence of the fall in a bus is 43%, but still remains a very high chance (27%) to sustain injures more severe than expected for the equivalent free fall from height out of a vehicle. Moreover, eight passengers sustained pulmonary detraction which is characteristic of the fall above 40 m. The conclusion is that this mathematical computing for transferring one way of motion into another one may be useful for any other event similar to the fall from height and further usage of Lau's modules. Also, estimated severity of the injuries expressed through ISS can be merely an approximating indicator of the height of the fall of the bus, so ISS is not able to estimate the exact height. Finally, in majority of cases the protective potential of the bus may preserve from severe body damage, but the mortality rate still stands on a very high level.

  4. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  5. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  6. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  7. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  9. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures.

  10. Statistical Sampling of Tide Heights Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the cost of verifying computational models of tidal waves and currents. Statistical techniques were used to determine the least number of samples required, in a given situation, to remain statistically significant, and thereby reduce overall project costs. Commercial, academic, and Federal agencies could benefit by applying these techniques, without the need to 'touch' every item in the population. For example, the requirement of this project was to measure the heights and times of high and low tides at 8,000 locations for verification of computational models of tidal waves and currents. The application of the statistical techniques began with observations to determine the correctness of submitted measurement data, followed by some assumptions based on the observations. Among the assumptions were that the data were representative of data-collection techniques used at the measurement locations, that time measurements could be ignored (that is, height measurements alone would suffice), and that the height measurements were from a statistically normal distribution. Sample means and standard deviations were determined for all locations. Interval limits were determined for confidence levels of 95, 98, and 99 percent. It was found that the numbers of measurement locations needed to attain these confidence levels were 55, 78, and 96, respectively.

  11. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures. PMID:26551155

  12. The European 2015 drought from a climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Tallaksen, Lena; Kingston, Daniel; Stagge, James

    2016-04-01

    The summer drought of 2015 affected a large portion of continental Europe and was one of the worst droughts since the heat wave of 2003. The summer was characterized by exceptionally high temperatures in many parts of the central and eastern part of Europe, with daily maximum temperatures 2 °C warmer compared to the seasonal mean (1971-2000) over most of western Europe, and more than 3 °C warmer in the east. Combined with a lack of precipitation, these conditions resulted in high evapotranspiration, strongly affecting soil moisture content and vegetation. Further, it led to record low river flows in several major European rivers, e.g. the Elbe River recorded its lowest flow in the last 60 years. Understanding how the 2015 drought event developed and the factors that contributed to it may help improve seasonal forecasting models and assess the risk of this kind of event occurring in the future. This paper analyses the European summer drought of 2015 by placing it into historical context with past historical droughts and by discussing the role of the main contributing factors controlling the occurrence and persistence of this event: temperature and precipitation anomalies, blocking episodes and sea surface temperatures. Large parts of central Europe experienced a severe lack of precipitation, with widespread areas of negative 3-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) values present from May onwards. During summer, values dropped as low as -3 in Eastern Europe - corresponding to an annual probability of 0.1. Similar to the 2003 summer drought, the upper level atmospheric circulation over continental Europe was characterized by a large positive 500hPa geopotential height anomaly bordered by a large negative anomaly to the north and west (i.e. over the central North Atlantic Ocean extending to northern Scandinavia) and another center of positive geopotential height anomalies over Greenland and northern Canada. Simultaneously, summer sea surface temperature (SST

  13. Comparing remotely sensed Pictometry Web-based height estimates with in situ clinometer and laser range finder height estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Daniel R.; Hung, I.-Kuai; Kulhavy, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Heights of 30 light poles were measured with a telescopic height pole. Clinometer and laser range finder in situ estimated light pole height was compared to Pictometry estimated light pole height using hyperspatial 4-in. (10.2-cm) multispectral imagery within a Web-based interface. Average percent agreement between light pole height and clinometer and laser range finder estimated that light pole height ranged from 3.97% to 3.79% for clinometer and laser range finder estimated light pole height, respectively. Average percent agreement between light pole height and Pictometry estimated light pole height at image magnification factors of 100%, 125%, 150%, 200%, and 300% magnification ranged from 1.77% to 2.39%. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) between light pole height and clinometer and laser range finder estimated that light pole height ranged from 0.22 to 0.20 m for clinometer and laser range finder estimated light pole height, respectively. RMSE between light pole height and Pictometry estimated light pole height ranged from 0.10 to 0.14 m. An analysis of variance between absolute errors of light pole height estimate by different techniques indicated that Pictometry was significantly more accurate than both clinometer and laser range finder light pole height estimates.

  14. Towards a Model Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Upper Troposphere for Estimation of Contrail and Contrail-Induced Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, M.; Ott, L.; Oman, L.; Benson, C.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of contrails and contrail cirrus is very sensitive to the relative humidity of the upper troposphere. To reduce uncertainty in an estimate of the radiative impact of aviation-induced cirrus, a model must therefore be able to reproduce the observed background moisture fields with reasonable and quantifiable fidelity. Here we present an upper tropospheric moisture climatology from a 26-year ensemble of simulations using the GEOS CCM. We compare this free-running model's moisture fields to those obtained from the MLS and AIRS satellite instruments, our most comprehensive observational databases for upper tropospheric water vapor. Published comparisons have shown a substantial wet bias in GEOS-5 assimilated fields with respect to MLS water vapor and ice water content. This tendency is clear as well in the GEOS CCM simulations. The GEOS-5 moist physics in the GEOS CCM uses a saturation adjustment that prevents supersaturation, which is unrealistic when compared to in situ moisture observations from MOZAIC aircraft and balloon sondes as we will show. Further, the large-scale satellite datasets also consistently underestimate super-saturation when compared to the in-situ observations. We place these results in the context of estimates of contrail and contrail cirrus frequency.

  15. Uncertainty in Climatology-Based Estimates of Soil Water Infiltration Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local climatology is often used to estimate infiltration losses at the field scale. The objective of this work was to assess the uncertainty associated with such estimates. We computed infiltration losses from the water budget of a soil layer from monitoring data on water flux values at the soil su...

  16. Using a mesoscale prognostic model to construct a regional scale transport climatology. Part 2: Transport patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, S.L.; Dean, D.; Atchison, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    This study continues an investigation of the use of a prognostic mesoscale meteorological model to construct a regional scale climatology of pollution transport patterns around a site suffering from sparse data. In Part 1 of this study, the authors examined the accuracy of the RAMS model in simulating the weather at an eastern Mediterranean site. For this part of the investigation, they examined the effect of varying types of weather data on the transport climatology results. Due to the large amounts of data generated by a lengthy weather simulation, they also attempted to reduce the amount of required simulation time by using samples of weather data. Five months (1990--1994) of NCAR/NCEP reanalysis gridded wind data are subjected to an S-mode eigenvector analysis to produce a set of 12 two-dimensional wind patterns over a 1000 km square region in the eastern Mediterranean. The five months are then clustered on the basis of similarity to these 12 patterns. A set of days is selected from each of the groups to form a sample. This set of days is considered representative of the wind patterns during the five months period. The authors will compare transport climatology results obtained using the full set of RAMS forecast data from Part 1 to those obtained using representative and random samples of the data. They also examine the effect of using sparse data on the transport climatology results.

  17. A synoptic climatological analysis of air quality in the Grand Canyon National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert E.; Gay, David A.

    Daily air quality variations within the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ are related to a regional synoptic climatology. The climatology is developed using upper air data from 21 stations throughout the western U.S.A. and Mexico from 1979 to 1988. Thirteen synoptic situations are identified which represent days with distinct and recurring meteorological conditions throughout the region. Daily particulate concentrations and scattering coefficient readings from Hopi Point, on the south rim of the Grand Canyon, are related to the daily synoptic climatology. Three synoptic situations are associated with poor air quality. Summer monsoon days have poor air quality because of high humidity and cloud cover. On continental high days, a slow-moving anticyclone is located near the Great Basin and local pollutants are trapped within the boundary layer in this poorly ventilated air mass. The situation with the worst air quality—Rockies Ridge—has strong southwesterly winds throughout the troposphere, suggesting that regional haze is advected from southern California into the Grand Canyon area. Good air quality occurs (1) during zonal flow situations when the jet stream is strong; (2) when cold, dry air masses are present; (3) during dry and generally clear days in the summer. This research demonstrates the utility of analysing air quality problems from a synoptic climatological framework.

  18. How complex climate networks complement eigen techniques for the statistical analysis of climatological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan; Petrova, Irina; Löw, Alexander; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Eigen techniques such as empirical orthogonal function (EOF) or coupled pattern (CP) / maximum covariance analysis have been frequently used for detecting patterns in multivariate climatological data sets. Recently, statistical methods originating from the theory of complex networks have been employed for the very same purpose of spatio-temporal analysis. This climate network (CN) analysis is usually based on the same set of similarity matrices as is used in classical EOF or CP analysis, e.g., the correlation matrix of a single climatological field or the cross-correlation matrix between two distinct climatological fields. In this study, formal relationships as well as conceptual differences between both eigen and network approaches are derived and illustrated using global precipitation, evaporation and surface air temperature data sets. These results allow us to pinpoint that CN analysis can complement classical eigen techniques and provides additional information on the higher-order structure of statistical interrelationships in climatological data. Hence, CNs are a valuable supplement to the statistical toolbox of the climatologist, particularly for making sense out of very large data sets such as those generated by satellite observations and climate model intercomparison exercises.

  19. How complex climate networks complement eigen techniques for the statistical analysis of climatological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Petrova, Irina; Loew, Alexander; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Eigen techniques such as empirical orthogonal function (EOF) or coupled pattern (CP)/maximum covariance analysis have been frequently used for detecting patterns in multivariate climatological data sets. Recently, statistical methods originating from the theory of complex networks have been employed for the very same purpose of spatio-temporal analysis. This climate network (CN) analysis is usually based on the same set of similarity matrices as is used in classical EOF or CP analysis, e.g., the correlation matrix of a single climatological field or the cross-correlation matrix between two distinct climatological fields. In this study, formal relationships as well as conceptual differences between both eigen and network approaches are derived and illustrated using global precipitation, evaporation and surface air temperature data sets. These results allow us to pinpoint that CN analysis can complement classical eigen techniques and provides additional information on the higher-order structure of statistical interrelationships in climatological data. Hence, CNs are a valuable supplement to the statistical toolbox of the climatologist, particularly for making sense out of very large data sets such as those generated by satellite observations and climate model intercomparison exercises.

  20. Statistical examination of climatological data relevant to global temperature variation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.L.; Gunst, R.F.; Woodward, W.A.

    1998-07-01

    Advanced statistical procedures have been developed to analyze and model climatological data. Research has focused on the following areas: testing the global temperature series for trend; the effect of initial conditions on autoregressive models for global temperature data; long memory modeling of the carbon dioxide data; and spatial modeling of global temperature data.

  1. Validation of Global Climatologies of Trace Gases Using NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchaine, Brian; Venable, Jessica C.

    1995-01-01

    Methane is an important trace gas because it is a greenhouse gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. It is produced from biological and anthropogenic sources, and is increasing globally at a rate of approximately 0.6% per year [Climate Change 1992, IPCC]. By using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA/CMDL) ground station data, a global climatology of methane values was produced. Unfortunately, because the NOAA/CMDL ground stations are so sparse, the global climatology is low resolution. In order to compensate for this low resolution data, it was compared to in-situ flight data obtained from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE). The smoothed ground station data correlated well with the flight data. Thus, for the first time it is shown that the smoothing process used to make global contours of methane using the ground stations is a plausible way to approximate global atmospheric concentrations of the gas. These verified climatologies can be used for testing large-scale models of chemical production, destruction, and transport. This project develops the groundwork for further research in building global climatologies from sparse ground station data and studying the transport and distribution of trace gases.

  2. A Meso-Climatology Study of the High-Resolution Tower Network Over the Florida Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the US Air Force 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use wind and temperature data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria and to issue and verify temperature and wind advisories, watches, and warnings for ground operations. The Spaceflight Meteorology Group at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX also uses these data when issuing forecasts for shuttle landings at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Systematic biases in these parameters at any of the towers could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification for all of these operations. In addition, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. Therefore, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU), operated by ENSCO Inc., was tasked to develop a monthly and hourly climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identify the geographical variation, tower biases, and the magnitude of those biases. This paper presents a sub-set of results from a nine-year climatology of the KSC/CCAFS tower network, highlighting the geographical variations based on location, month, times of day, and specific wind direction regime. Section 2 provides a description of the tower mesonetwork and instrumentation characteristics. Section 3 presents the methodology used to construct the tower climatology including QC methods and data processing. The results of the tower climatology are presented in Section 4 and Section 5 summarizes the paper.

  3. A Radar Climatology of Extreme Rainfall in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier, J. R.; Smith, J. A.; England, J. F.; Baeck, M.

    2004-12-01

    Analyses of the spatial and temporal distribution of extreme rainfall in the Arkansas River basin above Pueblo, Colorado are based on analyses of volume scan radar reflectivity observations from the Pueblo and Denver WSR-88D radars for the period 1995 - 2004. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall are carried out both from an Eulerian perspective, in which the time-varying distribution of rainfall at fixed locations is examined, and a Lagrangian perspective, in which distributional aspects of rainfall are based on storm tracking algorithms. Of particular interest is the spatial heterogeneity of extreme rainfall in the complex terrain of the upper Arkansas River basin. Lagrangian analyses are used to characterize the spatially varying distribution of storm initiation, storm motion and storm structure. Analyses are motivated by problems of dam safety in which distributional properties of extreme rainfall are of most interest. Climatological analyses of extreme rainfall in the upper Arkansas River basin are examined relative to the spatial and temporal properties of two extreme rain events that occurred in June 1921 and June 1964. Radar climatology indicates a lack of spatial coherence in extreme events over the basin, with the upper basin rainfall climatology exhibiting pronounced contrasts with that of the lower basin.

  4. Analysis of global cloudiness. 2: Comparison of ground-based and satellite-based cloud climatologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, I.I.; Schlesinger, M.E. |

    1994-08-01

    Cloud climatologies are developed and intercompared for International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCO) (1983-1988), Meteor I (1971-1980), Meteor II (1979-1988), and Nimbus 7 (1979-1985) satellite observations, and for Berlyand and Strokina (1975, 1980) and Warren et al. (1986, 1988) ground-based observations. The satellite annual-mean, global- mean cloudiness, 0.57 +/- 0.05, is less than the ground-based value, 0.61 +/- 0.01, predominantly because of the low value for Nimbus 7. There is agreement between the satellite means of ISCCP, 0.62, and Meteor II, 0.61, and the ground-based means of Warren et al., 0.62, and Berlyand and Strokina, 0.60. Each satellite- and ground-based climatology shows that the hemispheric- mean cloudiness is larger in summer than that in winter in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Excluding Nimbus 7 observations, the zonal- mean cloudiness distributions for January, July, and July minus January display reasonably good agreement between 60 deg S and 60 deg N. In polar latitudes there is significant disagreement among the different climatologies, even in the sign of cloudiness changes from winter to summer. This evinces the need for special cloudiness experiments in polar regions, particularly in winter and summer.

  5. Some Singularities and Irregularities in the Seasonal Progression of the 700 mb Height Field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzante, John R.

    1983-06-01

    A climatological investigation of singularities in the seasonal progression of 5-day means of 700 mb height was undertaken for the region 30-90°N, from 160°E eastward to 0°, for the period 1947-76. A harmonic analysis was performed at each of the 127 gridpoints (10° longitude by 10° latitude spacing) in order to determine the field of deviations (for each 5-day period) between the long-term mean value and the first harmonic value (which represents the smooth seasonal progression of heights). The Students's t-test was applied at each gridpoint to test whether the long-term (population) mean is significantly different from the first harmonic value (i.e., to test if the deviation is zero). The significance of the field of t-statistics for each 5-day period was estimated using a modification of the technique presented by Livezey and Chen (1981).The results of the analyses described above indicate that the 700 mb height field deviates significantly from the first harmonic during several times of the year. A pattern characterized by height rises centered over Alaska from late December through late January is terminated abruptly by the January thaw. In late February, a regional singularity (manifasted as rapid height rises), perhaps related to the termination of the February minimum in Hawaiian rainfall, is found in the eastern Pacific. The `end of winter' in the eastern North Pacific is heralded by a very rapid northward shift of the westerlies from late February through early March.During the spring, the rapid rise of heights experienced in most regions is interrupted by a southward advance and strengthening of the westerlies in the eastern Pacific during late May and June. During summer, heights over most of the domain rise to `excessively high' values relative to the first harmonic; the only exception is significantly negative deviations in eastern North America. This phenomenon results in the most deviant 5-day period (29 July-2 August) in terms of percentage of

  6. Is there a climatological signature to deep root functioning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A.; de Beurs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation has the ability to influence local water, carbon and energy fluxes in complex ways. In many climate models, dynamic vegetation is closely linked to soil moisture since 95% of all roots are located in the upper 2m of soil. However, in some ecosystems this bottom 5% of roots contributes an important percentage of net transpiration through the processes of hydraulic lift and redistribution. Hydraulic lift and redistribution is the movement of water by vegetation through the use of a passive water potential gradient. During periods where water is readily available, vegetation is able to store excess water in deeper soils. When conditions become more arid, the vegetation is able to bring this water back up to the near surface in order to re-hydrate the soil. This water is then used in transpiration and also aids in soil decomposition and nutrient breakdown in the upper soil layers. While hydraulic lift and redistribution has been identified in individual plant species, there has been limited work to understand the contribution of deep root functioning on broader spatial scales. Here we propose to use satellite data products in conjunction with ground-based observations in order to better determine the atmospheric link to deep moisture across land cover types within the state of Oklahoma. For this preliminary assessment, we will utilize the 8-day MOD 16 evapotranspiration product along with soil moisture observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet to compare and contrast a paired dry and wet case study period. We hypothesize that the presence of deep root functioning in certain land cover types increases resiliency to drought and will be observable between the case studies as reduced suppression of evapotranspiration and enhanced latent cooling of the surface.

  7. Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights

    PubMed Central

    Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595

  8. A decade climatology of terdiurnal tides using TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeff; Moudden, Youssef

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric tides are important for coupling the lower and middle atmosphere with the thermosphere and ionosphere, and for driving neutral and plasma density variability in the latter. Terdiurnal tides are recognized as an important contributor to this variability, but their study from a global perspective has not been as comprehensive as their diurnal and semidiurnal counterparts. In this study we globally characterize the solar terdiurnal tide in the 80-110 km region of Earth's atmosphere through analysis of 10 years of temperature measurements made by the SABER instrument on the TIMED spacecraft. The Sun-synchronous (``migrating'') component (TW3), which is longitude independent, achieves maximum amplitudes of order 5K (10K) at 90 km (110 km), not too different than the 7-15 K amplitudes that are typical of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides in this region. Significant longitude variability (~20-25%) in terdiurnal temperature amplitudes also exists, which is decomposed into zonal wavenumber components. The largest of these (TE1, TW4, TW5) reveal distinct seasonal-latitudinal and height versus latitude patterns, and inter-annual consistency. In addition, it is demonstrated that these particular components vary in ways that suggest that they originate from nonlinear interactions between diurnal and semidiurnal tides, specifically between DE3 and SW2 for TE1, between DW2 and SW2 for TW4, and between DW1 and SW4 for TW5. We also demonstrate that the terdiurnal tides derived here are not influenced to any significant degree by aliasing due to the presence of other waves.

  9. High resolution precipitation climatology for the Andes of South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachte, Katja; Bendix, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The climate of Ecuador is strongly dominated by the complex structure of the Andes Mountains. Due to their heights and north-south orientation they act like a barrier, which cause delineation between the western and eastern flanks, as well as the inner-Andean areas. Commonly the Ecuadorian climate is classified in three zones, Costa, Interandina and Oriente. Existing precipitation products such as the GPCC or TRMM data are enabled to represent these climate zones, but because of their spatial resolution, they pass to capture the different regimes within a zone. Especially the inner-Andean region (Interandina) with its characteristic complex terrain shows spatially high climate variability. Local circulation systems, e.g. mountain-valley breezes as well as effects of windward and lee-side, drive the climate conditions allowing for the differentiation of air temperature and rainfall distribution on relative small scales. These highly variable patterns are also reflected by the diversity of ecosystems, e.g. rainforest, dry forest and Paramo, in a relative small area. In order to represent the local systems a dynamical downscaling approach for the Ecuadorian region is applied. In doing so the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used. A suitable model setup was evaluated within a sensitivity study, where various parametrization schemes were tested. The most suitable physics combination was used for a 30 year hint cast simulation. The poster presents first results of the high resolution climate simulations. On the basis of the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns distinct precipitation regimes within the Interandina will be shown. The aim is to highlight and discuss the importance of the adequately representation of the terrain in mountainous regions like the Andean Mountains.

  10. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROUNDHOUSE KICK ACCORDING TO HEIGHT AND DISTANCE IN TAEKWONDO

    PubMed Central

    Falco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances. PMID:24744499

  11. Mechanical analysis of the roundhouse kick according to height and distance in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, I; Falco, C

    2013-12-01

    Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances.

  12. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  13. Development and Testing of the New Surface LER Climatology for OMI UV Aerosol Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Ahn, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard Aura satellite retrieved aerosols properties using UV part of solar spectrum. The OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) is a global inversion scheme which retrieves aerosol properties both over ocean and land. The current version of the algorithm makes use of TOMS derived Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) climatology. A new monthly climatology of surface LER at 354 and 388 nm have been developed. This will replace TOMS LER (380 nm and 354nm) climatology in OMI near UV aerosol retrieval algorithm. The main objectives of this study is to produce high resolution (quarter degree) surface LER sets as compared to existing one degree TOMS surface LERs, to product instrument and wavelength consistent surface climatology. Nine years of OMI observations have been used to derive monthly climatology of surface LER. MODIS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been used to make aerosol corrections on OMI wavelengths. MODIS derived BRDF adjusted reflectance product has been also used to capture seasonal changes in the surface characteristics. Finally spatial and temporal averaging techniques have been used to fill the gaps around the globes, especially in the regions with consistent cloud cover such as Amazon. After implementation of new surface data in the research version of algorithm, comparisons of AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) have been performed over global AERONET sites for year 2007. Preliminary results shows improvements in AOD retrievals globally but more significance improvement were observed over desert and bright locations. We will present methodology of deriving surface data sets and will discuss the observed changes in retrieved aerosol properties with respect to reference AERONET measurements.

  14. A Climatology of Global Aerosol Mixtures to Support Sentinel-5P and Earthcare Mission Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Kazadzis, S.; Amaridis, V.; Kahn, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Since constraining aerosol type with satellite remote sensing continues to be a challenge, we present a newly derived global climatology of aerosol mixtures to support atmospheric composition studies that are planned for Sentinel-5P and EarthCARE. The global climatology is obtained via application of iterative cluster analysis to gridded global decadal and seasonal mean values of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of sulfate, biomass burning, mineral dust and marine aerosol as a proportion of the total AOD at 500nm output from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART). For both the decadal and seasonal means, the number of aerosol mixtures (clusters) identified is ≈10. Analysis of the percentage contribution of the component aerosol types to each mixture allowed development of a straightforward naming convention and taxonomy, and assignment of primary colours for the generation of true colour-mixing and easy-to-interpret maps of the spatial distribution of clusters across the global grid. To further help characterize the mixtures, aerosol robotic network (AERONET) Level 2.0 Version 2 inversion products were extracted from each cluster's spatial domain and used to estimate climatological values of key optical and microphysical parameters. The aerosol type climatology represents current knowledge that would be enhanced, possibly corrected, and refined by high temporal and spectral resolution, cloud-free observations produced by Sentinel-5P and EarthCARE instruments. The global decadal mean and seasonal gridded partitions comprise a preliminary reference framework and global climatology that can help inform the choice of components and mixtures in aerosol retrieval algorithms used by instruments such as TROPOMI and ATLID, and to test retrieval results.

  15. A new global interior ocean mapped climatology: the 1° × 1° GLODAP version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, Siv K.; Key, Robert M.; Olsen, Are; van Heuven, Steven; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Jeansson, Emil; Ishii, Masao; Perez, Fiz F.; Suzuki, Toru; Watelet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    We present a mapped climatology (GLODAPv2.2016b) of ocean biogeochemical variables based on the new GLODAP version 2 data product (Olsen et al., 2016; Key et al., 2015), which covers all ocean basins over the years 1972 to 2013. The quality-controlled and internally consistent GLODAPv2 was used to create global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies of salinity, temperature, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TAlk), pH, and CaCO3 saturation states using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Improving on maps based on an earlier but similar dataset, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean. Climatologies were created for 33 standard depth surfaces. The conceivably confounding temporal trends in TCO2 and pH due to anthropogenic influence were removed prior to mapping by normalizing these data to the year 2002 using first-order calculations of anthropogenic carbon accumulation rates. We additionally provide maps of accumulated anthropogenic carbon in the year 2002 and of preindustrial TCO2. For all parameters, all data from the full 1972-2013 period were used, including data that did not receive full secondary quality control. The GLODAPv2.2016b global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information, are available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2).

  16. A heavy rainfall sounding climatology over Gauteng, South Africa, using self-organising maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Liesl L.

    2015-12-01

    The daily weather at a particular place is largely influenced by the synoptic circulation and thermodynamic profile of the atmosphere. Heavy rainfall occurs from a particular subset of synoptic and thermodynamic states. Baseline climatologies provide objective information on heavy rainfall-producing circulation patterns and thermodynamic variables. This is how climatologically large or extreme values associated with heavy rainfall are identified. The aim of this research is to provide a heavy rainfall sounding climatology in austral summer over Gauteng, South Africa, using self-organising maps (SOMs). The results show that the SOM captures the intra-seasonal variability of heavy rainfall soundings by clearly distinguishing between the atmospheric conditions on early summer (October-December) and late summer (January-March) heavy rainfall days. Conditions associated with heavy early summer rainfall are large vertical wind shear and conditional instability, while the atmosphere is drier and cooler than when heavy rainfall occurs in late summer. Late summer heavy rainfall conditions are higher convective instability and small vertical wind shear values. The SOM climatology shows that some heavy rainfall days occur in both early and late summer when large-scale synoptic weather systems cause strong near-surface moisture flux and large values of wind shear. On these days, both the conditional and convective instability of the atmosphere are low and heavy rainfall results from the strong synoptic forcing. In contrast, heavy rainfall also occurs on days when synoptic circulation is not very favourable and the air is relatively dry, but the atmosphere is unstable with warm surface conditions and heavy rainfall develops from local favourable conditions. The SOM climatology provides guidelines to critical values of sounding-derived parameters for all these scenarios.

  17. Identification and climatology of cut-off lows near the tropopause.

    PubMed

    Nieto, R; Sprenger, M; Wernli, H; Trigo, R M; Gimeno, L

    2008-12-01

    Cut-off low pressure systems (COLs) are defined as closed lows in the upper troposphere that have become completely detached from the main westerly current. These slow-moving systems often affect the weather conditions at the earth's surface and also work as a mechanism of mass transfer between the stratosphere and the troposphere, playing a significant role in the net flow of tropospheric ozone. In the first part of this work we provide a comprehensive summary of results obtained in previous studies of COLs. Following this, we present three long-term climatologies of COLs. The first two climatologies are based on the conceptual model of a COL, using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses (1958-2002) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (1948-2006) reanalysis data sets. The third climatology uses a different method of detection, which is based on using potential vorticity as the physical parameter of diagnosis. This approach was applied only to the ECMWF reanalysis data. The final part of the paper is devoted to comparing results obtained by these different climatologies in terms of areas of preferential occurrence, life span, and seasonal cycle. Despite some key differences, the three climatologies agree in terms of the main areas of COL occurrence, namely (1) southwestern Europe, (2) the eastern north Pacific coast, and (3) the north China-Siberian region. However, it is also shown that the detection of these areas of main COL occurrence, as obtained using the potential vorticity approach, depends on the level of isentropic analysis used. PMID:19076419

  18. Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

  19. Reaching new heights: Comparing interpretation bias modification to exposure therapy for extreme height fear

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease height fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Method Extremely height fearful (N = 110) individuals participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after two sessions of CBM-I, and compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. Results In line with hypotheses, participants in the three active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in height-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a height stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in height fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PMID:24588406

  20. Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.

  1. Waveform retracking for improving inland water heights from altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    retrackers, such as the β-5 model, threshold retrackers and the sub-waveform retrackers, including our new approach. Results show that sub-waveform retrackers are able to handle a broad spectrum of waveform shapes ranging from the theoretical ocean case to shapes which are significantly contaminated by peaks. The quality of water heights derived from these retrackers, e.g., over Lake Volta is usually better compared to conventional retracking methods, providing standard deviations with respect to gauge data of 32cm, 10cm and 8cm for Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2, respectively. Results over Lake Victoria in an area with significant land contamination in the altimeter footprint confirmed the favorable performance of the sub-waveform approaches compared to conventional retrackers. Over smaller lakes, such as Lake Naivasha, the water heights still improved compared to the unretracked case, but conventional threshold retrackers showed better results for most of the observed waveforms, which were mostly categorized as singular, specular peaks.

  2. a Synoptic Climatological Approach to Assessment of Visibility and Pollutant Source Locations, Grand Canyon National Park Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Kathleen Valimont

    Visibility at six southwestern United States sites was investigated using a year-round synoptic climatological index to determine potential weather/air quality associations and to investigate possible pollutant source locations for the Grand Canyon National Park. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering were applied to 20 years of various surface and upper-level thermal, moisture, and flow indicators. Median fine mass and particle scattering data were then determined for the resulting categories, and the meteorological characteristics of the most and least offensive categories were evaluated by season. Seasonally high pollutant categories were most associated with upper-level height patterns which favored comparatively warm, moist, 500 mb flow from urban California areas or southern Arizona, possibly assisting movement of urban/industrial pollutants into northern Arizona. In contrast, low pollutant categories were often relatively cool and dry. Corresponding air masses arrived from "clean corridor" regions such as Canada, the Pacific Northwest, and Baja California. While cyclone cool sectors and associated precipitation were found in connection with reduced pollutant levels, warm-sector air masses and lack of precipitation were often related to elevated levels. Consecutive day analyses of meteorological conditions leading to visibility episodes emphasized the relative importance of current -day features. While the highest fine mass categories were associated with light westerly zonal flow aloft, those related to the highest levels of particle scattering showed deep troughs situated over California, resulting in warm, moist southwest winds aloft. Spatial variations in visibility data suggest that the impact of emissions from an electric-generating facility near Glen Canyon, Utah on visibility at the rim of the Grand Canyon is relatively small. Rather, data suggest southwestern urban/industrial areas are responsible. In addition, conditions which would

  3. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy.

  4. Climatology of diurnal tide and its long-term variability in the lower middle atmosphere over a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Vinay; Dutta, Gopa; Mohammad, Salauddin; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2016-07-01

    ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-interim) data of winds for two solar cycles (1991-2012) are harmonically analyzed to delineate the characteristics and variability of diurnal tide over a tropical site (13.5° N, 79.5° E). The diurnal cycle horizontal winds measured by Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar between May 2005 and April 2006 have been used to compute 24 h tidal amplitudes and phases and compared with the corresponding results obtained from ERA winds. The climatological diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases have been estimated from surface to ˜33 km using ERA interim data. The amplitudes and phases obtained in the present study are found to compare reasonably well with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09). Diurnal tides show larger amplitudes in the lower troposphere below 5 km during summer and in the mid-stratosphere mainly during equinoctial months and early winter. Water vapor and convection in the lower troposphere are observed to play major roles in exciting 24-h tide. Correlations between diurnal amplitude and integrated water vapor and between diurnal amplitude and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) are 0.59 and -0.34, respectively. Ozone mixing ratio correlates (ρ = 0.66) well with diurnal amplitude and shows annual variation in the troposphere whereas semi-annual variation is observed at stratospheric heights with stronger peaks in equinoctial months. A clear annual variation of diurnal amplitude is displayed in the troposphere and interannual variability becomes prominent in the stratosphere which could be partly due to the influence of equatorial stratospheric QBO. The influence of solar activity on diurnal oscillations is found to be insignificant.

  5. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy. PMID:26383855

  6. Using infrasound to constrain ash plume height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Airborne volcanic ash advisories are currently based on analyses of satellite imagery with relatively low temporal resolution, and numerical simulations of atmospheric plume dispersion. These simulations rely on key input parameters such as the maximum height of eruption plumes and the mass eruption rate at the vent, which remain loosely constrained. In this study, we present a proof-of-concept workflow that incorporates the analysis of volcanic infrasound with numerical modelling of volcanic plume rise in a realistic atmosphere. We analyse acoustic infrasound records from two explosions during the 2009 eruption of Mt. Redoubt, USA, that produced plumes reaching heights of 12-14 km. We model the infrasonic radiation at the source under the assumptions of linear acoustic theory and calculate variations in mass ejection velocity at the vent. The estimated eruption velocities serve as the input for numerical models of plume rise. The encouraging results highlight the potential for infrasound measurements to be incorporated into numerical modelling of ash dispersion, and confirm their value for volcano monitoring operations.

  7. Meniscus height controlled convective self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Satyan; Crosby, Alfred

    Convective self-assembly techniques based on the 'coffee-ring effect' allow for the fabrication of materials with structural hierarchy and multi-functionality across a wide range of length scales. The coffee-ring effect describes deposition of non-volatiles at the edge of droplet due to capillary flow and pattern formations due to pinning and de-pinning of meniscus with the solvent evaporation. We demonstrate a novel convective self-assembly method which uses a piezo-actuated bending motion for driving the de-pinning step. In this method, a dilute solution of nanoparticles or polymers is trapped by capillary forces between a blade and substrate. As the blade oscillates with a fixed frequency and amplitude and the substrate translates at a fixed velocity, the height of the capillary meniscus oscillates. The meniscus height controls the contact angle of three phase contact line and at a critical angle de-pinning occurs. The combination of convective flux and continuously changing contact angle drives the assembly of the solute and subsequent de-pinning step, providing a direct means for producing linear assemblies. We demonstrate a new method for convective self-assembly at an accelerated rate when compared to other techniques, with control over deposit dimensions. Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0185).

  8. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  9. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  10. Torch height control helps fabricator raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    For high-speed, high-quality plate cutting with oxyfuel, several control factors are widely recognized to affect cut quality. Flame type and flame adjustment are critical factors. Matching the correct torch tip size and oxygen pressure setting to the precise material composition and exact thickness of the steel plate are essential. Control settings for preheating the fuel and for torch travel speed are equally important. A high-performance drive system is another essential part of the equation. Precisely matched to the exact size, weight and configuration of the gantry or cantilever machine, the right motor and drive combination can provide smoother x-y axis movement for cleaner cuts, less slag and less overall scrap. With the advent of the torch height control sensor for cantilever and gantry machines, there is a new element to consider in the quality equation. These torch-mounted sensor systems are helping some fabricators improve cut quality by making it easier for machine operators to maintain an optimum and consistent distance between the torch tip and the steel plate. Used by many fabricators in Europe for well over a decade, torch height control sensors are beginning to show their value in the United States.

  11. Dust plumes over the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans: Climatology and radiative impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aihua; Ramanathan, V.; Li, Fang; Kim, Dohyeong

    2007-08-01

    Multiple satellite data sets in conjunction with the Monte Carlo Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation (MACR) model are employed to determine climatological distributions and radiative impacts of dust plumes over the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. Three target regions, namely the Yellow Sea (YS), Arabian Sea (AS), and Saharan Coast (SC), are examined for quantitative comparisons of dust properties and their impacts on climate. Twenty year averaged Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data clearly show the peak dust season for the three target regions, March-April-May for YS and June-July-August for AS and SC. Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) modeled dust AOD fraction and Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) large-mode AOD ratio are adopted to evaluate the dust fraction estimate. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol extinction coefficient data are used to define the vertical distribution of dust. The elevated dust plumes are detected by subtracting the non-dust-season values from dust season values of SAGE II data, showing extinction peak around ˜4 km over AS and SC. Over YS, dust plumes are found presenting multilayered structure. The shortwave (SW) forcing of dust, although moderated by the longwave (LW) effect, dominates the net effects (SW + LW) of dust plumes. Under clear-sky (i.e., cloudless) conditions, dust plumes reduce about 5.9 W m-2, 17.8 W m-2, and 14.2 W m-2 regional and seasonal mean radiative flux reaching the surface over YS, AS, and SC, respectively. Of the three regions, dust plumes over AS have the largest effect on atmospheric heating owing to a lower single-scattering albedo and the relatively large dust loading. The maximum SW heating occurs over AS with the value around +0.5 K/day inside the dust layer at ˜4 km. The LW effect results in strong cooling throughout the dust layer and moderate heating below the

  12. Rain height statistics for satellite communication in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeep, J. S.

    2008-09-01

    The calculation of fade margin required for 99.99% of the time availability of satellite link requires the knowledge of rain height. There is a shortage of results on rain height over Malaysian equatorial stations. The results on rain height in relation to 0 °C isotherm height (Hi) over four stations are presented. The variations of 0 °C isotherm heights for two monsoon seasons have been studied based on an analysis of radiosonde. The exceedence probability statistics of rain height are compared between the two seasons.

  13. Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction. PMID:14697000

  14. Variation in height and knee height in adolescents in Merida, Mexico, by head of household employment level and family income.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Azcorra, Hugo; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico

    2013-05-01

    Variation in height among young adults has been linked to the living conditions of different social groups. The aim of this study was to measure variation in the height and knee height of young adults by head of household employment level and family income. The sample comprised 180 individuals (90 girls) aged 16 and 17 years living in the city of Merida, Mexico. Height and knee height were measured by anthropometry, and individuals' family social and economic data collected from their mothers. Variation in these measurements was analysed by three categories of employment and family income terciles. One-way ANOVAs were done by sex to compare mean height and knee height by employment and family income. Coefficients of variation were calculated and a Bartlett test applied. Significant differences in height and knee height were observed only between family income terciles. Both sexes were taller at the highest levels of family income (p<0.05) and men had the highest (p<0.05) knee height. Highest family income individuals exhibited the least variation in height and knee height. Similarity in socioeconomic conditions for families in the lowest family income tercile and with employee heads of household was not associated with lower variation of height and knee height.

  15. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    PubMed Central

    Geronazzo, Michele; Avanzini, Federico; Grassi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., “high in pitch” or “low in pitch”). Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with) the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual) in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step. We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps) haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point's height within (i) a narrower and (ii) a wider pitch range, or (iii) a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only). Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non-musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non-musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition. PMID:26441745

  16. Climatology Study of Low-level Cloud and Fog in Mountain Terrain Using Satellite Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yajuan; Barros, Ana P.

    2015-04-01

    The presence of orographic clouds and fog has major environmental and economic implications that the potential shift in the space-time distribution can effectively redistribute freshwater resources and threaten the sustainability of the ecology, geomorphology and hydrology of mountainous regions and adjacent basins. This includes the Southern Appalachian Mountains, which rely closely on the moisture input from fog, cap clouds and light rainfall, as well as cloud forests in the Andes with frequent occurrence of dense fog. However, the applicability of fog forecasting models becomes limited in regions of complex terrain. The motivation of this project is to develop a satellite-based hydroclimatology and physical parameterization of orographic low-level clouds and fog regimes in the Southern Appalachians using a general methodology that can be applied to mountainous regions elsewhere. An algorithm for the detection and extraction of stratus clouds and fog was developed using cloud base height product from 8-years of CALIPSO and CloudSat observations, and evaluated against ground-based measurements from ceilometers. This population of low-level clouds and fog will be analyzed with GOES infrared and visible imagery, MODIS products, and with airport cloud height and visibility records to expand the spatial coverage beyond narrow satellite sensor swaths. The climatology will be further developed through integration with results from WRF high-solution simulations for selected periods since the bulk of the PMM network has been in place (2008-present) to aid in defining meteorological and time-of-day constraints in the interpretation of simulated satellite profiles through a satellite-sensor simulator. A 4-day WRF simulation is performed at Pegion Basin in the Southern Appalachian Mountains with increasing horizontal (0.25 km grid spacing) and vertical (up to 80 sigma levels) resolution and evaluated against observations collected during the Integrated Precipitation and

  17. A novel pyridopyrimidine inhibitor of abl kinase is a picomolar inhibitor of Bcr-abl-driven K562 cells and is effective against STI571-resistant Bcr-abl mutants.

    PubMed

    Huron, David R; Gorre, Mercedes E; Kraker, Alan J; Sawyers, Charles L; Rosen, Neal; Moasser, Mark M

    2003-04-01

    Inhibition of the constitutively active Bcr-abl tyrosine kinase(TK) by STI571 has proven to be a highly effective treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, STI571 is only transiently effective in blast crisis, and drug resistance emerges by amplification of or development of mutational changes in Bcr-abl. We have screened a family of TK inhibitors of the pyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine class, unrelated to STI571, and describe here a compound with substantial activity against STI-resistant mutant Bcr-abl proteins. This compound, PD166326, is a dual specificity TK inhibitor and inhibits src and abl in vitro with IC(50)s of 6 and 8 nM respectively. PD166326 inhibits the growth of K562 cells with IC(50) of 300 pM, leading to apoptotic G(1) arrest, whereas non-Bcr-abl cell types require >1000 times higher concentrations. We tested the effects of PD166326 on two of the clinically observed STI571-resistant Bcr-abl mutants. PD166326 potently inhibits the E255K mutant Bcr-abl protein and the growth of Bcr-ablE255K-driven cells. The T315I mutant Bcr-abl protein, which is mutated within the ATP-binding pocket, is resistant to PD166326; however, the growth of Bcr-ablT315I-driven cells is partially sensitive to this compound, likely through the inhibition of Bcr-abl effector pathways. These findings show that TK drug resistance is a structure-specific phenomenon and can be overcome by TK inhibitors of other structural classes, suggesting new approaches for future anticancer drug development. PD166326 is a prototype of a new generation of anti-Bcr-abl compounds with picomolar potency and substantial activity against STI571-resistant mutants.

  18. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications will...=Height Above Average Terrain measured in meters. The boundaries specified are to be used to determine...

  19. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications will...=Height Above Average Terrain measured in meters. The boundaries specified are to be used to determine...

  20. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications will...=Height Above Average Terrain measured in meters. The boundaries specified are to be used to determine...

  1. Measuring Forest Height and Biomass from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agueh, Temilola Elisabeth Fato

    2013-01-01

    Talk about doing earth science at NASA and how what we do is focus on the biosphere- that is the living portion of the earth.In particular, we are interested in looking at forests-quantifying deforestation, regrowth, change in general and helping develop new cutting-edge technologies and instruments to be able to measure these changes in land use, land cover and quality more accurately.

  2. Climatology of the migrating terdiurnal tide (TW3) in SABER/TIMED temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Smith, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The present paper is focused on the global spatial (altitude and latitude) structure and seasonal and interannual temporal variability of the migrating terdiurnal tide (TW3) seen in 8 years (2002-2009) of observations of the kinetic temperature measured by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. The tides (migrating and nonmigrating) and the planetary waves (zonally traveling and stationary) are simultaneously extracted from the satellite data. It is found that the SABER TW3 tide is dominated by different Hough modes below and above ~80 to 90 km height; in the mesosphere, it reflects mainly the evanescent feature of the first symmetric mode, and in the lower thermosphere, propagating modes with shorter vertical wavelengths dominate its structure. The seasonal behavior of the terdiurnal tide at low latitudes is dominated by an annual variation with local summer amplification, while that at midlatitudes is a combination of semiannual variation with maxima in equinoxes and an annual variability with winter enhancement. The Hough modes of the solar heating from WACCM heating to a large extent determine the predominantly antisymmetric features of the SABER TW3 tide during the solstice but are not able to explain well the predominant symmetric features in the equinoxes. The TW3 tide reveals some interannual variability with a period of quasi-2 years which indicates an enhancement during the eastward phase of the stratospheric QBO.

  3. Weathering Heights: The Emergence of Aeronautical Meteorology as an Infrastructural Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Roger

    The first half of the 20th century was an era of weathering heights. As the development of powered flight made the free atmosphere militarily and economically relevant, meteorologists encountered new kinds of weather conditions at altitude. Pilots also learned to weather heights, as they struggled to survive in an atmosphere that revealed surprising dangers like squall lines, fog, icing, and turbulence. Aeronautical meteorology evolved out of these encounters, a heterogeneous body of knowledge that included guidelines for routing aircraft, networks for observing the upper air using scientific instruments, and procedures for synthesizing those observations into weather forecasts designed for pilots. As meteorologists worked to make the skies safe for aircraft, they remade their science around the physics of the free atmosphere. The dissertation tracks a small group of Scandinavian meteorologists, the "Bergen School," who came to be the dominant force in world meteorology by forecasting for Arctic exploration flights, designing airline weather services, and training thousands of military weather officers during World War II. After the war, some of these military meteorologists invented the TV weather report (now the most widely consumed genre of popular science) by combining the narrative of the pre-fight weather briefing with the visual style of comic-illustrated training manuals. The dissertation argues that aeronautical meteorology is representative of what I call the "infrastructural sciences," a set of organizationally intensive, purposefully invisible, applied sciences. These sciences enable the reliable operation of large technological systems by integrating theory-derived knowledge with routine environmental observation. The dissertation articulates a set of characteristics for identifying and understanding infrastructural science, and then argues that these culturally modest technical practices play a pervasive role in maintaining industrial lifeways. It

  4. 15 Years of Wave Height Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, P.

    2006-07-01

    Over the past fiffteen years there has been a continuous interplay between ocean wave forecasting and altimeter data resulting in improvemen ts in both. The prospect of global observations of wind and waves gave a significan t stimulus to wave model development, while the need to have reliab le wav e predictions stimu lated the d evelopment of altimeter wind and wave products. This p aper covers the following: - Altimeter W ave Height D ata Assimilation of altimeter wave height data is of vital importance for the quality of the wave analysis and ocean wave forecasting. In addition, these data are a great h elp in diagnosing wave model problems. Furthermore th ey have great value in ob taining a g lobal wave climato logy. -Altimeter W ind Sp eed D ata Wind speed data are important for mon itor ing the quality of modelled surface w ind. Recen tly, the 'classical' W itter and Ch elton (1991) retriev al algorithm for wind speed (σ0 = ƒ(U10))has been extended by includ ing sea state eff ects and has been in troduced for Jason. On the other hand, th e classical scheme was improved by Abdalla (2006) and introduced for ENVISAT. Th e Abdalla algorithm is shown to perform better, however . Altimeter w indspeed data h ave the potential to be of great value in hurricane conditions as w ell. -Tsunamis An altimeter can ind eed observe tsunami even ts, but there is doubt th at this may be of value for an early warning system.

  5. Prediction of Significant Wave Heights in Extreme Storms Affecting Far North Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, E. N.; Thornbrugh, C.; Lynch, A.

    2003-12-01

    Barrow, Alaska is located at the northernmost point of the United States on the shore of the Arctic Ocean. The area surrounding Barrow is low lying and is thus vulnerable to coastal flooding via waves and storm surges. Previous modeling of flooding resulting from a storm that affected Barrow and the rest of the North Slope coast region in October 1963 did not reproduce observed flooding, which was substantially greater than modeled. It is hypothesized that because this model only incorporated storm surge and not waves, the model was unable to simulate the total amount of flooding. The current study examines a recent storm that affected the North Slope of Alaska on July 28-30, 2003, and includes prediction of wave height using the SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model. In addition this study considers the formation and development, climatological context, and community responses for this storm. Results from the wave modeling portion of this study will be incorporated into a coastal flooding model in order to better simulate the coastal environment under extreme conditions in this area.

  6. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  7. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  8. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  9. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  10. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  11. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  12. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  14. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  15. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  16. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  17. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  18. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  19. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  20. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  1. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  2. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  3. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  4. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  5. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  6. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  7. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  8. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  9. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  10. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  11. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  13. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under...

  14. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  18. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe...

  20. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under...

  1. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under...

  2. The Perceptual Distortion of Height in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn

    Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of height among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' heights upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' heights upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…

  3. Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

  4. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  5. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  6. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  7. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  8. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward velocity (including hover) under which a...

  9. 36 CFR 910.61 - Height of development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Height of development. 910.61 Section 910.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.61 Height of development. Height of development means the...

  10. 36 CFR 910.61 - Height of development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Height of development. 910.61 Section 910.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.61 Height of development. Height of development means the...

  11. 36 CFR 910.61 - Height of development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Height of development. 910.61 Section 910.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.61 Height of development. Height of development means the...

  12. 36 CFR 910.61 - Height of development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Height of development. 910.61 Section 910.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.61 Height of development. Height of development means the...

  13. 36 CFR 910.61 - Height of development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Height of development. 910.61 Section 910.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.61 Height of development. Height of development means the...

  14. PEM-West trajectory climatology and photochemical model sensitivity study prepared using retrospective meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, John T.; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    1991-01-01

    Trajectory and photochemical model calculations based on retrospective meteorological data for the operations areas of the NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-West mission are summarized. The trajectory climatology discussed here is intended to provide guidance for flight planning and initial data interpretation during the field phase of the expedition by indicating the most probable path air parcels are likely to take to reach various points in the area. The photochemical model calculations which are discussed indicate the sensitivity of the chemical environment to various initial chemical concentrations and to conditions along the trajectory. In the post-expedition analysis these calculations will be used to provide a climatological context for the meteorological conditions which are encountered in the field.

  15. Comparison of synoptic and climatologically mapped sections in the south Pacific ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Bindoff, N.L.; Wunsch, C. )

    1992-06-01

    To understand the extent to which oceanic climate shifts could be detected, a South Pacific climatology has been used to create pseudosections of temperature, salinity, and other tracers along a zonal and meridional lines at 15[degrees]S and 90[degrees]W, respectively. Interpolations from the climatology were made using combined empirical orthogonal functions and objective mapping. Comparisons are made with independent measurements, taken in 1987, of temperature and salinity at 15[degrees]S. Temperature and salinity fields between the surface and 300 db along the 15[degrees]S section are predicted with an uncertainty sufficiently small to display significant differences in temperature and salinity related to El Nino of 1987. The 90[degrees]W pseudosection is a forecast of a synoptic section to be obtained as part of WOCE in 1992. Explicit values for the smallest temperature shift with depth that could be detected are produced. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  16. The bioclimatological leaflet as a means conveying climatological information to tourists and the tourism industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Climate is an important resource for tourism and must be taken into account in tourism promotions. Here, a climate leaflet containing climatological and bioclimatological information for tourists is presented. The bioclimatological conditions are portrayed using mean values and frequency of thermal sensation based on physiologically equivalent temperature for 10-day intervals covering the whole year, along with air and sea temperature, sunshine duration, amount and number of days with precipitation and wind roses. In addition, the Climate Tourism Information Scheme is included. When combined with climatological and bioclimatological conditions, this scheme is valuable for tourists as it enables them to choose the most suitable time period for holidays, with the choice depending on personal preferences and requirements. The information provided here assists the tourism industry and stakeholders in decision-making. As an example, the bioclimatological leaflet for Hvar, an island off the Croatian Adriatic coast, is presented.

  17. Toward the climatological study of polar lows over the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Wataru

    2014-05-01

    Satellite imagery shows that meso-alpha-scale polar lows develop over the Japan Sea during cold air outbreaks in winter, which usually occur to the west of synoptic-scale extratropical cyclones. To understand the climatology of polar lows over the Japan Sea, we use satellite imagery and a reanalysis dataset. We used nephanalysis charts of the Japan Meteorological Agency, which shows 3-hourly locations of lower-tropospheric meso-scale vortices. For 6 winter seasons (Dec. 1997 - Feb. 2003), 81 polar low candidates are detected over the Japan Sea. We will show the geographical distribution and some remarkable polar low cases. We also examine whether the Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is useful for the climatological study of polar lows. The sea level pressure field of JRA-55 represents signals of intense polar lows. The spatial filter for meso-scale cyclones and tracking algorithm of Hodges (1995) successfully detected intense polar lows over the Japan Sea.

  18. Climatological summary of wind and temperature data for the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Schwartz, M.N.; Burk, K.W.; Kasper, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; Perrault, P.J.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents climatological summaries of wind and temperature data collected at the twenty-five monitoring stations operated by the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network. The climatological analyses presented here involve hourly averaged wind data collected over an 8-year period beginning in 1982 (fewer wind data are available for the several monitoring stations that began full-time operation after 1982) and hourly averaged air temperature data collected over 2-year period beginning in mid-1988. The tables and figures presented in this document illustrate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological parameters across the Hanford Site and the surrounding areas. This information is useful for emergency response applications, routine meteorological forecasting, planning and scheduling operations, facility design, and environmental impact studies.

  19. Climatological Impact of Atmospheric River Based on NARCCAP and DRI-RCM Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, J. F.; Perryman, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates spatial responses of extreme precipitation environments, typically associated with Atmospheric River events, using Regional Climate Model (RCM) output from NARCCAP dataset (50km grid size) and the Desert Research Institute-RCM simulations (36 and 12 km grid size). For this study, a pattern-detection algorithm was developed to characterize Atmospheric Rivers (ARs)-like features from climate models. Topological analysis of the enhanced elongated moisture flux (500-300hPa; daily means) cores is used to objectively characterize such AR features in two distinct groups: (i) zonal, north Pacific ARs, and (ii) subtropical ARs, also known as "Pineapple Express" events. We computed the climatological responses of the different RCMs upon these two AR groups, from which intricate differences among RCMs stand out. This study presents these climatological responses from historical and scenario driven simulations, as well as implications for precipitation extreme-value analyses.

  20. Advances in tornado climatology, hazards, and risk assessment since Tornado Symposium II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.; Schaefer, Joseph T.; Abbey, Robert F., Jr.

    At Tornado Symposium II, R. F. Abbey, Jr., of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), presented an outline of the history of efforts to advance the science of tornado climatology and risk assessment. This presentation summarized the relatively slow progress in the field prior to 1971. However, a few advancements in the years just prior to that 1976 Symposium drastically changed the course of tornado research and permanently altered our discussions of tornadoes in general. One was the development of the Fujita scale of tornado intensity [Fujita, 1971]. Of equal importance was the decision by the National Weather Service (NWS) and National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) Director, A. Pearson [Fujita and Pearson, 1973], to embrace it as the official government-certified intensity classification system for tornadoes. Despite its shortcomings the Fujita scale became a much needed point of focus for discussions and an integral part of nearly all modern tornado climatology and risk assessment.

  1. Aerosol climatology using a tunable spectral variability cloud screening of AERONET data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Koren, Ilan

    2005-01-01

    Can cloud screening of an aerosol data set, affect the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) climatology? Aerosols, humidity and clouds are correlated. Therefore, rigorous cloud screening can systematically bias towards less cloudy conditions, underestimating the average AOT. Here, using AERONET data we show that systematic rejection of variable atmospheric optical conditions can generate such bias in the average AOT. Therefore we recommend (1) to introduce more powerful spectral variability cloud screening and (2) to change the philosophy behind present aerosol climatologies: Instead of systematically rejecting all cloud contaminations, we suggest to intentionally allow the presence of cloud contamination, estimate the statistical impact of the contamination and correct for it. The analysis, applied to 10 AERONET stations with approx. 4 years of data, shows almost no change for Rome (Italy), but up to a change in AOT of 0.12 in Beijing (PRC). Similar technique may be explored for satellite analysis, e.g. MODIS.

  2. Toward an improved global network for determination of tropospheric ozone climatology and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    Current data on ozone variability on daily, monthly, annual, and interannual time scales were used for a standard trend-prediction analysis. Using the results of this analysis, together with a quantitative theory that defines the 'effectively sampled region' for an observing station, a definition was developed for a global network capable of determining ozone climatology and ozone trends with uncertainties not above 1 percent per year at the 95 percent confidence level. The definition indicates a need for at least a doubling of the present number of stations; the areas where more stations are most needed include the oceans, most of Asia, Africa, and South America. It is pointed out that differential absorption lidar ozone instruments have the potential for far more frequent measurements of ozone vertical profiles and, hence, potentially more accurate climatology and trend determinations than the ozonesondes; however, the differential-absorption lidar ozone measurements may produce a biased data set above the cloud base.

  3. Seasonal variability of the Red Sea, from GRACE time-variable gravity and altimeter sea surface height measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahr, John; Smeed, David; Leuliette, Eric; Swenson, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variability of sea surface height and mass within the Red Sea, occurs mostly through the exchange of heat with the atmosphere and wind-driven inflow and outflow of water through the strait of Bab el Mandab that opens into the Gulf of Aden to the south. The seasonal effects of precipitation and evaporation, of water exchange through the Suez Canal to the north, and of runoff from the adjacent land, are all small. The flow through the Bab el Mandab involves a net mass transfer into the Red Sea during the winter and a net transfer out during the summer. But that flow has a multi-layer pattern, so that in the summer there is actually an influx of cool water at intermediate (~100 m) depths. Thus, summer water in the southern Red Sea is warmer near the surface due to higher air temperatures, but cooler at intermediate depths (especially in the far south). Summer water in the northern Red Sea experiences warming by air-sea exchange only. The temperature profile affects the water density, which impacts the sea surface height but has no effect on vertically integrated mass. Here, we study this seasonal cycle by combining GRACE time-variable mass estimates, altimeter (Jason-1, Jason-2, and Envisat) measurements of sea surface height, and steric sea surface height contributions derived from depth-dependent, climatological values of temperature and salinity obtained from the World Ocean Atlas. We find good consistency, particularly in the northern Red Sea, between these three data types. Among the general characteristics of our results are: (1) the mass contributions to seasonal SSHT variations are much larger than the steric contributions; (2) the mass signal is largest in winter, consistent with winds pushing water into the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab el Mandab in winter, and out during the summer; and (3) the steric signal is largest in summer, consistent with summer sea surface warming.

  4. An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jian-Jian; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David

    2013-01-01

    An updated 15-yr Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) composite climatology (TCC) is presented and evaluated. This climatology is based on a combination of individual rainfall estimates made with data from the primaryTRMMinstruments: theTRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the precipitation radar (PR). This combination climatology of passive microwave retrievals, radar-based retrievals, and an algorithm using both instruments simultaneously provides a consensus TRMM-based estimate of mean precipitation. The dispersion of the three estimates, as indicated by the standard deviation sigma among the estimates, is presented as a measure of confidence in the final estimate and as an estimate of the uncertainty thereof. The procedures utilized by the compositing technique, including adjustments and quality-control measures, are described. The results give a mean value of the TCC of 4.3mm day(exp -1) for the deep tropical ocean beltbetween 10 deg N and 10 deg S, with lower values outside that band. In general, the TCC values confirm ocean estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) analysis, which is based on passive microwave results adjusted for sampling by infrared-based estimates. The pattern of uncertainty estimates shown by sigma is seen to be useful to indicate variations in confidence. Examples include differences between the eastern and western portions of the Pacific Ocean and high values in coastal and mountainous areas. Comparison of the TCC values (and the input products) to gauge analyses over land indicates the value of the radar-based estimates (small biases) and the limitations of the passive microwave algorithm (relatively large biases). Comparison with surface gauge information from western Pacific Ocean atolls shows a negative bias (16%) for all the TRMM products, although the representativeness of the atoll gauges of open-ocean rainfall is still in question.

  5. An Update to the Warm-Season Convective Wind Climatology of KSC/CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Total of 1100 convective events in the 17-year warm-season climatology at KSC/CCAFS. July and August typically are the peak of convective events, May being the minimum. Warning and non-warning level convective winds are more likely to occur in the late afternoon (1900-2000Z). Southwesterly flow regimes and wind directions produce the strongest winds. Storms moving from southwesterly direction tend to produce more warning level winds than those moving from the northerly and easterly directions.

  6. Climatology comparison and long-term variations of sea surface temperature over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servain, Jacques; SéVa, Marc; Rual, Pierre

    1990-06-01

    The primary aim of the present study is to compare two sea surface temperature (SST) climatologies produced from merchant ship observations over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The first climatology uses measurements taken between 1911 and 1972. The second uses 1964-1984 data. The second climatology is generally warmer by a few tenths of degrees. Part of the difference is due to changes in the temperature measurement techniques with time. The difference also shows, especially along shipping routes, some spatial discrepancies which are not due to instrument changes. It is demonstrated the difference is mostly caused by inhomogeneity in the spatial and temporal density of the available observations used to construct the first climatology. Using a simple technique to eliminate spurious bias, the analysis allows isolation of the long-term trend of SST anomalies in the tropical Atlantic Ocean during this century. South of the thermal equator, a warming trend occurs principally during boreal summers and extends to the present with an increasing range when calculated over the past 26-year period. In the north, such a warming is more questionable between the 1940s and 1970s. It is more evident during the past 26-year period but with a temperature range less than half of that for the southern basin. Thus large abnormal patterns have a tendency to straddle the thermal equator, including a north-south climate dipole. Three spatially limited areas with a cooling trend are suggested. The reliability of SST anomalies along the tropical section of the Europe-South America shipping track in recent years is also discussed.

  7. Merged dust climatology in Phoenix, Arizona based on satellite and station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang; Wang, Julian X. L.; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lee, Pius

    2016-02-01

    In order to construct climate quality long-term dust storm dataset, merged dust storm climatology in Phoenix is developed based on three data sources: regular meteorological records, in situ air quality measurements, and satellite remote sensing observations. The result presented in this paper takes into account the advantages of each dataset and integrates individual analyses demonstrated and presented in previous studies that laid foundation to reconstruct a consistent and continuous time series of dust frequency. A key for the merging procedure is to determine analysis criteria suitable for each individual data source. A practical application to historic records of dust storm activities over the Phoenix area is presented to illustrate detailed steps, advantages, and limitations of the newly developed process. Three datasets are meteorological records from the Sky Harbor station, satellite observed aerosol optical depth data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System particulate matter data of eight sites surrounding Phoenix. Our purpose is to construct dust climatology over the Phoenix region for the period 1948-2012. Data qualities of the reconstructed dust climatology are assessed based on the availability and quality of the input data. The period during 2000-2012 has the best quality since all datasets are well archived. The reconstructed climatology shows that dust storm activities over the Phoenix region have large interannual variability. However, seasonal variations show a skewed distribution with higher frequency of dust storm activities in July and August and relatively quiet during the rest of months. Combining advantages of all the available datasets, this study presents a merged product that provides a consistent and continuous time series of dust storm activities suitable for climate studies.

  8. Climatological data for the rice-growing areas along the North Coast of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, Angel; Green, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall, temperature, wind velocity and pan evaporation data were collected from May 1983 to September 1985, in the rice growing areas of Vega Baja, Manati, and Arecibo in northern Puerto Rico. Daily values and statistics including mean, standard deviation, extremes, and totals for each month of record were compiled. Descriptions of equipment installation and operation, data processing, and significance of climatological data for rice cultivation are presented. (Author 's abstract)

  9. A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone derived from Aura OMI and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean/Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the Eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the Northern Hemisphere in the latitude range 70° N-80° N in February-April and in the Southern Hemisphere around 40° S-50° S during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the Northern Hemisphere lie over North America and Eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the Southern Hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3-D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere. The OMI/MLS ozone gridded climatology data, both calculated mean values and RMS uncertainties are made available to the science community via the NASA total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) website http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov.

  10. A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone derived from Aura OMI and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean/Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern part of the North American continent extending across the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of the Asian continent extending across the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest column abundance is in the Northern Hemisphere in the latitude range 70° N-80° N in February-April and in the Southern Hemisphere around 40° S-50° S during August-October. Largest stratospheric ozone lies in the Northern Hemisphere and extends from the eastern Asian continent eastward across the Pacific Ocean and North America. With the advent of many newly developing 3-D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere. The OMI/MLS gridded ozone climatology data are made available to the science community via the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ozone and air quality website http://ozoneaq.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  11. Uncertainties in climatological tropical humidity profiles: Some implications for estimating the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzler, D.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The vertical profile of water vapor, the principal infrared-absorbing gas in the atmosphere, is an important factor in determining the energy balance of the climate system. This study examines uncertainties in calculating a climatological humidity profile: specifically one derived from radiosonde data representative of the moist and highly convective region over the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Uncertainties in the humidity data are large in conditions of low temperature or low humidity in the mid- and upper troposphere. Results derived from a single United States station (Koror) and from an average of four United States-operated stations (all near the equator west of the date line) yield nearly identical results. No humidity measurements are reported in fully the upper third of the troposphere. The implications of these uncertainties for determining the climatological humidity profile are quantitatively assessed by bracketing the range of plausible assumptions for unreported humidity to produce extreme estimates of the climatological profile. These profiles, together with the observed climatological temperature profile, are used as input to a radiative transfer model to ascertain the uncertainty in clear-sky outgoing infrared radiance due to water vapor uncertainties. The radiance uncertainty is shown to be comparable in magnitude to the purely radiative response of the tropical atmosphere to doubling carbon dioxide. The uncertainty associated with unmeasured upper-tropospheric humidity is approximately equal to that arising from incompletely measured midtropospheric humidity. Clear-sky radiative uncertainties, however, are modest relative to the uncertainty associated with variations of infrared absorption due to clouds, as demonstrated by introducing citrus ice particles into the radiative transfer calculations.

  12. A global tropospheric ozone climatology from trajectory-mapped ozone soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Liu, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Jin, J. J.; Moeini, O.; Liu, X.; Sioris, C. E.; Osman, M.

    2013-11-01

    A global three-dimensional (i.e. latitude, longitude, altitude) climatology of tropospheric ozone is derived from the ozone sounding record by trajectory mapping. Approximately 52 000 ozonesonde profiles from more than 100 stations worldwide since 1965 are used. The small number of stations results in a sparse geographical distribution. Here, forward and backward trajectory calculations are performed for each sounding to map ozone measurements to a number of other locations, and so to fill in the spatial domain. This is possible because the lifetime of ozone in the troposphere is of the order of weeks. This physically based interpolation method offers obvious advantages over typical statistical interpolation methods. The trajectory-mapped ozone values show reasonable agreement, where they overlap, to the actual soundings, and the patterns produced separately by forward and backward trajectory calculations are similar. Major regional features of the tropospheric ozone distribution are clearly evident in the global maps. An interpolation algorithm based on spherical functions is further used for smoothing and to fill in remaining data gaps. The resulting three-dimensional global tropospheric ozone climatology facilitates visualization and comparison of different years, decades, and seasons, and offers some intriguing insights into the global variation of tropospheric ozone. It will be useful for climate and air quality model initialization and validation, and as an a priori climatology for satellite data retrievals. Further division of the climatology into decadal and annual averages can provide a global view of tropospheric ozone changes, although uncertainties with regard to the performance of older sonde types, as well as more recent variations in operating procedures, need to be taken into account.

  13. A global tropospheric ozone climatology from trajectory-mapped ozone soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Jin, J. J.; Moeni, O.; Liu, X.; Sioris, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    A global three-dimensional (i.e. latitude, longitude, altitude) climatology of tropospheric ozone is derived from the ozone sounding record by trajectory mapping. Approximately 52 000 ozonesonde profiles from more than 100 stations worldwide since 1962 are used. The small number of stations causes the set of ozone soundings to be sparse in geographical spacing. Here, forward and backward trajectory calculations are performed for each sounding to map ozone measurements to a number of other locations, and so to fill in the spatial domain. This is possible because the lifetime of ozone in the troposphere is of the order of weeks. This physically-based interpolation method offers obvious advantages over typical statistical interpolation methods. The trajectory-mapped ozone values show reasonable agreement, where they overlap, to the actual soundings, and the patterns produced separately by forward and backward trajectory calculations are similar. Major regional features of the tropospheric ozone distribution are clearly evident in the global maps. An interpolation algorithm based on spherical functions is further used for smoothing and to fill in remaining data gaps. The resulting three-dimensional global tropospheric ozone climatology facilitates visualization and comparison of different years, decades, and seasons, and offers some intriguing insights into the global variation of tropospheric ozone. It will be useful for climate and air quality model initialization and validation, and as an a priori climatology for satellite data retrievals. Further division of the climatology into decadal averages provides a global view of tropospheric ozone trends, which appear to be surprisingly modest over the last four decades.

  14. Modeling loblolly pine dominant height using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceyka, Andy

    The dominant height of 73 georeferenced field sample plots were modeled from various canopy height metrics derived by means of a small-footprint laser scanning technology, known as light detection and ranging (or just LiDAR), over young and mature forest stands using regression analysis. LiDAR plot metrics were regressed against field measured dominant height using Best Subsets Regression to reduce the number of models. From those models, regression assumptions were evaluated to determine which model was actually the best. The best model included the 1st and 90th height percentiles as predictors and explained 95% of the variance in average dominant height.

  15. Can Fundal Height Predict Birth Weight or Twins?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J. L.; Kettner, A.; Burnett, M.; Cheang, M.

    1986-01-01

    To determine how well symphysis fundal height measurements correlated with birth weight, the authors retrospectively reviewed 100 records of pregnancy from a family practice. The sensitivity and specificity of symphysis fundal height in identifying small and large for gestational age babies were determined. While symphysis fundal height measurements correlated well with birth weight, the sensitivity was too low and the number of false positives too high, for symphysis fundal height measurement alone to be clinically useful. On reviewing all twin pregnancies in the same setting, the authors found that symphysis fundal height measurements facilitated early diagnosis of twin gestation. PMID:21274242

  16. [MODEL FOR ESTIMATING STANDING HEIGHT IN MEXICAN ADULTS FOR 20-59 YEARS, BASED ON KNEE LENGTH].

    PubMed

    Mendivil Alvarado, Herminia; Villegas Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Díaz Zavala, Rolando Giovanni; Antunez Roman, Lesley E; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2015-12-01

    Currently, bone distances are used to predict standing height in adults that might not be able to achieve a correct standing position. Knee length based algorithms for estimating standing height have been proposed and designed for specific populations. However, equations for other populations may not necessarily reflect environmental and genetic factors for the group of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive models for standing height in Mexican adults. For this purpose, 240 male and female adults aged 20 to 59 years, with no apparent spine problems were measured. We measured weight, height and knee length, using an anthropometer of our own design and a glass fiber metric measuring tape. A predictive model for each measuring instrument was developed. Model selection and development of equations were carried out by "all possible regressions and multiple regression" procedures. The predictive models for standing height by the anthropometer and by the measuring tape did not show significant differences between measured and estimated height. The R2 for the two models were 0.93 and 0.92, with a standard error of the estimator (EE) of 2.30 and 2.40 cm, for the anthropometer and the measuring tape, respectively. Both methods were acceptable in terms of concordance, accuracy and precision; however, at very high and low predicted height values, both models showed significant bias, which should be considered when applying these algorithms in different populations.

  17. Aerosol climatology over Mexico City basin: Characterization of their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali-Sandoval, Giovanni; Valdéz-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonso, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Estévez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    Climatology of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size parameters were analyzed using a 15-year (1999-2014) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations over Mexico City basin. Since urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems that face this megacity, many studies addressing these issues have been published. However few studies have examined the climatology of aerosol taking into account their optical properties over long-time period. Pollution problems in Mexico City have been generated by the daily activities of some 21 million people coupled with the vast amount of industry located within the city's metropolitan area. Another contributing factor is the unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City. The basin covers approximately 5000 km2 of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (ASL) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3000 m ASL. In this work we present preliminary results of aerosol climatology in Mexico City.

  18. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Aura OMI and MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J.R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean! Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the northern hemisphere in the latitude range 70degN-80degN in February-April and in the southern hemisphere around 40degS-50degS during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the northern hemisphere lie over North America and eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the southern hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  19. Meteorology and Climatology education: an Experience with young people in Friuli Venezia Giulia - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, S.; Pucillo, A.; Micheletti, S.

    2010-09-01

    We propose, as a poster, the experience in meteorology and climatology education that has been acquired by OSMER ARPA FVG (the local regional meteorological observatory of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, NE Italy). It was aimed at spreading a better culture in meteorology, climatology and environmental-friendly behaviour through general and specific knowledge. In the last 10 years many public and private schools were involved into a net of knowledge through the work of a pool of teachers, proposing a new way of understanding meteorology studies. The first step was to catch the attention of students on the observation tools, in particular on the meteorological ground-based instruments: a wooden-made box has been built to host meteorological instruments. The second step was to teach the main methods to collect correct observations and to simply analyze meteorological data. In a following step we propose to a small group of highschool students to carry on their knowledge in meteorology and climatology for younger students through the exhibit of 20 kits containing meteorological instruments and various experiments in environmental sector (energy saving, greenhouse effect, etc), according to the method of peer-education, during special meetings with the participation of hundreds young students. The last step has been the interpretation of the new knowledge acquired by the young students through the realization of banners, videoclip, website, etc.

  20. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.